Conference Paper

A Study of Interaction in Idle Games and Perceptions on the Definition of a Game

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  • Media Design School
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Abstract

An idle game, also known as an incremental game, is a genre of games defined by the primary feature of its strategy: leaving the game running by itself with minimum or zero player interaction. Interaction with the game, while often useful for progression, is optional for extended periods of gameplay. Through a comparison between academic views on the definition of a video game and the results of a survey, this paper uncovers the importance of interactivity in an academic definition and a player’s perceptions on how a game can be defined.

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... Our first contribution is the proposal to adopt the mechanics of so-called 'Ville games [37] for text labelling games. We believe this type of game design addresses many of the challenges to be addressed by text annotation GWAPs (or indeed, GWAPs for any type of annotation). ...
... This widely mocked, but undeniably successful [64] game design pattern spawned a sub-genre of games that distilled the 'Ville paradigm to its basics, known as clicker games. In clicker games the player repeatedly clicks to earn points which they can use to purchase items that enable them to earn more points [37]. Being satirical of F2P and 'Ville, these games have mostly left behind the F2P monetization strategy and social element, but still hold the key motivational design elements. ...
... There are now many variations of such incremental games; a proposal for a taxonomy can be found in [4]. The key factor that differentiates between them is the extent of interactivity with the player [37]. So-called "clicker games" are the incremental games with the highest level of interactivity, whereas in "zero player games" the player's role is reduced to that of a spectator for the majority of the game [4]. ...
Conference Paper
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We argue that the mechanics of 'Ville type Free-To-Play (F2P) games in general, and incremental games in particular, is especially suited for Games-With-A-Purpose. We demonstrate this through WordClicker, an incremental game whose mechanics is designed for text labelling. We believe the design and mechanics used are highly transferable to other games featuring annotation where game design is a challenge, such as serious games and language resourcing GWAPs. The game was tested with audiences from three popular indie gaming portals, achieving promising results both for entertainment value and learning.
... Thus, games have been described as inherently interactive [4] and often times that interactivity is regarded as a defining characteristic in contrast to non-interactive or less interactive media such as films or books. That is, a game must possess a level of player interactivity that allows the player to have a tangible effect on the progression of the game [5]. Some researchers explicitly emphasize the interactivity in that unless players have some agency to affect the outcome of a game and can intentionally exercise it, they are not really playing a game [6]. ...
... Recently, there exists an extreme form of autoplaying in games called "idle game" [5,7] that has almost no interaction in entire game playing. In a recent research with idle games [5], while the existence of interactions in the game are still meaningful to define a game playing even in such idle games, what forms the interactivitymerely watching or actual participationmight be a matter of opinion that differs between players. ...
... Recently, there exists an extreme form of autoplaying in games called "idle game" [5,7] that has almost no interaction in entire game playing. In a recent research with idle games [5], while the existence of interactions in the game are still meaningful to define a game playing even in such idle games, what forms the interactivitymerely watching or actual participationmight be a matter of opinion that differs between players. There were efforts to characterize and taxonomize these idle games on what consist of this extreme type of autoplay games [23,24] and a recent report shows the value of idle game in social exercise games [25]. ...
Article
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Autoplay functions are embedded in most mobile role playing games and mobile multiplayer online battle arena games recently. Theoretically, there are different views on autoplay function in that it may be a ‘fake play’ from the traditional view and it is economical and gives functional benefits for game developing companies on balancing from functionalists’ view. In this paper, we investigate how this autoplay functions are perceived to the Korean mobile gamers. We report that there exists a strong age group effect on it and age 25 is the inflection point. Among 304 subjects including 69 females participated in this survey, the positive perception rate is positively proportional to the age from 36% to 73%. The reasons they choose to play autocombat function are convenience and utilizing sack times but the older groups (over 30) emphasize playing while doing other personal doings. Those who do not use autoplay function sustain the traditional view of game playing in that autoplay is ‘not’ the real game playing and there exists an age effect in that the inclination rate of autoplay function is negatively proportional to the age.
... Our contribution WordClicker, the adaptation of so-called 'Ville game [21] mechanics for text labelling. We believe this type of game design addresses a lot of the challenges to be addressed by text annotation GWAPs (or indeed, GWAPs for any type of annotation). ...
