Article

Improving student wellbeing: having a say at school

Authors:
  • Charles Sturt University, Port Macquarie, Australia
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Abstract

The wellbeing of children and young people remains a concern internationally and an increasing focus of policy, programmes, and teacher professional development in schools. Supporting wellbeing is now central to the realisation of children’s rights, evidenced by an expanding literature linking children’s participation and their wellbeing. As promising as such scholarship might be in advocating for the democratisation of schools, little empirical research has investigated these links. Drawing on relevant findings from a large mixed-methods study in Australia that sought the views of students, principals, teachers, and other staff about wellbeing at school, this paper explores a number of links between student voice and wellbeing. The findings revealed that students understood wellbeing in multifaceted ways, including having a say, being listened to, having rights, and being respected. Further, both students and staff identified positive associations between having a say at school, being recognised (cared for, respected, and valued), and wellbeing.

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... Similarly, in the research by Anderson and Graham (2015), children and adolescents between 6 and 18 years old, from Catholic school regions in rural and urban areas of Australia, relate the experience of well-being to participating in interactions that generate security, in terms of being able to express an opinion in the school context, as one of the participating adolescents refers to: "...like right now, I feel very safethat's why I'm putting my opinion in ..." (Anderson and Graham 2015, p. 356). Likewise, in the research by Rose et al. (2016), adolescents from a school located in a low socioeconomic neighborhood in the United States described that the relationships that generate well-being in their school were characterized by providing "a safe environment that's like a second family" (Rose et al. 2016, p. 117), thus generating in them the experience of refuge. ...
... For example, having adult support to help them create or to read was described as a contribution to their well-being. In accordance with the above, Anderson and Graham (2015) report that secondary students from Catholic school regions in rural and urban areas of Australia reflected on their desire and need for more support from adults, thus highlighting the importance of the fact that their needs are supported and welcomed in school decision-making, as a way to increase their well-being. ...
... Similarly, Anderson and Graham (2015) report that, for secondary students of Catholic schools in rural and urban areas of Australia, an element that threatens their well-being is that their opinions are not respected, as we can see in the following quote: "It's pretty hard to come across a teacher that really respects and values your opinion..." (Anderson and Graham 2015, p. 355). Likewise, according to the study by Powell et al. (2018), whose sample was made up of primary and secondary students from Catholic schools in Australia, not being valued as someone unique when compared to others would be an experience that affects and negatively interferes with their well-being. ...
Article
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Within the framework of the increasing academic valuation of the use of qualitative methodologies for the study of the well-being of children and adolescents, a systematic review of the available empirical production was developed through the “Qualitative Metasynthesis” methodology. The purpose of the study was to analyze and describe, jointly and integratively, the main common and shared aspects of the available knowledge on the dimensions that, according to the children and adolescent’s understandings, are significant for their well-being. During the second semester of the year 2018, the SCOPUS and Web of Science databases were reviewed, identifying a total of 76 articles of which 13 met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed following the methodology of constant comparison, interpretation of results and conceptual reinterpretation proposed by Sandelowski and Barroso (2007). The results brought about the delimitation and description of five categories: “Positive notion of oneself”; “Good treatment and support relations”; “Recognition”; “Significant activities”; and “Contextual aspects”. The obtained results contribute to the systematization of the knowledge about well-being provided from qualitative methodologies, thus contributing to the development of indicators for the study of well-being with information on domains and significant areas for children and adolescents.
... Various studies have shown that students' perceptions of rights in school are intuitive-that is, perceptions that are based on their personal insights and not grounded in the content and language of formal legal rules. Some of these studies showed students to be less concerned about rights as formulated in legal parlance and more concerned about the association between rights and moral principles (Grover, 2005;Perry-Hazan & Lambrozo, 2018;Preiss et al., 2016;Stevens, 2009) or well-being and feelings (Anderson & Graham, 2016;Quennerstedt, 2016). A dominant association between rights and moral principles was evident in studies that explored students' perceptions of due process in school discipline. ...
... Other aspects reflecting intuition in students' rights perceptions were shown to be related to well-being and feelings. Based on a mixed-methods study of 606 focus group participants and 9,975 survey respondents, Anderson and Graham (2016) showed that Australian students associate rights, particularly participation rights, with their general feelings at school and their well-being. The students cited examples of the type of informal participation that is important to them, such as having a say in decisions about their own welfare and their relationships with peers (e.g., whom they sit next to). ...
... The review of the literature on students' perceptions of their rights in school indicates that students tend to ground their perceptions in their personal intuition, including their moral principles (Grover, 2005;Perry-Hazan & Lambrozo, 2018;Preiss et al., 2016;Stevens, 2009), and the association they make between rights, well-being, and feelings (Anderson & Graham, 2016;Quennerstedt, 2016). These insights are intertwined with the review's primary finding that students' rights consciousness is affected by contextual factors. ...
Article
Full-text available
This review focuses on students’ perceptions of their rights in elementary and secondary schools. The conceptual framework of rights consciousness was applied to understand how students’ knowledge, experiences, and emotions shape their rights perceptions. The analysis is based on 38 empirical studies conducted in different countries. The findings characterize students’ rights perceptions as intuitive, i.e., perceptions that are not grounded in legal rules but in students’ personal insights. The findings also identify key factors affecting students’ perceptions: school context, national context, and students’ individual characteristics. The conclusions underscore that school rights-based practices, student body and school staff diversity, and school relationships influence students’ rights consciousness. However, questions remain concerning how students’ perceptions are affected by cultural repertoires, religion, socioeconomic status, gender, and age. The implications are that future study should apply a context-based agenda to inform the design and implementation of human rights education programs and rights-based organizational practices.
... There have been empirical attempts to define wellbeing with greater accuracy by examining lay conceptions of wellbeing (Anderson & Graham, 2016;Chaplin, 2009;Fattore et al., 2007;Hone, Schofield, & Jarden, 2015;Soutter, O'Steen, & Gilmore, 2012). Research on the lay conceptualizations of wellbeing has been conducted with affluent Caucasian adults or late adolescents (Hone et al., 2015;Soutter et al., 2012). ...
... More recently there has been a growth in qualitative studies on perceptions of children and adolescents (Rees & Dinisman, 2015). In their study, Anderson and Graham (2016) asked 6-to 18year-olds to rank two pre-defined concepts of wellbeing. Although the authors found support for recognition and participation as important components, the study was limited by their chosen methodology as the survey format restricted choice to two academic concepts of wellbeing, and a free-response format was not employed to capture adolescents' views. ...
... These results are partially different to prior studies (Chaplin, 2009;Fattore et al., 2007). Another important observation was adolescents' listing of "feeling safe" in the present research, and in previous research (Anderson & Graham, 2016;Fattore et al., 2007). Components of wellbeing not discussed in the current academic models were evident, for example, being kind/helpful, good physical health, feeling safe, and enjoyment/having fun. ...
Article
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This research investigated New Zealand adolescents' (aged 11 to 13, N = 361) perceptions of wellbeing from a prototype perspective. Specifically, three studies examined what constitutes and promotes wellbeing, whether adolescents' perspectives are aligned with adults' conceptualizations and academic models of wellbeing, whether socioeconomic status influences adolescents' conceptualization, and whether wellbeing is prototypically organized. Results showed that wellbeing is prototypically organized as some components are more central to the concept of wellbeing and others more peripheral. Contrary to lay adults' conceptualizations and popular wellbeing models, adolescents consider enjoyment/having fun, feeling safe, and being kind/helpful as central components of wellbeing, and sense of satisfaction as a peripheral component of wellbeing. Furthermore, low socioeconomic status adolescents consider comfort/being wealthy, being focused, good physical health, good values, and success/achievements as more central for wellbeing than high-socioeconomic status adolescents. Consistent with the current literature, positive family relationships, positive friendships, and physical activity/sport were the most frequently reported pathways to wellbeing among adolescents. Overall, researchers and practitioners should consider adolescents' understanding of wellbeing in the development of wellbeing assessments and interventions.
... Authors o en proclaimed that students should have a voice to feel they are an active part of the school community (e.g. Niia et al., 2015;Thurn, 2014a).They argued that students are in the center of schools (Morse & Allensworth, 2015) and their voices and active engagement should be heard as a resource to improve schools and learning (Anderson & Graham, 2016). ...
... In the context of well-being, participation is viewed in the sense of voice understood as expressing views and having a say (e.g., Anderson & Graham, 2016;Fletcher et al., 2015;Kostenius & Bergmark, 2016). Additionally, authors highlighted the importance of listening to each other and taking studentsʼvoices seriously Thurn, 2014a). ...
... Involvement in school life (e.g. Fletcher et al., 2015;Niia et al., 2015) and active engagement (Anderson & Graham, 2016) are also understandings of participation mentioned in the context of well-being. All authors agreed about the connection between participation and wellbeing. ...
Article
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In current scientific literature a wide variety of definitions and terms are used to describe student participation and student voice. In particular, this article examines how the terms participation, student voice, and their synonyms are used in the current literature to provide a structured overview of how these terms are being used. A systematic literature review led to 325 articles. From this number we selected 126 articles according to the criteria of topic (student participation in school), age group (primary and secondary school) and language (English or German). The results showed that student participation was discussed across five contexts: democratic education, children’s rights, well-being, learning and school practice. After comparing similarities and differences between the five contexts, three characteristics which characterize student participation became apparent: considering others, power dynamics between students and teachers, and change that is inherently connected to participation. These five contexts and three characteristics of student participation serve as a possible structure for the discussion surrounding the varied terms and concepts used regarding student participation.
... Another field of research focuses on the student wellbeing in relation to the school design. It grows beyond examining the student achievements and social life to interpret the design implications on the student physical and mental health (Anderson & Graham, 2016). Its importance is further justified, since "children who experience a greater sense of holistic wellbeing are: more able to learn and assimilate information in effective ways; more likely to engage in healthy and fulfilling social behaviours" (Awartani et al. ,2008, p.54). ...
... Furthermore, the school design positively impacts the student social wellbeing when promoting positive interactions, supported by a student-centred pedagogical programme. This matches results of another study by Anderson and Graham (2016) that indicated improvement in student mental wellbeing within school environments which allow students to personalise their spaces, mix with their peers and collaboratively exchange their knowledge. ...
... Research studies also focused on the student mental and physical wellbeing, concluding that personalised spaces, assembly spaces with groupings and libraries with relaxations improve the emotional wellbeing (Rowe et al., 2007), unlike closed circulation where students are confronted by older year-groups (Hughes et al., 2019). Spaces that trigger interactions improve social wellbeing (Kariippanon et al., 2018;Anderson & Graham, 2016). Physical wellbeing is improved through school designs that increase physical activity and reduce sitting patterns . ...
Conference Paper
The importance of school buildings is rooted in the vitality of education for societal development. Literature perceives learning as a social process, enriched by student interactions and self-directed activities, and the school design should afford those learning practices. Therefore, research on school buildings requires a broad investigation of the spatial design from the early design decisions, uncovering the design potentiality and reaching the actuality of school operation. This investigation outlines the research scope, while more attention is drawn towards informal learning spaces outside classrooms, including corridors, libraries, dining spaces and play areas. This research focused on secondary school buildings. It performed quantitative spatial analysis on eleven UK schools, designed by three architecture firms; alongside qualitative interviews with one architect from each firm. This data explores the school design potentiality for possible learning practices. The research, thereafter, studies two (of the eleven) buildings through quantitative onsite observations and student questionnaires; and qualitative interviews with the school managements and teachers. These explain the building actuality of occurring student interactions and self-directed activities, relative to operational managerial schemes (regulations, teacher guidance and supervision) and student preferences. Findings discuss the influence of functionalities allocation, configurational accessibility and the furniture setup on student interactions, activity types and distribution. Nevertheless, regulations, supervision and student preferences still influence the occurring activities. Shallow corridors afford interactive learning if connected to open learning spaces. Libraries incubate collaborative or quieter (and focused) self-directed activities. Dining spaces accommodate student intellectual practices beyond eating activities. Play areas have the highest activity diversity. The research outcome explains the school actual operations, and how they correspond to (or divert from) the original design potentiality. This outcome contributes to the existing knowledge on the student social life in schools, and how the spatial design and school rules impact activity types across informal spaces. This possibly links to future work on interactive design processes as a methodology that reduces the gap of understanding between design intentions and actuality.
