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Fillet Proximate Composition, Lipid Quality, Yields and Organoleptic Quality of Mediterranean Farmed Marine Fish: A Review with Emphasis on New Species

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Species diversification in Mediterranean mariculture involves various important fish that contribute to the diet of many human populations. These include meagres (Sciaenidae), flatfishes, mullets, and various sparids. Their quality aspects are discussed in this review (yields, fillet proximate composition and lipid quality). Their filleting yield is mostly 40-45%. The viscerosomatic index ranges from 1.5 to 14%, depending on species. Flatfishes' and meagres' low muscle fat contents, differentiate them from the rest of the farmed species. Farmed fish contain high n-3 PUFA (12.3-36.3% vs. 5.48-37.2% in the wild) and have higher muscle fat and n-6 PUFA contents (mainly 18:2n-6) than their wild counterparts. The aquaculture management, diet, and season can affect fillet composition and fatty acids, while season (i.e. food availability and maturation) largely affects lipid quality in wild fish. Data on the sensory quality of Mediterranean farmed species mainly limit to whether specific management differentiates the sensory quality; thus further development of sensory analysis tools is required. Observations on the quality features in farmed Mediterranean fish indicate that species diversification can also provide product diversification, based on different commercial weights and fillet quality specifications.
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Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
ISSN: 1040-8398 (Print) 1549-7852 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/bfsn20
Fillet Proximate Composition, Lipid Quality, Yields
and Organoleptic Quality of Mediterranean
Farmed Marine Fish: A Review with Emphasis on
New Species
Kriton Grigorakis
To cite this article: Kriton Grigorakis (2015): Fillet Proximate Composition, Lipid Quality,
Yields and Organoleptic Quality of Mediterranean Farmed Marine Fish: A Review
with Emphasis on New Species, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, DOI:
10.1080/10408398.2015.1081145
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2015.1081145
Accepted author version posted online: 15
Oct 2015.
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FILLET PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, LIPID QUALITY, YIELDS AND
ORGANOLEPTIC QUALITY OF MEDITERRANEAN FARMED MARINE FISH: A
REVIEW WITH EMPHASIS ON NEW SPECIES
Kriton Grigorakis
Institute of Marine Biology, Biotechnology and Aquaculture, Hellenic Centre for Marine
Research, Agios Kosmas Hellinikon, 16777, Athens, Greece
Corresponding Author Email: Tel:+30 210 9856735; Fax: + 30 210 9829239; Email:
kgrigo@hcmr.gr
Abstract
Species diversification in Mediterranean mariculture involves various important fish that
contribute to the diet of many human populations. These include meagres (Sciaenidae),
flatfishes, mullets, and various sparids. Their quality aspects are discussed in this review (yields,
fillet proximate composition and lipid quality). Their filleting yield is mostly 40-45%. The
viscerosomatic index ranges from 1.5 to 14%, depending on species. Flatfishes and meagres
low muscle fat contents, differentiate them from the rest of the farmed species. Farmed fish
contain high n-3 PUFA (12.336.3% vs. 5.48-37.2% in the wild) and have higher muscle fat and
n-6 PUFA contents (mainly 18:2n-6) than their wild counterparts. The aquaculture management,
diet, and season can affect fillet composition and fatty acids, while season (i.e. food availability
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and maturation) largely affects lipid quality in wild fish. Data on the sensory quality of
Mediterranean farmed species mainly limit to whether specific management differentiates the
sensory quality; thus further development of sensory analysis tools is required. Observations on
the quality features in farmed Mediterranean fish indicate that species diversification can also
provide product diversification, based on different commercial weights and fillet quality
specifications.
Keywords
quality, fat, filleting yield, fatty acids, sensory quality
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Introduction
The farmed finfish production worldwide was 66.6 million metric tons in 2012 (FAO, 2014).
The Mediterranean area is an important contributor to world aquaculture, with two countries,
Egypt and Spain being among the top 12 and 20 world aquaculture producers, respectively
(FAO, 2013; FAO, 2014). The Mediterranean marine finfish production has been growing, to
reach a share of 36% of its total aquaculture output vs. 48% for freshwater fish and 14% for
molluscs. Specifically, marine finfish production in the Mediterranean area has grown from
61,024 tons in 1995 to 436,401 tons in 2007 (Barazi-Yeroulanos, 2010). The spark for the
continuous growth of the contemporary Mediterranean mariculture was in the late 70s or early
80s. The Mediterranean marine finfish farming all these years has been dominated by two
species, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and the gilthead sea bream (Sparus
aurata). These two species are industrially produced and account for approximately 52% of the
total marine finfish production in the area (Table 1). The other dominating species, the flathead
grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), is traditionally semi-intensively farmed in brackish water ponds,
and its production is mainly based on wild fry collection (Saleh, 2008). However, there have
been some serious fry overfishing issues and recent pressure towards wild fry banning (McGrath,
2012).
In the 90s, the ranching of Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, was introduced in the area,
based on wild stocks capture, since no integrated production could be achieved. The latter has
led to almost crashing of the species‟ stocks in the Mediterranean (MacKenzie et al., 2009).
Other sparid species (Table 1) have been farmed with variable success. The market saturation for
gilthead sea bream and sea bass and the crisis of this sector during the 90s has led to a persistent
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recession situation that was enhanced by a general economic crisis (Cardia and Lovatelli, 2007;
Perdicaris and Paschos, 2011). Species diversification has been considered a possible way out
from this situation (Cardia and Lovatelli, 2007). Among the candidates, various species, mainly
from Sciaenidae and Caragidae families, have been proposed and produced nowadays, with
meagre (Argyrosomus regius) being the most successful one (in terms of production and know-
how) (Table 1). Among, the flatfish, the most commercialized in Mediterranean countries, is
turbot (Psetta maxima), mainly produced in Spain since the 90‟s. Its farming is integrated and
intensive rearing is mostly land-based (FAO 2005-2015).
Regarding their commercial characteristics, these fish species have various commercialization
sizes and forms. The grey mullet, besides being sold as whole fish at sizes of about 300-800g, is
used for its roe to produce a highly valued traditional product named bottarga (Barra et al.,
2008). The Scieanidae species that include the meagre, the brown meagre (Sciaena umbra) and
the shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa) are fast growers that are usually commercialized in sizes bigger
than 1 Kg. Although they are usually commercialized as whole, for larger fish various forms like
cuts and fillets can be available (Monfort, 2010). Also, small quantities of frozen fish, smoked
fillets and sushi sales have been reported for meagre (Monfort 2010). Usual commercialization
weights for the various sparid species are similar to those for gilthead sea bream, i.e. 350-500g
(Hernández et al., 2001; Barazi-Yeroulanos, 2010) Therefore, they are sold in fresh, whole or
gutted forms. The Carangidae family members have large commercialization sizes, and forms
similar to the tuna fish, e.g. 3.5-5.5 Kg for greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili), sold either in
sushi markets or in various cuts (Nakada, 2008). Flatfish, on the other hand, are sold in sizes
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starting from 125g up to 8Kg as whole or fillets, fresh or frozen (Howell, 1997; Imsland et al.,
2003).
One significant aspect of the market fate of farmed fish is their quality as perceived by the
consumer. Two important aspects in the quality-defining set of parameters, are the nutritional
and the technical quality of the fish. The former refers to the nutritional value of the food, while
the latter to the processing technical losses and the edible yields. The nutritional significance of
fish mainly refers to the contents in polyunsaturated fatty acids and their numerous health
benefits (Kris-Etherton et al., 2003; Nicholson et al., 2013). This also reflects to the nutritional
status image that the fish has among the consumer (Vanhonacker et al., 2013). The technical
quality, on the other side, is mainly an economic aspect and is of interest for both consumers and
processors. Furthermore, the organoleptic quality of the fish, i.e. the human sensory impression,
is among the capital factors for purchasing those (Grigorakis, 2007).
The aim of this study is to critically review the aforementioned quality aspects for new
Mediterranean farmed fish, along with a comparison with their wild counterparts where possible.
The importance of examining the quality aspects of these species lies within their universal
significance as food, since they are part of the diet, not only in the Mediterranean area but also in
many other countries. Besides, they have a great potential for expansion in their production and
consumption (Barazi-Yeroulanos, 2010).
Although there is plenty of literature directly comparing farmed and wild-caught gilthead sea
bream and sea bass for their quality features (indicatively: Krajnovic-Ozretic et al., 1994;
Alasalvar et al., 2002; Grigorakis et al., 2002; Mnari et al., 2007; Periago et al., 2005), there is a
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scarcity in similar studies for the rest of the Mediterranean fish. Existing data refer only to some
of the farmed species and to specific geographic areas (Rueda et al., 1997; Rueda et al., 2001;
Cejas et al., 2004; Álvarez et al., 2009; Álvarez et al., 2009b; Dincer et al., 2010). A comparison
by reviewing existing literature would elucidate actual differences in quality of farmed and wild
Mediterranean fish. Additionally inter-species quality comparisons would allow a better
knowledge of how quality differentiates among them and how these individualities could be of
commercial advantage. Since there was a similar attempt in the past for gilthead sea bream and
sea bass (Grigorakis, 2007; Arechavala-Lopez et al., 2013), this study will mainly focus on the
rest of the Mediterranean farmed fish species.