... The aforementioned 'Ville Games and their wider SNG genre, have been the subject of satire with critics creating games with deliberately bland core game mechanics, such as "Cow Clicker", that involves simply clicking once every six hours [4]. This widely mocked, but undeniably successful [40] game design pattern spawned a subgenre of games that distilled the 'Ville paradigm known as "clicker games" in which the player repeatedly clicks to earn points which they can use to purchase items that enable them to earn more points [21]. ...
... There are now many variations of the clicker game design, collectively known as "Incremental games", with some research proposing a taxonomy [2]. The key defining factor that separates Incremental games is the spectrum of interactivity with the player [21]. The previously mentioned "clicker game" variety is among the highest level of interactivity and the lowest "zero player games" in which the player's role is reduced to that of a spectator for the majority of the game [2]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we present WordClicker, a clicker game for text annotation. We believe the mechanics of 'Ville type Free-To-Play (F2P) games in general, and clicker games in particular, is particularly suited for GWAPs (Games-With-A-Purpose). WordClicker was developed as one component of a suite of GWAPs meant to cover all aspects of language interpretation, from tokenization to anaphoric interpretation. As such, WordClicker is intended to have a dual function as part of this suite of GWAPs: both for parts-of-speech annotation and for teaching players about parts of speech so that they can go on and play GWAPs for more complex syntactic annotation. Therefore, game-based language learning platforms also had a strong influence on its design.
... More fundamentally, we do not yet have sufficient knowledge of the design space in order to incorporate physical activities in idle games. While idle games have received the attention of games scholars, most scholarship around the topic centers on defining the unique qualities of idle games compared to other genres [2,8,11,18]. In this paper, we aim to develop a further understanding of how to design idle games by examining their core gameplay loop. ...
... The scholarship around idle games, a genre including those referred to as "clickers" [9] and "incremental" games [18], has been relatively limited. Prior work defines idle games as those that support long absences [18], progress with minimal to no interaction from players [2], and where the majority of play happens in the background [11]. ...
... The scholarship around idle games, a genre including those referred to as "clickers" [9] and "incremental" games [18], has been relatively limited. Prior work defines idle games as those that support long absences [18], progress with minimal to no interaction from players [2], and where the majority of play happens in the background [11]. The length of player inactivity and active play may vary among different types of idle games, and games offering active play mechanics often provide incentives to encourage players to leave and later return, creating a cycle of play and non-play [11]. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper recognizes idle games as a promising direction for exergames and other games designed for behavioral change. Based on a survey of 11 popular idle games, we extend existing literature by identifying the common core gameplay loop (active participation, inactive progress, and return reward) as well as the design patters used to support the loop. Furthermore, we propose an initial approach to extending idle game patterns to social exergames, focusing on improving player adherence.
... Idle games usually involve repeating a simple action (e.g., clicking, rubbing, tapping) to accumulate resources as a core mechanic, an action that is regularly performed in play [55]. Most idle games also include mechanics that automate gameplay so the game progresses by itself [50]. Although the interactions are simple, players find these games rewarding [28,37]. ...
... However, there is no agreement in the gaming community about what key differences are indicated by these terms. Although a small number of research papers address "idle games" [18,50], a growing corpus uses other terms [7,9,21,37,70]. ...
... To answer the research questions, we analyze existing idle games through grounded theory. We choose to analyze games as our main source of data because there is relatively little literature that addresses idle games (e.g., [18,37,50]). Expert analysis of games as artifacts is likely to be most revealing. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Idle games are a recent minimalist gaming phenomenon in which the game is left running with little player interaction. We deepen understanding of idle games and their characteristics by developing a taxonomy and identifying game features. This paper examines 66 idle games using a grounded theory approach to analyze play, game mechanics, rewards, interactivity, progress rate, and user interface. To establish a clearly bounded definition of idle games, we analyzed 10 non-idle games with the same approach. We discuss how idle games move players from playing to planning, how they question dominant assumptions about gameplay, and their unusual use of resources such as player attention and computer cycles. Our work illuminates opportunities for the design of idle games, suggests design implications, and provides a framework for researchers to clearly articulate questions about this genre.
... Definisi dari game telah banyak dibahas dengan penjelasan yang bermacam-macam. Setiap definisi tersebut memiliki berbagai kesamaan, dan juga sejumlah perbedaan [11]. Game adalah sebuah kegiatan yang melibatkan pengguna kedalam sebuah tujuan yang terikat oleh aturan-aturan [12]. ...