... Appropriate teaching strategies can contribute to the positive development of school climate (Govorova et al., 2020). Moreover, positive interactions between teachers and students promote an inclusive climate at school (Maelan et al., 2020) and students' wellbeing (Eccles and Roeser, 2011;Suldo et al., 2012;Mannion et al., 2015;Anderson and Graham, 2016). Especially teachers' support and the way they maintain classroom disciplinary climate seem to have a central role in students' attitudes toward school and their sense of belonging (Chiu et al., 2012). ...
... Since being part of a group is one of people's basic needs (Baumeister and Leary, 1995), the feeling of belonging is related to the perception that a person is accepted as a member of a group (Lambert et al., 2013). A school climate that creates a feeling of belonging as well as a sense of being respected and listened to, supports individual students' wellbeing (Anderson and Graham, 2016). More broadly, students' perceptions of school (Allodi, 2010;Aldridge et al., 2018) and classroom climate (Eccles and Roeser, 2011) are associated with their sense of wellbeing and lifesatisfaction. ...
Article
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Language has been conceptualized as both a measure as well as a predictor of integration among immigrants and their children. However, the relationship between language spoken at home and different educational outcomes remains poorly understood. Many studies indicate that nurturing students' first languages is positively associated with their learning at school. Other research suggests that one of the reasons why children of immigrants tend to perform worse at school is due to speaking a language other than that of instruction at home. In order to shed further light on the role of language choices at home for education, we examine both the correlates of language use at home as well as the relationship between this and reading scores and educational expectations. We differentiate between three language use groups: those who mainly use the language of origin at home, those who only use the language of instruction at home, and those who use both of these. We analyze these relationships using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). In order to examine country differences, we place a special focus on two immigrant-origin groups that are present in significant numbers in a number of European countries: children with origins in Turkey and former Yugoslavia. These two groups have also been identified as being at major educational disadvantage across Europe. Our results suggest that continuing to (mainly) use the language of origin at home is more prevalent among children from socioeconomically more disadvantaged families, but is supported by more socioeconomically advantaged and more diverse school environments. In the majority of countries studied, switching to the language of instruction is associated with higher reading scores but not with higher educational expectations than continuing to speak mainly the language of origin at home. These relationships are to a large extent confounded (or in some cases potentially mediated) by family factors such as socioeconomic status and school-related factors such as school's socioeconomic composition. We conclude by highlighting the role that linguistically responsive pedagogies and a positive school climate can play for the education of all young people but in particular newly-arrived immigrants.
... Research on participation is quite varied and leads to many relevant findings on the topic. One of the overarching findings in previous research is that the views of students and teachers differ from each other (Anderson and Graham 2016;Niia et al. 2015), which could be connected to the concept of generational order (Alanen 2005;Heinzel 2019). For example, teachers mention other areas for participation than students do, e.g. ...
... Our results confirmed that the students' and teachers' perceptions about student participation can differ (e.g. Anderson and Graham 2016;Niia et al. 2015). Since due to the large sample size, significance levels can mislead, it is important to consider the effect sizes as well. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although student participation is required by convention and law, this is no guarantee of its implementation in everyday school life. The main aim of this article is to show how student participation is perceived by members of the school community and how it occurs in their daily routines. This article examines how students and teachers perceive student participation in upper primary and lower secondary school and which correlations between student participation and student characteristics exist. Furthermore, we investigate which practices of student participation appear in school life and which correlations between student participation and other dimensions can be observed in the daily routine. The analysis was based on a mixed methods design which enabled the combination of different perspectives, namely of students, teachers and the observer. Survey data from 762 students aged 9 to 15 and 182 teachers as well as ethnographic observations in six classes were analyzed for this paper, using data from the Swiss research project “Strengthen Participation—Improve School”. The investigation led to the following main findings: while students perceive some participation, teachers perceive quite a lot of student participation. In addition, students are significantly less satisfied with student participation in their school than teachers. Correlations between student participation and the students’ gender, school grade, school performance and attitude towards school exist. In everyday school life, students participate in aspects of content, school organization and social spheres. Further there are observable differences regarding school grade and gender.
... En diversos estudios alumnas y alumnos han expresado que una escuela ideal es aquella en que el profesorado y el alumnado mantienen vínculos estrechos de colaboración y apoyo (Agarwal, 2001;Leshem, Zion y Friedman, 2015). Para el alumnado es importante que el profesorado muestre interés y respeto por sus preferencias, necesidades, inquietudes, di icultades, etc. En esta misma línea, el propio profesorado ha reconocido lo valioso de interesarse por las circunstancias personales de sus estudiantes y tenerlas en cuenta en la plani icación de los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje (Anderson y Graham, 2016). ...
... Esta alta valoración está indicando que alumnos y alumnas se muestran muy sensibilizados hacia el trato recibido por parte del personal docente en unos años en los que deben afrontar muchos retos educativos y en los que las dudas e inseguridades pueden mermar su con ianza en sí mismos. El tercer aspecto más valorado se re irió a que el profesorado tenga en cuenta la opinión del alumnado, un rasgo muy relacionado con el anterior y que resalta la importancia que chicos y chicas conceden a su participación en la toma de decisiones, algo que ha sido encontrado en otros estudios (Cook-Sather, 2006;Anderson y Graham, 2016). Por otra parte, el empoderamiento y la participación del alumnado en la vida del centro educativo es uno de los activos escolares más mencionados por los investigadores por su relación con el desarrollo positivo adolescente (Pertegal, Oliva y Hernando, 2015). ...
Book
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La presente investigación es el resultado de un segundo abordaje tiene como objetivo entender qué elementos integran el modelo del desarrollo positivo adolescente y hacerlo además desde una perspectiva de género. Tras la publicación del estudio cualitativo que precede a éste, ahora se ha trabajado con la participación de 13 centros escolares de Andalucía, con parte de su profesorado, del alumnado y sus familias, para conocer cuáles son las características positivas o deseables de los y las adolescentes, de la familia y de la escuela ideal, así como el grado de satisfacción de cada uno con todo ello. Entre los hallazgos vemos, por ejemplo, cómo los y las adolescentes valoran la responsabilidad, la prosocialidad o el respecto a la diversidad como competencias clave; la importancia del respeto y apoyo mutuo en la familia, algo que también señalan sus progenitores, y el peso que otorgan al trato que reciben por parte del profesorado. Y cómo, en el otro extremo, se muestran más insatisfechos con el uso que se realiza en el entorno educativo de las nuevas tecnologías, valoración que comparten con el profesorado. Apreciamos, así mismo, que los chicos muestran, en términos generales, una percepción más positiva de sus competencias personales frente a las chicas.
... En diversos estudios alumnas y alumnos han expresado que una escuela ideal es aquella en que el profesorado y el alumnado mantienen vínculos estrechos de colaboración y apoyo (Agarwal, 2001;Leshem, Zion y Friedman, 2015). Para el alumnado es importante que el profesorado muestre interés y respeto por sus preferencias, necesidades, inquietudes, di icultades, etc. En esta misma línea, el propio profesorado ha reconocido lo valioso de interesarse por las circunstancias personales de sus estudiantes y tenerlas en cuenta en la plani icación de los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje (Anderson y Graham, 2016). ...
... Esta alta valoración está indicando que alumnos y alumnas se muestran muy sensibilizados hacia el trato recibido por parte del personal docente en unos años en los que deben afrontar muchos retos educativos y en los que las dudas e inseguridades pueden mermar su con ianza en sí mismos. El tercer aspecto más valorado se re irió a que el profesorado tenga en cuenta la opinión del alumnado, un rasgo muy relacionado con el anterior y que resalta la importancia que chicos y chicas conceden a su participación en la toma de decisiones, algo que ha sido encontrado en otros estudios (Cook-Sather, 2006;Anderson y Graham, 2016). Por otra parte, el empoderamiento y la participación del alumnado en la vida del centro educativo es uno de los activos escolares más mencionados por los investigadores por su relación con el desarrollo positivo adolescente (Pertegal, Oliva y Hernando, 2015). ...
Book
Full-text available
La presente investigación es el resultado de un segundo abordaje tiene como objetivo entender qué elementos integran el modelo del desarrollo positivo adolescente y hacerlo además desde una perspectiva de género. Tras la publicación del estudio cualitativo que precede a éste, ahora se ha trabajado con la participación de 13 centros escolares de Andalucía, con parte de su profesorado, del alumnado y sus familias, para conocer cuáles son las características positivas o deseables de los y las adolescentes, de la familia y de la escuela ideal, así como el grado de satisfacción de cada uno con todo ello. Entre los hallazgos vemos, por ejemplo, cómo los y las adolescentes valoran la responsabilidad, la prosocialidad o el respecto a la diversidad como competencias clave; la importancia del respeto y apoyo mutuo en la familia, algo que también señalan sus progenitores, y el peso que otorgan al trato que reciben por parte del profesorado. Y cómo, en el otro extremo, se muestran más insatisfechos con el uso que se realiza en el entorno educativo de las nuevas tecnologías, valoración que comparten con el profesorado. Apreciamos, así mismo, que los chicos muestran, en términos generales, una percepción más positiva de sus competencias personales frente a las chicas.
... A number of investigations such as that by de Róiste et al. (2012) highlight the considerable gains in social and emotional well-being that can be attained through learners' more active involvement in school activities, with benefits in other areas as well, like improved learning outcomes and experiences, higher satisfaction, as well as stronger relationships and engagement levels (Kuurme and Carlsson, 2010;Løhre et al., 2010;Coombes et al., 2013). Analysis that Anderson and Graham (2016) performed of the perceived well-being levels of learners, teachers, school leaders, and support staff in a large-scale study conducted in Australia found that learners consider well-being as multifaceted; it may comprise such aspects as student voice and regard for their positions, the exercising of rights and commanding respect. In the study, learners and school staff alike highlighted recognition of their voices and their own selves as valuable, respect-worthy members of the community as areas of particular significance for well-being. ...
... In this study, we identified a set of SELFIE original items focusing on students' well-being and inclusion through technologies, in line with the literature (van Petegem et al., 2007;Booth and Ainscow, 2011;NSW Department of Education and Communities, 2015;Anderson and Graham, 2016;Carretero et al., 2017;OECD, 2019;Trentin, 2019). Specifically, the selected SELFIE original items (i) were common to all three respondent groups and (ii) reflected their perceptions on six components related to students' well-being and inclusion through technologies, namely: relationships, school community, safety, individual learning needs, active learner, and collaboration (for details, see Table 2). ...
Article
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Digital technology in its various forms is a significant component of our working environment and lifestyles. However, there is a broad difference between using digital technologies in everyday life and employing them in formal education. Digital technologies have largely untapped potential for improving education and fostering students’ well-being and inclusion at school. To bring this to fruition, systemic and coordinated actions involving the whole school community are called for. To help schools exploit the full range of opportunities digital technologies offer for learning, the European Commission has designed and implemented a self-reflection tool called SELFIE (Self-reflection on Effective Learning by Fostering Innovation through Educational Technology). Based on the DigCompOrg conceptual framework, SELFIE encompasses key aspects for effectively integrating digital technologies in school policies and practices. The present study investigates how SELFIE can also support the school community to self-reflect about students’ well-being and inclusion. In Italy, the SELFIE online questionnaire has been completed by 24,715 students, 5,690 teachers, and 1,507 school leaders, for a total of 31,912 users from 201 schools (at primary, lower secondary, and upper secondary levels) located in 10 different regions. The complementary data we have collected regarding student well-being and inclusion highlight significant differences in the perceptions on this issue reported by students, teachers, and school leaders. These findings have important implications for facilitating successful practices within the whole school community in order to promote students’ well-being and inclusion using educational technologies, as well as for planning future actions following a systemic approach.
