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Emotionally Intelligent Mentoring: Reconceptualizing Effective Mentoring Relationships


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Separate examinations of emotional intelligence (EI) and mentoring reveal their career-enhancing potential, yet little research exists connecting the two. Emotionally intelligent people have an increased likelihood of having and maintaining successful relationships, and mentored professionals achieve higher levels of position, pay, and career satisfaction. The purpose of this review is to systematically review existing literature to illustrate how EI affects the mentoring relationship and influences its effectiveness for both the mentor and protégé. Questions guiding this research include the following: (a) What potential connections between EI and mentoring exist? and (b) How might these connections inform mentoring theory and practice? This review explicitly connects EI and mentoring literatures to show theoretical and practical synergies that are applicable to mentors, protégés, research, and practice. The article concludes with a proposed model of “emotionally intelligent mentoring” (EIM).
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Human Resource Development Review
2015, Vol. 14(3) 234 –258
© The Author(s) 2015
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DOI: 10.1177/1534484315598434
Integrative Literature Review
Emotionally Intelligent
Mentoring: Reconceptualizing
Effective Mentoring
Rose Opengart1 and Laura Bierema2
Separate examinations of emotional intelligence (EI) and mentoring reveal their
career-enhancing potential, yet little research exists connecting the two. Emotionally
intelligent people have an increased likelihood of having and maintaining successful
relationships, and mentored professionals achieve higher levels of position, pay, and
career satisfaction. The purpose of this review is to systematically review existing
literature to illustrate how EI affects the mentoring relationship and influences its
effectiveness for both the mentor and protégé. Questions guiding this research include
the following: (a) What potential connections between EI and mentoring exist? and
(b) How might these connections inform mentoring theory and practice? This review
explicitly connects EI and mentoring literatures to show theoretical and practical
synergies that are applicable to mentors, protégés, research, and practice. The article
concludes with a proposed model of “emotionally intelligent mentoring” (EIM).
emotionally intelligent mentoring, emotional intelligence, mentoring, developmental
relationships, systematic literature review
Mentoring is a developmental relationship that traditionally occurs between a more expe-
rienced individual (the mentor) and a less experienced individual (the protégé), which
involves close interpersonal interactions and focuses on the protégé’s career options and
1Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University—Worldwide, Daytona Beach, FL, USA
2The University of Georgia, Athens, USA
Corresponding Author:
Rose Opengart, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University-Worldwide, 600 South Clyde Morris Blvd.,
Daytona Beach, FL 32114, USA.
598434HRDXXX10.1177/1534484315598434Human Resource Development ReviewOpengart and Bierema
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Opengart and Bierema 235
progress. Emotional intelligence (EI) is grounded in Thorndike’s early 20th-century con-
cept of social intelligence defined as the ability to function successfully in interpersonal
situations. Gardner (1983) also described alternative forms of intelligence, including the
interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. Although interest in emotion began with
Thorndike and Gardner, it was not until 1989 that Salovey and Mayer coined the term
emotional intelligence. We contend that linking mentoring and EI results in more power-
ful career development and progress.
The degree to which one shares her or his emotions (a dimension of EI) is related
to learning and mentoring success (Liu, Xu, & Weitz, 2011). Kram (1985) suggested
that interpersonal skills may influence the initiation and development of mentoring
relationships. Interpersonal and socially relevant attributes and abilities make up many
of the characteristics originally defined as EI by Salovey and Mayer (1990). Emotions
shape social interactions (Fineman, 1993), and as such, it seems that a process such as
mentoring, with interpersonal and social interaction at its core, should be analyzed
through the lens of emotions. Developmental relationships, such as mentoring, play a
key role in upward career progression and can be enhanced by better understanding
the linkages between mentoring and EI. A critical key to mentoring success is missing
without understanding how EI affects the mentoring relationship.
How might differences in the levels of EI possessed by the mentor or protégé
influence the outcome of the mentoring relationship? How might EI moderate
mentoring? Is it possible that mentoring might further enhance the EI of those
involved in the mentoring relationship? These questions form the basis of this
research. The purpose of this article is to systematically review existing literature
to illustrate how EI affects the mentoring relationship and influences its effective-
ness for both the mentor and protégé. Questions guiding this research include the
Research Question 1: What potential connections between EI and mentoring
Research Question 2: How might these connections inform theory and practice?
The goal of identifying linkages between EI and mentoring was accomplished through
the use of a systematic literature review, which Tranfield, Denyer, and Smart (2003)
suggested will “improve the quality of the review process by synthesizing research in
a systematic, transparent, and reproducible manner” (p. 209).
Identifying the review question (Step 1) is critical to systematic review, because
other aspects of the process flow from it (Tranfield et al., 2003). The main review
question examines the potential connections between EI and mentoring, providing a
foundation for further theory development and a new framework enabling a deeper
understanding of emotionally intelligent mentoring (EIM).
This research lays the foundation for questions the authors ultimately want to
answer, including
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236 Human Resource Development Review 14(3)
1. Is it a difference in the level of EI of the mentor or mentee that influences the
extent of the positive or negative outcome of the mentoring relationship, that
is, is EI a moderator in the effectiveness of mentoring?
2. Is it possible that mentoring can further enhance the EI of those involved in the
mentoring relationship?
The process of identifying relevant work (Step 2) involved a search of business-related
online databases using a broad search with keywords “emotional intelligence” and
“mentoring,” including only scholarly, peer-reviewed articles from journals generally
regarded at least a “C”-level journal in rankings. Care was taken to ensure representation
from an interdisciplinary framework, as both areas, especially mentoring, have been stud-
ied in the fields of human resources management, human resource development, manage-
ment, and psychology. This helped to obtain a broad perspective and decrease potential
bias in selecting articles written by authors whose names sounded familiar.
Those studies selected (Step 3) were those that, after assessed for quality, were
determined to be methodologically sound and informative. The next step (Step 4)
included review and data synthesis, followed by summarizing the history and key
concepts of each area: EI and mentoring. After we reviewed theoretical and concep-
tual aspects of both areas, we drew connections between the literatures, specifically
around aspects of mentoring involving emotional connections. Interpreting the find-
ings (Step 5) was followed by examination of the implications associated with apply-
ing this perspective toward the development of successful mentoring relationships. In
the final section of this article, we offer a model of EIM.
Thus, this theoretical article provides the opportunity to examine mentoring rela-
tionships from an emotions lens, to illuminate any links between EI of both the mentor
and the protégé, with the success of the relationship. Although theoretical and explor-
atory, this research will propel further empirical investigation into EI as a potential
moderator of mentoring relationships that has barely been addressed in the mentoring
literature, and it will propose the concept of EIM.
This section reviews the key theoretical precepts and research on EI. It defines EI, intro-
duces a mixed model perspective, and examines implications of emotion in the
Defining EI. Bar-On (1988) developed the EQ (Emotional Quotient) Test, the term
emotional intelligence was coined by Salovey and Mayer in 1990, and was later popu-
larized by Goleman (1995). Salovey and Mayer defined EI as “the ability to monitor
one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use
this information to guide one’s thinking and action” (p. 189).
The literature often associates the term emotional intelligence with Goleman’s (1995)
trait-oriented definition: knowing emotions, managing emotions, motivating oneself, recog-
nizing emotions in others, and handling relationships. Elsewhere, his definition includes
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Opengart and Bierema 237
self-awareness, impulse control, delay of gratification, handling stress and anxiety, and
empathy and is subsequently broken down into 25 different emotional competencies—
cause for some to argue that Goleman’s all-inclusive definition is not scientific and describes
personality traits rather than intelligence and/or ability (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000).
Mayer et al. (2000) argued that EI integrates psychological processes including the
appraisal and expression of emotions, assimilation of emotions in thoughts, under-
standing, regulating, and managing emotions. The authors distinguish between their
definition of EI as an ability versus a set of personality traits (Mayer & Salovey, 1997;
Mayer et al., 2000; Salovey & Mayer, 1990, 1994).