Methods
Data and calculations
The somatic yields that were reviewed or calculated from the respective literature were the
following:
 
 
 
Filleting yield FY 100 fillet weight / body weight ,
Viscerosomatic index VSI 100 total viscera weight / body weight ,
Hepatosomatic index HSI 100 liver weight / body weight and
Condit






 
 
33
ion index CI 100 body weight g / body length cm 


The fillet quality was assessed in terms of total composition (moisture, protein, ash and fat
percentages) and in terms of fatty acid composition. For the latter, the percentages of the main
fatty acid groups were calculated, i.e. saturates (SUFA), monounsaturates (MUFA), n-3
polyunsaturates (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 polyunsaturates (n-6 PUFA), as well as the two important
n-3 fatty acids, the eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3, EPA) and docohexaenoic (22:6n-3, DHA).
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Besides, for estimation of the actual nutritional value of n-3 PUFA their total contents and the
contents of EPA and DHA in 100g fish fillet were calculated as:
(Fatty acid % × fillet fat %) / 100.
For all of the above factors, the weighed mean was calculated in the wild and farmed fish.
Study restrictions and limitations
It is important to notice that all data considered within this study refer to fish near or at
commercial weights. Furthermore, for species with wider geographical distribution, the data for
wild fish limits only in Mediterranean populations, since the environment has an important
impact in all biological parameters and therefore in the end product quality (Love, 1992). Thus,
taking into account fish of the same species but different origins (e.g. the Atlantic, the Black Sea
or the Red Sea) was considered to be misleading.
Among the farmed species in the Mediterranean, the Atlantic bluefin tuna was not taken into
account for this study since its aquaculture is far from achieving a complete cycle production,
includes only fattening and is based on feeding with fresh fish instead of commercial diets
(Grigorakis and Rigos, 2011; Hattour and Couchet, 2014).
The red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) was not included in this study either. Although its farming
has been established in Israel since the „90s (Diamant, 1998), this decision was due to the facts
that this species does not naturally inhabit the Mediterranean (FishBase, 2011) and that all
sources referring to its quality features refer to geographic origins other than the Mediterranean
(Craig et al., 2000; Recks and Seaborn, 2008; Li et al., 2013).
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A small part of the literature referring to the quality of the studied species was not taken into
account for not providing information that allow calculations on whole wet fillet basis
(Hernández et al., 2001; Hernández et al., 2003; Bonaldo et al., 2004; Rondán et al., 2004; Lloret
et al., 2005; Testi et al., 2006; Álvarez et al., 2009; Álvarez et al., 2009b; Haouas et al., 2010;
Nogales Merida et al., 2011; Valente et al., 2011), and for calculating fatty acid compositions of
lipid fractions without providing the relative proportions of these lipid fractions (Regost et al.,
2003; Varljen et al., 2003).
For all studied parameters weighed means were calculated, taking into account the literature
average values and the number of individuals analyzed in each study. In cases that sample size
was not evident (Rueda et al., 1997; Soriguer et al., 1997; El-Dakar et al., 2007; Koubaa et al.,
2011), a n=3 was assumed on the basis that this is the minimum size for statistical analysis in the
respective studies.
Metanalysis
For comparisons of average values
X
between farmed (F) and wild (W) individuals of the same
species, effect size was evaluated by the use of Hedges d (Hedges and Olkin 1985):
FW
p
XX
dJ
s
(1)
where the correction for bias
3
14( ) 9
FW
Jnn
 
(2)
and
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(3)
The asymptotic standard error (se) of the effect size was calculated as following:
2
2( 2)
FW
eF W F W
nn d
sn n n n


(4)
Precision of d with 95% confidence intervals was evaluated as d-1.96se to d+1.96se.
Biometric parameters and yields
The filleting yield is an important parameter, especially for species that filleting is among their
custom processing, because it describes their actual edible gain. The respective data for the
Mediterranean farmed fish is actually limited to some species, mainly meagre, dentex (Dentex
dentex) and shi drum (Table 2). For the rest of the species, lack of data for some of them (like
porgies Pagellus sp., annular seabream Diplodus annularis and mullets Mugil sp. and Liza sp.)
may be due to the fact that they are not customly commercialized in filleted forms. However, for
some other such as the flatfishes (Solea sp., Psetta maxima), red seabream (Pagrus sp.), dentex,
greater amberjack and brown meagre, filleting is of interest and the collection of respective data
should be within the aims of future research. Existing data show that the filleting yields for most
species are around 40-45 % with few exceptions of extremely high and low yields reported for
sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) and white seabream (Diplodus sargus), respectively
(Table 2).
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The viscerosomatic index (VSI) is a measure for the estimation of the visceral fat deposition and
together with the hepatosomatic index (HSI) that represents the hepatic weight (Table 2), consist
a way to evaluate the technical loss from fish gutting. The species with the lowest visceral losses
are the flatfishes (Solea senegalensis and Psetta maxima), as becomes evident from the VSI
values in Table 2. Also the Sciaenidae family species (Argyrosomus regius, Sciaena umbra,
Umbrina cirrosa) appear to have low visceral losses (Table 2). The obvious reason for that is
their low visceral fat deposition (Poli et al., 2003; García Mesa et al., 2014).
The condition index (CI) is indicative of the feeding condition of the fish and has been shown to
increase in well-fed fish, like in the intensive farming-originated fish in comparison with
extensively farmed and wild fish (Floss et al., 2002; Grigorakis, 2007; Piccolo et al., 2007;
Martelli et al., 2013).
When concerning the CI, only intra-species comparisons are meaningful, since possible
differences between species is most likely to be due to their different allometry. The latter for
instance, becomes evident by the significantly lower condition indexes found for turbot and
Senegalese sole than for the rest of the species (Table 2), obviously attributed to the different
body geometry.
Metanalysis for the technical yields was possible only for VSI in the case of sharpsnout sea
bream, where data are available in sufficient numbers for both wild and cultured counterparts
(Table 2). A Hedges d index of 12.87 indicated statistically significant difference (p<0.01) with
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farmed fish exhibiting higher VSI. This can be explained as a higher visceral fat deposition for
farmed fish, a fact that was also confirmed in one study that directly compared wild and farmed
sharpsnout sea bream (Rueda et al., 2001).
Technical yields of Mediterranean species seem to be affected in various ways by environmental
parameters, feeding and ploidy, and although the respective research is sporadic and sometimes
contradictory, this is summarized in Table 3.
Technical yields, being of importance because they define the edible part of the products, show
differentiations based on species, season and dietary history. Data on filleting yields are limited
only to some of the species. For many species that filleting is expected to be of commercial
interest, a monitoring of filleting yield is required in the future. Although sporadic data are
available on the effects of dietary treatments and season in the fillet percentage, an important
issue that needs to be addressed is the effect of fish size. This will be particularly useful in
defining the best sizes for optimizing the filleting in each species. The herein results (Table 2)
indicate that a technical loss of more than 50% during filleting, should be counterbalanced by the
added value of the produced fillet. In regard with the filleting yield differentiation, none of the
studied species seems to be more advantageous to others and therefore factors, other than
technical ones, would determine economic efficiency.
The viscerosomatic index, defining the yield of eviscerated fish, seems to be lower for two fish
categories, the flatfishes and the meagres. This can be advantageous for the commercialization of
these fish in gutted forms. The condition index is meaningful for intra-species comparisons and
can be potentially used as a tool for traceability issues between wild and farmed fish.
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Fillet composition and fatty acids
The fillet composition is an important quality aspect since it largely defines the fish nutritional
value and is also closely associated with its sensory attributes in the way they are perceived by
the consumer (Grigorakis, 2007; Grigorakis, 2010). In general, with few exceptions, there is
sufficient data on the fillet composition of the Mediterranean farmed fish species and in
particular with their fillet fat.
The only important exception is that of wild meagre, where data is limited to those deriving from
Sinanoglou et al. (2014). However, there is a serious probability that these authors have mistaken
their so-assumed wild specimens. This can be postulated by the fact that they mentioned a fatty
acid profile with high n6 fatty acids and in specifically of the 18:2n6 (linoleic acid) which is
scarce in marine food chain and characterizes farmed fish due to its dietary terrestrial plant oil
origin (Tocher, 2003; Linder et al., 2010). A potential explanation is that the authors have been
probably provided with farmed escapees.