... In pursuing this focus, the study addresses dual educational policy priorities in Australiaprogressing participation and improving wellbeing (Commonwealth of Australia, 2020). Previous studies by the authors have identified potential links between participation and wellbeing at school (Anderson et al., 2016;Graham et al., 2017;Powell et al., 2018;Simmons et al., 2015). This earlier research found that intersubjective recognition as defined by Honneth (1995Honneth ( , 2001Honneth ( , 2004 was positively associated with wellbeing. ...
... Broadly, social and emotional wellbeing refers to the way a person thinks and feels about themselves and others and includes adapting to daily challenges and having a fulfilling life (Australian Institute of Health & Welfare, 2012). While there has subsequently been a proliferation of program interventions to address the diversity of wellbeing needs and issues, attention has also turned to the role that student participation potentially plays in addressing social and emotional wellbeing (Anderson et al., 2016;Bergmark & Kostenius, 2018;Halliday et al., 2019;John-Akinola & Nic-Gabhainn, 2014;Kuurme & Carlsson, 2010;Lloyd & Emerson, 2017;Simmons et al., 2015), which is the key focus of the present study. ...
Article
Recent years have seen increased attention paid to both student participation and wellbeing at school. Little research to date has investigated the extent to which participation is associated with wellbeing, let alone which specific elements of participation may predict wellbeing. This paper reports the quantitative phase of a mixed-methods study investigating these associations. Students (N = 1,435) from Government and Catholic high schools in New South Wales, Australia, completed an online survey. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that having a say with influential people, having choice, having influence, and working together significantly and positively predicted wellbeing. Simply having ‘voice’ did not significantly predict wellbeing. Mediation analyses showed that student participation fostered recognition – giving and receiving care, respect and valuing others – which in turn fostered wellbeing. The results suggest schools endeavouring to strengthen student wellbeing would benefit from identifying whether and how participation initiatives create the conditions for recognition to occur.
... Recent studies show that participation is connected to liking school, higher attainment and better wellbeing (De Róiste et al., 2012). Indeed, school pupils describe wellbeing as 'having a say', 'having rights', and 'being respected' (Anderson & Graham, 2016). For pupils, benefits include skills development, self-esteem, engagement, and empowerment (Czerniawski, 2012;Mager & Nowak, 2012;Mitra, 2004;Rudduck & Flutter, 2004). ...
... In tune with studies of 'odds-beating schools' , we found young people valued reciprocal and relational trust across school and community life. As in other studies (Anderson & Graham, 2016;De Róiste et al., 2012), we have shown that participation was associated with improved pupil wellbeing and confidence, and, additionally, we show that it supported learners' sense of making progress at school. Lastly, this study's contribution is based on young people's views: pupils notice and value that teachers set high expectations, and value that they recognise their participatory achievements. ...
Article
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There has been a long-standing call for the participation of young people in decision making in school. However, research to date has mostly focused on pupil councils and is rarely conducted in areas of socio-economic deprivation – the contexts for this study. In national examinations, the schools chosen had higher than average attainments given their catchments. The research sought to understand if and how young people would make a link between their participation rights and ‘doing well’ at school. Using mobile and visual methods, a situated, social-material approach was taken to data collection and analysis. We found participation opportunities were supportive in four arenas: formal curriculum, wider curriculum, decision making groups, and connections with the wider community. This framing provides a heuristic for rights-based participation in educational practice.
... Public Health 2020, 17, 4014 2 of 18 and encouraging changes that improve students' lives. Ultimately, "children and young people spend so much of their childhoods in this context" [5]. ...
... For instance, in a project in New South Wales students defined well-being through feelings such as happiness or the absence of sadness, harmonious social relationships, and being a moral actor in relation to oneself or behaving well towards others [15]. Another qualitative study in Australia indicated that self-esteem, self-respect, and self-confidence were central to student well-being [5]. ...
Article
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The latest trends in research extend the focus of school effectiveness beyond students’ acquisition of knowledge and skills, looking at aspects such as well-being in the academic context. Although the concept of well-being itself has been defined and measured in various ways, neither its dimensions nor the relationships between the components have been clearly described. The aim of the present study was to analyse how the elements of well-being interact and determine how they are influenced by school factors. To do that, we conducted a network analysis based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 international assessment. Our results demonstrated that cognitive, psychological, and social well-being variables form a solid welfare construct in the educational context, where students’ resilience and fear of failure, along with their sense of belonging, play central roles. Although the influence of school factors on student well-being is generally low, teaching enthusiasm and support promote positive school climates which are, in turn, crucial in reducing bullying.
... The quality of education is measured by the wellbeing of learners and as a tool of measurement, educational success is the most important factor in conventional educational performance evaluation (Van Petegem et al., 2008). Students characterize their well-being as being safe, happy, respected, loved, and healthy (Anderson and Graham, 2016). Therefore, educational institutions must nurture and cultivate more emotional well-being to guarantee that they empower their students to become future productive citizens (Schonert-Reichl, 2017). ...
... Therefore, educational institutions must nurture and cultivate more emotional well-being to guarantee that they empower their students to become future productive citizens (Schonert-Reichl, 2017). The well-being of learners must be recognized in educational institutions that include their emotive, societal, physical, and intellectual state (Anderson and Graham, 2016). The classroom situation is a crucial situation for encouraging learners' wellbeing so it should be a safe, comprehensive, humble, and caring learning milieu (Schonert-Reichl, 2017). ...
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Well-being has become extensively viewed as apprehension for administrations in the last decades and schools have been progressively realized as locations for encouraging well-being which is a considerable development in inquiries on mediations connected to learner well-being. In this way, the function of teachers has got specific consideration regarding students’ well-being, given the merits of teacher-student interactions. High-quality educator-learner relationships offer a support base for long-term learners’ education. Educator interpersonal behavior that makes learners feel supported and cared for is known as emotional support. These behaviors can help learners’ emotional and social needs; meet learners’ families, and being available when learners need additional help. This review attempts to consider the eminence of teacher interpersonal behavior and learner-teacher relations in the classroom and indeed illustrate their relationship and influence on students’ well-being. As a final point, this review can provide suggestions and recommendations for teaching participants in the scholastic context.
... In pursuing this focus, the study addresses dual educational policy priorities in Australiaprogressing participation and improving wellbeing (Commonwealth of Australia, 2020). Previous studies by the authors have identified potential links between participation and wellbeing at school (Anderson et al., 2016;Graham et al., 2017;Powell et al., 2018;Simmons et al., 2015). This earlier research found that intersubjective recognition as defined by Honneth (1995Honneth ( , 2001Honneth ( , 2004 was positively associated with wellbeing. ...
... Broadly, social and emotional wellbeing refers to the way a person thinks and feels about themselves and others and includes adapting to daily challenges and having a fulfilling life (Australian Institute of Health & Welfare, 2012). While there has subsequently been a proliferation of program interventions to address the diversity of wellbeing needs and issues, attention has also turned to the role that student participation potentially plays in addressing social and emotional wellbeing (Anderson et al., 2016;Bergmark & Kostenius, 2018;Halliday et al., 2019;John-Akinola & Nic-Gabhainn, 2014;Kuurme & Carlsson, 2010;Lloyd & Emerson, 2017;Simmons et al., 2015), which is the key focus of the present study. ...
... There might, however, be distinct relationships if specific school participation subscales are regarded. For example, the four school participation subscales suggested by John-Akinola and Nic-Gabhainn (2014) contain distinct behaviours and activities that might be differentially linked to different recognition experiences (e.g., Anderson & Graham, 2016). ...
Article
Participation in society is instrumental for democracy and of special importance for minority members. Despite broad research in the context of adults' participation, the earlier formative years and the participation of students in school activities have been neglected so far. The present research examined antecedents and consequences of Latin American migrant students' participation in school activities in Chile. More specifically, we tested whether three forms of social recognition experiences (i.e., need‐based care, equality‐based respect and achievement‐based social esteem) received from Chilean society predicted different forms of school participation. Heightened school participation was assumed to further translate into satisfaction with life. Results of a study with immigrant students (N = 393; 12–20 years old; 56.7% female) revealed, that experiences of social esteem predicted an overall positive perception of school participation and this effect further translated into heightened life satisfaction. Moreover, experiences of respect were associated with participation in school decisions and rules and with participation in school events. The latter effect further translated into enhanced life satisfaction. Care did not play a role in predicting school participation when the other forms of recognition were controlled for. We discuss the importance of social recognition experiences and implications for interventions within educational systems.
... Proprio a partire dalle analisi di Barret (2015) sulla qualità degli ambienti scolastici, l'obiettivo è quello di andare oltre l'aria, la luce e la temperatura, e di verificare come le prestazioni degli allievi migliorino in base alla stimolazione negli ambienti e alla possibilità di appropriazione degli stessi. La tesi di questo studio è che lo stato di benessere degli studenti e la prestazione didattica possono essere valutate anche come espressione positiva delle relazioni psico-fisiche dei ragazzi (Anderson & Graham, 2016). ...
Chapter
This paper will present the results of a series of studies where the effectiveness of intensive narrative training as a teaching practice has been verified in different age groups. The effects that reading can cause in terms of literacy and acquisition of language skills are well known in the literature. However, we know that processing a narrative element by the brain is more than just linguistic processing, and the vast areas of brain activation that occur when the brain encodes narrative material, suggest that reading aloud can produce a strong training for various cognitive components that imply the acquisition of learning. Through a series of quasi-experimental studies, with experimental and control groups, we have detected ex ante and ex post the performance of students in psychological, neu- ropsychological and text comprehension tests, depending on the different age groups. The results show that in fact reading aloud, if implemented in an intensive and systematic way, can stimulate the empowerment of different cognitive functions of the students, the same cognitive functions that are the basis of the acquisition of learning and school success.
... This was connected to time and cost constraints and may have resulted in some studies being missed or excluded from the analysis phase. An example is provided by Anderson and Graham's (2016) study on student well-being in schools that explicitly draws on the theoretical tenets of 'childhood studies' but does not make reference to the keyword in the title or abstract of the manuscript. Likewise, while making a contribution to understandings of agency in childhood, Stoecklin and Fattore's (2018) study was excluded for the same reason. ...
Article
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Over recent decades, the evolving field of childhood studies has contributed significantly to the theorisation of childhood and to research seeking to understand children’s lives and experiences in different contexts. This article traces some of the key theoretical developments within childhood studies by means of a scoping study of peer-reviewed, scholarly journals and books published between 2010 and 2018. The aim of the review was to explore the theoretical and empirical contributions of childhood studies beyond its early foundational tenets. A number of emerging tensions were identified and these are explored in this article.
... Pupils' perceptions of school (Aldridge et al., 2018;Allodi, 2010a) and classroom climate (Eccles & Roeser, 2011) are well-documented as being associated with their mental health. In particular, a climate that generates a feeling of belonging and being connected to schoolreflecting high levels of affiliation (Claessens et al., 2017) are related to mental health (Anderson & Graham, 2016). This body of research highlights the centrality of teacher-pupil and pupil-pupil relationships in mental health. ...
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This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study conducted in two lower secondary schools in Norway that explored pupils’ perceptions of how teachers supported their mental health through their everyday practices. Focus groups with 26 pupils aged 14–15 years old were carried out. Data were analyzed thematically, revealing four main themes: (i) relating to pupils as individuals, (ii) creating relatedness within the classroom, (iii) being responsive to pupils’ academic needs, and (iv) reducing school-related stress. The findings add to existing knowledge by revealing insight into interweaving processes through which support for learning itself can be a form of support for mental health.