... Game adalah suatu bentuk permainan terstruktur dan memiliki tujuan yang menyediakan aktivitas yang menarik [17]. Game adalah sebuah permainan yang memanfaatkan layar video digital dengan cara tertentu, yang dibatasi oleh sistem aturan di mana seorang pemain dapat berinteraksi dengan pemain lain, maupun dengan sistem permainan itu sendiri, untuk mencapai suatu tujuan [11]. Berdasarkan pernyataan-pernyataan tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa game adalah sebuah kegiatan atau aktivitas yang menarik yang didalamnya terdapat aturan untuk mencapai suatu tujuan. ...
... Instrumen tes berupa soal tersebut digunakan sebagai pre-test dan post-test untuk mengukur peningkatan hasil belajar siswa. Soal pre-test dan post-test berjumlah 20 soal berbentuk essay yang berisikan 5 buah soal penjumlahan (1-5), 5 buah soal pengurangan (6-10), 5 buah soal perkalian (11)(12)(13)(14)(15), dan 5 buah soal pembagian (16)(17)(18)(19)(20). Pembutan soal tes disesuikan dengan SKKD (Standar Kompetensi dan Kompetensi Dasar) yang diterapkan disekolah, dan juga telah dilakukan validasi dengan ahli yang bersangkutan yaitu guru sekolah dasar kelas 1 sampai dengan kelas 3. Hasil dari pembuatan soal selengkapnya dapat dilihat pada Tabel 2. ...
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Dalam bidang pendidikan dasar, matematika merupakan sebuah pelajaran dasar dan fundamental. Namun, banyak peserta didik yang tidak menunjukkan sikap positif terhadap mata pelajaran ini. Untuk itulah diperlukan inovasi dalam pembelajaran, salah satunya adalah dengan menggunakan game edukasi.Puzzle adalah game dengan aturan yang sederhana, mudah dimengerti dan dapat merangsang kemampuan matematika. Sedangkan RPG adalah game yang alurnya variatif, interaktif dan dapat meningkatkan ketertarikan pemain. Puzzle RPG adalah penggabungan kedua jenis game tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan dan mengukur efektivitas game dari ketiga jenis game tersebut sebagai sarana belajar matematika pada tingkat sekolah dasar (kelas 1-3).Keefektifan game edukasi dilihat dari peningkatan hasil belajar yang diperoleh setelah dilakukan percobaan. Untuk mengetahui jenis game manakah yang paling efektif adalah dengan cara membandingkan peningkatan hasil belajar setelah meggunakan ketiga game tersebut. Analisis perbandingan akan dilakukan dengan uji perbedaan menggunakan ANOVA dan uji lanjut menggunakan scheffe.Hasil percobaan menunjukkan peningkatan hasil belajar pada game puzzle RPG sebesar 53,9%, game RPG sebesar 41,7% dan game puzzle sebesar 33,9%. Setelah dilakukan uji ANOVA, didapatkan hasil bahwa terdapat perbedaan signifikan pada ketiga hasil tersebut. Untuk mengetahui perbedaan pada masing-masing game dilakukan uji scheffe dan didapatkan hasil bahwa hanya hasil belajar antara game puzzle dan puzzle RPG saja yang perbedaannya signifikan. Kesimpulannya, berdasarkan peningkatan hasil belajar, game puzzle RPG memiliki pengaruh terbesar. Berdasarkan uji lanjut dan perbandingan, game berjenis puzzle RPG hanya lebih efektif dibandingkan dengan game puzzle, dan tidak jauh berbeda dibandingkan dengan game RPG. Sedangkan game RPG tidak jauh berbeda dibandingkan dengan game puzzle.Kata Kunci: Efektivitas, Game Edukasi, Matematika, Puzzle, RPG.
... De esta forma, se genera un nuevo bucle de juego que engloba el bucle principal de recolectar y mejorar como una fase más, y refuerza la sensación de progresión en los jugadores, a la vez que los empodera. Su primera aparición en los videojuegos fue a principios de la década de los 2000 (Purkiss & Khaliq, 2015). Progress Quest (Eric Fredricksen, 2002), fue uno de los primeros juegos diseñados con el fin de ser jugados de forma no interactiva (Alsaedi, Alharthi, Toups, Tanenbaum, & Hammer, 2018). ...