Bar-On (1997) characterized EI as “an array of noncognitive abilities, competen-
cies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental
demands and pressures” (p. 14). There still remains a big divide regarding the defini-
tion of EI as an ability or a collection of traits, and clarifying the definition is impor-
tant to distinguish the pertinent research and determine validity (Mayer, Salovey, &
Caruso, 2008). Table 1 illustrates the three streams of EI, as defined by the authors
who first presented it within their framework of ability, trait, or a mixed model
definition of EI.
Mixed model perspective of EI. This research interprets EI through the mixed model per-
spective. Although some have argued that these models are overly broad and have
strayed from the core constructs of emotion and intelligence (Mayer et al., 2008), other
research has indicated that the trait models are most “guilty” of that. Although the mixed
model (EQi assessment; Bar-On, 1997) showed significant correlation with personality
variables, that does not necessarily reduce its validity and may be a reflection of it being
a self-report assessment. Thus, the mixed model approach can be a valuable model, but
perhaps using non self-report measures would be the methodology of choice (Webb
et al., 2013). This mixed model perspective is appropriate because it incorporates
Table 1. Three Streams of Definitions of Emotional Intelligence.
Salovey and Mayer (1990)
Ability model
Cherniss et al. (1998)
Trait model
Bar-On (1997)
Mixed model
Emotional Intelligence is Emotional Intelligence is
Social awareness
Social skills
Emotional Intelligence is
The capacity to process
information and reason
with emotion
“An array of non-cognitive
abilities, competencies, and
skills” (p. 14)
To perceive emotion Intrapersonal EQ
To integrate it into thought Interpersonal EQ
To understand Adaptability EQ
To manage emotion Stress management EQ
General mood EQ
Source. Opengart (2005, p. 51).
Note. EQ = emotional quotient.
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238 Human Resource Development Review 14(3)
previously identified elements important to mentoring success, including emotional and
social skills, applied both interpersonally and intrapersonally.
Salovey and Mayer (1990), Cherniss, Goleman, Emmerling, Cowan, & Adler
(1998), and Bar-On (1997) have each made important contributions to our understand-
ing of EI. To better understand how EI might apply to mentoring, we have arranged
key points of their definitions into a four-point mixed perspective model that is par-
ticularly poignant when thinking about mentoring relationships. These points include
EI and the self, EI and others, integration of EI into thought, and assimilation of EI into
action and are summarized in Table 2.
Understanding EI and the self. A significant aspect of EI is awareness and man-
agement of the self. Cherniss’ et al. (1998) model focuses on self-awareness, self-
regulation, and self-motivation. These self-insights translate into the ability to adapt
(Bar-On, 1997) and manage the self effectively during emotional moments (Salovey
& Mayer, 1990). Effective self-management entails awareness of emotional state and
the ability to learn from interpersonal interactions. Emotionally intelligent people can
increase the likelihood of having and maintaining successful relationships because
they can use emotions as a tool for improving social and interpersonal effectiveness in
their environment (Kunnanatt, 2004). Lopes et al. (2004) found positive relationships
between the ability to manage emotions and the quality of social interactions, as did
Lopes, Salovey, Cote, Beers, and Petty (2005) when the authors examined whether
emotion regulation abilities, measured on a test of EI, were related to several indica-
tors of the quality of individuals’ social interactions with peers. (Both of the Lopes
et al. studies controlled for personality traits.) This would indicate that high EI facili-
tates social interactions, enabling a protégé to interact well with a mentor and in the
workplace and vice versa.
Respecting EI and others. It is difficult to effectively engage with others if self-
management of emotions is lacking. Emotional abilities are important for social inter-
action because emotions serve communicative and social functions, convey informa-
tion about people’s thoughts and intentions, and coordinate social encounters (Keltner
& Haidt, 2001; Lopes et al., 2004).
Once mentors or protégés have mastered EI on a personal level, they are ready to
develop deeper understanding of others’ emotions. This occurs through social aware-
ness (Cherniss et al., 1998) and intrapersonal and interpersonal EQ (Bar-On, 1997).
Possessing keen awareness of the emotional state of others helps both the mentor and
protégé decide how to engage with each other. Mentors can gauge emotional states of
protégés and question them about observed stress, anger, frustration, excitement, and
so forth. The capacity to tune into others’ emotions also helps mentors be more
empathic and effective. Protégés can also tune into their mentors’ emotions and reac-
tions to their presence and emotional states.
Integrating EI into thought. EI includes complex processes that integrate emo-
tion and cognition (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). The ability to reflect on emotion
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Opengart and Bierema 239
regarding self and others is the process of integrating EI into thought. This occurs
with developing capacity to process information and reason with emotion, perceive
emotions, and understand emotions (Cherniss et al., 1998). Engaging in reflection
on one’s emotional state both during and after an interaction are key aspects of EI.
Mayer and Salovey (1997) suggested that emotions enter the cognitive system, and
after being recognized and labeled, the emotions alter thought. Insights from these
reflections shape future interactions and influence learning from mentoring rela-
tionships. This might take the form of a mentor reflecting on how her interactions
affected the protégé and adjusting her approach in future mentoring sessions or vice
Assimilating EI into action. The integration of EI into thought and awareness of
self and others is then assimilated into action. This occurs through emotion man-
agement (Salovey & Mayer, 1990), social skills (Cherniss et al., 1998), and adapta-
tion, stress management, and mood control (Bar-On, 1997). The phenomenon of
emotion is in fact relevant to studies of social contexts (Putnam & Mumby, 1993)
such as the workplace. In the organizational behavior literature, affective events
theory (AET) explains the importance of emotions in the workplace, describing
emotional states as central to employee attitudes and behavior (Weiss & Cropan-
zano, 1996). The increased research and attention to emotions support the notion
that emotions are inseparable from everyday organizational life (Ashforth &
Table 2. Mixed Model Perspective of EI.
EI and the self EI and others EI and thought EI and action
Develops self-
regulation, and
Adapts during
Learns from social
Uses emotions to
improve social
and interpersonal
Possesses self-
awareness and
management of
Exhibits intrapersonal
and interpersonal EI
Gages emotional
states of others
and adjust behavior
Exhibits empathy
toward others
Able to reflect on
emotions of self and
Reasons with emotion
Perceives emotions
Understands emotions
Reflects on emotional
states of self and
others, both during
and after social
Uses insights
from reflection
on emotions to
shape future social
Learns from emotional
Manages emotions
Adapts to others’
emotional states
Manages stress
Controls mood
Evaluates emotional
situations and
identifies effective
Uses situational
Selects best responses
during conflict
Maintains calm
Offers support to
Helps others identify
their emotional
Note. EI = emotional intelligence.
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240 Human Resource Development Review 14(3)
Humphrey, 1995), shape social transactions, and contribute to organizational struc-
ture and culture (Fineman, 1993).
EI and affect are potential influences of job performance (Boyatzis, Goleman, &
Rhee, 2000; Cherniss, 2000; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, 1998; Reio & Callahan,
2004) and conflict management. Lopes et al. (2011) looked at conflict management in
relationships and confirmed the importance of being able to evaluate emotional situa-
tions and identify effective responses. Results suggest that situational judgment and the
ability to select the best response in a situation may be helpful in managing conflicts with
others. This would apply to conflicts that arise within a mentoring relationship. DeVaney,
Sepulveda, Anderson, Craun, and Barchard (2012) found that emotion perception was
related to intimacy and nurturance and that conflict and antagonism correlated nega-
tively with emotion perception—an additional finding indicating the importance of emo-
tional skills in interactions and relationships. Putting EI into action might take the form
of offering support when you can see another person is distressed or identifying their
emotional state by comments such as “You appear to be stressed today. Tell me about it.”