... At least, in order to improve the hypotheses indicated by this case study, comparative and more detailed case studies including schools without a claim for student participation, and upper secondary schools would be necessary, particularly because age served as a main criterion for the restriction (Coffey and Lavery, 2018). At last, as similar problems and contradictions can be found in the discussions about the influence of student participation on class and school climate (Simmons et al., 2015), learning outcomes (Wenzel, 2001) or matters such as resilience (Lutz, 2016), health and well-being ( Anderson and Graham, 2015;John-Akinola and Nic-Gabhainn, 2014), it would be fruitful to link these different research strands. ...
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Participation of students is defined as a conditional factor for the acquisition of democracy learning and is increasingly taken into account in Austrian schools. Nevertheless, in contrast to other countries, little research has been conducted in Austria about if or how democracy learning provides a template for the social practice of student participation within school improvements. The current qualitative case study sought to investigate, explanatively from the perspective of school actors, how a secondary school tries to implement a self-imposed demand for more student participation in school improvement by using aspects of democracy learning as template. Qualitative guideline-based interviews using a participative research method were conducted and the data were analysed by means of content-structuring qualitative content analysis. A total of 33 school actors (students, teachers, parents) participated. The two central findings emerged due to marginal rights and a limited understanding of student participation based on democracy learning. First, despite the demand for greater participation in school improvement, students remain dependent on individual actors and can only assert their interests within school objectives and not against the interests of the teachers or the school management. Second, participation within the framework of school development promotes not so much the strengthening of pupils as subjects as the strengthening of the identity of the school’s organization. The individual case study is thus a hypothesis-generating example of how the depoliticized participation rhetoric of imparting democratic competencies leaves the claim to equal consideration of students’ perspectives unfulfilled and ultimately prevents the redistribution of rights of disposal.
... The consistency and commitment of teachers should provide excellent services to the students by paying full attention to them. Based on the results of the research, attention given to students whether by way of talking to them, paying them attention, and giving appreciation improved the welfare of students at school [31]. High student achievement is a characteristic of the effective school. ...
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This article examines the characteristics of school effectiveness and how the school effectiveness policy works in the context of education decentralization. The research approach is qualitative exploratory and was conducted in 2016 in 10 out of 35 districts/cities in Central Java Province. The results showed that there are eight characteristics of effective schools: effective school leadership, efficient learning processes, active community participation, a conducive school environment, increased professionalism of educators, heightened expectations of students, the commitment of teachers, which together lead to good student achievement. Local government policy has not been mentioned explicitly to build an effective school. The government system should contribute to creating effective schools through human resource development, community participation, provision of facilities and infrastructure, professional development of educators, guiding students’ and teachers' achievement, monitoring student progress, education financing to some degree, and the commitment of local governments to give appreciation to education actors.
... Il presente lavoro mira a cogliere le forme di "empatia/non empatia" che si stabiliscono fra attori e spazi di attività (Mallgrave, 2015) nel tentativo di sostenere una prospettiva epistemologica che superi i dualismi mente/corpo e mente/ambiente e sostenga dispositivi educativi meglio ancorati all'idea del Dasein, l'"essere nel mondo", collocandosi in senso lato nella tradizione di ricerche ispirate alla fenomenologia heideggeriana. La nozione di "benessere" conta diverse interpretazioni (Anderson & Graham, 2016) che variano a seconda del campo disciplinare d'interesse. In ambito sociologico, ad esempio, viene relazionato al capitale sociale (Putnam, 2000). ...
... Il presente lavoro mira a cogliere le forme di "empatia/non empatia" che si stabiliscono fra attori e spazi di attività (Mallgrave, 2015) nel tentativo di sostenere una prospettiva epistemologica che superi i dualismi mente/corpo e mente/ambiente e sostenga dispositivi educativi meglio ancorati all'idea del Dasein, l'"essere nel mondo", collocandosi in senso lato nella tradizione di ricerche ispirate alla fenomenologia heideggeriana. La nozione di "benessere" conta diverse interpretazioni (Anderson & Graham, 2016) che variano a seconda del campo disciplinare d'interesse. In ambito sociologico, ad esempio, viene relazionato al capitale sociale (Putnam, 2000). ...
Article
This paper explores wellbeing perception about some sociomaterial spaces in which student’s life experiences are realized. The study was conducted on 235 students, thirteen-fourteen aged, from four secondary school located in the Swiss canton of Neuchâtel. Different instruments have been conceived and used: the Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire; a questionnaire to explore the student satisfaction degree in relation to some sociomaterial space; two semi-open questions to analyse their representation of wellbeing and illness through their life experience. The results show that the wellbeing and illness perception is intertwined with sociomaterial space in which life experience are realized. Sociomaterial implications in the study of wellbeing perception are discussed.
... Previous studies on adolescent students' wellbeing mainly address the following three issues: (a) determinants or influence factors of students' wellbeing, such as a student's perception of the school climate and learning environment [11,12], interpersonal relations [13][14][15][16], parental involvement [17], progressive tests [18], and the use of social media [19,20]; (b) supporting students' wellbeing at school-methods and approaches such as wellbeing-oriented education [21], gratitude interventions [22], the skills for life program [23], and locating student voice [24]; (c) understanding students' wellbeing within various contexts such as students in transition to a higher school [25], students from refugee and migrant backgrounds [26], and students with intellectual disabilities [27]. These studies mostly focus on the subjective, psychological, and mental wellbeing of the students, i.e., the students' sense of happiness as human beings rather than satisfaction with their learning experience as classroom performers. ...
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In recent years, live webcast classes have been increasingly used in China as an approach to alleviating educational poverty through equal access to high-quality education. Many schools in impoverished areas have managed to increase their proportions of students entering college by introducing the new model. While celebrating improved learning outcomes of a small percentage of students, educators should also be concerned about the overall academic wellbeing and sustainable development of less successful students. In the present study, academic wellbeing was conceptualized as a multidimensional construct covering seven dimensions, namely Empathy, Support, Responsiveness, Reliability, Tangibility, Self-efficacy and Buoyancy. Data were collected from 136 twelfth-grade students who had studied in live webcast classes. The results show that the overall academic wellbeing in live webcast classes was consistent among students of different academic performance levels, but the specific dimensions of academic wellbeing that they think mostly need improvement varied among different student groups. The findings of this study suggest that learner wellbeing and sustainability can be enhanced by closer collaboration between live webcast instructors and local teachers in instructional materials design, exercise and test questions’ compilation, as well as students’ self-study facilitation. The degree to which a local teacher should be involved in classroom teaching depends on the students’ academic level and learning needs.
... Guideline seven advocates for children and young people to be involved in the design and evaluation of trauma-aware supports that seek to meet their needs. This guideline acknowledges that the participation of young learners in feedback processes meets children's rights principles (United Nations Commission on Human Rights, 1989) and can have therapeutic benefit (Anderson, 2016). This provision of information and evaluative feedback could also include retrospective input from past learners who are now adults. ...
Article
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The National Guidelines for Trauma-Aware Education in Australia were developed in response to a rapidly growing interest in trauma-aware education across the country and to address the lack of site- and system-level guidance for application of trauma-aware practices in schools and early childhood services. Although research into trauma-aware education was increasing and resources and training and support programs were being developed across Australia, there were no nationally agreed upon guidelines providing consistency to thinking, policy, and practice. Drawing from public health and health promotion models for establishing guidelines for trauma-aware policy and practice, the Guidelines were developed through a thorough process of incorporating research evidence and expert and end-user input. The Guidelines were developed across 2017–2019 and were finalized in 2021 and provide an important first step in a national response to trauma-aware education in Australia. This article will describe the “story” behind the development of the Guidelines. It is hoped that this “story” will help others considering development of systemic resources to inform the establishment and enhancement of trauma-aware policy and practice in schools and early childhood education services.
... They argue that such notions have not sufficiently accounted for the dynamic nature of learning or the powerful role of emotional, social, historical and cultural connection. New pedagogies reflecting the interactive perspective encourage education professionals to take account of children's physical and psychological wellbeing as well as their academic social and cultural dimensions (Anderson & Graham, 2016;Domitrovich, Macfarlane, 2000;Moore & Greenberg, 2012;Larkin, Finger & Thompson, 2010;Lee, 2008Lee, , 2010OECD, 2013). The perspective is positively skewed to ensure that foundations of prior learning and strength are taken into account and used to support progress forward (Seligman, Ernst, Gillham & Linkins, 2009). ...
Article
The Learning Theories Profile (LTP) supports professionals to locate various learning theories within four epistemological quadrants of the Matrix of Perspectives. Professionals can use this tool to identify some of the theories they hold and to reflect on the alignment between their espoused theories and theories-in-use. Forty-four Resource Teachers used the LTP and demonstrated that they were guided by a range of theories, most commonly interactive theories. A strong relationship was observed between espoused and in-use theories. Participants’ responses indicated the positive value of the LTP for supporting professionals to analyse and optimise interaction occurring in complex contexts of practice.
... A third, related theme in the literature on tertiary international students concerns experiences of social isolation, and concomitant problems associated with mental health and wellbeing (Alharbi and Smith, 2018;Anderson and Graham, 2016;Sawir et al., 2008). The literature foregrounds experiences of alienation, loneliness, isolation, sadness and disconnect (ibid). ...
Article
Most research on international students’ experiences has focused on tertiary settings and consistently shows that this cohort negotiates significant risks during their time abroad. This paper draws on data from the first year of a three-year Australian Research Council funded study to address the un(der)examined cohort of young people who complete their secondary school education as international students and temporary sojourners in Australia. We analyse the data from the initial interviews undertaken with 60 Year 10 international students during their first year of the senior secondary schooling. Drawing upon the theoretical resources associated with the politics of belonging, we ask if, and in what ways, students felt themselves to be marked as ‘other’ to constructed educational and social norms. We note the significant role that online activity played in helping students deal with feelings of disconnect and exclusion.
... Die konkrete Gegenfrage wäre: Ist es vertretbar, den Schüler*innen Partizipationsmöglichkeiten vorzuenthalten, wenn sie mit Partizipationsmöglichkeiten motivierter wären (Deci & Ryan, 1993), lieber zur Schule gehen ungerichteter Zusammenhang geprüft), ihr Wohlbefinden insgesamt höher wäre (bspw. Anderson & Graham, 2016) und es einen positiven Zusammenhang zwischen Partizipation und Schulleistung gibt ? Eine Auseinandersetzung hierzu kann unter Zuhilfenahme des folgenden Zitats erfolgen: «Es mag im Einzelfall besser sein, eine notwendige Entscheidung ohne jeden Diskurs und ohne jede Partizipation zu fällen und durchzusetzen als eine verlogene Miteinanderredenveranstaltung in Gang zu bringen, die letztlich der Sache und den Beziehungen schadet. ...
... interpretations of school well-being (Anderson & Graham, 2016;Kutsar et al., 2019): relationships with teachers and peers, ethical aspects of behaviour, opportunity to express one's opinion, security and support. ...
Article
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The present paper analyses 70 retrospective narratives from young adults about their school life. It looks for answers to the questions of what people and situations young adults recall as sources of positive or negative feelings and how they (re)construct the impacts of school experiences on their lives as young adults. The analysis found that on one hand a cohesive and safe school climate was a source of high self-esteem, well-being and a sense of belonging to the school, while on the other, peer bullying and the difficulties of teachers in coping with complex situations in the classroom were the most persistent problems in the school atmosphere that the young adults recalled as negative. However, the narrators re-construct some negative past experiences into positives, both individually and collectively
... Koulu on oppimisyhteisö, jossa opettaja voi huomioida arvostavasti oppilaiden yksilölliset ominaisuudet tunnistaen ne ja sen jälkeen tunnustaa ne julkisesti luokassa ja koulussa (Anderson & Graham, 2016;Thomas ym., 2016). Oppilaiden erityispiirteiden huomioiminen ja arvostaminen kouluympäristössä on mahdollista kannustamalla ja antamalla heille paikkoja ja keinoja hyödyntää osaamistaan luokkatilanteissa. ...