In general, the fillet protein of all fish species is quite similar, nearing a 20% of total fillet
constituents. Fillet protein is generally believed to be stable in fully grown fish and not to be
influenced by external parameters (Love, 1992; Grigorakis, 2010). However, there have been
some cases where seasonal changes have been reported for wild fish populations (Gökçe et al.,
2004; Saoud et al., 2008). Reduction of muscle protein in adult fish has been mentioned in cases
of mobilization under prolonged fasting (Love, 1992).
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The fillet fat ranges between the various fish species. Among them, there are two categories, the
flatfishes (Psetta maxima, Solea senegalensis, Solea Solea) and the Sciaenidae family
(Argyrosomus regius, Sciaena umbra and Umbrina cirrosa) that have low fillet fat when
compared to the rest of the fish (Table 4).
The meta-analysis results for fillet fat content comparisons between wild and farmed
counterparts include dentex, sharpsnout sea bream, red porgy (Pagrus pagrus), common sole and
brown meagre (Table 5). In all cases, the farmed counterparts were found to have increased
muscle fat comparing to the wild ones. The higher fat contents in farmed animals have been
confirmed by direct comparisons in individual studies for dentex (Dincer et al., 2010),
sharpsnout sea bream (Rueda et al., 2001; Dincer et al., 2010), white seabream (Cejas et al.,
2004), blackspot seabream (Álvarez et al., 2009), red porgy (Rueda et al., 1997; Loukas et al.,
2010), brown meagre (Cakli et al., 2006; Dincer et al., 2010) and greater amberjack (Haouas et
al., 2010; Rodriguez-Barreto et al., 2012).
The fillet fat even within the same species is highly dependable to various internal and external
parameters, and therefore effects of season, for both wild and farmed counterparts, and feeding
characteristics and intensity for farmed fish have been demonstrated in Mediterranean species
(Table 6)
The fatty acid profiles of all studied Mediterranean fish are rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty
acids (Table 7). Results of metanalysis, available for dentex, sharpsnout sea bream, red porgy,
brown meagre and common sole (Table 5) indicated differences in fatty acid profiles between
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farmed and wild counterparts. The general pattern observed is the higher n-6 content of the
former ones, with the only exception of the red porgy where higher n-6 levels have been found in
wild fish. The fact that the one out two studies contributed to the metanalysis, found almost
double n-6 contents in wild fish (Rueda et al., 1997) is responsible for this. The former authors
although found higher 18:2n6 contents in farmed fish, in agreement with the general rule, they
mentioned 9 times higher 20:4n6 in wild individuals.
In studies directly comparing wild and farmed individuals, significantly higher DHA contents
have been observed in farmed counterparts for brown meagre and dentex (Dincer et al., 2010)
and for sharpsnout sea bream in one case (Piccolo et al., 2007), while the opposite trend has been
mentioned for sharpsnout sea bream in a second case (Dincer et al., 2010), for red porgy (Loukas
et al., 2010) and greater amberjack (Haouas et al., 2010). EPA has been found to be higher in
farmed fish for red porgy (Loukas et al., 2010), dentex, brown meagre (Dincer et al., 2010) and
greater amberjack (Haouas et al., 2010) but similar (Piccolo et al., 2007) or higher (Dincer et al.,
2010) in wild fish for sharpsnout sea bream.
When fatty acids are expressed as contents per 100g fish fillet, it becomes evident that
Mediterranean fish species are highly nutritious and that their consumption can easily fulfill the
n-3 PUFA daily needs (Table 8). It is worth mentioning that even species with low fat contents
(flatfish and meagres) can cover a significant part of these needs. A comparison in total n-3, EPA
and DHA contents between farmed and wild counterparts is always in favor of the former ones,
obviously due to their higher fillet fat. This contradicts the general consumer impressions who
perceive the farmed fish as of inferior nutritional quality (Claret et al., 2014).
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The general rule of muscle fatty acids reflecting the dietary ones, applies for all Mediterranean
farmed fish. Within these frames, inclusion of plant oils such as safflower oil (Altundag et al.,
2014), soybean oil (Regost et al., 2003; Piedecausa et al., 2007), linseed oil (Regost et al., 2003;
Piedecausa et al., 2007) or mixtures of vegetable oils (Valente et al., 2011) have shown to
increase the n6 contents. Inclusion of animal fat (such as lard) to replace fish oil, leads into
increase of muscle SFA and reduction of n3 PUFA and n3/n6 ratio (Nogales Merida et al.,
2011b). For the herein studied species, fasting has been evaluated in common sole; muscle
saturated fatty acids increased during starvation while PUFAs decreased, opposing the general
rule that implies preservation of PUFAs and consumption of SFA with fasting (Fonseca et al.,
2013).
Although, it is very difficult to make direct correlations of flesh fatty acids in wild fish with
feeding habits, a very interesting recent observation indicated the depletion of PUFAs, EPA,
DHA and ARA in particular, in wild white seabream due to consumption of the invasive algae
Caulerpa racemosa (Felline et al., 2014)
Rearing system is, in some cases, influential to the muscle fatty acids, like one study that showed
fatty acid differentiation between cage-reared and tank-reared meagre receiving the same diet
(Martelli et al., 2013). It is not exactly clear what the causes of these differences. Perhaps the
stocking density is one of the regulating factors in these cases (Piccolo et al., 2008), although this
has not been always confirmed (Roncarati et al., 2006). Usually, the stocking density seems to
have a more profound effect in the liver fatty acids, as a result to respective metabolic
adaptations (Montero et al., 1999; Karakatsouli et al., 2007). The stocking density-derived
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differences, however, can be potentially attributed to feed intake differences (Lund et al., 2013).
The other potential regulating factor in different rearing systems is the water temperature, or the
general seasonal differences, which is discussed in the following.
Season may have an impact on the muscle fatty acids of temperate water fish. An increase of the
unsaturation level, primarily in the polar lipid fraction, has been associated to the water
temperature drop, in order to maintain the membrane fluidity (Hazel and Prosser, 1974; Love,
1992; Delgado et al., 1994). Furthermore, a seasonal depletion in MUFA, and in particular in
oleic acid (18:1n9) is correlated with mobilization during gonadal development and this is of
importance in species that maturation occurs at commercial size (Sargent, 1995; Özyurt and
Polat, 2006). In wild fish, seasonality in fatty acids, has been noticed for several Mediterranean
populations (Gökçe et al., 2004; Cakli et al., 2006; Özyurt et al., 2005; Özoǧul et al., 2011b).
Studies referring to farmed Mediterranean populations, in specific gilthead sea bream, common
sea bass and meagre (Senso et al., 2007; Yildiz et al., 2006; Yildiz et al., 2008; García Mesa et
al., 2014), indicated minor or absolute absence of season-related fatty acid changes. García Mesa
et al. (2014) justified this lack of markedly seasonal effects, to the high winter temperatures
occurring in the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, a common weakness of the majority of the
existing studies, is that seasonal effect is not individually studied and that other parameters, such
as growth (Hernández et al., 2003; Poli et al., 2003; García Mesa et al., 2014), fish size (Martelli
et al., 2013b) or variable genetic origin (Cardinal et al., 2011) interfere. Therefore, the
examination of seasonal impact would require a comparison in fish of similar weights, dietary
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history and genetic uniformity, at different year intervals. Chatzifotis et al. (2004) having
studied the fatty acid changes of dentex from the age of 8 to 36 months, i.e. for a period longer
than two years, provided some data that allow conclusions in regard with the seasonal effect.
Thus, irrespective to the fish weight (unfortunately not provided in the respective reference), a
similar annual pattern can be observed with the fish always exhibiting a minimum of DHA and
n3 fatty acids in Ferbruary and a maximum in October, while the exactly opposite pattern applied
for total MUFA (Fig. 1). On the other side, no specific pattern was observed for the rather stable
levels of SFA, total n6 and EPA. These findings contradict the absence of season-related changes
mentioned by the aforementioned studies. These also imply that EPA which is conserved, unlike
DHA that fluctuates, plays an important biological role.
Based on the fillet composition, it becomes evident that species can be distinguished in low fat
species and fat accumulating ones, with the former ones including the meagres and the flatfishes.
In all species, the general rule of higher fillet fat contents in farmed specimens has been
confirmed for all species (Table 4).
The fatty acid profiles showed differentiation between wild and farmed specimens for all species
(where data are sufficient). These fatty acid differences can be justified based, firstly on the
general rule of dietary fatty acids reflection in fish flesh, and secondly on the seasonal changes
related to temperature adaptations and gonadal maturation. The daily needs of an adult in n-3
PUFA are covered in most cases even by the consumption of 100g fish, due to the high
unsaturation level of the fatty acids in all studied species. Farmed fish retain a nutritional
advantage over wild ones due to their higher n-3 contents.
