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The impact of background music on the duration of consumer stay at stores: An empirical study in malaysia

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Abstract

Consumers spend more time shopping and expect value-added options like background melodious songs, ample car parking, good ambience, prayer halls and rest rooms. The main concern is whether these facilities prolong consumers stay in the store and increase business sales. This research article is about the relationship between the background music tempo and the duration of consumers’ stay in the stores. Data from 177 respondents were received and analyzed. The results show that the tempo of music is significantly affecting the emotional state of the consumers; fast tempo music increasing the pleasure and arousal levels. Slow tempo music has consumers stay longer in restaurants and supermarkets. However, the tempo of music does not play a significant role in manipulating the duration consumers spend in a book store and apparel shop. 2015
THE IMPACT OF BACKGROUND MUSIC ON THE
DURATION OF CONSUMER STAY AT STORES:
AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN MALAYSIA
Keng-Lin Soh
Universiti Sains Malaysia
K. Jayaraman
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Li-Peng Choo
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Shayan Kiumarsi
Universiti Sains Malaysia
ABSTRACT
Consumers spend more time shopping and expect value-added options like background
melodious songs, ample car parking, good ambience, prayer halls and rest rooms. The main
concern is whether these facilities prolong consumers stay in the store and increase business
sales. This research article is about the relationship between the background music tempo and
the duration of consumers’ stay in the stores. Data from 177 respondents were received and
analyzed. The results show that the tempo of music is signicantly affecting the emotional
state of the consumers; fast tempo music increasing the pleasure and arousal levels. Slow
tempo music has consumers stay longer in restaurants and supermarkets. However, the tempo
of music does not play a signicant role in manipulating the duration consumers spend in a
book store and apparel shop.
Keywords: Background Music; Arousal; Consumer Behavior; Shopping Experience; Stimulus-
Organism-Response (S-O-R) Model.
1. INTRODUCTION
In the last twenty years, studies concerning the effects of music genre, tempo and rhythm on
consumer behavior have increased. Researchers have used different music genres, tempos and
rhythms as background music to study consumer behavior. These studies show consumers
associate types of music with certain products and making choice of a product over another, or
with particular spending patterns and determining the spending on the same type of product.
Milliman (1986) found fast tempo background music signicantly inuence consumer
behavior in restaurants. North & Hargreaves (2008) found music and song lyrics could affect
♣ Corresponding author: Assoc. Prof. Dr. K. Jayaraman, Graduate School of Business (GSB), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM),
Penang, Phone: +6010-375 0868, Fax: +604-653 5867 / 2792, E-mail: dr_kjraman@usm.my
International Journal of Business and Society, Vol. 16 No. 2, 2015, 247 - 260
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... According to Milliman (1982) when slow tempo background music is played consumers shop longer and • • • CHAPTER 15 spend more time in supermarket. Music not only influences also affects the duration of consumers' stay in supermarkets but also the listeners' emotions (Husain, 2002;Soh et al. 2015). The tempo of the played songs significantly affects the mood of customers (Sherman, 1991;Kellaris and Kent, 1992;Morris and Boone, 1998;Husain et al., 2002). ...
... In turn, the volume of music affects the speed at which customers pass through the store. However according to the research results of Soh et al. (2015) fast tempo music gives the consumers more pleasure and arousal than slow tempo music. Moreover, it has been found that loud music encourages customers to move around the supermarket at a higher speed, but this does not reduce sales. ...
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... Heung and Gu [16] pointed out that the atmospheric design of restaurants directly influences consumer satisfaction and behavior. Most relevant studies have also indicated that since background music impacts consumer responses, restaurant operators should include background music in the overall restaurant design [10,[17][18][19][20] and should strive to create an appropriate environment for providing consumers with a comfortable dining experience and to improve the overall dining experience, thereby enhancing consumers' positive emotions. ...
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