Research has revealed incongruencies between assertions made by proponents of
EI and (Zeidner, Matthews, & Roberts, 2004) some studies demonstrating negative
results, whereby EI correlated little with performance-based measures (Janovics &
Christiansen, 2001). One possible explanation for the inconsistencies and controversy
can be obtained by Cote and Miner’s (2006) finding that EI did predict job perfor-
mance when cognitive intelligence was low. Thus, employees with low cognitive
intelligence can improve performance if they are high in EI, and people with differing
cognitive levels can utilize and benefit from EI in varying levels.
Although these results are plausible, more recent studies indicated positive rela-
tionships between EI and job performance. Joseph and Newman (2010) tested the
incremental validity of EI in three categories—performance-based, self-report ability
measures, and self-report mixed models—and found that all three types of measures
demonstrated incremental validity over and above personality traits and above cogni-
tive ability. Another study found that all three main streams of EI research (i.e., ability-
based, self-reports based on the ability models, and mixed models) correlated with job
performance (O’Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver, & Story, 2011). Given these
findings showing a positive relationship between EI and job performance, we add
mentoring as a key vehicle to enhancing job performance through relationships.
Managing one’s career today is not just a matter of keeping up with technical skills and a
chosen field. It means keeping pace with exponentially increasing knowledge, incessant
technological advancement, expectations for 24 × 7 accessibility, withstanding organiza-
tion uncertainty or collapse, negotiating organization politics, and doing it all faster and
better than others in an increasingly complex, competitive global environment. One strat-
egy for negotiating the challenging world of work is mentoring, where generally a more
seasoned professional helps guide a more novice protégé through career challenges,
development, and decisions.
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Opengart and Bierema 241
Mentoring is an important career development resource that facilitates the process
of socialization into an organization or profession and can enhance and develop a pro-
tégé, contributing to higher job satisfaction and self-esteem (Allen, Eby, Poteet, Lentz,
& Lima, 2004). Individuals who receive mentoring attain promotions, higher salaries,
better support networks, and greater satisfaction than those who do not (Dreher &
Cox, 1996; Eby & McManus, 2004). Potential benefits of mentoring exist not only for
the mentored employee but also for the mentor and the organization (Allen et al.,
2004; Eby, Durley, Evans, & Ragins, 2006). This section defines mentoring, identifies
phases of the mentoring relationship, and raises mentoring problems.
Defining mentoring. How mentoring is defined varies somewhat in the literature (Haggard,
Dougherty, Turban, & Wilbanks, 2011; Kram, 1988). Mentoring definitions range from
developmental relationships, one-time career sponsorship, to coaching, to a committed,
long-term, mutually beneficial formal relationship. A formal mentoring program has been
defined as an organizationally sanctioned learning relationship where mentors share
knowledge to advance the career of a newer employee (Wanberg, Welsh, & Hezlett, 2003).
Mentoring has also been described as enabling protégés to receive two types of
support from their mentors: career and psychosocial (Allen, Eby, O’Brien, &
Lentz, 2008; Kram, 1983). Although Zey’s (1984) definition of a mentor is some-
what inclusive, someone “who oversees the career and development of another
person, usually a junior, through teaching, counseling, providing psychological
support, protecting, and at times promoting or sponsoring” (p. 7), Kram’s (1980)
is more broad, describing both career and psychosocial support and phases of men-
toring. Kram described career support as offering protégés the skills needed for
career advancement and the opportunity for challenging and visible assignments.
Psychosocial support was described as including role modeling, confirmation, and
Phases of mentoring relationships. Kram’s (1983, 1985) definition of mentoring included
proposing four phases to a mentoring relationship: initiation, cultivation, separation,
and redefinition. The initiation phase lasts 6 to 12 months and is the expectation-setting
phase. The cultivation phase can be from 2 to 5 years and typically involves protégés
receiving a wide range of career and psychosocial guidance. During the separation
phase, the protégé becomes increasingly autonomous, and in the redefinition phase, the
mentor and protégé begin to see each other as peers.
The fact that definitions and focus of study in mentoring have evolved significantly over
time was described well by Haggard et al. (2011). The authors suggested that the construct of
mentoring has changed since the initial influential work in the early 1980’s by Kram. They
summarized the development and change in focus of mentoring research over a period of
decades, pointing out trends that have varied over time. They reviewed varying definitions of
a mentor over the previous 20 years and the implications of those variations in definition and
asserted that although numerous definitions have been utilized over time, three common attri-
butes—reciprocity (mutuality of exchange), regular consistent interaction over some period
of time, and developmental benefits (tied to the protégé’s career)—distinguish mentoring
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242 Human Resource Development Review 14(3)
relationships. The authors also differentiated between being in a mentoring relationship ver-
sus receiving mentoring functions, whereby an individual might receive mentoring functions,
yet the relationship does not qualify for being considered a mentoring relationship (Haggard
et al., 2011).
This research focuses its application on the first two phases of mentoring as
described by Kram, initiation and cultivation, and on how the concept and measure-
ment of EI may be an opportunity for prevention and/or improvement of negative
mentoring. These are the phases and areas where we propose that emotional and social
skills, applied both interpersonally and intrapersonally, are most likely to positively or
negatively affect the success and positivity of the mentoring relationship.
Mentoring problems. Mentoring relationships are not always positive. They can have less
than optimal consequences, becoming destructive and dysfunctional, resulting in negative
effects on attitudes and performance (Eby & McManus, 2004; Kram, 1985; Scandura,
1998). They can also replicate patriarchy and be available only to employees who con-
form to the organization’s stereotypical leader (typically White males; Hansman, 2002a).
Certain aspects of this connection between emotion and the initiation and cultiva-
tion of mentoring relationships have already had some research support. Eby and
McManus (2004) concluded that individuals in ineffective relationships have positive
intentions toward each other, but the relationship is impaired due to interpersonal dif-
ficulties. Further confirmation of those findings came from Wu, Turban, and Hong
(2012), who concluded that social skills of both the mentor and protégé influence
mentoring effectiveness, particularly for dysfunctional mentoring relationships. Other
authors have suggested that to improve interpersonal functioning and have a success-
ful mentoring relationship, it is important to have mutual respect, trust, social aware-
ness, self-awareness, social skills, confidentiality, common expectations, honesty,
equality, and political astuteness (Clutterbuck, 2004; Hansman, 2002b; Murphy &
Kram, 2014), many aspects of which are related to EI.
The acknowledgment of mentoring as anything less than positive has caused
researchers to adopt a more critical lens toward mentoring. Not until 1998 did Scandura
argue that little is written about negative outcomes that may occur within mentoring
relationships and what those outcomes might be. Scandura (1998) suggested that
although negative mentoring relationships may not occur frequently, the destructive
consequences might be quite detrimental. Negative emotions and behaviors from dys-
functional mentoring relationships may include aggressiveness, spoiling, envy, betrayal,
abuse of power, psychological abuse, unresolved conflicts, over-dependence, decep-
tion, bullying, and jealousy (Ghosh, Dierkes & Falletta, 2011; Eby & McManus, 2004;
Ghosh, Dierkes, & Falletta, 2011; Scandura, 1998; Scandura & Pellegrini, 2007).
Our review of the literature reveals that there could be much more research and discus-
sion connecting mentoring and EI, though what is there indicates a link between the
quality of mentoring relationships and EI (Brechtel, 2004; Grewal & Salovey, 2005).
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Opengart and Bierema 243
This systematic literature review has focused on EI and mentoring literatures. This sec-
tion melds these streams into the concept of EIM. This section defines EIM, illustrates
how core mentoring functions are aided by EI, and proposes a model of EIM.
Defining EIM. We are steeped in emotion at work: elation over recognition or finishing
a difficult task, dread over a meeting, anger at a colleague for stealing our ideas, befud-
dlement about office politics, stress over organization downsizing, anxiousness over a
presentation, joy at the end of the workweek, etc.; these are all emotional responses.