... Se trata de una parodia de los videojuegos MMORPG (Pecorella, 2015) y en él, el jugador debe escoger una raza, una clase y unas estadísticas para su personaje, y a continuación el juego generará automáticamente la partida sin que el jugador deba hacer nada más. Dentro del género Idle se encuentra el subgénero de los juegos Zero-player, abreviados ZPGs, en los cuales, la interacción del jugador es tan ínfima, nula, o sin efecto, que se considera que no hay interacción de ningún ser humano (Purkiss & Khaliq, 2015). ...
Thesis
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Un motor de juego acotado en las limitaciones de una categoría de videojuegos específica permite desarrollar videojuegos más sorprendentes y optimizados. El popular género de juegos Idle no cuenta con una herramienta profesional especializada en facilitar su desarrollo. Bajo esta premisa, esta memoria persigue desarrollar un motor de juego específicamente enfocado al desarrollo de videojuegos del género mencionado. A lo largo del presente documento se exponen todos los fundamentos que sustentan esta idea y cómo se ha llevado a cabo la ejecución de la misma.
... In social games participants are encouraged to share their in-game actions on social networks and to invite their online friends to join them. The participant has little effort to do in the game and little meaningful choices to make, "social games are games you don't have to play" (Bogost, 2010 Purkiss & Khaliq, 2015). Incremental games were born in the 2000s to critique progress mechanics in role-playing games, social games or gamification, trying to demonstrate the absurdity of such genres and how they were not 'real games' for 'real gamers' (Deterding, 2016). ...
... Incremental games were born in the 2000s to critique progress mechanics in role-playing games, social games or gamification, trying to demonstrate the absurdity of such genres and how they were not 'real games' for 'real gamers' (Deterding, 2016). Incremental games also gained in popularity these last few years because of their ease of accessibility and the current trend of multitasking and efficient time-management (Purkiss & Khaliq, 2015). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
So far gamification and interaction in art have been studied separately. However, the research question of this study "How does Gamified Interaction allow participants to co-create digital artworks?" covers three disciplines, respectively games, human computer interaction and interactive art and demonstrate connections premises between the three. Therefore, this study aims to bridge these three disciplines by filling the gap in the current research about the application of game design elements (gamification affordances) to interaction for co-creation in art. In order to do so, the study conducts an in-depth cross-case and within-case qualitative analysis of four digital artworks, respectively The Beast, Cow Clicker, Tweetris and BURP in regards to two previously elaborated hypotheses, which goals are to provide evidence of a causal relationship (H1) and to eliminate a causal factor as a necessary condition (H2). The results demonstrate that Gamified Interaction enables co-creation in the form of authorial and social collaboration, and that it does not necessary have to be designed according to the participants. These findings, as they can be replicated to a larger population of similar cases, generate new knowledge and content to the broader contexts of games, human computer interaction and interactive art, in which this study operates.
... kitchen) with more emphasis on appliances, numerical information, and texts (e.g., the wattage of appliances, scores/credits, and tips/hints). If carefully designed, they can effectively enable end-users, especially children (see Table 22 in appendix), to make prudent decisions in real situations based on the knowledge they acquire during the gameplay [122]. These include: upgrading appliances, improving the thermal properties of building components (e.g., external walls and roofs) and changing behaviour such as frequency of opening windows and duration of showers. ...
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While adopting eco-feedback systems can lead to significant energy savings, in the region of 5–20%, research has shown that the inappropriate use of visualisation patterns and techniques decreases their effectiveness. However, existing reviews on energy feedback visualisation provide little guidance on when to use them and how to enhance their effectiveness in various scenarios. The uncertainty and lack of clarity surrounding eco-feedback visualisation techniques and their impact on end-userengagement present challenges to the design of eco-feedback systems. This paper presents the first systematic review of a wide range of energy eco-feedback visualisation techniques, including, for the first time, Augmented-Reality (AR) and thermal imaging visualisation. We analysed 82 relevant studies published between 2000 and 2021 using the PRISMA protocol for systematic reviews. The visualisation techniques have been reported under five distinct categories, which we have identified: (a) statistical visualisation, (b) architectural and geospatial visualisation, (c) game-based visualisation, (d) artistic visualisation, (e) emerging visualisation. Furthermore, they have been analysed based on the following criteria: type of visualised information, the purpose of use, end-user perception, scholar suggestions, and potential impact. The findings show that statistical visualisation techniques are essential in any energy eco-feedback system. Furthermore, they suggested combining different visualisation techniques to accommodate different user profiles, but such combinations must be carefully planned based on usage scenarios. Following this analysis, a series of considerations and good practice guidelines are presented for each of the reviewed techniques to assist practitioners in this area (e.g., designers and researchers) while providing recommendations for future work.