Thesis
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It is important for children’s well-being to know how children perceive their own situation. An individual usually defines their situation based on how they feel. Every human being is the best expert of their own emotional life, including children. A child has a need to be seen and heard. For this experience to be achievable, children’s situations must also be identified outside of a child’s own emotional experience. This applies to both emotional well-being and distress. The theory of recognition validates the need of every individual to be identified and recognized in their own environment. Usually, parents and teachers are the adults who spend the most time with children. For this reason, it can be assumed that they are the ones who have the most accurate knowledge regarding the children’s situations. When we know which emotional states the adults identify, we gain information about children’s emotional states. Identifying children’s emotional states is beneficial for professionals working with children. If children’s distress is not identified, they may be left without much-needed support and if children’s positivity is not recognized, they may be left without encouragement. This study examines what children’s emotional states parents and teachers identify and what emotional states are left unidentified. An emotional state is a phenomenon that comprehensively affects a child’s everyday action and behavior. The research material was collected using a structured questionnaire, which was filled out by 989 5th and 6th grade students between the ages of 11 and 12 as well as 780 of their parents and 50 of their teachers. The age group data specifically represents the urban population from Central Finland and children from the countryside as well as Finnish subteens in general. The children, parents and teachers filled out The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which consists of claims related to emotions and behavior. In this study, it is assumed that emotional states affect behavior, and therefore the claims that are related to behavior will be interpreted as representations of emotional states. The evaluations of children’s behavior and emotions that were filled out by the parents and teachers are compared to the ones filled out by the children. The comparison is carried out utilizing statistical tests and multivariate methods. The results of this study indicate that parents and teachers do not always identify children’s emotional states. Parents and teachers did not identify restlessness and anxiety in children. Anxiousness did not visibly affect children’s behavior, but instead it manifested itself as an internal emotional state that was difficult to identify. Restlessness manifested itself as both internal restlessness and restless behavior. Parents were able to identify children’s sympathy fairly well and children’s sense of outsideness well, but teachers were under risk to not identify children’s sympathy well enough. Children’s sense of outsideness was barely left unidentified by teachers. Similarly to restlessness, sympathy also manifested itself as both an internal emotion and as visible positive behavior towards others. It can be concluded that professionals working with children should not rely too much on information conveyed by a child’s parents. Information related to a child’s emotional state is especially limited. The results of this study encourage parents, teachers and other adults working with children to pay more attention to building a healthy, interdependent relationship with children. When adults care, respect and appreciate children, children are encouraged to talk about their internal restlessness and anxiousness. They also express sympathy more readily. This study and previous studies have shown that most children feel well. Nevertheless, it is important to remember that children also need positive feedback whenever it is justifiable.
... Private funding organizations (e.g., Spencer, Gates), national charity organizations, as well as international organizations (e.g., UNESCO), can be also considered as potential supporters of such research efforts, especially by customizing future studies to explore the impact of distance and blended teaching and learning on student outcomes, including student well-being, which has recently received increased attention (cf. Anderson & Graham, 2016). ...
Article
Given the need to develop common frameworks for conceptualizing teaching quality and common instruments for measuring it, the current paper brings together a small group of interested scholars who have used generic, content-specific, and hybrid frameworks and classroom observation instruments to reflect on how collaboration can be enhanced in research on teaching quality. Five categories of challenges that inhere in such collaborative work are identified and discussed: establishing common goals and agendas; resolving differences in terminology and structure; addressing issues of operationalization and measurement; dealing with insufficient transparency and the need for sharing information; and attending to issues of limited funding. We also offer some possible solutions for dealing with these challenges. These solutions are envisioned to contribute toward moving the field forward by supporting more scholarly collaborations in the future.
... Whilst this review does not take a specific focus on the participation principle, often specifically related to Articles 12-17, it does relate to the rationale of this review which has a focus upon children's views of their rights. Since the uncrc has been established, significant amounts of scholarly, research and practitioner attention has focused upon this (Anderson and Graham, 2016;Quennerstedt and Moody, 2020;Sargeant and Gillett-Swan, 2015;Wyse, 2001). ...
Article
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Children’s rights are set out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. This systematic literature review aimed to investigate children’s views of children’s rights, at a broad level. Nine papers were included, from a range of countries and contexts. They all accessed the views of children and young people (aged up to 18 years). A content analysis was carried out using a recursive process of hybrid aggregative-configurative synthesis, and themes within children’s views and factors that may affect these were identified. These were ‘awareness of rights’, ‘value placed on (importance of) rights’, ‘impact of having/not having rights fulfilled’, ‘realisation and respect of rights’, ‘equality of rights’, ‘identifying and categorising of rights’, and ‘factors that may affect children’s views’. These were developed into a progression of rights realisation and implications for practice and further research were considered.
... Additionally, compassion manifests itself in classroom by a caring and respectful relationship between teachers and students (White, 2017). On one hand, students desire to be cared for, respected and valued, arguing that teachers' understanding and acceptance can help them enjoy the learning process and feel satisfied with school (Anderson and Graham, 2016). On the other hand, compassionate and friendly teachers are viewed as more likely to respond to students' voices and take more time to support students, motivating students to do well (Koutselini, 2017). ...
Article
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With the popularity of positive psychology in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teaching and learning, learners’ positive emotions have attracted great academic attention. Foreign language enjoyment (FLE) is regarded as a constructive emotion and key component for learners’ academic engagement that is affected by educators’ emotions and psychological attributes. Earlier studies have proved the positive role of educators’ mindfulness and compassion in reducing learners’ negative feelings, boosting their positive emotions and building a harmonious teacher-student rapport. Through mindful and compassionate training, EFL teachers are skilled at creating a joyful learning atmosphere, showing understanding and support toward learners, as well as inspiring learners with enthusiasm and joy. The present review makes efforts to emphasize the significant effect of EFL teachers’ mindfulness and compassion on fostering students’ FLE. Moreover, a number of practical implications are provided for EFL teachers, teacher educators, school managers, and future directions are offered for enthusiastic researchers to conduct similar and complementary research in the field of foreign language education.
... The importance of the studentteacher relationship for wellbeing was also confirmed by Littlecott et al. (2018) who conducted interviews with the teaching and support staff as well as with students and parents. In a mixedmethod survey, Anderson and Graham (2016) showed that students reported that being respected, being listened to as well as having a say were linked to school wellbeing. ...
Article
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The idea of inclusion in the sense of participatory access to educational opportunities is widely acknowledged and implemented within the pedagogical discourse. Nevertheless, ensuring social participation of students with and without special education needs in learning situations continues to be challenging. The present study examines promoting and hindering factors for social inclusion with a focus on students with special educational needs. Therefore, semi-structured interviews regarding students’ (n = 12 students with SEN, 12 students without SEN), parents’ (n = 24), and teachers’ (n = 6 regular teachers, 6 special need teachers) perceptions of promoting educational characteristics that might influence students’ inclusion in everyday school life are analyzed through thematic analysis. The findings provide a wide range of pedagogical interventions that have the potential to promote inclusive education processes on educational, intrapersonal, and interpersonal levels as well as regarding different actors who are involved.
... Die konkrete Gegenfrage wäre: Ist es vertretbar, den Schüler*innen Partizipationsmöglichkeiten vorzuenthalten, wenn sie mit Partizipationsmöglichkeiten motivierter wären (Deci & Ryan, 1993), lieber zur Schule gehen ungerichteter Zusammenhang geprüft), ihr Wohlbefinden insgesamt höher wäre (bspw. Anderson & Graham, 2016) und es einen positiven Zusammenhang zwischen Partizipation und Schulleistung gibt ? Eine Auseinandersetzung hierzu kann unter Zuhilfenahme des folgenden Zitats erfolgen: «Es mag im Einzelfall besser sein, eine notwendige Entscheidung ohne jeden Diskurs und ohne jede Partizipation zu fällen und durchzusetzen als eine verlogene Miteinanderredenveranstaltung in Gang zu bringen, die letztlich der Sache und den Beziehungen schadet. ...
Thesis
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Studien zeigen, dass den Schüler*innen im Schulalltag nur beschränkt Möglichkeiten eingeräumt werden zu partizipieren. Gleichzeitig sehen die UN-Kinderrechtskonvention und lokale Schulgesetze Partizipationsmöglich-keiten für Schüler*innen vor. Daher beschäftigt sich diese Synopse mit der Partizipationssituation von Schü-ler*innen an fünf Volksschulen im Kanton Zürich. Grundlage für die Synopse bilden vier Beiträge, die aus meh-reren Perspektiven und mittels unterschiedlicher Methoden untersuchen, (1) wie Partizipation in der Fachliteratur verwendet wird und, daraus abgeleitet, wie sie fassbar gemacht werden kann, (2) wie sich die Partizipationssitua-tion in der Schule allgemein und (3) konkret im Unterricht darstellt und (4) welche Partizipationswünsche von Seiten der Schüler*innen und Lehrpersonen bestehen. Die Synthese aus den vier Beiträgen bringt drei beitrags-übergreifende Themen hervor: (1) eine begriffliche Differenzierung von Partizipation, (2) eine multiperspektivi-sche und multimethodische Darstellung der Partizipationssituation in den untersuchten Schulen sowie (3) Zu-sammenhangskomponenten von Partizipation. Die vier Beiträge sowie die drei Synthesethemen führen zu drei Thesen: (1) Die Schüler*innen sind zufrieden mit ihrer Partizipationssituation, weil sie sich ihrer Partizipations-möglichkeiten nicht bewusst sind, (2) Partizipation ist primär etwas für Musterschülerinnen und (3) Partizipation und Schule zeichnen sich durch gegenseitige Inkompatibilität aus. Für die Fachdiskussion, weitere Forschung und Schulpraxis lässt sich folgern, dass multiperspektivische und multimethodische Ansätze erforderlich sind, um Partizipation zu untersuchen, und dass das verwendete Partizipationsverständnis offengelegt werden sollte. Da Schüler*innenpartizipation in der Schule von Widersprüchen geprägt ist, braucht es in der Schulpraxis einen bewussten und transparenten Umgang mit dieser Thematik, der vermehrte Aufmerksamkeit der Forschung er-fordert, insbesondere um Partizipationsprozesse erklären und verstehen zu können.
... Additionally, there has been some reference on children's experiences of their right to participate in school and community (e.g. Emerson & Lloyd, 2017;Elwood, 2013;Ahlstrom, 2010;Anderson & Graham, 2016;Cook-Sather, 2006;Davies, Williams, Yamashita, Ko Man-Hing, 2004;Dyment, 2004;Fielding, 2006;Flutter, 2006, Hart, 1992Head, 2011;Herbots & Put, 2015;Kranzl & Zartler, 2009;Rahnema, 1992;Rose & Shevlin, 2010; Save the Children, 2010). These studies reveal that, a formidable work has been accomplished in describing the extensive advantages of children's participation within the school community, ranging from personal advantages, such as psychological, social, and academic to collective advantages, benefiting both the school and the wider community. ...
Book
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The CICADA Curriculum and Open Resource Toolbox is one of the main and innovative outputs of CICADA project (2019-2021) titled Children’s life quality: Participation, recreation, and play, funded by Erasmus+ KA2. The Curriculum is composed of six interrelated chapters covering themes related to children’s quality of life, such as children’s wellbeing and children’s rights, active listening for addressing children’s needs, children’s active participation, children’s free time, and action research in schools and the community for promoting a high-level quality of life for children.
Chapter
Classroom spaces are complex social worlds where people interact in multifaceted ways with spaces and materials. Classrooms are carefully designed agents for socialisation; however, the complexity and richness of learning experiences are partly determined by the teacher. This chapter draws from sociocultural perspectives to consider processes of thinking and learning as distributed and mediated across people and resources within the learning space. We argue that learning and wellbeing cannot be separated as students activate their social and emotional literacies when navigating the classroom environment. Drawing on data drawn from an ethnographic study of classrooms located in a community of high poverty, we critique how teachers describe their classroom spaces and selection of resources to facilitate their teaching of writing. We illustrate how geographies of place, movement and resources, interact with, and expand the social dimensions of classroom spaces.