How we manage each of these and perceive emotions in others is influenced by EI.
Many office mantras sound something similar to “let’s keep our feelings to ourselves”
or “don’t get emotional,” yet shelving our emotional life is easier said than done. And
emotions may be an important aspect of work behavior of which mentors should take
note. Furthermore, we now know that emitting emotions and having EI can actually
support an employee’s career development.
Mentoring has been described as an intense emotional relationship (Baum, 1992).
Without the ability to handle the intensity, the relationship will not likely advance
beyond the first stage. Mentoring can be exhilarating and rewarding for the mentor
when the process goes well, the relationship works, and the protégé is successful. It
can also evoke shame or anxiety over past failures or regrets. Mentoring may also
cause frustration and anger toward the protégé when he or she is not listening to the
mentor’s advice or performing to the expectations. Given all the emotions involved,
one might conclude that effective mentors possess a high level of EI to not only man-
age their own emotions but also to model, monitor, and respond to the emotional states
of protégés.
Given the important role that highly developed EI can play in mentoring relationships,
we offer the following definition that melds the EI and mentoring literature into EIM:
Emotionally intelligent mentoring (EIM) is an intense, mutually beneficial developmental
relationship between a mentor and protégé that depends upon and expands emotional
and social skills in ways that inform thought and action, benefit the self and others, and
result in career learning and advancement.
The next sections provide breakdowns of the definition’s key components and illustrate
their meaning and connection with the literature.
EIM is an intense, mutually beneficial developmental relationship. Effective mentoring
depends on a mutual exchange between the mentor and protégé that is built on trust
and openness and is sustained for as long as the mentoring relationship is needed. The
relationship is intensely emotional and must sustain the intensity level to develop into
productive mentoring (Baum, 1992). These are key ingredients to building a produc-
tive mentoring relationship. Building trust and mutuality requires that both parties
have well-developed awareness of the emotional state of self and others, transparency
of emotions, along with the capacity to keep individual emotions in check. Power-
ful mentoring relationships are also intense: They do not shy away from challenging
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244 Human Resource Development Review 14(3)
issues or conversations. Yet the intensity never overshadows the mutual beneficence
of the relationship.
A more recent paradigm of mentoring illustrates the mutual and reciprocal nature
of mentoring relationships for positive outcomes and how the mentor’s and the proté-
gé’s personality characteristics combine to influence mentoring effectiveness (Ragins
& Kram, 2007a). The ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions is likely to
affect whether one is engaged in a mentoring relationship to begin with, along with
influencing the effectiveness of that relationship. EIM assumes that benefits of the
mentoring relationship are mutual. That is, both the mentor and protégé learn and grow
from the affiliation.
Emotional engagement of both the mentor and the protégé is necessary for a suc-
cessful relationship (Higgins & Kram, 2001; Sosik & Lee, 2002), and the mentoring
relationship “is inherently reciprocal and interdependent” (Chun, Litzky, Sosik,
Bechtold, & Godshalk, 2010, p. 428). The more intimate the relationship and the more
anxiety inherent in the relationship, whether due to vulnerability or differences
between mentor and protégé, the more critical is the need for EI (Allen, Day, & Lentz,
2005; Fletcher & Ragins, 2007). A protégé’s EI can have a significant effect on the
success of a mentoring relationship, because it can facilitate the relationship in multi-
ple ways, including expressiveness, responsiveness, and enthusiasm (Grewal &
Salovey, 2005; Young & Perrewe, 2004).
EIM depends on and expands emotional and social skills of the mentor and
protégé. Following the contention that emotions shape interactions (Fineman, 1993)
and can be a tool for improving social and interpersonal effectiveness (Kunnanatt,
2004), we maintain that skills referred to in the literature as social, relational, and
emotional are all subsumed under the concept of EI and that applying and extending
research of the importance of social and interpersonal skills to EI actually serve to
strengthen the research and understanding of mentoring relationships. This understand-
ing may provide critical information to understand how to effectively move through the
initial stages of mentoring and how to avoid negative mentoring relationships.
Using emotional and social skills in the mentoring relationship means awareness of
self and others exists and that such insight is applied during the mentoring process.
Effective use of these skills results in more productive mentoring exchanges and the
development of trust. Moore and Mamiseishvili (2012) argued for the importance of
being aware of one’s own emotions in relation to cohesion (an initial stage of mentor-
ing, Kram, 1983, 1985). They defined awareness based on Jordan and Lawrence’s
(2009) definition of “emotions as the ability of an individual to know his or her feel-
ings in the moment, and having the ability to reflect, discuss, and disclose those to
others” (p. 297). Similarly, Wolff, Pescosolido, and Druskat (2002) found that indi-
viduals with high awareness of emotions have less intense emotional reactions and
communicate more effectively in teams. Applying these findings to mentoring seems
like a logical step, as emotional awareness and cohesion between mentor and protégé
would be critical to a successful relationship, especially in the first two phases of ini-
tiation and cohesion (Kram, 1983, 1985) when expectations are being set and guidance
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is crucial. Emotional and social skills continue to be important throughout the mentor-
ing relationship as the intensity increases and the focus is on the development, learn-
ing, and advancement of the protégé.
Cremona (2010) explored coaching and whether coaches responded to their own
and clients’ emotions and found that coaches vary their approaches for exploring emo-
tion in both clients and themselves. This might involve acknowledging emotion, point-
ing out observations about emotional responses, noticing their emotions as coaches,
and commenting about body language. Cremona found that ease with discussing emo-
tions determined how much coaches addressed them in the relationship. Grewal and
Salovey (2005) found that those who scored high on the “managing emotions” section
of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) were perceived
by friends as more supportive and caring. These studies do suggest that emotions can
greatly influence the success of the mentoring relationship.
Past research in mentoring has cited factors that may be considered similar to the
concept of EI. For example, mentors are more likely to select a protégé based on their
perceived cognitive ability/potential than on the person’s actual need for help (Allen,
2004; Allen, Poteet, & Russell, 2000; Welsh & Wanberg, 2009). Mentors are also more
likely to be selected if they are more experienced members who are presumed to hold
higher abilities and positive attitudes (Blake-Beard, O’Neill, & McGowan, 2007;
Ragins & Kram, 2007a). Or they may be selected because they are likable or similar
in nature to a potential mentor. Mentors in relationships with others perceived to be
similar reported the mentorship to be of higher quality, with greater learning than did
mentors in relationships with less similar protégés (Allen & Eby, 2003). Prati, Douglas,
Ferris, Ammeter, and Buckley (2003) found that individuals considered emotionally
intelligent have “strong relationships and a solid team support system” (p. 30). They
proposed that “the level of . . . cohesion is dependent on the degree of a team members’
EI” (p. 31). These strong relationships and cohesion directly apply to skills needed for
a successful mentoring relationship. Chun et al. (2010) confirmed an affective per-
spective of developmental relationships. They found a complementary interaction
effect whereby mentors’ EI was positively related to their provision of mentoring, both
directly and indirectly through the trust in their protégés.
We further suggest that trust is especially critical in the first two phases of the men-
toring relationship, because without trust, the protégé will not be able to be honest and
open and receive guidance. Mentors need to be able to accurately appraise their proté-
gés and understand their emotions. Having high EI should enable them to better con-
nect with their protégés (Lankau & Scandura, 2002) and successfully advance from
Phase 1 to Phase 2 (Kram, 1983, 1985).
Just as Thelwell, Lane, Weston, and Greenlees (2008) argued that the key aspects
of EI, such as detecting the emotional states of others, and managing emotions based
on the situation are fundamental for a coach’s effectiveness, so to, we would argue the
same for a mentor Mentors are usually role models for their protégés. What are the
emotional aspects of being a role model? How do mentors help protégés deal with
anxiety and stress and other negative emotions that occur during the career span? It has
been suggested that mentors with EI might be more effective at managing potential
anxiety and intimacy of a mentoring relationship (Cherniss, 2007).