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Organoleptic quality of Mediterranean farmed fish
Sporadic data occur in aspects of the organoleptic quality of the Mediterranean farmed species.
Acceptability comparisons have been made between two different farmed sparidae species, the
sharpsnout sea bream and gilthead sea bream (Hernández et al., 2001b), which were always in
favour of the gilthead sea bream probably due to its familiarity for the consumers. However, the
hedonic test participants were well disposed towards both species.
Difference tests and blind acceptability studies have been also conducted between meagre of
different sizes (Gonçalves et al., 2011; Giogios et al., 2013; Ribeiro et al., 2013; Saavedra et al.,
2015) mainly to resolve the market rumor of quality inferiority in fish weighing less than 1 Kg
(Monfort, 2010; FAO, 2013; Ribeiro et al., 2013). All respective studies showed similarities in
their findings, i.e. significant sensory difference between smaller (<1Kg) and larger fish (>1Kg),
high acceptability for fish with weights ranging between 500g and 1Kg although preference
remained higher for larger fish. The assumption that the major quality feature responsible for
better acceptability of large fish is the size-dependent texture differentiation, was supported in
some cases (Gonçalves et al., 2011; Ribeiro et al., 2013) but not in other (Giogios et al., 2013;
Saavedra et al., 2015).
Organoleptic comparisons between wild and cultured fish have been taken place for gilthead sea
bream and sea bass in some cases and these have been reviewed in the past (Grigorakis, 2007;
Arechavala-Lopez et al., 2013), while sporadic data occur for other species, for the brown
meagre in specifically (Cakli et al., 2006). In all cases wild fish are characterized by reduced
fatiness of their fillet, perceived flavour differences, and a darker appearance of the muscle
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(Cakli et al., 2006; Grigorakis, 2007; Arechavala-Lopez et al., 2013). Besides wild and farmed
fish sensory differences, the rearing environment can also have an impact on fish sensory
properties. In particular freshwater and seawater-reared red drum was found different in aspects
of colour and texture; seawater-rearing resulted into lower hardness and color intensity (Klanian
and Alonso, 2013).
A number of studies attempt to evaluate the impact of the diet on the sensory properties of
produced fish. Fish oil and fishmeal substitution by plant raw materials (Izquierdo et al., 2005;
Izquierdo et al., 2005; Cabral et al., 2013; Matos et al., 2012; Moreira et al., 2014) and the
differentiation of dietary fat levels (Lopparelli et al., 2004) mostly resulted in minor or no
sensory changes, mainly limiting in fillet color alterations (Izquierdo et al., 2005; Segato et al.,
2005b; Matos et al., 2012). Otherwise, no other impact was observed in aspects of aroma or
mouth sensation (texture or flavor of the fish). In some studies, however, dietary interventions
have been found to affect sensory-perceived texture in case of fishmeal subtitution (Hernández et
al., 2007) or odour intensity in cases of dietary fat elevation (Segato et al., 2008). What can be
assumed is that the species-characteristic fat accumulation and muscle microstructure, as well as
the differential dietary requirements may differentiate the way that each species‟ sensory quality
responds to the dietary treatments.
The existing data, so far provide evidence that sensory quality of fish can be altered subject to
fish feeding history, somatic size and rearing environment. However, the sporadic results and the
absence of analytic tools, i.e. descriptive analysis methods for describing Mediterranean fish
species, do not allow safe conclusions on the degree and direction of these organoleptic changes.
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Overall critical conclusion-recommendations
The Mediterranean farmed fish species offer a perspective upon which aquaculture
diversification can be based. Their somatic yields and their fillet composition are important
determinants of their overall quality and of the alternative ways of their commercialization.
The filleting yield for most of the farmed species is within a range of 40-45%. Herein data
indicated that the viscerosomatic index differs among species, with flatfishes and Sciaenidae
species exhibiting low visceral losses when compared to the rest of the Mediterranean farmed
species. It is therefore suggested that the representatives of these two families have an advantage
when commercialized in gutted forms, due to the low technical loss.
The condition index is related to the body geometry of each species, can be indicative of the
feeding condition of the fish, and can be also a useful tool to discriminate wild from farmed
counterparts of the same species.
In aspects of fillet composition, present review indicated that some flatfishes and meagres have
very low muscle fat contents. This feature differentiates them from the rest of the farmed species.
All farmed fish that were herein reviewed, have been found to contain high n-3 PUFA. Farmed
fish differ in their fatty acid composition from their wild counterparts. The most characteristic
differences are the significantly higher muscle fat contents and the higher n-6 (mainly 18:2n-6)
contents in farmed fish. The aquaculture management, dietary treatment and season can impact
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on farmed fish fillet composition and fatty acid quality, while season largely affects lipid quality
in wild fish through food availability and maturation process.
We herein indicated that for some species that their aquaculture is long established such as the
meagres, there is lack of comparisons with the respective wild individuals. Their farming and
commercialization is largely based on the well established knowledge for gilthead sea bream and
sea bass. This results into defective perception or speculations on their actual dietary needs and
their produced quality capacities. The establishment of future comparisons with wild fish would
elucidate answers in respect to quality individualities (e.g. due to different fatty acid metabolism
in meagres (Monroig et al., 2013)) and the “ideal” in their quality.
Contrary to the fillet proximate composition and the fat qualities that received lerge attention by
scientists, the sensory characteristics of the vast majority of the Mediterranean farmed species
have not been described systematically. Most of the existing literature focuses on examining
whether specific management or dietary treatments differentiate the sensory quality of the fish
when compared to control groups. The development of sensory description tools for the herein
studied species, such as descriptive analysis, should be within future research priorities in order
to gain knowledge of their sensory characteristics and factors affecting them.
Based on the herein observations of the quality features in the farmed Mediterranean fish, it
becomes evident that species diversification can also provide products diversification. First of
all, different species can be commercialized in various forms. The fish with larger commercial
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weights, such as the meagres or the greater amberjack can provide a wider variety of products,
based on fillets or cuts.
The Mediterranean farmed fish can also provide flesh with different nutritional specifications.
Within these frames, the muscle fat is a determinant of the commercialization potential of each
species. Fish of low fillet fat, such as flatfish and meagres, independently of their commercial
sizes, can be recommended in low fat diets. Those species that accumulate muscular fat, like the
medium-fat species that include all the sparids and the common sea bass, can be proposed as
good candidate foods for n-3 rich diets since their EPA and DHA contents largely exceed the
minimum daily recommended intake. The confirmed difference in the fillet fat of wild and
cultured specimens, for all species, can be used in advantage of the fattier farmed fish,
considering the high unsaturation level in the fatty acids of all species.
Aknowledgements
This review was conducted within the frames of DIVERSIFY project. This project is funded
from the European Union‟s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological
development and demonstration (KBBE-2013-07 single stage, GA 603121, DIVERSIFY).
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Table 1: Mediterranean marine finfish aquaculture production in tonnes. The groupers,
Epinephelus spp. and wreckfish Polyprion americanus are not included since no commercial
production has been recorded in the Mediterranean. Data refer to 2009 official production
numbers (except that refer to 2003 and to 2008 last maximum recorded quantities). Source:
FAO, 2010.
Common name
Scientific name
Main producers
in the
Mediterranean
Total
Medit.
production
Total
world
production
Grey mullet,
striped mullet
Mugil cephalus
Egypt
213,194
221,978
Other mullets
Mugilidae
Italy, Spain
390
9,078
Sea bass
Dicentrarchus labrax
Turkey, Greece,
Spain
111,764
112,183
Gilthead sea bream
Sparus aurata
Greece, Turkey,
Spain
133,124
136,070
Common sole
Solea solea
Italy, Spain
16
30
Senegalese sole
Solea senegalensis
Spain
63
63
Turbot
Psetta maxima
Spain
7,188
69,.006
Brown meagre
Sciaena umbra
Spain
30
30
Shi drum
Umbrina cirrosa
Italy
45
45
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Meagre
Argyrosomus regius
Egypt, Spain,
France
4,068
4,112
Red drum
Sciaenops ocellatus
Israel
459
51,476
Blackspot
seabream
Pagellus bogaraveo
Spain
183
183
Common pandora
Pagellus erythrinus
Greece
42
42
White sea bream
Diplodus sargus
Greece, Italy
104
105
Two-banded sea
bream
Diplodus vulgaris
Italy
18
18
Sharpsnout
seabream
Diplodus puntazzo
Italy
51
51
Common dentex
Dentex dentex
Boznia, Spain
10
10
Red Porgy
Pagrus pagrus
Cyprus, Greece
23
23
Other porgies
Pagrus spp.