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The current literature on the impact of high-stakes testing largely focuses on Western countries, is adult-centric, and mainly considers the impact on teaching and learning. This study not only examines the learning experiences of children, but also other aspects of their wellbeing, including their social relationships, leisure activities, and health, in the high-stakes testing environment of Hong Kong, from the perspectives of children. A qualitative approach using focus group interviews was employed to listen to the views of primary school children. The children’s perceptions of the school learning environment revealed the negative consequences of high-stakes tests, with major findings concerning skewed curricula, the spillover of major subjects, major subject-centered scheduling, undermining recess, exam-oriented pedagogy, endless homework and drilling, and overemphasis on grades. The findings also show that children’s wellbeing is jeopardized in this environment, with major themes including schoolwork as a source of family conflict, distant relationships with teachers, friendship as a comfort zone (though it may be hampered by competition), no real leisure time, deprived sleep, enduring pressure and stress, and overall happiness reduced by academic study. Implications of the findings are discussed. Besides the short-term measures of improving children’s experience in learning and wellbeing, reforming the educational system to be less emphasizing academic achievement and making student wellbeing a policy priority can be the long-term strategies.
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U razdoblju od rujna 2017. do lipnja 2018. Ured pravobraniteljice za djecu RH, proveo je istraživanje na temu participacije djece u sustavu odgoja i obrazovanja. Sustav odgoja i obrazovanja je namjerno izabran budući da je najveći dio djece obuhvaćen školovanjem te život u školi predstavlja značajan dio odrastanja svakog djeteta. Participacija učenika u školi podrazumijeva različite stvari: od formalne participacije kroz učenička predstavnička tijela, individualni doprinos na razini razreda, sudjelovanje u akcijama i projektima do samostalnog iniciranja projekata u školi. Stoga je cilj ovog istraživanja steći dublje razumijevanje participacije djece u sustavu odgoja i obrazovanja iz perspektive djece (učenika) i odraslih (nastavnika i stručnih suradnika) sa svrhom kreiranja smjernica za povećanje aktivne participacije učenika. U istraživanju je korištena kombinacija kvalitativnog i kvantitativnog pristupa. Tako je u početnom, kvalitativnom dijelu istraživanja provedeno 19 fokusnih grupe u 4 regije u Republici Hrvatskoj, u gradovima u kojima djeluju regionalni uredi PZD: Zagreb, Rijeka, Split i Osijek. U kvalitativnom dijelu istraživanja sudjelovalo je ukupno 70 djece i 41 odrasla osoba.
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Background: The international body of research on student voice concludes that active pupil participation has multiple positive effects on the work environment and learning for pupils. In a large study on gender equality and diversity work in Swedish schools, it became evident that pupils wanted to be active participants. However, pupils considered that their wishes were, to a large extent, ignored. Therefore, it is important to try to understand this further by investigating pupils’ perceptions of their experiences. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore how discourses of participation and power are practised, not practised, and materialised, by focusing in-depth on pupils’ representations of gender equality and diversity work within a small sample of Swedish schools. Methodology: The study is based on data from 10 focus group interviews with 43 pupils from 4 different schools, 2 compulsory schools (pupil ages 6–15) and 2 upper secondary schools (pupil ages 16–18), in Sweden. The thematic analysis utilised a gender perspective anchored in a critical policy analysis approach. Analysis and Findings: The analysis of focus group data identified three pupil representations of gender equality and diversity work: a onetime occurrence, longing for participation and the (un)fair teacher. These representations were derived from and intertwined with discourses on pupil participation and power. Three sub-discourses were found within the discourse on participation and power: normative barriers to participation, structural barriers to participation and openings in the barriers to participation. The first two sub-discourses support the maintenance of unequal power relations between adults and pupils, while the third challenges these power relations. Conclusions: Our study suggests that no substantial levels of participation or power among the pupils were represented at the schools. Instead, the analysis visualises pupils as expressing powerlessness and disengagement. However, the discourse Openings in the barriers to participation, together with pupils’ democratic abilities, has the potential to enable change and the development of pupil participation in schools.
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This article compares democratic participation research in Scottish schools over a 10-year period. The comparison reveals how ‘organic’ aspects of decision-making arise in arenas of school activity. We argue that research heretofore has focussed on pupil councils to the exclusion of more everyday embedded and embodied choices. Primary researchers in the studies revisited data, drawing on their respective theoretical frameworks, to consider how new materialist perspectives offer ways to attend differently to the recursive, relational dynamics of participation.
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The local education laws in Switzerland mandated the implementation of the rights of the child which includes student participation. Through a comparative case study, our aim was to achieve a better understanding of how participation could be put into practice. While we sought out narratives and situations in which participation took place, in one school we discovered many tendencies towards social exclusion. Children and teenagers reported in interviews and group discussions experiencing humiliation and exclusion, which is contrary to Article 29. In this chapter, the concepts of social exclusion and participation will be introduced and connected. Different perspectives of teachers and students will be combined to demonstrate how different attitudes, beliefs and actions sustain an exclusionary school culture. We conclude that participation is a counteragent of social exclusion and an essential condition to implementing Article 29 embedded in a thorough school improvement process, where all actors collectively construct meaningful student participation.
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Introduction The well-being of students has become one of the main concerns in the Indonesian educational system nowadays. In order to apply such kind of concept in an educational program at schools, the role of an educational supervisor is critical as the supervisor performs as a facilitator as well as a controller of the program. Methods This study investigates the competencies required by educational supervisors, especially concerning the government’s efforts to apply the concept of students’ well-being in an educational program. Since the program focuses on a particular concept, certain competencies may be needed differently from the existing educational policy. FGDs and in-depth interviews were used to analyze the influence of in-group interaction of participants in answering some questions during the discussion. These interviews were conducted with 24 educational supervisors from several cities in West Java. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results The study identified advanced thinking, working attitudes, social skills, and managerial abilities as four main competencies, followed by 11 sub-categories that are considered important for educational supervisors to be acquired in order to support the students' well-being program. The results also highlighted that out of these four competencies, social skills are perceived as the most primary competency needed for educational supervisors, as they are agents who have to perform plentiful interactions with many parties for the implementation of the program. Conclusion The primary competence needed for educational supervisors is social skills.
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Schools, as diverse communities where children live much of their daily lives, are significant for their impact on children’s well-being. The chapter is a nuanced exploration of how the children we talked with in our research project, respond to the potentially contradictory expectations school poses for experiences of well-being in the present and well-becoming in the future. We move beyond describing the tensions between well-being and well-becoming by framing our discussion around what children told us about their experiences of well-being at school, in terms of opportunities to pursue agency and competency, defined in our discussion as self-determination, and the requirements to prepare for a future, what we refer to as adult-imposed aspirations. We argue, from our findings that, while the opportunities school provides children for self-determination promote their sense of well-being, the pressures from adult-imposed aspirations, particularly for secondary school children, can undermine well-being in the present. Link to chapter
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Internationally, research documents a link between children’s creative engagement in Arts and their experiences of positive wellbeing. Yet this is at odds with both the provision of Arts curricula in England’s education system (which continues to decline including substantial cuts to resources and staff), and longitudinal research reporting a decrease in children’s wellbeing. In this article, the authors present findings from a qualitative study conducted as part of a mixed methods project in a Secondary school in England exploring how performing arts curricula (dance, drama and music: ‘PA’) nurture pupils’ hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing. 11 pupils (aged 11–16) engaged in participatory creative projects as a means of expressing their PA experiences. Their projects served as a springboard for in-depth individual interviews. Thematic analysis revealed that Arts curricula are uniquely need-facilitating environments that nurture pupils’ wellbeing in school. Pupils’ experiences suggest that PA curricula positively impacted their eudaimonic wellbeing, satisfying their innate psychological needs of relatedness, autonomy and competence, as theorised in Self-Determination Theory. Pupils’ experiences also underlined the benefits of Arts engagement for their hedonic wellbeing, including increased positive affect and providing a space for regulating emotions. Collectively, the qualitative and quantitative findings from this mixed methods project suggest some pupils engaged in PA are vulnerable, and Arts play a critical role in facilitating their wellbeing. The positive implications of retaining Arts curricula, versus the potential damage to pupils’ wellbeing and wider engagement with school caused by continuing to devalue Arts, is discussed.
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The aim of fostering well-being has become central to Scottish educational policy, in part because of a need to address the impact of inequalities of income, wealth, power and inclusion. But, dominated by a human capital picture of the enterprising, entrepreneurial individual whose well-being is tied to particular socio-economic outcomes desired by the Scottish government focused on developing a competitive economy, current approaches to well-being in Scottish education policy primarily reflect a conception of well-being as approximating a skill to be developed for the benefit of the economy. This dissertation presents an alternative conception of well-being in education, based on the capabilities approach, mainly as articulated by Martha Nussbaum. It points to the benefits of drawing upon a capabilities approach for re-conceptualising well-being in education understood as fostering human development - rather than human capital - in which autonomy and dignity play a significant role in developing well-being and, ultimately, in human flourishing. Drawing upon the tools of philosophical inquiry that provide an important clarificatory role in the use of concepts, their implications, and justification in education policy, this dissertation serves as a critique of the current well-being policy agenda in Scottish education. It contributes to the study of well-being as a prominent aim of education in Scotland by
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Children’s lived experiences are shaped by a number of influential ideas about childhood. Since 1979, the political context of the UK has been dominated by neoliberalism. This promotes an individualised view of social life, reinforcing in turn an understanding of children as becomings rather than beings. Alongside this though, we point to three key concepts that have emerged with respect to how children are seen: well-being, vulnerability, and resilience. A critical view of each demonstrates how these concepts are forged within social contexts and how they come to be mobilised in ways which often undermine and impoverish childhood, contributing to what has come to be referred to as snowflakes.
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There is now a strong body of evidence (e.g. Hattie, 2009; Roorda et al., 2011) that confirms the value of positive teacher-student relationships for learning and behaviour. The quality of relationships in a school, however, also impacts on teacher wellbeing and their ability to cope well with the many and varied stresses that are the hallmarks of the profession. Teacher attrition is a major concern in the Western world - how teachers feel makes a difference to their ability to respond effectively to the challenges they face. This article explores issues of social capital within the learning environment and how this impacts on all stakeholders within an ecological framework. It examines how teacher resilience might be enhanced by specific actions that promote positive feelings of belonging, respect, value, and trust. The article examines international research on these issues, including a specific qualitative study in six schools in Australia. Findings are confirmed and illustrated by an online survey on student wellbeing.
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Recent attempts to theorize children’s participation have drawn on a wide range of ideas, concepts and models from political and social theory. The aim of this article is to explore the specific usefulness of Honneth’s theory of a ‘struggle for recognition’ in thinking about this area of practice. The article identifies what is distinctive about Honneth’s theory of recognition, and how it differs from other theories of recognition. It then considers the relevance of Honneth’s conceptual framework to the social position of children, including those who may be involved in a variety of ‘participatory’ activities. It looks at how useful Honneth’s ideas are in direct engagement with young people’s praxis, drawing on ethnographic research with members of a children and young people’s forum. The article concludes by reflecting on the implications of this theoretical approach and the further questions which it opens up for theories of participation and of adult–child relations more generally.