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246 Human Resource Development Review 14(3)
EIM informs thought and action. The experience of mentoring provides the oppor-
tunity for both the mentor and protégé to reflect on ideas and behaviors, learn from
them, and modify future thought and action accordingly. Liu et al. (2011), in a study
of new interns, found that those interns who openly shared their emotions succeeded
in proactively shaping their internship experiences to be more positive. Those interns
who masked their emotional expression or who showed negative emotions indicated
less learning and a less positive mentoring experience. This suggests a connection
between emotions, quality of interpersonal interactions, learning, and mentoring. We
would take this notion a step further by suggesting that willingness to explore emo-
tions opens the opportunity for critical thinking that informs future action and likely
better outcomes for the protégé. Mentors can help protégés reflect on their actions
through dialogue and questioning about thought and action. They might help protégés
align their emotions with their actions (Moberg, 2008), as well as give assignments
and connect protégés with other professionals experiencing the same challenges.
A study on EI and sports coaching revealed significant relationships between EI
and coaching efficacy. Thelwell et al. (2008) suggested that coaches are responsible
for developing athletes and that coaches need to maintain their own psychological and
emotional levels. Assuming that EI contributes to performance in one environment,
that it may do the same in another, the authors had 99 coaches complete the Emotional
Intelligence Scale (Schutte et al., 1998) to determine whether coaching efficacy
increased in relation to coaches’ EI.
Barkham (2005) had several recommendations for how to be a successful protégé,
including be open and honest, be prepared to listen and reflect, respect advice, con-
tinue to question your mentor and other colleagues, be prepared to ask for help, be
sympathetic to others’ problems in your workplace, be prepared to offer fresh ideas, be
prepared to work hard, network, and enjoy the new life. These suggestions imply skills
inherent in EI.
EIM benefits the self and others. Both the mentor and protégé can benefit from
the developmental relationship. So can others they come into contact with in work
and life. When embarking on a mentoring relationship, what does the protégé feel?
Barkham (2005) suggested that the protégé may feel disoriented, disconcerted, bewil-
dered, inadequate, and vulnerable, not wanting to burden anyone. Having EI would
likely enable the protégé to manage these feelings, explore them, learn from them,
and benefit from them. Similarly, a mentor with EI will better be able to anticipate
and address such emotions in the protégé, which in turn makes her a better mentor
and person. In Barkham’s experience, she found comfort in her mentor’s knowledge,
insight, and nonjudgmental demeanor. Her mentor’s behavior lead to ready trust and
allowed the relationship to develop. In fact, friendship has been determined important
to the success of mentoring relationships (Mullen, 2006), which occurs at a late stage
of an effective mentoring relationship.
EIM results in career learning and advancement. The final aspect of our definition
of EIM is that mentoring provides learning and growth to both the protégé and men-
tor. “Relational mentoring theory” (Ragins, Lyness, & Winkel, 2010) refers to the
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mutually interdependent, empathic, and empowering processes that create personal
growth, development, and enrichment for mentors and protégés (Ragins & Verbos,
2007). Moberg (2008) charged that the mentoring literature tends to focus on instru-
mental aspects of the process such as technical, social, and political lessons while
ignoring the mentor’s role in moral and ethical education of the protégé. He makes
several propositions for character development through mentoring, with emotion
being one of the key aspects. In a similar vein, Woullard and Coats (2004) determined
that a pre-service mentoring program influenced undergraduate students’ emotions
toward the teaching profession and found significant differences in attitudinal changes
from exposure to master teachers. Bennetts (2002) suggested that mentors utilize emo-
tions, display emotional maturity, and draw on their EI to be effective.
EI and emotional competencies exhibited by a person show how much of that
potential he or she has and supports the learning of job-related skills (Cherniss &
Goleman, 2001). EI predicts success in multiple domains, among them personal and
work relationships (Salovey & Grewal, 2005). This should extend to the relationship
between mentor and protégé as well.
How core mentoring functions Are aided by EI. This review makes the case for EIM as a
highly effective developmental relationship that provides mutual benefit to the protégé
and mentor. The matrix in Table 3 illustrates key points about how low and high levels
of EIM might affect a mentor and protégé, and thus the initiation and cultivation
phases of the mentoring relationship within the context of our mixed model interpreta-
tion of EI. The critical takeaway is that the abilities of both the mentor and the protégé
in perceiving, understanding, and managing emotions in themselves and others should
greatly impact their social interaction with each other, and thus the effectiveness of the
mentoring relationship. Many of the helpful aspects listed in the table will apply
directly to the first two phases, initiation and cultivation, of the mentoring relation-
ship. In addition, the EI levels of both the protégé and mentor could potentially increase
as a result of their relationship, requiring and practicing and reinforcing the very skills
needed to be successful as a mentor and as a protégé.
A model of EIM. At the heart of mentoring is relationship—the social interactions and
the rapport between a mentor and a protégé. The mentoring relationship must be
mutual and successful for the mentoring itself to be effective. Mentoring relationships
thrive when both parties have skill at perceiving, understanding, and managing emo-
tions of self and others. Given the link between EI and social interactions, and the fact
that mentoring requires social interaction and a relationship, we have proposed EIM,
where successful mentoring requires EI and effective use of emotions and social skills.
The EIM perspective portrays how the EI of both the mentor and the protégé are
important and influence mentoring effectiveness. This may result from many factors
related to EI, potentially including openness to mentoring, increased learning capacity,
ability to trust, self-awareness, ability to respond to feedback, and the increased prac-
tice and further development of these skills. Most clearly, the literature points to social
skills inherent in EI. Table 4 illustrates four different mentoring relationships based on
the levels of EI and mentoring relational skills. Each quadrant will be discussed.
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248 Human Resource Development Review 14(3)
What does mentoring look like when one or both parties lack EI, relational ability,
or both? The EIM model examines different types of mentoring interactions according
to the level of EI and mentoring relational skills, based on the literature we have cov-
ered showing that both high EI and mentoring relational skills lead to better outcomes
in mentoring relationships. The model examines four different mentoring dynamics that
occur when one or both the mentor and protégé exhibit certain characteristics related to
EI and relational skills that include nonproductive mentoring, emotive mentoring, rela-
tional mentoring, and productive mentoring. They are summarized in Table 4.
Nonproductive mentoring. When one or more individuals in the mentoring dyad
falls into the “nonproductive” quadrant, the mentoring relationship may be at risk and
the results inconsistent or poor with low EI and relational skills at play. Nonproduc-
tive mentoring is characterized by the inability to correctly gauge emotional states or
Table 3. Low and High EIM and Their Impact on the Mentoring Relationship.
High EIM
Mentors better able to
Use self-awareness
Connect with protégé
Handle intensity of relationship
Accurately assess feelings of
Encourage protégé reflection on
Utilize personal emotions and draw
on them to be effective mentor
Challenge protégé deal with
negative emotions
Help protégé with character
Express empathy for protégé
Exhibit good role modeling
Urge protégé reflection on learning
Manage emotions
Protégés better able to
Use self-awareness
Understand emotion of self and
Facilitate expressiveness,
responsiveness, and enthusiasm
Be open and honest
Listen and reflect; respect advice of
Ask for help
Manage emotions
Manage stress
Mentors less able to
Understand protégé needs
Gauge emotions
Appraise needs and feelings of
Form a bond/having cohesion with
Network both personally and on
behalf of the protégé
Be transparent
Maintain frequent and ongoing
Manage emotions
Protégés less able to
Gauge emotions
Handle feelings such as vulnerability,
feeling overwhelmed
Connect with mentor
Feel comfortable disclosing
necessary information
Ask for help
Keep emotions in check
Note. EIM = emotionally intelligent mentoring.
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effectively manage the relationship. Emotions may be unmanaged or mismanaged.