Cyprus
10
10
Other sparids
Sparidae
Italy
65
42,827
Marbled spinefoot
(or rabbitfish)
Siganus rivulatus
Cyprus
2
2
Atlantic bluefin
tuna
Thunnus, thynnus
Croatia, Malta
1,994
1,999
Greater amberjack
Seriola dumerili
Spain
1
4
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Table 2: Technological and somatometric characteristics of farmed Mediterranean fish species.
Values are weighed means. In parenthesis the total number of studies taken into account and the
total number of fish that contributed to the weighed mean.
species
FY
VSI
HSI
CI
References
Argyrosomus
regius
Farmed
43.3
(6/266)
4.96
(4/204)
1.50
(3/194)
1.05
(2/154)
Poli et al., 2003; Grigorakis et
al., 2011; Giogios et al., 2013;
Martelli et al., 2013;
Nathanailides et al., 2013;
Sinanoglou et al, 2013
Dentex
dentex
Farmed
44.7
(2/306)
5.16
(2/306)
1.85
(3/342)
1.51
(3/342)
Pérez-Jimenez et al., 2009;
Suárez et al., 2009; Suárez et al.,
2010
Diplodus
annularis
wild
-
7.32
(1/16)
1.28
(1/16)
-
Ketata Khituni et al., 2010
Diplodus
puntazzo
Farmed
51.3
(1/54)
3.93
(6/215)
1.45
(6/232)
2.03
(6/237)
Hernández et al., 2001; Nogales-
Merida et al., 2001b; Rueda et
al., 2001; Hernández et al., 2003;
Piccolo et al., 2007; Piedecausa
et al., 2007; Piccolo et al., 2013
wild
-
3.15
(2/65)
1.95
(1/60)
1.93
(1/60)
Rueda et al., 2001; Piccolo et al.,
2007
Diplodus
wild
29.3
-
-
-
Saoud et al., 2008
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sargus
(1/120)
Liza aurata
wild
-
9.19
(1/13)
2.26
(1/13)
-
Ketata Khituni et al., 2010
Pagellus
bogaraveo
farmed
-
8.41
(3/108)
1.24
(4/136)
2.70
(3/132)
Palmegiano et al., 2007; de
Almeida Ozório et al., 2009;
Figueiredo Silva et al., 2010;
Valente et al., 2010.
Pagrus
pagrus
farmed
-
6.81
(3/95)
1.64
(3/95)
3.13
(1/45)
Rueda et al., 1998; García et al.,
2010; Kalinowski et al., 2015
Psetta
maxima
farmed
-
3.66
(2/105)
1.57
(2/105)
1.42
(2/81)
Regost et al., 2003; Altundag et
al., 2014; Sevgili et al., 2014
Siganus
rivulatus
farmed
-
14
(1/25)
3.46
(1/25)
2.46
(1/25)
El-Dakar et al., 2007
wild
36.7
(1/120)
-
-
-
Saoud et al., 2008
Solea
senegalensis
farmed
-
1.49
(2/228)
1.17
(2/228)
1.51
(1/180)
Valente et al., 2011 ; Cabral et
al., 2013
Umbrina
cirrosa
farmed
40.5
(2/132)
4.19
(3/156)
2.45
(2/48)
2.12
(3/156)
Segato et al., 2005; Segato et al.,
2005b; Segato et al., 2007
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Table 3: Effects of influencing parameters in the technical yields and condition index of
Mediterranean farmed species, or wild counterparts.
Species
Influencing Parameter
Effect
References
Filleting yield
Diplodus puntazzo
inclusion of vegetable oil
in diet
increase
Piedecausa et al., 2007
Dentex dentex
various dietary protein
and fat levels
none
Suárez et al., 2009
5 weeks starvation
increase
Suárez et al., 2010
Siganus rivulatus
(wild)
Season
lowest yields in
March & October
A. regius
Fish growth / season
none
Saoud et al., 2008
VSI
Sciaena umbra
dietary fat increase
increase
Segato et al., 2005
inclusion of vegetable oil
in diet
increase
Segato et al., 2005b
Solea senegalensis
Fish meal substitution by
plant meals
increase
Valente et al., 2011;
Cabral et al., 2013
Dentex dentex,
Diplodus puntazzo,
Pagellus
Fish meal and fish oil
substitution by plant raw
materials
none
Palmegiano et al., 2007;
Suárez et al., 2009;
Nogales-Merida et al.,
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bogaraveo
2011, Piccolo et al.,
2013
Sciaena umbra
triploidy
increase
Segato et al., 2007
A. regius
season
variable seasonality
Poli et al., 2003;
Martelli et al., 2013
CI
Pagellus
bogaraveo
feeding intensity increase
increase
deAlmeida Ozório et al.,
2009
Dentex dentex
5 weeks starvation
decrease
Suárez et al., 2010
Argyrosomus
regius
Fish growth / season
none
Poli et al., 2003;
Martelli et al., 2013
Dentex dentex,
Diplodus puntazzo,
Pagrus pagrus,
Solea senegalensis,
Umbrina cirrosa,
diet composition
none
Hernández et al., 2001;
Segato et al., 2005;
Palmegiano et al., 2007;
Piedecausa et al., 2007;
Pérez-Jimenez et al.,
2009; Suárez et al.,
2009; García et al.,
2010; Valente et al.,
2011; Nogales-Merida
et al., 2013; Piccolo et
al., 2013
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Sciaena umbra
triploidy
decrease
Segato et al., 2007
Diplodus puntazzo
season
Increase when
closing
reproductive
season (September)
Hernández et al., 2003
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Table 4: Fillet proximate composition of farmed Mediterranean fish species. Values are weighed
means. In parenthesis the total number of studies taken into account and the total number of fish
that contributed to the weighed mean.
species
Moisture
%
Protein
%
Ash %
Fat %
References
Argyrosomus
regius
Farmed
72.8
(6/212)
20.5
(3/120)
1.34
(4/150)
2.12
(7/218)
Poli et al., 2003; Hernández
et al., 2009; Grigorakis et
al., 2011; Nevigado et al.,
2012; Giogios et al., 2013;
Martelli et al., 2013;
Sinanoglou et al., 2013
Dentex
dentex
Farmed
73.1
(4/329)
20.2
(4/329)
2.94
(2/36)
3.78
(4/329)
Ozden and Erkan, 2008;
Suárez et al., 2009; Suárez
et al., 2010; Dincer et al.,
2010
wild
75.2
(1/5)
22.1
(2/8)
-
1.91
(2/8)
Soriguer et al., 1997; Dincer
et al., 2010
Diplodus
annularis
wild
-
-
-
0.92
(1/3)
Özoǧul et al., 2008
Diplodus
puntazzo
Farmed
70.5
(3/16)
19.2
(3/16)
1.23
(2/11)
8.39
(4/20)
Orban et al., 2000; Rueda et
al., 2001; Cakli et al., 2008;
Dincer et al., 2010
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wild
76.7
(1/5)
19.2
(1/5)
-
2.80
(3/13)
Rueda et al., 2001; Özoǧul
et al., 2008; Dincer et al.,
2010
Diplodus
sargus
farmed
76.4
(1/9)
-
-
5.82
(1/9)
Cejas et al., 2004
wild
77.4
(2/129)
19.3
(2/129)
1.76
(2/129)
1.51
(5/141)
Hornung et al., 1994;
Soriguer et al., 1997; Özyurt
et al., 2005; Saoud et al.,
2008
Diplodus
vulgaris
wild
76.7
(1/10)
-
-
2.27
(3/23)
Varljen et al., 2003; Özoǧul
et al., 2008; Prato and
Biandolino 2012
Epinephelus
auneus
wild
77.6
(1/18)
19.7
(1/18)
1.57
(1/18)
0.77
(1/18)
Özoǧul et al., 2011b
Liza aurata
wild
74.5
(1/9)
20.1
(1/9)
1.42
(1/9)
4.51
(3/22)
Kamden et al., 2008;
Özoǧul et al., 2008; Prato
and Biandolino 2012
Liza ramada
wild
74.4
(1/9)
19.8
(1/9)
1.58
(1/9)
3.25
(3/15)
Kamden et al., 2008;
Özoǧul et al., 2008 ;
Nevigado et al., 2012
Liza saliens
wild
76.0
(1/9)
18.5
(1/9)
1.28
(1/9)
2.87
(2/12)
Kamden et al., 2008;
Özoǧul et al., 2008
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Mugil
cephalus
farmed
76 (1/6)
-
-
10.0
(1/6)
El-Sebaiy et al., 1987
wild
-
-
-
2.10
(2/7)
Özoǧul and Özoǧul 2007;
Özoǧul et al., 2008
Pagellus
bogaraveo
farmed
72.2
(1/36)
19.8
(1/36)
1.66
(1/36)
7.26
(4/120)
Palmegiano et al., 2007; de
Almeida Ozório et al., 2009;
Figueiredo Silva et al.,
2010; Valente et al., 2010.
