Article

Green segmentation: a cross-national study

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Purpose – Understanding and defining the characteristics of environmentally conscious or concerned consumers has received attention from academic researchers, commercial sector, and policy makers. The purpose of this paper is to identify distinct market segments in three countries (China, Germany, and Turkey) based on several “green” attitude and behavior variables. Design/methodology/approach – A survey was administered in three countries, yielding a total of 1,415 valid survey responses. Findings – Four clusters, ranging from the “greenest” to the “least green” segment, were identified and characterized for each country. Inter- and intra-country similarities and differences are discussed. Existence of cross-national segments was confirmed. Research limitations/implications – There is a potential gap between actual behavior and reported behavior. Practical implications – The segment profiles can be valuable to firms, particularly to those competing in multinational markets. By delineating areas of similarity among international diversity, enterprises can develop effective global marketing strategies. Social implications – Understanding market segments in this respect is critical for policy makers who try to focus their policies that seek to promote green consumption. Originality/value – This is the first study that uses cross-national data for segmenting the market based on “green” criteria, to the authors’ knowledge. Methodologically, the paper uses techniques and instruments that have not been used in this context before.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Many segmentations about environmentally-friendly behavior have not included food consumption but have focused, for instance, on choice and use of cars for individual transport (Saleem et al., 2018), ecologically-conscious consumer behavior regarding household purchases and mobility (Straughan & Roberts, 1999) or daily consumption of green products in the household, recycling and behavior related to engaging with environmental issues (Yilmazsoy, Schmidbauer, & Rösch, 2015). Other segmentations, however, focused either only on certain aspects of food consumption (Sarti et al., 2018) or only food consumption without other domains (Grunert, Brunsø, Bredahl, & Bech, 2001). ...
... Environmentally-friendly food consumption behavior includes the reduction and replacement of animal products (meat, dairy products), the reduction of food waste (Aschemann-Witzel, 2018) and the enhanced consumption of regional and seasonal products (Garnett, 2011). Moreover, environmentally-friendly behavior does not necessarily have to be an output of caring for the environment; economic factors or social pressure can also have an impact (Yilmazsoy et al., 2015). The diverse types of behavior differ regarding effort and behavioral drivers and thereby, the willingness of the different types of consumers to show certain behaviors. ...
... Like other studies, we also identified one consumer segment that behaves the most environmentally-friendly in almost all aspects of food consumption but also in the two other investigated domains of mobility and housing. Titled as "the green" (Yilmazsoy et al., 2015) or "conscious" (Verain et al., 2016) consumer segment in previous studies, the behavior matches with our group of the consequent pro-environmental consumer; they practice green behavior on a regular and daily basis and have strong positive attitudes towards the environment (Yilmazsoy et al., 2015), sustainability labels, regional origin of the food products, their environmental friendliness is crucial to them (Verain et al., 2016) and ethnocentrism is an important value for them (Bryła, 2019). Due to strong concerns about the environment, they behave in an environmentally-friendly manner throughout all domains which might also be promoted by a positive spillover effect (Penz, Hartl, & Hofmann, 2019) . ...
Article
Full-text available
Food consumption has a large environmental impact, but the total impact of households can be reduced substantially by changing consumers’ food-related decisions and behaviors. Consumers differ in their motives and willingness to behave in an environmentally-friendly manner with regard to food consumption. Therefore, it is important to identify different types of consumers in order to develop and implement tailored intervention strategies. To identify and describe the different types of food consumers based on detailed behavioral patterns, we distributed a paper-pencil questionnaire and used data of 817 Swiss households. Applying a comprehensive and differentiated approach, self-reported environmentally-friendly food behavior was assessed with regard to different domains and different types of behaviors, which subsequently served as the basis for the consumer segmentation. We also assessed behavior in the mobility and household domains as well as several personality variables and sociodemographics as descriptive measures to characterize the segments on a differentiated basis. Cluster analysis revealed six segments in regard to environmentally-friendly food consumption: meat- and fish-eaters, origin-focused food savers, ambiguous consumers, food waste reducing sharers, renouncement aversives and consequent pro-environmental consumers. After a detailed description and discussion of the six consumer segments, we propose starting points for the development of segment-specific intervention and communication strategies to promote environmentally-friendly food consumption.