When emotions are not managed, individuals are susceptible to “emotional hijacking”
or allowing themselves to be carried away with emotion. This could result in ignor-
ing, misperceiving, misunderstanding, or exaggerating emotions. For example, if a
protégé arrives for a mentoring session looking disheveled, stressed, and tired, the
nonproductive mentor may fail to tune into these cues and overlook issues contribut-
ing to the protégé’s frazzled state. It is also likely that the mentor in this case may
mismanage emotions by not listening or failing to make adjustments to accommodate
the emotional state of the protégé. Nonproductive mentoring is also characterized by
low relational skills, meaning that mentors may be ineffective at providing career and
psychological support typifying effective mentoring that incorporates role modeling,
confirmation, and counseling. Protégés may lack relational skills and have difficulty
Table 4. Emotional Intelligence and Mentoring Relational Skills Matrix.
Mentoring relational skills
Emotional intelligence
Emotive mentoring
Accurate emotional gauging
Emotion management
Emotional exaggeration
Relational weakness
poor listening
low trust
Productive mentoring
Accurate emotional gauging
Emotion management
Relational effectiveness
Developed relational skills
Role modeling
Trust building
Protégé development
Learning and development
Career enhancement
Nonproductive mentoring
Inaccurate or absent emotional
Ignoring emotion
Emotional non-management or
poor listening
low trust
emotional hijacking
Relational weakness
Ineffective role modeling
Lack of trust
Inconsistent interaction
Absence of protégé
Mentoring and relational
Relational mentoring
Inaccurate or absent emotional
Ignoring emotion
Emotional non-management or
poor listening
low trust
emotional hijacking
Mentoring miscalculations
Developed relational skills
Role modeling
Trust Building
Protégé development
Emotional errors
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250 Human Resource Development Review 14(3)
opening up and trusting their mentor. They may also be unable or unwilling to express
emotion or read that of the mentor’s. Or they may become so emotionally stimulated,
they cannot reason or learn about career situations and encounters. When nonproduc-
tive behaviors are exhibited, it makes initiating and cultivating new mentoring rela-
tionships difficult, particularly because they inhibit reciprocity, regular and consistent
interaction, and the developmental benefits that are shown to distinguish effective
mentoring relationships (Haggard et al., 2011). Trust will also be difficult to build
when one or both of the mentoring pair is in the nonproductive state.
Relational mentoring. Relational mentoring occurs when the protégé, mentor, or
both lack well-developed EI skills but have high relational abilities. This may sig-
nal that the individual(s) are not tuned into the emotional signals being sent by the
other individual but are good at cultivating relationships—building trust, mutuality,
and encouraging learning and development. Just as with the nonproductive mentor-
ing, the mentor may miss or ignore emotional cues and focus instead on the task of
helping the protégé achieve stated goals. The mentoring will likely be consistent, fun,
friendly, and productive but may lack depth and the ability to address more challeng-
ing and enduring issues. In some ways, relational mentoring may be “going through
the motions” of mentoring without ever risking emotional exposure or vulnerability.
The relational skills allow the mentoring relationship to be initiated and cultivated but
may stall at separation and redefinition and fail to help the protégé make key career
transitions and transformations.
Emotive mentoring. Emotive mentoring is characterized by highly developed EI
with correspondingly low relational skills. Participants may be highly tuned in to emo-
tional states but less capable of articulating them or building strong, productive work-
ing relationships, especially when emotions are high. These mentoring relationships
may also risk becoming over-focused on emotions and exaggerating them, rather than
focusing on relational consequences or next steps. For example, if a protégé is angry
with a colleague, the mentor may focus too much on the emotion. When energies are
focused on emotion, the mentor may not push the protégé to learn from the experience
or take necessary steps to address the situation. The emotive focus might cause the
protégé or mentor to take things too personally and be unable to separate themselves
from the issue or key lesson at hand. Highly emotive mentors may not provide effec-
tive role modeling, instead getting too caught up in emotional analysis to be helpful.
Productive mentoring. Productive mentoring melds highly developed EI with effec-
tive mentoring relational skills, creating the conditions for EIM. This type of mentoring
results in a mutually beneficial relationship that results in learning and development
for both the protégé and mentor. The mixed model perspective of EI is evident where
the mentor and protégé are attuned to the emotional states of themselves and others,
integrate EI into thought, and assimilate EI into action. This type of mentoring is
characterized by accurate emotional gauging. This is especially important on behalf
of the mentor who can teach the protégé how to do it if this skill is underdeveloped.
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Productive mentoring conforms to our definition of EIM based on its intensity, mutu-
ality, and developmental benefits. Both the protégé and mentor experience improved
emotional and social skills as a result of the relationship, and the mentoring becomes
a powerful influencer of thought and action, especially on the part of the protégé. The
mentoring benefits not only the mentor and protégé but also others they interact with
on a regular basis. Finally, both the protégé and mentor benefit from ongoing learning
that benefits their careers.
In all cases, it is more important for the mentor to come to the relationship with
effective EI and mentoring relational skills because part of the role is to educate pro-
tégés in such behaviors. When they are absent or underdeveloped in the mentor, the
mentoring outcomes will be lower. When they are present, the mentoring relationship
is poised to be productive and effective.
Discussion and Implications
It is clear that developmental relationships such as mentoring may play a key role in
career success by helping employees learn essential knowledge at their workplace.
Emotions are a significant aspect of work life, and as such, the ability to manage them
and understand and perceive the emotions of others is critical to engaging socially and
to career success. Social, relational, and emotional skills are all subsumed under the
concept of EI; therefore, this research served to strengthen the body of literature and
understanding of emotions and interactions in mentoring relationships.
Emotions influence how we perceive and react to life, as well as how we are perceived.
As Liu et al. (2011) suggested, the quality of interaction and relationships influences both
learning and mentoring received at work. Given the importance of emotion to interaction
and relationships, we wrote this systematic literature review to critically examine connec-
tions between EI and mentoring. We bring this investigation to a close by considering
implications for human resource development (HRD) practice and research in regard to
employee development and the support and creation of EIM programs.
If the quality of interactions and relationships influences learning and the effec-
tiveness of mentoring, it seems a logical step that the effects are bi-directional. In
other words, if the participants of the mentoring relationship bring into it a high level
of EI, which leads to successful mentoring, why not utilize the mentoring itself to
improve the EI of the protégé? This is particularly important when the protégé’s EI
is low. This would involve a deliberate pairing of a mentor of high EI mentor with a
protégé who is low on the scale, thus furthering the career development of those who
most need mentoring to reach full potential (Singh, Ragins, & Tharenou, 2009).
Because mentoring depends on the very social skills and interaction that this research
shows is associated with EI, the practice of these skills should also increase EI.
Another strong potential implication of this research is that organizations may want
to consider administering established, validated EI tests as part of the decision-making
process when selecting mentors and protégés for formal mentoring programs. That
said, this comes with its own risks of reducing focus to the development of high poten-
tial employees, in addition to reproducing value systems and potentially undermining
the value of women and their type of emotional skills (Thory, 2013).
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252 Human Resource Development Review 14(3)
For HRD practitioners who are considering implementing or utilizing mentoring as
a career development tool, this review gives them more perspectives on opportunities
and provides another method of focusing employee development efforts. It suggests
that it is essential to select a mentor who is high in EI and uses his or her emotional
competence to maximize the potential of the mentoring relationship. It also points to
the importance of selecting a protégé who is high in EI in order for that person to be
able to reap the benefits of the relationship. Furthermore, mentors are more effective
when they have highly developed mentoring relational skills such as trust building,
empathy, honesty, reflexivity, role modeling, career and organization savvy, coaching,
psychosocial support, and developmental support. Emotionally intelligent mentors
more effectively facilitate successful progression through the initial stages of mentor-
ing (initiation and cohesion) and prevent negative mentoring.