wild
-
21.1
(1/3)
-
4.32
(1/3)
Soriguer et al., 1997
Pagellus
erythrinus
wild
75.9
(2/36)
18.1
(2/36)
1.54
(2/36)
3.86
(3/40)
Özoǧul and Özoǧul 2007;
Koubaa et al., 2011; Koubaa
et al., 2014
Pagrus
pagrus
farmed
74.7
(1/24)
21.6
(1/24)
1.70
(1/24)
4.19
(3/47)
Rueda et al., 1997; Loukas
et al., 2010; Kalinowski et
al., 2015
wild
-
-
-
0.85
(2/24)
Rueda et al., 1997; Loukas
et al., 2010
Psetta
maxima
farmed
77.4
(2/24)
20.1
(2/24)
-
1.57
(3/27)
Regost et al., 2003;
Nevigado et al., 2012;
Altundag et al., 2013
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wild
-
20.4
(1/3)
-
0.97
(1/3)
Soriguer et al., 1997
Sciaena
umbra
farmed
74.1
(2/45)
20.2
(2/45)
-
3.18
Cakli et al., 2006; Dincer et
al., 2010
wild
74.7
(1/40)
-
1.40
(1/40)
Cakli et al., 2006
Seriola
dumerili
farmed
71.7
(2/39)
23.2
(1/30)
-
6.65
(2/39)
Thakur et al., 2009;
Rodriguez-Bareto et al.,
2012
wild
76.7
(1/9)
-
-
3.64
(1/9)
Rodriguez-Bareto et al.,
2012
Siganus
rivulatus
wild
76.7
(1/120)
19.7
(1/120)
1.39
(1/120)
1.95
(1/120)
Saoud et al., 2008
Solea
senegalensis
farmed
-
19.5
(1/36)
-
1.47
(2/84)
Valente et al., 2011; Cabral
et al., 2013
wild
76.5
(1/5)
20.6
(1/5)
1.24
(1/5)
1.43(1/5)
Tejada et al., 2007
Solea Solea
farmed
76.9
(1/48)
19.6
(1/48)
1.15
(1/48)
2.65
(2/51)
Piccolo et al., 2008;
Nevigado et al., 2012;
wild
78.5
(4/70)
19.2
(4/70)
1.27
(4/70)
0.54
(5/74)
Gökçe et al., 2004; Özoǧul
and Özoǧul, 2007; Ersoy et
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al., 2008; Özoǧul et al.,
2011; Özoǧul et al., 2011b
Umbrina
cirrosa
farmed
75.9
(4/136)
20.8
(4/136)
1.26
(3/84)
1.65
(4/136)
Segato et al., 2005; Segato
et al., 2005b; Segato et al.,
2007; Segato et al., 2008
wild
-
-
-
0.92
(1/3)
Özoǧul et al., 2008
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Table 5: Metanalysis results: Hedges d index for detection of differences between wild and
farmed counterparts. The * and ** denote statistically significant differences (p<0.05 and
p<0.01, respectively).
Species
Muscle
Fat
SFA
MUFA
n-3
PUFA
n-6
PUFA
EPA
DHA
Dentex dentex
17.8**
2.90**
5.15**
7.15**
10.5**
1.59*
7.40**
Diplodus puntazzo
5.77**
18.7**
0.27
7.49**
7.55**
2.90**
3.05**
Pagrus pagrus
26.4**
9.79
8.88**
4.00**
4.28**
2.42**
10.2**
Sciaena umbra
12.1**
26.6**
8.81**
13.3**
111.1**
-
-
Solea Solea
17.4**
8.31**
21.8**
0.89**
7.55**
6.26**
5.11**
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Table 6: Factors influencing the fillet fat of Mediterranean farmed species, or wild counterparts.
Species
Influencing Parameter
Effect
References
Mugilidae,
Sparidae
Fish size
Increase with size
Grigorakis, 2007; Ketata
Kitouni et al., 2010
Wild populations
of: Dicentrarchus
labrax, Diplodus
sargus, Sciaena
umbra, Siganus
rivulatus, Sparus
aurata, Solea solea
Season
Increasing in the
summer months,
due to intensive
feeding and
elevated food
availability.
Maximum at the
end of the warm
period (late
summer to mid
autumn). Depletion
in cold months.
Gökçe et al., 2004;
Özyurt et al., 2005;
Cakli et al., 2006;
Özyurt and Polat, 2006;
Senso et al., 2007; Ersoy
et al., 2008; Saoud et al.,
2008; Özoǧul et al.,
2011b
Farmed
Argyrosomus
regius, Scieana
umbra, Seriola
dumerili
Season
Depletion in cold
months.
Poli et al., 2003; Cakli
et al., 2006; Thakur et
al., 2009
Solea senegalensis,
Dietary fat
none
Segato et al., 2005;
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Solea solea,
Umbrina cirrosa
Piccolo et al., 2008;
Valente et al., 2011
Hippoglossus
hippoglossus
Dietary fat
Increase with fat
level
Nortvendt and Tuene,
1998
Pagellus
bogaraveo, Psetta
maxima, Solea
senegalensis,
Umbrina cirrosa
fish meal and fish oil
substitution by plant
materials
none
Regost et al., 2003;
Segato et al., 2005b;
Palmegiano et al., 2007;
Figueiredo-Silva et al.,
2010; Cabral et al., 2013
Psetta maxima,
Solea senegalensis
fish meal and fish oil
substitution by plant
materials
Increase in plant
diets
Valente et al., 2010;
Altundag et al., 2014
Pagellus
bogaraveo, Sparus
aurata
Feeding intensity
Increaseor increase
tendency in
highly-fed fish
Flos et al., 2002;
deAlmeida Ozorio et al.,
2009
Dentex dentex,
Sparus aurata
fasting
Decrease in
prolonged fasting
Grigorakis & Alexis,
2005; Suárez et al.,
2010.
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Table 7: Fillet fatty acid composition (as % of total fatty acids) of farmed Mediterranean fish
species. Values are weighed means. In parenthesis the total number of studies taken into account
and the total number of fish that contributed to the weighed mean.
species
SFA
MUFA
n-3
PUFA
n-6
PUFA
EPA
DHA
References
Argyrosomus
regius
Farmed
31.2
(7/192)
29.8
(7/192)
26.3
(6/174)
11.4
(6/174)
7.36
(6/174)
14.1
(6/174)
Hernández et
al., 2009;
Grigorakis et
al., 2011;
Nevigado et
al., 2012;
Giogios et al.,
2013;
Martelli et al.,
2013;
Sinanoglou et
al., 2013
Dentex
dentex
Farmed
31.3
(4/83)
27.4
(4/83)
25.9
(3/65)
8.02
(3/65)
4.76
(4/83)
16.5
(4/83)
Chatzifotis et
al., 2004;
Ozden and
Erkan, 2008;
Dincer et al.,
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2010; Suárez
et al., 2010
wild
37.1
(2/8)
34.8
(2/8)
14.1
(2/8)
2.98
(2/8)
4.38
(2/8)
11.7
(2/8)
Sorigueret al.,
1997; Dincer
et al., 2010
Diplodus
annularis
wild
38.4
(1/3)
31.0
(1/3)
12.7
(1/3)
3.9
(1/3)
3.44
(1/3)
8.79
(1/3)
Özoǧul et al.,
2008
Diplodus
puntazzo
Farmed
27.0
(7/123)
35.6
(7/123)
25.0
(7/123)
12.4
(7/123)
5.81
(7/123)
9.65
(7/123)
Orban et al.,
2000; Rueda
et al., 2001;
Rondán et al.,
2004b;
Piccolo et al.,
2007;
Piedecausa et
al., 2007;
Dincer et al.,
2010; Piccolo
et al., 2013
wild
34.0
(4/73)
35.0
(4/73)
20.8
(4/73)
6.5
(4/73)
5.39
(4/73)
7.70
(4/73)
Rueda et al.,
2001; Piccolo
et al., 2007;
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Özoǧul et al.,
2008; Dincer
et al., 2010
Diplodus
sargus
farmed
31.8
(1/9)
23.1
(1/9)
36.3
(1/9)
5.99
(1/9)
6.04
(1/9)
25.1
(1/9)
Cejas et al.,
2004
wild
37.7
(3/129)
25.4
(3/129)
16.4
(3/129)
7.59
(3/129)
5.45
(3/129)
9.91
(3/129)
Hornung et
al., 1994;
Özyurt et al.,
2005; Özyurt
et al., 2006;
Özoǧul et al.,
2008;
Diplodus
vulgaris
wild
37.2
(2/13)
25.2
(2/13)
27.1
(2/13)
7.06
(2/13)
6.95
(2/13)
18.3
(2/13)
Özoǧul et al.,
2008; Prato
and
Biandolino
2012
Epinephelus
auneus
wild
30.9
(1/18)
15.1
(1/18)
34.2
(1/18)
7.08
(1/18)
4.60
(1/18)
29.3
(1/18)
Özoǧul et al.,
2011b
Liza aurata
wild
33.8
(3/22)
42.4
(3/22)
13.1
(3/22)
6.98
(3/22)
5.16
(3/22)
6.04
(3/22)
Kamden et
al., 2008;
Özoǧul et al.,
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2008; Prato
and
Biandolino,
2012
Liza ramada
wild
27.8
(3/15)
40.4
(3/15)
19.7
(3/15)
6.15
(3/15)
10.5
(3/15)
5.21
(3/15)
Kamden et
al., 2008;