... Consequently, research on green segmentation shifted its focus to segmenting the market based on attitudinal and behavioral characteristics (i.e., Elgaaied, 2012;Tilikidou and Delistavrou, 2014). However, to date, very little research has been conducted on green segmentation studies based on environmental attitudes and purchase intentions (Saleem et al., 2018;Yilmazsoy et al., 2015). ...
... Studies over the past decade have attempted to segment the green market in terms of various segmentation variables by subdividing them into potential target segments such as environmental knowledge, values, concern, attitudes, and behavior Elgaaied, 2012;Oliver and Rosen, 2010;Yilmazsoy et al., 2015). The evidence establishes that researchers identify the segmentation variables in line with the research objectives, as suggested by Hair et al. (2010). ...
... Interestingly, in segmentation studies, there is a notable paucity of empirical research focusing on environmental attitudes as a segmentation variable. A recent study of Yilmazsoy et al. (2015) successfully separates consumer segments based on the respondents' environmental attitudes across China, Germany, and Turkey. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to segment young millennials in an emerging economy based on their environmental attitudes and purchase intentions. The study also attempts to describe the segments and highlight their differences in terms of happiness, frugality, environmental locus of control, and environmental knowledge. Design/methodology/approach The study sample consisted of 227 Turkish undergraduate students. A two-step cluster analysis was performed on environmental attitudes and purchase intentions scores. The differences among the clusters were then examined according to happiness, frugality, environmental locus of control, and environmental knowledge variables. Findings A two-step cluster analysis identified three clusters, namely, “non-greens”, “reluctant greens” and “true greens”, all of whom differed in terms of environmental attitudes and purchase intentions. Non-greens ( n = 16) and true greens ( n = 121) yielded the lowest and the highest scores for environmental attitudes and purchase intentions, respectively. Three clusters also differed significantly in terms of frugality. Environmental knowledge levels of non-greens differed from those of reluctant greens and true greens. There is no significant difference regarding happiness and environmental locus of control among clusters. Practical implications Local and international companies interested in marketing green products to young millennials in emerging economies may enhance their understanding of non-green and green young millennials in the target markets and differentiate their marketing strategies for each segment. Originality/value Given the need for a better understanding of young millennials’ environmental behavior in an emerging economy, the current study contributes to the literature by segmenting young Turkish millennials based on their environmental attitudes and purchase intentions, further describing the consumer segments with different variables such as happiness, frugality, environmental locus of control and environmental knowledge.
... Segmentation may help in better understanding the varied concerns of the consumers. Considering different characteristics such as willingness to pay, emotions, etc., Yilmazsoy et al. (2015) and Cholette et al. (2013) divided green consumers into different clusters. They found these characteristics as highly dynamic with an intent to shift from one cluster to the other. ...
... So, marketers operating in such countries need to focus on the image building of their organizations. Although product innovation demands a change in segmentation strategy (Cholette et al., 2013;Yilmazsoy et al., 2015), Luzio and Lemke (2013) Green Marketing ...
Article
Full-text available
The study presents an overview of green marketing and the gap between attitude and actual purchase behaviour of consumers towards green products. A total of 232 studies have been analysed using a systematic review to develop a green purchase decision making model. A thematic analysis helped in identification of three major themes namely; personal factors affecting green purchase; green purchase; and green marketing mix. The concern for eco‐environment, eco‐labelling, past‐experiences and perceived usefulness have been identified as major influencers of green consumer behaviour. Lack of environmental knowledge, price, perceived associated risks, organisational image, trust, and willingness to pay have been identified as barriers, creating a gap between attitude and actual purchase behaviour of consumers towards green products. On the basis of analysis, a green purchase decision model has been proposed, and also potential areas of future research have been suggested.