The importance of EI in mentoring can be taken into consideration not only pertain-
ing to selection but also in training and evaluation of mentoring. As mentioned regard-
ing selection, it may be important to consider the current EI level of both the mentor and
the protégé. In respect to training, it may be necessary to first (or concurrently) develop
an employee’s EI before engaging in efforts to establish a mentoring relationship.
According to the literature, mentors lack training, especially when it comes to manag-
ing the emotional wake of protégés. Although Cremona (2010) studied emotional
responses of coaches, her recommendations are relevant for mentors. Cremona sug-
gested that training should involve empathy, body awareness, and relationship building
and connect emotions to engagement, motivation, resilience, leadership, and managing
change. She advocates that management types need to “demystify their views about
emotions . . . and expand and deepen their approach towards emotion . . . in the work-
place” (p. 58). Mentoring can have the effect of further increasing the EI of a protégé
(Kram, 1985; Kram & Cherniss, 2001).
As for evaluation, one measure of effectiveness of the mentoring might be EI
levels and potential resulting increases. This marriage of EI and mentoring may
result in heightened learning, more successful mentoring relationships, improved
retention, and enhanced HRD. In sum, the recommendations for HRD include the
Measure the EI level of a potential mentor
Measure the mentoring relational skills of the mentor
Provide mentoring relational skills development (coaching, mentoring, and
training) to mentors who are low in this area
Measure the EI level of the protégé
Select those with high EI who will most contribute and benefit from the rela-
tionship, or
Deliberately pair a mentor of high EI with a protégé who is low, if the goal is to
increase the protégé’s EI
Provide EI training when needed, focusing on those aspects that facilitate social
Administer both a pre-test and post-test of EI if the mentoring is focused on
developing EI
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Limitations and Future Research
This research set out to provide a systematic review of EIM. A significant limitation of
theoretical research is applying conceptual models to real-life situations. Given the
theoretical nature of this work, we recommend further empirical investigation.
Questions for future empirical research might include the following:
Does the level of EI of both the mentor and the protégé influence the effective-
ness of the mentoring relationship, and in particular, in the initiation and culti-
vation phases of the mentoring relationship?
Does the level of EI of both the mentor and the protégé influence the positivity
or negativity of the mentoring relationship?
Which social and interaction-focused EI skills are most critical to mentoring
Are EI abilities of the mentor and of the protégé equally important?
Should EI be measured as criteria in mentor and protégé selection?
How much might EI further develop as a result of mentoring?
Does importance of EI differ by type of mentoring relationships?
These questions can be answered with further empirical testing of the model put forth in
this article. It is important for the field of HRD to determine the extent of the relationship
between EI and success of mentoring. EIM has the potential to make mentoring relation-
ships more powerful and productive.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship,
and/or publication of this article.
The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this
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Author Biographies
Rose Opengart is assistant professor of business at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University-
Worldwide’s College of Business.
Laura Bierema is professor of adult education, learning, and organization development, and
associate dean for academic programs at the University of Georgia College of Education.
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... Mentoring offers various opportunities for mentors to foster positive emotions in their mentees and vice versa (Beltman et al., 2019;Opengart and Bierema, 2015). Some findings 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 t ...
... indicate that a sound mentor-mentee relationship can contribute to positive emotions in both mentors and mentees (Opengart and Bierema, 2015). These emotions include, for example, enjoyment, satisfaction, belonging, personal growth, pride, and gratitude (Beltman et al., 2019;Beltman and Schaeben, 2012). ...
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Purpose To support student teachers' well-being and ensure that they flourish during teacher education, it is necessary to examine the relationship between student teachers and their mentors during field experiences. Previous research has identified a connection between the quality of the mentor–mentee relationship and facets of student teachers' well-being. However, to date, this link has been insufficiently corroborated using longitudinal empirical data. This study aims to investigate the impact of mentor–mentee relationship quality on the well-being and flourishing of student teachers. Design/methodology/approach A cross-lagged panel design with two intervals (six weeks apart) was applied during a 15-week field experience with a sample of 125 German student teachers. Well-being and flourishing were captured using the positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, achievement (PERMA) framework. Relationship quality was assessed by adapting a questionnaire from the field of mentoring in medicine. Findings Relationship quality at the outset significantly predicted all five PERMA dimensions at the end of the assessment period. The impact of relationship quality was especially strong on the dimensions of relationships (R) and meaning (M). Conversely, the PERMA dimensions (except achievement) did not significantly impact relationship quality. Originality/value These results provide longitudinal empirical evidence underlining the beneficial effects of a healthy relationship between mentor and mentee in the field of teacher education. The findings clearly suggest that the relationship quality significantly influences student teachers' well-being and capacity to flourish during practical phases.
... Mentor responses largely reflected an approach based around flexibility, communication, and empathy in their support of undergraduate researchers through the start of the pandemic. These are characteristics of successful mentoring often emphasized by mentor training initiatives (Hund et al. 2018;Keyser et al. 2008) such as focusing on emotional support (Opengart and Bierema 2015) and the importance of articulating and aligning expectations to the student's circumstances and goals (Limeri et al. 2019). When considered in the context of evidence-based practices of undergraduate research mentorship (Shanahan et al. 2015), the participants showed a strong commitment to four common practices: ...
Through interviews with 28 students and 17 mentors from a campus-wide undergraduate research program, common themes in the responses to COVID-19-related impacts were found. Students had to adjust to the type or scope of their research obligations while handling academic responsibilities, and mentors explicitly considered students’ well-being above expectations related to research.
... Indeed, lack of English language skills is a barrier reported by our interviewees. As the literature points out [65,66], interpersonal and social interactions are core in mentoring processes, mainly to onboard newcomers to a community and to create effective bonds and a sense of belonging [67]. P3 stated this as a problem with mentors: ". . . the biggest challenges for a mentor are: [. . . ...
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Mentoring is a well-known way to help newcomers to Open Source Software (OSS) projects overcome initial contribution barriers. Through mentoring, newcomers learn to acquire essential technical, social, and organizational skills. Despite the importance of OSS mentors, they are understudied in the literature. Understanding who OSS project mentors are, the challenges they face, and the strategies they use can help OSS projects better support mentors’ work. In this paper, we employ a two-stage study to comprehensively investigate mentors in OSS. First, we identify the characteristics of mentors in the Apache Software Foundation, a large OSS community, using an online survey. We found that less experienced volunteer contributors are less likely to take on the mentorship role. Second, through interviews with OSS mentors (n=18), we identify the challenges that mentors face and how they mitigate them. In total, we identified 25 general mentorship challenges and 7 sub-categories of challenges regarding task recommendation. We also identified 13 strategies to overcome the challenges related to task recommendation. Our results provide insights for OSS communities, formal mentorship programs, and tool builders who design automated support for task assignment and internship.
... Some outlined their methods in one or two short paragraphs only (e.g. Carpenter et al. 2012;Opengart & Bierema, 2015), and/or failed to justify their methodological decisions (e.g. Überbacher, 2014), whereas others explained the steps they followed in great depth (e.g. ...
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Several years since the introduction of systematic review in management research, our paper takes stock of how the methodology has been used thus far to elicit potential areas for improvement and a future best practice agenda. It was our focus to investigate how synthesis methods have been approached and how implications are spelled out for future research, practice and, where relevant, policy. To address this, we conducted a systematic review of systematic reviews published in management research since the early 2000s (N = 391). We found that whilst scholars adopted similar methodological steps, there was variability in focus, with more attention paid to explaining the systematic review methodology protocol and search strategy utilized, than on detailed analysis and synthesis of the included studies’ findings. These aspects should be addressed more explicitly from the outset as an integral aspect of a systematic review protocol to support more refined application of relevant synthesis methods to develop the field. We conclude with a guide for ‘best practice’, including recommendations and published examples where available and an agenda for future refinement.