Özoǧul et al.,
2008;
Nevigado et
al., 2012
Liza saliens
wild
27.3
(2/12)
40.8
(2/12)
18.3
(2/12)
7.81
(2/12)
13.2
(2/12)
2.60
(2/12)
Kamden et
al., 2008;
Özoǧul et al.,
2008
Mugil
cephalus
wild
36.6
(2/7)
23.0
(2/7)
18.4
(2/7)
6.98
(2/7)
9.98
(2/7)
6.40
(2/7)
Özoǧul and
Özoǧul 2007;
Özoǧul et al.,
2008
Pagellus
bogaraveo
farmed
30.3
(2/48)
34.2
(2/48)
18.5
(2/48)
9.40
(2/48)
4.82
(2/48)
9.71
(2/48)
Palmegiano
et al., 2007;
Figueiredo
Silva et al.,
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2010
wild
30.6
(1/3)
30.6
(1/3)
26.3
(1/3)
3.17
(1/3)
8.6
(1/3)
13.5
(1/3)
Soriguer et
al., 1997
Pagellus
erythrinus
wild
52.7
(2/37)
38.8
(2/37)
5.48
(2/37)
1.57
(2/37)
1.18
(2/37)
2.95
(2/37)
Özoǧul and
Özoǧul.,
2007; Koubaa
et al., 2014
Pagrus
pagrus
farmed
31.2
(3/47)
42.1
(3/47)
20.7
(3/47)
5.84
(3/47)
5.58
(3/47)
12.8
(3/47)
Rueda et al.,
1997; Loukas
et al., 2010;
Kalinowski et
al., 2015
wild
36.9
(2/24)
29.7
(2/24)
25.6
(2/24)
7.01
(2/24)
4.12
(2/24)
20.5
(2/24)
Rueda et al.,
1997; Loukas
et al., 2010
Psetta
maxima
farmed
22.1
(2/9)
21.9
(2/9)
26.2
(2/9)
16.9
(2/9)
6.02
(2/9)
16.8
(2/9)
Nevigado et
al., 2012;
Altundag et
al., 2013
wild
28.8
(1/3)
23.6
(1/3)
37.2
(1/3)
4.15
(1/3)
8.00
(1/3)
24.5
(1/3)
Soriguer et
al., 1997
Sciaena
farmed
41.5
37.8
12.3
8.14
-
-
Cakli et al.,
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umbra
(2/45)
(2/45)
(2/45)
(2/45)
2006; Dincer
et al., 2010
wild
52.1
(2/45)
33.3
(2/45)
8.99
(2/45)
2.85
(2/45)
3.21
(1/5)
6.45
(1/5)
Cakli et al.,
2006; Dincer
et al., 2010
Seriola
dumerili
farmed
31. 6
(2/19)
27.4
(2/19)
25.5
(2/19)
14.0
(2/19)
7.57
(2/19)
12.8
(2/19)
Haouas et al.,
2010;
Rodriguez-
Bareto et al.,
2012
wild
36.0
(1/9)
34.0
(1/9)
24.4
(1/9)
4.80
(1/9)
2.66
(1/9)
18.8
(1/9)
Rodriguez-
Bareto et al.,
2012
Solea
senegalensis
farmed
28.1
(2/84)
24.5
(2/84)
32.1
(2/84)
10.2
(2/84)
3.65
(2/84)
20.8
(2/84)
Valente et al.,
2011; Cabral
et al., 2013
Solea Solea
farmed
25.5
(2/51)
34.4
(2/51)
20.5
(2/51)
9.37
(2/51)
4.70
(2/51)
13.1
(2/51)
Piccolo et
al., 2008;
Nevigado et
al., 2012
wild
29.2
(4/74)
16.9
(4/74)
24.0
(4/74)
7.32
(4/74)
3.90
(4/74)
19.5
(4/74)
Gökçe et al.,
2004; Özoǧul
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65
and Özoǧul,
2007; Ersoy
et al., 2008;
Özoǧul et al.,
2011b
Umbrina
cirrosa
wild
40.9
(1/3)
23.0
(1/3)
24.0
(1/3)
1.69
(1/3)
6.52
(1/3)
17.0
(1/3)
Özoǧul etal.,
2008
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Table 8: n-3 PUFA nutritional value of farmed Mediterranean fish species. Values are expressed
as g/ 100g fish fillet. In the third column appears what % of daily recommended intake they
represent, based on EFSA recommendation for healthy adults*.
Species
n-3 PUFA
EPA+DHA
EPA+DHA (%
Daily recommended
intake)
Argyrosomus regius
Farmed
0.56
0.45
181.9
Dentex dentex
Farmed
0.98
0.80
320.8
wild
0.27
0.31
122.7
Diplodus puntazzo
Farmed
2.10
1.30
518.8
wild
0.58
0.37
147.0
Diplodus sargus
farmed
2.11
1.82
726.8
wild
0.25
0.23
92.6
Diplodus vulgaris
wild
0.62
0.57
229.1
Epinephelus auneus
wild
0.26
0.26
104.4
Liza aurata
wild
0.59
0.50
201.9
Liza ramada
wild
0.64
0.51
203.9
Liza saliens
wild
0.53
0.45
181.6
Mugil cephalus
wild
0.39
0.35
138.0
Pagellus bogaraveo
farmed
1.35
1.06
422.0
wild
1.14
0.95
381.9
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Pagellus erythrinus
wild
0.21
0.16
63.8
Pagrus pagrus
farmed
0.87
0.77
307.0
wild
0.22
0.21
83.1
Psetta maxima
farmed
0.41
0.36
143.3
wild
0.36
0.32
126.1
Sciaena umbra
farmed
0.39
-
-
wild
0.13
0.14
54.2
Seriola dumerili
farmed
1.70
1.35
540.9
wild
0.89
0.78
312.4
Solea senegalensis
farmed
0.47
0.36
143.8
Solea solea
farmed
0.54
0.47
189.0
wild
0.13
0.13
51.0
Umbrina cirrosa
wild
0.22
0.22
86.7
*Source : EFSA, 2010, http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/press/news/nda100326.htm
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68
Fig. 1: Annual fluctuations of fatty acids (expressed in percentages of total fatty acids) in dentex
Dentex dentex during growth. Data obtained from Chatzifotis et al. (2004)
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... Although similar fatty acid results were obtained with our study, DHA amount was lower than the above-mentioned study (Kouroupakis et al., 2019). Grigorakis (2017) examined lipid quality of Mediterranean-farmed marine fish, wild Diplodus annularis, Diplodus sargus, and Diplodus vulgaris and they found that the lipid content of the species were 0.92%, 1.51%, and 2.27%, respectively. Higher results were obtained in our study, especially for annular seabream. ...
... Higher results were obtained in our study, especially for annular seabream. The fatty acid profiles of all studied Mediterranean fish in that study were rich in n-3 PUFA and the amount of n-3 PUFA of the same species were reported to be; 12.7%, 16.4%, 27.1%, respectively (Grigorakis, 2017). The differences in the total fat and fatty acid profile of wild individuals of the same type may vary with genetic features, as well as the maturation and ovulation process. ...
Article
In the present study, the lipid amount and fatty acid profile of different Sparidae species, including gilthead seabream, juvenile gilthead seabream, annular seabream, white seabream, common two‐banded seabream were evaluated. Fish were seasonally collected from Köyceğiz Lagoon (Muğla, South Western Turkey) from June 2018 to June 2019 and after collection, the sex of each specimen was recorded. According to the results of the study, the highest lipid amount was found in female annular seabream individuals as 8.09 ± 0.78% in November and the lowest lipid amount was found in male juvenile gilthead seabream as 0.98 ± 0.12% in March. Palmitic acid and oleic acid were determined as the most abundant SFA and MUFA for all species, respectively. The highest value of DHA, which was the predominant PUFA was assessed as 15.33 ± 0.26% in female white seabream in November whereas the lowest value (3.83 ± 0.36%) was found in gilthead seabream in December. The n‐6/n‐3 ratio was determined between 0.27 ± 0.00 (for male common two‐banded seabream in July)‐1.20 ± 0.03 (for male gilthead seabream in December) and it followed within the range of healthy values for all species. As a conclusion, it was found that values of lipid and fatty acid profiles among the examined Sparidae species vary among the season of collection. The results of the study gave the seasonal nutritional values of four economically‐important Sparidae species that being rich in healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids such as DHA, have beneficial in human nutrition.