... Belum ada definisi tunggal yang berhasil mencakup segala hal mengenai definisi gim, meskipun banyak yang sudah mencobanya [6]. Menurut [7], bermain gim berarti terlibat dalam aktivitas yang diarahkan menuju suatu kondisi yang spesifik, hanya dengan menggunakan cara-cara yang diijinkan oleh aturan, dimana aturan tersebut melarang cara yang lebih efisien dan lebih memilih cara yang kurang efisien, dan dimana aturan tersebut diterima karena aturan tersebut memungkinkan aktivitas tersebut. ...
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Mathematic is basic but fundamental knowledge, but in fact many students do not have the motivation to learn it because they think mathematic is boring. Therefore, an innovation is needed to motivate students, one of them is by using an educational game. Racing, shooting and fighting games are the most popular types of games in 2019 according to InvisionCommunity. Shooting game is a genre that used a lot in the educational games for learning math, while racing game and fighting game are not used much for educational games. This research aims to develop and measure the effectiveness of the games from these three genre of games as a means of learning elementary arithmetic at the elementary school level. The effectiveness of an educational game can be observed from the increment in learning outcomes obtained after conducting an experiment. We can know the most effective type of game in this experiment by compare the improvement in learning outcomes after playing all three games. The comparative analysis will be carried out using ANOVA. In this research, we used data from 60 participant with elementary level of education between grade 1 to 3. The results were obtained by calculating the difference in the participants' initial scores obtained from before playing the game and participants’ final scores obtained after playing the educational game. The results show that educational racing games have the highest increase of 6.3% compared to shooter games with 3% increase or fighting games with increase of 4.3%.
... Games such as Dungeons & Dragons, Pandemic, Super Mario World, etc. demand continuous attention from a player, and create an intrinsic experience of play between the player and the game. Idle games, on the other hand, tend to play themselves, requiring little to no player interaction [5,18,38]. ...
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... This just-right amount of challenge is not identical with a game's baseline challenge. The baseline challenge depends on the target audience; it can be very low, like most idle games [6] [7], or very high, like most bullet hell games [8]. The just-right amount of challenge is built upon this baseline challenge. ...
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This paper outlines an approach for task and challenge design in video games to integrate the learning experience with the playing experience in systematic and testable ways. After introducing basic game-based learning processes in the context of an updated flow model, the approach is outlined from assembling learning outcomes (typology) to applying a learning organization (taxonomy) to creating learning opportunities (tasks and challenges), which can then be empirically tested during development by, e.g., methods of rational level/rational game design.
... Idle games involve clicking or tapping to set up a game, to generate resources, and to spend resources on upgrades. Idle games feature components of strategy, decision making, long-and short-term planning, and a strong sense of progression (Toups et al., 2016;Pecorella, 2016;Khaliq & Purkiss, 2015). Incremental games are games in which a player clicks to generate resources, then spends resources to automate part, or all, of the clicking process (e.g., Kittens (Bloodrizer, 2014), Cookie Clicker (Thiennor, 2013)). ...
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In this book, we explore the pleasure of playing less through a collective experience of playing the Kittens Game – a self-described “Dark Souls of incremental gaming”. We draw on techniques of close reading and hermeneutics to ground our analysis and supplement our individual reflections on how these games incentivize players to play less and plan more.
... To this end, it follows the curious history of so-called "idle" or "incremental games," which reduce gameplay to a single repetitive interaction or even automate gameplay, making player input optional. As such, idle games break with conventions and expectations regarding games (Purkiss and Khaliq, 2015), making them an ideal case to observe the (re)negotiation of this construct. Analyzing idle games and surrounding designer and player discourses through the theoretical lenses of "game aesthetics" (Bateman, 2015) and "boundary work" (Gieryn, 1983), this paper explores how different social actors intentionally or unintentionally partake in working the boundaries of "real" games. ...
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Guía de referencia para el diseño conceptual de un videojuego, donde se ofrecen los marcos teóricos para construir el juego como un sistema de información que necesita administrar los datos estratégicamente para crear una experiencia de juego (historia, placer, simulación y sentido) en el usuario.
Idle Game -TV Tropes Available: tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki
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Challenges for Game Designers
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Extra Cedits -Idle Games -How Games Scratch Your Multitasking Itch -YouTube
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