Using findings from both traditional and positive psychology research, this chapter focuses on how coaching is conceptualised and the motivations for coaching as it is delivered to individuals in community and organisational settings. The differences among coaching and other interventions such as mentoring, counselling, supervision, and training are detailed. The theoretical evidence for coaching from the disciplines of psychology and education, as well as from management research, are summarised. Coaching in contemporary practice is goal-oriented and solution-focused. Developmental, humanistic, and positive psychology techniques are used to address the client’s needs and promote their mental and emotional wellbeing. Coaches utilise cognitive behavioural psychology to assist clients reframe their mental model and dispel limiting beliefs. Within educational research, coaching is positioned as a developmental, learning opportunity for clients to develop self-efficacy so they become motivated to achieve behavioural change. Clients who believe in their ability to learn, perform, or change as a result of effort, persistence and, at times, assistance, are malleable. Within management, coaching approaches focus on the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies to enhance leadership and executive development, job satisfaction, motivation and work performance, and interpersonal and team relationships. This research evidence supports the emergence of coaching as a profession and contributes to a growing body of knowledge and theory into the development of coaching as a discipline.
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Despite an increase in programming to promote persons excluded by their ethnicity or race (PEER) scholars, minorities remain underrepresented in many STEM programs. The academic pipeline is largely leaky for underrepresented minority (URM) scholars due to a lack of effective mentorship. Many URM students experience microaggressions and discrimination from their mentors due to a lack of quality mentorship training. In this workshop, we provide a framework for how to be an effective mentor to URM trainees. Mentees, especially URM trainees, can flourish in effective mentoring environments where they feel welcomed and can comfortably develop new ideas without feeling threatened by external factors. Effective mentoring environments provide motivational support, empathy, cultural competency, and successful training.
Résumé Objectif et méthode L’objectif de cet article consiste à effectuer un portrait des compétences émotionnelles développées par les directions d’établissement scolaire (n = 359) dans un contexte de mentorat en élaborant un questionnaire en sept étapes de Frenette et al. (2019) présentant diverses preuves de validité. Résultats Les analyses effectuées supportent une structure factorielle comportant deux aspects des compétences émotionnelles corrélés (soi et autrui). Les directions d’établissement scolaire au Québec développent davantage les compétences émotionnelles liées à l’aspect des autres que pour eux-mêmes lors du mentorat. Une analyse plus fine indique que les directions développeraient plus l’Identification et la Compréhension des émotions. Les résultats font ressortir également que 77,26 % des répondants ont indiqué avoir développer des compétences émotionnelles lors du mentorat. Conclusion Les résultats obtenus ont permis d’apporter un éclairage sur l’importance des compétences émotionnelles dans le domaine de l’éducation, et spécifiquement au niveau de la direction d’établissement scolaire. Il ressort également l’importance de mettre l’accent sur le rôle du mentorat dans leur développement. À notre connaissance, le questionnaire élaboré dans la présente étude est un des premiers qui mesure le développement des compétences émotionnelles lors d’une relation mentorale.
Although most researchers have argued that a leader's emotional intelligence (EI) capability positively influences organizational learning (OL), this relationship has only been studied at the surface level. Consequently, there is no clear explanation of how leaders facilitate various processes of learning at the individual, team, and organizational levels. In this article, we operationalize Goleman's (1998) mixed model of EI and the 4I framework of learning proposed by Crossan et al. (1999) to shed further light on this connection. The conceptual link between self‐awareness, self‐management, social awareness, relationship management competencies of a leader's emotional intelligence and learning sub‐processes of intuition, interpretation, integration, and institutionalization has been examined. A conceptual framework has been developed and proposed which is open to further investigation. The results of this article make a significant contribution to scholarly research surrounding emotional intelligence and organizational learning. We also present practice‐based implications for leadership development and employee learning interventions that have a special significance in learning organizations.
The primary objective of this research is to investigate the relationships between emotional intelligence competencies (self-regulation, self-awareness, empathy, social skills, motivation) and mentoring received, focusing on the supervisor-subordinate relationship in four- and five-star hotel organizations in Greece. Participants were 250 employees representing 108 hotel organizations. Results indicate that social skills and self-awareness are positively associated with mentoring received in hotel organizations. Hotel managers with the ability to handle conflicts with tact and diplomacy and also are aware of their emotions and the effects of their feelings on hotel employees are in a position to meet subordinates’ emotional and social needs, implementing greater amounts of mentoring received.
The Problem To create resilient organizations, Human Resource Development (HRD) must foster the conditions (both internal and external to the employee) that enable learning and development in the face of adversity. Yet the experience of adversity produces intense negative emotions that threaten learning and development. Resilience building programs typically focus on building resources internal to the worker (e.g., self-efficacy, optimism) as a means of buffering against the negative effects of future stressors, but considerably less focus is placed on supporting others in their attempts to cope. Additionally, the role of leadership in promoting follower resilience has received limited attention. The Solution This article begins by summarizing the role of emotion and emotion regulation in recent literature on employee resilience. Toward that goal, a literature search was conducted for reviews and theoretical models of employee resilience published in peer-reviewed journals over the past 10 years. Next, emerging scholarship on interpersonal emotion management (IEM) is introduced, with a focus on its application in work and leadership contexts. The argument is made that leaders are in a unique position to promote resilience in their followers, through the promotion of positive emotional states and through the mitigation of the negative emotional states that accompany adversity. As such, developing IEM skills in both resilience training and leadership development programs should increase employee resilience. The Stakeholders Leaders, scholars, and HRD professionals interested in promoting employee resilience and developing effective leaders will benefit from this application of interpersonal emotion management concepts to the topic of employee resilience.
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At its best, mentoring exemplifies a positive relationship at work in action. Although mentoring can inform the blossoming field of positive relationships at work, not all mentoring relationships are positive; they fall along a continuum ranging from high quality to marginal or even dysfunctional (cf.). Although effective mentoring processes may parallel processes underlying other positive work relationships, there has been little theoretical progress in this aspect of the mentoring field. Most empirical mentoring research in the past 20 years is based on Kram's (1985) rich theoretical work that explains what protégés receive from the relationship. Mentoring theory has yet to fully explain the underlying cognitive, affective, and behavioral processes through which mentoring relationships develop and to explain mentoring from both the protégé's and the mentor's perspective. Consequently, we believe that relationship theory and research is uniquely suited to both inform, and be informed by, mentoring research. This chapter advances our understanding of positive relationships at work by examining the processes underlying effective mentoring relationships. Our specific objectives are to explore (a) how mentoring research may inform positive relationships at work, and (b) the potential for expanding the scope of mentoring theory by linking relational and social cognitive theory to mentoring. Toward these goals, we start by examining four insights that mentoring offers to the positive relationships arena. Next, we outline three limitations in the mentoring field and build a case for rela
Research reveals that emotional intelligence is an important factor in predicting performance in teams. In this article, we initially outline a theoretical model for examining emotional intelligence in teams. Using this model, we test a short version (16 items) of the self-report Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile (WEIP). Evidence from three studies supports this model. Two samples of 620 and 217 employees support the hypothesized structure of the WEIP-S. Four distinct constructs were derived: Awareness of own emotions; Management of own emotions; Awareness of others' emotions; and Management of others' emotions. The WEIP-Short Version (WEIP-S) scale, therefore, is based on abilities that are vital during the interaction of team members. Data from 99 employees provide evidence of test–retest stability for the WEIP-S across three time periods. Limitations and potential uses in management research for this short-version scale are discussed.
Conference Paper
This study examined protege characteristics that mentors reported were most influential when choosing a protege. Based on existing research, two variables were identified related to protege selection: perceptions regarding the protege's potential/ability and perceptions regarding the protege's need for help. The relationships of these two factors with perceived barriers to mentoring others, mentor advancement aspirations, and mentor gender were investigated. Data from 282 mentors revealed that mentors were more likely to choose a protege based on perceptions regarding the protege's ability/ potential than based on perceptions regarding the protege's need for help. Additionally, women were more likely to choose a protege based on the protege's perceived ability than were men. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.