... Concerning the lipid content, all batches showed values less than 3.5% (fresh matter), within the range for lean fish species such as turbot (Grigorakis, 2017). However, some long-term effects on lipids were observed due to the discontinued feeding with the experimental diets (Table 3). ...
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... The viscerosomatic index (VSI), a measure for the estimation of the visceral fat deposition, and the hepatosomatic index (HSI) defining the eviscerated fish yield are being used to infer technical loss from fish gutting. Flatfish species, including turbot, have lower VSI compared to other cultured fish species, resulting in comparatively lower visceral losses (Grigorakis, 2017). Despite the difficulties in comparison with other cultured species, our results indicate similarity between the ploidy groups, seem to be within a reasonable range in terms of fillet quality, VSI, and HSI, and it is consistent with Cleveland et al. (2017). ...
Article
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... Taşbozan and Gökçe (2017) stated that, although the lipid contents of fish depend on many factors, they are generally split into three categories based on their muscle fat composition: lean (less than 5% fat), midfat (5-10% fat), and fatty fish (10-25% fat), whereas the ones below 2% should be considered very lean fish. The white seabream, like other Mediterranean Sparidae, has been considered a mid-fat species (Grigorakis 2017), but, according to our data, only some individuals in the pre-spawning period could be included in this category, as most individuals should be classified as lean. ...
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... Body fat content is rarely mentioned as a selection criteria for the optimal dietary DP/DE. This may be due to the fact that Nile tilapia deposit fat primarily in their body cavity, alongside the viscera (Haidar, 2017), which does not affect the organoleptic properties of tilapia fillets like muscle fat storage does in other farmed fish species (Grigorakis, 2017). Another reason may be that body fat content does not only reflect the effect of DP/DE on nutrient partitioning but also varies with feeding level (Liu et al., 2018) and maintenance expenditures. ...
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... An anisidine number, as well as TBARS tests, is used to characterize qualitative changes in aldehydes and ketones. Analyzing the literature data, the use of the TBARS method for the determination of secondary oxidation products in fish fat was observed [34,35]. The use of the test of expressed AsV allows the determination of the TOTOX index, which characterizes the overall level of oxidation. ...
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A four months growth trial was carried out in order to evaluate the quality traits of juvenile shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa) fed two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets having a different EE/NFE ratio (LOW, 0.7 vs. HIGH, 1.1). Compared to HIGH diet, LOW one was formulated increasing the replacement of fish oil with cereal products and soybean meal. At the end of the feeding trial (2 replicate per dietary treatment), 26 fish for each thesis were sorted according to live weight and submitted to chemical and sensorial analysis. Dietary treatments showed similar productive performance. The relative high inclusion of carbohydrates in substitution of lipids did not affect proximate composition of whole body and dorsal fillet. Among sensorial traits, LOW diet-fed fish evidenced a significant lower trunk exudation and fillet lightness. Results of this research showed that shi drum is a suitable candidate for Mediterranean marine aquaculture and its dietary formulation might include at least the NFE amount tested in this trial.
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The fatty acid compositions of flathead grey mullet fillet, raw and beeswaxed caviar oils were determined. Palmitic acid (C16:0, 20.3%) was the dominant saturated fatty acid in flathead grey mullet fillet oil. The major unsaturated fatty acids of flathead grey mullet fillet oil were detected as palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 13.9%), oleic acid (C18:1, 10.8%), hexadecatetraenoic acid (C16:4, 11.2%), and octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4, 12.5%). The most abundant unsaturated and saturated fatty acids of raw caviar oil were determined as palmitoleic (C16:1, 23.6%), oleic (C18:1, 18.8%), hexadecadioneic (C16:2, 12.8%), octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4, 8.0 %), and palmitic acid (C16:0, 5.9%). Beeswaxed caviar oil contained palmitoleic (C16:1, 14.6%), oleic (C18:1, 18.6 %), hexadecadioneic (C16:2, 7.9%), octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4, 13.8%), and palmitic acid (C16:0, 6.7%) as major fatty acids. The total unsaturation fatty acids of raw (82.2%) and beeswaxed caviar oils (78.3%) were higher than that of flathead greymullet fillet oil (61.2%). Furthermore, the amounts of docosadienoic acid (C22:2) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) of raw and beeswaxed caviar oils were nearly 1.5-2.9 times higher than those of the flathead grey mullet fillet. Keywords : Caviar, Fatty Acid Composition, Flathead Grey Mullet
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This study compares sensory attributes, chemical composition, fatty acid profiles, and the taste of raw and cooked red drum Sciaenops ocellatus fillets, reared in seawater (SW) and in freshwater (FW) aquaculture systems. Significant nutritional differences were found in the raw fillets. The total lipid was higher (5.31%) in FW fish than the SW (2.60%). The ratio n-3/n-6 and EPA/DHA was higher in SW than FW fillets. The eicosenoic acid was only present in FW fillets. DHA was dominant in SW specimens, contrary to the arachidonic acid level, which was dominant in FW fillets. The assessors perceived a significant difference in the firmness and colour of raw fillets, but its odour intensity was not affected. Fillets from SW fish have higher acceptability (33.3%) than FW fillets (26.4%). Sensory differences in raw fillet were not correlated with consumer perceptions, as cooked fish was considered to have similar flavour, independent of its origin.
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Larger meagre are more common in the market but, recently, smaller fish have started to be commercialised as well. This study aims to evaluate flesh quality and muscle cellularity of meagre of three different sizes: 800, 1500 and 2500 g. Results showed a higher fat content in larger fish (2.9% compared to 1.3% in small fish), and that texture was not affected by fish size. In terms of muscle cellularity, a higher frequency of smaller fibres was observed in 800 and 1500 g (33% compared to 18% in 2500 g) meagre, whereas in 2500 g meagre, there was a higher frequency of larger fibres. Muscle fibre density was reduced with fish weight (431 and 297 fibres mm−2 for 800 and 2500 g meagre, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that meagre of different weights are different in terms of fat content and muscle cellularity and that 800 g meagre seems to have a good potential for being commercialised.
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Background. Our previous study demonstrated that sharpsnout seabream, Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum, 1792), can be fed with up to 34.8% sunflower meal (SFM), with excellent results in growth parameters and feed efficiency. The aim of the current study was to test the replacement of fish meal with SFM in the diet formulation for sharpsnout seabream and to evaluate growth, nutritive parameters, amino acid retention, and body composition of the fish during the fattening period. Materials and methods. Sixteen baskets (300-L capacity), each with thirteen fish, were distributed in a recirculated saltwater system to allow four experimental diets containing 40% crude protein (CP) and 20% crude lipid (CL) with 0%, 11.7%, 23.5%, and 34.8% SFM partially replacing fish meal to be used in quadruplicate for this experiment. The fish were fed these diets ad libitum during the experiment, which lasted for 162 days. Growth, nutrition efficiency, biometrics, carcass composition, amino acid composition, and amino acid retention of the experimental fish were evaluated. Results. There were no statistical differences in the growth parameters among the treatments. However, fish fed a diet containing 34.8% SFM had the lowest feed intake (FI), lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR), and the highest protein efficiency ratio (PER). There were also no statistical differences in the biometric parameters although fish fed the diet containing 10% SFM had the lowest CP levels. Leucine was the only difference in the essential amino acid (EEA) profile with fish fed a diet containing 11.7% SFM having the lowest levels of leucine. Although there were fluctuations among the amino acid retentions, they were not statistically significant. Conclusion. SFM (up to 34.8%) can be included in the diets of sharpsnout seabream, thereby, replacing 27% of the fish meal without altering the fish growth.
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The use of wild-caught mullet seed for the annual restocking of inland lakes has been known in Egypt for more than eight decades. The importance of wild seed collection increased with recent aquaculture developments. The positive experience with wild seed collection and high seed production costs has prevented the development of commercial mullet hatcheries. Mullet are considered very important aquaculture fish in Egypt with 156 400 tonnes produced in 2005 representing 29 percent of the national aquaculture production. Current legislation prohibits wild seed fisheries except under the direct supervision of the relevant authorities. In 2005, 69.4 million mullet fry were caught for both aquaculture and culture-based fisheries. A parallel illegal fishery exists, undermining proper management of the resources. The effect of wild seed fisheries on the wild stocks of mullet is not well studied. The negative effect of the activity is a matter of debate between fish farming and capture fisheries communities. Data on the capture of wild mullet fisheries shows no observable effect of fry collection on the catch during the last 25 years.