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Rural conditions

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Abstract

Development of settlement Sedentary settlement in Scandinavia was predominantly agrarian during the Iron Age and the Middle Ages. Grain cultivation and animal husbandry were the basic means of providing sustenance, but were complemented, according to local conditions, by various forms of hunting, fishing and gathering. We have seen (Chapter 1) that large parts of Scandinavia are marginal for agriculture. In high-lying areas and in the far north climate does not permit grain growing. Areas of high elevation also lack the necessary conditions for pastoralism, which can, on the other hand, be successfully practised in Iceland and also in favourable locations in Greenland. Nevertheless, the Nordic climate is considerably more favourable than at the same latitudes in many other parts of the globe. This is mainly due to the effects of the Gulf Stream. The positive difference between mean annual temperature in various parts of Sweden and global mean temperature at the same latitudes is between 5 and 7°C. The distribution of sedentary settlement at the beginning of the Middle Ages, i.e. around AD 1000, can be established in various ways. The archaeological record, mainly cemeteries and dwelling sites, points to the extent and locations of such settlement. With the exception of Finland, types of place-names can be used to determine the age of settlements; for example, certain types of suffixes in place-names belong largely to the Viking Age and earlier periods, others to the Middle Ages and later periods. However, there are also types of names that were widely used during both the Viking and Middle Ages. © Cambridge University Press 2003 and Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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... Primarily, there were no large, urbanized centers as existed further south, and the "cities" of Denmark were more akin to large towns due to a smaller population and smaller industry (Petersen et al., 2006). However, there were still distinctions between the lives of country and city peoples, even if they were not as extreme as in other countries (Orrman, 2003a). ...
... Four of the sites, Nordby, Aarhus, Tirup, and Horsens come from the eastern coast of Jutland ( Figure 1). While the cities are not a far distance from one another by modern standards, Medieval patterns of trade suggest the people of the villages tended to travel to the nearest town to trade goods and rarely ventured farther afield unless necessary (Orrman, 2003a). ...
... Though there was easy travel within Denmark, archaeologists have indicated that the peoples of the two rural sites, Tirup and Nordby, are indeed representative of rural populations only practicing agriculture (Boldsen, 1995;Skov, 2002). Rural villages of the Danish Middle Ages focused nearly exclusively on cereal grain production with some animal husbandry (Orrman, 2003a). Both Tirup and Nordby were probably too small and in too close proximity to the city to support trades or crafts people (Skov, 2002). ...
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Extra t.p. with thesis statement inserted. Thesis (doctoral)--Universitet i Lund. Summary in English. Includes bibliographical references (v. 1, p. 217-224).
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Väitösk. -- Åbo akademi. Sisältää: 1: Padis kloster i nyländsk medeltid ; 2: Hangethe - Purkal, västnyländskt 1200-tal.
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Summary in English. Thesis and errata slips inserted. Thesis (doctoral)--Uppsala University, 1989. Includes bibliographical references (p. 101-105).
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Akademisk avhandling-Stockholms Universitet. Extra t.p., with thesis statement, inserted. Summary in German. Bibliography: p. 159-162.
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