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In the final contribution to this special issue, Michael Fielding, Reader in Education at the University of Sussex and FORUM Editorial Board member, develops a framework for evaluating the conditions for student voice. He draws on each of the contributors'articles and other research to explore some of the key issues beginning to emerge in a movement that has the dual capacity to either keep us even more securely in our current way of doing things, or develop genuinely transformative practices that offer the possibility of more creative, more fulfilling alternatives. Email contact: m. fielding@sussex. ac. uk
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Purpose – There is increasing recognition of children's abilities to speak for themselves. School democracy, as demonstrated by genuine participation, has the potential to benefit both teachers and students; leading to better relationships and improved learning experiences. The aim of this study is to investigate whether participation in schools in Ireland is linked with perceived academic performance, liking school and positive health perceptions. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected via self-completion questionnaires from a stratified random sample of 10,334 students aged 10-17 years in Irish schools. The questions included encouragement to express their views in class, participation in the organisation of school events; taking part in making school rules; liking school, perceived academic performance, self-rated health, life satisfaction and self-reported happiness. Associations between school participation and other measures were expressed by odds ratios from logistic regression models, conducted separately for girls and boys. Findings – More than 63 per cent of participating students reported that they were encouraged to express their views in class, 58 per cent that they were involved in organising school events and 22 per cent that they had been involved in making school rules. All forms of participation were lower among older students. Participation in school was significantly associated with liking school and higher perceived academic performance, better self-rated health, higher life satisfaction and greater reported happiness. Research limitations/implications – These data are all cross-sectional and relationships cannot imply causality. Practical implications – These findings underscore the relevance of school participation for students in Ireland. Originality/value – The paper illustrates that, in general, positive relationships between school participation and health and wellbeing are demonstrated among Irish children.
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This article explores the consequences of the view that the identifications of children and adults and the spaces they inhabit are intimately related. Firstly, the article reviews the rationales that suggest we should consult with children and young people and encourage their participation. Arguments are made, using examples, to support the view that policy and practice and research on children's participation are better framed as being fundamentally about child–adult relations. Secondly, the emerging field would benefit from becoming more sensitive to how place and space are implicated in identity formation.
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We currently face a significant contemporary crisis, not just of student voice but of compulsory schooling and the social and political contexts that shape it. This paper offers a typology that seeks to understand and explain both that crisis and the burgeoning of ‘new wave' student voice work in Australasia, North America and the UK. It suggests a number of ways forward that point to the possibility of developing forms of leadership that encourage approaches to student voice that take seriously the education of persons, not merely the thin requirements of an overly instrumental and ultimately diminishing schooling.
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This paper considers the role of dialogue in the participation of children and examines the extent to which Philosophy for Children can be conceptualised as a dialogic participatory mechanism. It examines ways in which dialogue has been linked to participation in the literature and differentiates between those approaches which focus on dialogue as pedagogic device and those which emphasise its participatory potential. A theoretical consideration of dialogue is pursued using three questions to interrogate the complex and contested body of literature exploring dialogic approaches. These focus on the possibility that dialogue offers an alternative philosophical approach to children's voice, mechanisms of transformation in dialogic encounters, and the problems posed by inequality between dialogic partners. This exploration prepares the ground to consider Philosophy for Children's potential as a dialogical participatory mechanism. It is concluded that where practitioners are able to tolerate the perplexity and discomfort of genuinely open dialogue, then Philosophy for Children can be regarded as dialogic. It is recognised that the many competing agendas operating in schools might influence the extent to which dialogue can remain open. If Philosophy for Children is to operate as a participatory mechanism, then it is argued that there is a need to develop a praxis focus within communities of philosophical inquiry. Political difficulties resulting from inequalities between the participants in a community of inquiry are acknowledged. It is concluded that practitioners need to adopt and maintain critical reflexivity if they are to avoid an instrumental approach to the practice of Philosophy for Children and ensure that its dialogic and participatory potential is developed.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present an exploration of parents', teachers' and childrens' perspectives on children's understanding of wellbeing with the aim of illuminating and comparing the conceptualisation of wellbeing from these three perspectives. Design/methodology/approach – The participatory method developed to undertake the study in this paper stems from the adoption of the “draw and write” technique, with children taking photographs rather than drawing and participating in data analysis. Children aged eight to 12 years took 723 photographs representing wellbeing, while a second set of children grouped the photographs into categories. A third set organised these categories, developing and illustrating through schemata the pattern of relationships between categories. This process was repeated for parent and teacher groups drawing on the photographs taken by the children. Findings – The findings in this paper show that differences emerged between parents and teachers and children and adults. Parents provided a more detailed conceptualisation than teachers. Children included pets where adults perceived school as being more important in children's wellbeing. The identification of the differing perspectives between children and adults suggests that this approach has enabled children to illuminate their own unique perspective on wellbeing. The paper also demonstrates that children can express complex understandings of abstract concepts. Originality/value – In the paper the findings reinforce the need to gain children's perspectives rather than relying on adult perceptions of children's perspectives, in order to inform quality service, practice and policy developments.
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In this article, Jonathan Cohen argues that the goals of education need to be reframed to prioritize not only academic learning, but also social, emotional, and ethical competencies. Surveying the current state of research in the fields of social-emotional education, character education, and school-based mental health in the United States, Cohen suggests that social-emotional skills, knowledge, and dispositions provide the foundation for participation in a democracy and improved quality of life. Cohen discusses contemporary best practices and policy in relation to creating safe and caring school climates, home-school partnerships, and a pedagogy informed by social-emotional and ethical concerns. He also emphasizes the importance of scientifically sound measures of social-emotional and ethical learning, and advocates for action research partnerships between researchers and practioners to develop authentic methods of evaluation. Cohen notes the gulf that exists between the evidence-based guidelines for social-emotional learning, which are being increasingly adopted at the state level, and what is taught in schools of education and practiced in preK-12 schools. Finally, he asserts that social, emotional, ethical, and academic education is a human right that all students are entitled to, and argues that ignoring this amounts to a social injustice.
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The notion of child well-being appears in a larger number of publications nowadays. Our review of the literature underlines both the oddly pathogenic approach to child well-being and the scarcity of papers discussing a still poorly defined notion. Through this review, we identified the recourse to a binary language; from there, we derived five theoretical axes that heed the multidimensionnal and multilevel nature of well-being, although for each one, a pole is here predominantly developed. We argue in favour of an override of a one-dimensional, single-level, unipolar approach to child well-being and a exploration of its otherwise underdeveloped positive, hedonic, subjective, spiritual and collective dimensions.
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The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child has raised the profile of children's participation in the United Kingdom. Hart's ‘ladder of participation’ has been the most influential model in this field. This paper offers an alternative model, based on five levels of participation: 1. Children are listened to. 2. Children are supported in expressing their views. 3. Children's views are taken into account. 4. Children are involved in decision-making processes. 5. Children share power and responsibility for decision-making. In addition, three stages of commitment are identified at each level: ‘openings’, ‘opportunities’ and ‘obligations’. The model thus provides a logical sequence of 15 questions as a tool for planning for participation. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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There is a burgeoning literature on educational change – how to make it and how to understand its failures in order that the causes can be remedied next time. Much of this literature implies that when free and autonomous policy agents know what they are doing, they can shift institutional structures and habituated ways of doing and being. In this article we mobilize Bourdieu, who rejected this binary of structure and agency, in favour of the notion of ‘field’, ‘habitus’ and ‘capitals’, to theorize one case of change. We describe the shifting policy-scape in Australia in the latter part of the twentieth century which created some opportunities for students to act as educational leaders and participate in making decisions about their learning and schooling. We then develop a specific and situated theorization of change in a contested and hierarchical educational ‘field’. We argue that the continued press from the political field and the wider field of power to increase levels of mass schooling produced a ‘principal opposition’ in the schooling field between democratization and hierarchization. This opposition, we propose, is now in policies, institutional changes and the varying actions of educators, making the field not only contested but also unstable: this produces further spaces and opportunities for both hierarchic and democratic changes.<br /
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We know that students' positive engagement with school is closely linked to their positive mental health. In particular, a positive engagement assists students to develop the human connections and resilience that reduces the risk of developing later mental health problems. What do students themselves say about what assists them to engage successfully with school? In particular, what is known of the views of students with high support needs in the area of mental health? The MindMatters Plus Project commissioned a review of existing studies of students' perspectives about engagement. This overview summarises the literature that typifies the three overlapping areas of school engagement, student voice and students with high support needs in the area of mental health, drawing on an extensive annotated bibliography of sources (available online at mmplus.agca.com.au/studeng_unheard_voices.php?x=13). The students about whom MindMatters Plus has a particular concern — those who are at greater risk of having high support needs in the area of mental health — are often less likely to voice their opinion and concerns to adults. As a consequence, less is known about what they are saying about factors that engage them with school — theirs are frequently ‘unheard voices’.
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This article reports a survey conducted in schools in Great Britain and Northern Ireland during 1997–8 with 2,272 students aged seven to 17 years. The 24-page booklet questionnaire included six groups of questions about school councils. The question of whether pupils who have a council see it as effective was cross-tabulated with a range of other questions, in order to examine associations between students' views about their school councils with their views on other aspects of school. About half the students reported that they had a school council. Of these, the ones who thought their council was effective generally had positive views about their school's social and academic activities, whereas the ones who said their council was ineffective generally had more negative attitudes. Some schools find that creating an effective school council can considerably improve standards of behaviour, but this process has to involve further changes in systems and relationships in the school. Simply introducing a token council can increase students' scepticism. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Recent policy frameworks for addressing the well-being of young people have increasingly adopted a prevention framework that emphasises age-relevant support, a social inclusion approach, targeted assistance for the most disadvantaged, and more avenues for the voices of young people. However, despite the increased policy commitments to youth consultation and participation, there is confusion about the operational implications of such commitments, and implementation across different program areas has been patchy. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding the various forms of youth participation, ranging from information exchange to more open and self-managed participation; and the associated rationales for various forms of participation. It is argued that there are three main rationales for greater voice and participation of young people across a variety of institutional settings and policy areas. First is the argument that young people have the right to be nurtured, protected and treated with respect, and where appropriate be involved and consulted. Secondly, it is argued that improvement of services for young people requires their views and interests to be well articulated and represented. Thirdly, it is asserted that there are developmental benefits arising from participation, for both the individuals themselves and for civil society as a whole.
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Determinants of children's school wellbeing have not been extensively studied. In this cross-sectional study of school children we assessed how factors assumed to promote wellbeing and factors assumed to adversely influence wellbeing were associated with self-reported wellbeing in school. Children from five schools, 230 boys and 189 girls in grades 1-10, responded to the same set of questions. We used proportional odds logistic regression to assess the associations of promoting and restraining factors with school wellbeing. In a multivariable analysis, degree of school wellbeing in boys was strongly and positively related to enjoying school work (odds ratio, 3.84, 95% CI 2.38 to 6.22) and receiving necessary help (odds ratio, 3.55, 95% CI 2.17 to 5.80) from teachers. In girls, being bothered during lessons was strongly and negatively associated with school wellbeing (odds ratio, 0.43, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.85). Different factors may determine school wellbeing in boys and girls, but for both genders, factors relevant for lessons may be more important than factors related to recess. Especially in boys, the student-teacher relationship may be of particular importance.
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Monitoring, protecting and promoting 'well-being' are central to realisation of children's rights. Yet definitions of the concept are both variable and can appear conceptually confused. Competing research paradigms engage with the concept and its measurement, while applications of well-being in policy are equally contested. This paper outlines some of the major debates, as a starting point for reviewing three contrasting approaches to well-being: indicator-based, participatory, and longitudinal research. In particular, it focuses on applications of the concept in contexts of child poverty worldwide. We suggest there are some promising signs of integration amongst these approaches, and argue that well-being does have potential as a bridging concept, at the same time highlighting inequalities, acknowledging diversity, and respecting children's agency. Drawing on the experience of Young Lives, a 15 year, four-country longitudinal study of child poverty, we suggest that methods for studying child well-being in global contexts should be dynamic and sensitive to culture and time, as well as to the trade-offs that children are required to make between themselves and others. We argue that dynamic approaches are especially important in research with children as they address how people change in time. Well-being is understood by Young Lives to be about real people and the social contexts they inhabit. It can act as a lens - similar to culture - which recognises that outcomes of deprivation are influenced by children and their responses to and interpretation of events. Accessing children's views in the context of their communities is important and can increase the accuracy and credibility of research data. Crucially, well-being research also foregrounds subjective meanings and experiences, and provides the background for interpreting 'best interests'. While shared visions for well-being can set parameters of acceptability and underpin basic entitlements, detailed specification must be negotiable, especially taking account of the views of the principal stakeholders, namely children, their caregivers and others centrally concerned with their lives.
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This chapter suggests that the challenges to be faced in realising the right to participation are broadly comparable across all societies, although the scale and particular nature of the barriers vary. Interestingly, many of the most radical initiatives in child participation have evolved in the developing world. Emerging common themes are that: all children can participate; children need to be able to define their own agendas; adults can learn and benefit from children's experience; participation enhances children's evolving capacities; experience is as significant as age in influencing capacity; respectful and continuing adult support is essential; participation is a protective process; children have strengths to offer other children; participation needs to be linked to children's own daily lives; and access to people with power is a prerequisite to achieving sustained change.
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There is significant ambiguity around the definition, usage and function of the word ‘wellbeing’, not only within DCSF but in the public policy realm, and in the wider world. This has implications for DCSF. Essentially, wellbeing is a cultural construct and represents a shifting set of meanings - wellbeing is no less than what a group or groups of people collectively agree makes ‘a good life’. The meaning and function of a term like ‘wellbeing’ not only changes through time, but is open to both overt and subtle dispute and contest. There is evidence that the discourse of ‘wellbeing’ - how, for what purposes, and with what effects the term is being used - is at present particularly unstable in the UK. Given the importance of the term to DCSF’s policy and communications, we recommend a low key but deliberate strategy to manage the DCSF position within this ambiguity and instability.
Article
This article reports a survey conducted in schools in Great Britain and Northern Ireland during 1997–8 with 2,272 students aged seven to 17 years. The 24‐page booklet questionnaire included six groups of questions about school councils. The question of whether pupils who have a council see it as effective was cross‐tabulated with a range of other questions, in order to examine associations between students' views about their school councils with their views on other aspects of school. About half the students reported that they had a school council. Of these, the ones who thought their council was effective generally had positive views about their school's social and academic activities, whereas the ones who said their council was ineffective generally had more negative attitudes. Some schools find that creating an effective school council can considerably improve standards of behaviour, but this process has to involve further changes in systems and relationships in the school. Simply introducing a token council can increase students' scepticism.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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School-based mental health services hold promise for reaching youths in need. This article draws on an ecological-mediational model for school-based mental health services that links factors in the school environment to children's mental health and academic achievement. School influences are mediated by the teachers' role in promoting mental wellness among students. Collaboration with teachers is the centerpiece for change at the school, classroom, and individual teacher levels. A mental health services delivery model that incorporates school social workers as resources to teachers, families, and children is discussed as an approach to promote and expand prevention, identification, and treatment of child emotional and behavioral difficulties in school settings.
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The Factors of Well-Being in Schools as a Living Environment According to Students' Evaluation How do students describe their quality of school life, based on their views about what is pleasant and unpleasant about the school? How is student welfare related to education for sustainability? Theories of the quality of school life and authentic identity constitute the theoretical background of this study. The school experiences of 185 Estonian and 161 Finnish students of different school types were studied by a semi-structured open questionnaire. The answers were analysed by the qualitative phenomenological method. The quality of school life of the students is diminished by the routine hierarchical working system and bad relations. It is supported by a cooperation-orientated atmosphere and meaningful learning experiences. The meaningfulness of school is sensed to be the most important factor in the students' evaluation of their school experiences.
Article
Wellbeing is an area that has gained increased global focus, particularly when considering children’s lives. With the growing focus on children’s wellbeing, it is apparent that this is an important aspect that is being considered in the policy and provision designed for children. The decision-making surrounding wellbeing provision for children typically occurs without the direct input of the children that these services are designed to benefit. With children’s capacities being variably considered in wider society, opportunities for children to participate in decision-making on matters that affect them are often limited. The absence of children’s perspectives on matters that affect their lives, such as wellbeing, reveal that adults may be missing a key perspective when seeking to understand and cater for children’s wellbeing needs. This article outlines the results of a study that investigated how children aged 8 to 12 years of age (tweens) defined and conceptualised wellbeing. This article proposes that children can be included in the conceptualisation and development of policy and provision designed to benefit them and argues for increased presence of the voice and participation of children in wider societal initiatives.
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Prevalence studies of emotional health and well-being (EHWB) of young people indicate that that there is cause for concern. Very few studies have examined EHWB from the perspective of young people. This study examined the views of young people about their EHWB in the context of secondary education in the UK. Eight focus groups were conducted in five secondary schools with pupils in year 10 (aged 13–14). The findings suggested that whilst pupils thought some aspects of EHWB are well provided for in the school curriculum, there were problems with coherence of EHWB policy. Mental health topics were thought to be neglected in the EHWB curriculum especially in relation to self-harm. Three problems regarding talking about EHWB were identified. Firstly, the quality of EHWB lessons depended on the enthusiasm and creativity of the teacher taking the lesson. Secondly, pupils were concerned about confidentiality. Thirdly, many pupils preferred to talk to friends about EHWB issues. The findings of the study suggest a need for greater involvement of young people in the planning, implementation and evaluation of the EHWB curriculum.
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This project was conducted as a response to a primary school identifying a need to listen to and act upon children's views in relation to social and emotional aspects of learning. The consideration of children's views links to recent national emphasis on the importance of pupil voice. Mental health and wellbeing are also highlighted as a recent focus within schools and children's services. This small-scale project explored the social and emotional experiences of children within one primary school. Eighteen children from Reception Year to Year 6 participated in four focus groups.Focus group schedules (one for Foundation/Key Stage 1 and one for Key Stage 2) were used to facilitate discussion by asking children to consider their views in relation to environmental quality, self-esteem, emotional processing, self-management skills and social participation. They were asked to explore features of their school that promoted and demoted mental health and wellbeing. These views were then shared with the whole staff group.This project enabled school staff to discuss the views of children who had participated and develop an action plan to change aspects of school life in response to them.
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In this article, Axel Honneth outlines a plural theory of justice. In developing his argument he takes his departure not in the classic elimination of ‘inequality’, but in the avoidance of ‘humiliation’ or ‘disrespect’. He is convinced that an appropriate point of departure for a recognition-theoretical conception of justice must show that the experience of social injustice is always measured in terms of the withholding of some recognition held to be legitimate. Throughout the article, Honneth makes strong reservations about Nancy Fraser’s approach, where ‘recognition’ and ‘redistribution’ are separated into two conceptual totalities with the single goal of ‘participatory equality’. On the contrary, he suggests having a more elaborate concept of identity formation, so that participating in the public realm means participating without shame, capable of unfurling his or her own personality’s potential in an unforced manner and of thus developing a personal identity. From this standpoint Honneth points to three differentiated spheres of recognition that must be obtained if the individual is to obtain a personal identity, namely love, equal treatment in law and social esteem.
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Dans cet article, l'A tente de comprendre le changement normatif opere entre ideal de redistribution des richesses, et le besoin de reconnaissance individuel, base selon lui sur une desillusion profonde des individus. Il tente de clarifier la notion et rapelle les theories hegeliennes de la reconnaissance reciproque
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The notion of "student voice," or a student role in the decision making and change efforts of schools, has emerged in the new millennium as a potential strategy for improving the success of school reform efforts. Yet few studies have examined this construct either theoretically or empirically. Grounded in a sociocultural perspective, this article provides some of the first empirical data on youth participation in student voice efforts by identifying how student voice opportunities appear to contribute to "youth development" outcomes in young people. The article finds that student voice activities can create meaningful experiences for youth that help to meet fundamental developmental needs-especially for students who otherwise do not find meaning in their school experiences. Specifically, this research finds a marked consistency in the growth of agency, belonging and competence-three assets that are central to youth development. While these outcomes were consistent across the students in this study, the data demonstrate how the structure of student voice efforts and nature of adult/student relations fundamentally influence the forms of youth development outcomes that emerge.
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The principle of ‘pupil voice’ has attained a high profile over the past decade and its key principles of encouraging pupil consultation and participation are evident in official policy and guidance in many countries around the world. While there has been official endorsement of the notions that pupils have a right to voice their opinions and should have some involvement in decision-making affecting their lives, the implications of these arguments for day-to-day practice are less clear and sometimes contentious. Since the early 1990s Jean Rudduck and I have been looking at the role of pupil voice strategies in developing more effective teaching and learning in the classroom. We have examined how these strategies are used in a range of different settings—from small, rural primary schools to large, inner city comprehensive schools facing challenging circumstances. Evidence from our research, and in studies in the UK and internationally, suggests that pupil voice strategies can be transformational experiences for teachers and for pupils. This article examines the relationship between pupil voice and teacher development and, drawing on evidence from research, it will demonstrate how pupil voice strategies have enabled teachers to gain a deeper understanding of the teaching and learning processes and have helped them to change the way they think about pupils and their learning.
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When the first edition of this seminal work appeared in 1990, the sociology of childhood was only just beginning to emerge as a distinct sub-discipline. Drawing together strands of existing sociological writing about childhood and shaping them into a new paradigm, the original edition of this Routledge Classic offered a potent blend of ideas that informed, even inspired, many empirical studies of children's lives because it provided a unique lens through which to think about childhood. Featuring a collection of articles which summarised the developments in the study of childhood across the social sciences, including history, psychology, sociology, anthropology, feminist and developmental studies, scholars and professionals from developed and developing countries world-wide shared their knowledge of having worked and of working with children. Now with a new introduction from the editors to contextualise it into the 21st century, this truly ground-breaking text which helped establish childhood studies as a distinctive field of enquiry is being republished.
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This article argues the importance of ensuring initiatives aimed at improving children’s social and emotional well-being are based on sound participatory principles. The discussion posits links between the recognition of children, dialogic approaches to participation, changing conceptualisations of children and childhood, and children’s well-being. It explores these links in light of one particular initiative, Seasons for Growth (Graham, 1996, 2002, Seasons for Growth; Loss and Grief Education Program. MacKillop Foundation), an education programme built around emerging evidence that giving children a voice assists them to adapt to family change. The paper concludes with insights into what is involved when we locate notions of ‘having a say’ as a key element in promoting children’s well-being.© 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation 2010 National Children’s Bureau and Blackwell Publishing Limited.
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Every way of thinking is both premised on and generative of a way of naming that reflects particular underlying convictions. Over the last 15 years, a way of thinking has reemerged that strives to reposition students in educational research and reform. Best documented in Australia, Canada, England, and the United States, this way of thinking is premised on the following convictions: that young people have unique perspectives on learning, teaching, and schooling; that their insights warrant not only the attention but also the responses of adults; and that they should be afforded opportunities to actively shape their education. Although these convictions mean different things to different people and take different forms in practice, a single term has emerged to capture a range of activities that strive to reposition students in educational research and reform: “student voice.” In this discussion the author explores the emergence of the term “student voice,” identifies underlying premises signaled by two particular words associated with the term, “rights” and “respect,” and explores the many meanings of a word that surfaces repeatedly across discussions of student voice efforts but refers to a wide range of practices: “listening.” The author offers this discussion not as an exhaustive or definitive analysis but rather with the goal of looking across discussions of work that advocates, enacts, and critically analyzes the term “student voice.”
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This paper describes the process and some findings of a collaborative project between the New South Wales Commission for Children and Young People and researchers at the Social Justice and Social Change Research Centre, at the University of Western Sydney. The project was designed to inform the Commission in implementing its legislative mandate to develop a set of well-being indicators to monitor children's well-being over time. Placing children centrally as research participants was fundamental to the methodological approach of the project in which children's understandings of what contributes to their well-being were explored through qualitative methods. We discuss the epistemological and methodological approaches used in the project, in the context of other, earlier research towards the development of children's well-being indicators. Some of the early findings from the collaborative project are outlined and an example given of the way in which knowledge produced by a research approach which places children centrally, differs from and is similar to knowledge produced by more traditional child social indicator research. The paper ends with a discussion of some of the implications and challenges posed by reflecting on the research process and early findings from the research.