... Several studies have observed lifestyles as psychographic variables that give a clearer orientation to companies for identifying the ecological consumer segment Martinez, 2006a, 2006b;Rios et al., 2006;Chan et al., 2006;Pickett-Baker and Ozaki, 2008;Khare, 2014). Notably, studies on green consumer behavior have been generating considerable interest as of late (Lao, 2014;Mohd Suki and Mohd Suki, 2015;Yilmazsoy et al., 2015;Moser, 2015;Aagerup et al., 2016;Bailey et al., 2016;Swaim et al., 2016;Onel and Mukherjee, 2016;Ko and Jin, 2017;Sony and Ferguson, 2017). For more than a decade, marketers have called for additional research regarding the predictors of sustainable consumption because it is often difficult to encourage this type of consumer behavior (Do Paco and Raposo, 2009;Yeon Kim and Chung, 2011;Chen, 2014). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify what lifestyles best explain and impact ecological behavior among young Indian consumers. Design/methodology/approach This paper adapts the lifestyle scale developed by He et al. (2010) and the Actual Commitment scale to the Indian context to describe its impact on the young consumer’s ecological profile. The study is based on an extensive literature review. The data were obtained from a questionnaire handed out to a sample of 250 students. With the information obtained, and after the scale validation process, a structural equation analysis has been conducted. Findings Findings of the study highlight that environmental patterns and lifestyle factors are those that best characterize the ecological market segment. This group of young consumers is characterized by their self-identity and a feeling of uniqueness. They are people who always try to improve themselves and take actions which pose a new challenge for them. They are also characterized by having an ecological lifestyle, selecting and recycling products and taking part in events to protect the environment. This type of consumer is a present and future investment for firms that are committed to the environment. Originality/value The results of this study might interest consumer behavior researchers and those firms that care about the ecological consumers. Moreover, previous studies have not dealt with young consumers. Further research is needed including new psychographic variables.
... Several areas provide opportunities for future research in this domain. First, because of gender bias in the sample of the current study, the external validity of the results may be restricted (Baris et al., 2015). Future studies should aim to employ stratified sampling techniques, taking gender as one of the criteria for stratification. ...
Article
Despite the growing importance of environmental problems in emerging economies, only limited information has been available for policymakers regarding consumers' characteristics with regards to pro-environmental orientation. The purpose of this study is to provide an analysis of the socio-demographic and psychographic factors that discriminate green consumers from non-green consumers, in the context of eco-socially conscious consumers' behavioral intentions specific to choice and use of personal cars. This study offers novel insights from an empirical investigation conducted with a sample of 771 automobile industry customers in a growing market within South Asia, i.e., Pakistan. Findings from hierarchical cluster analytics, applied to a randomly selected national sample, revealed that slightly over 50% of the customers had eco-social tendencies towards the choice and use of personal cars. Multiple Discriminant Analysis showed that spirituality, perceived consumer effectiveness and environmental values were significantly discriminating factors between the three segments: Conservatives, Indifferents, and Enthusiasts. Moreover, consumers in the enthusiasts’ segment showed growing interest in eco-social conservation via the use of personal cars. Analysis of demographic characteristics demonstrated that customers of the three segments differed significantly from each other based on income, education, gender and city of residence. Findings of the study provide important guidelines for marketers and policymakers seeking to develop actionable strategies for addressing the specific needs of the pro-environmental segment in the Pakistani market.
... (b) Individual well-being has had a great influence on the purchasing attitude of green products (Dagher et al., 2015;Johnstone & Tan, 2015;Lai & Cheng, 2016). Environment-friendly consumption patterns will also contribute to an individual's well-being (Chaudhuri, Giffi, Kandaswami, & Singh, 2009;Yilmazsoy, Schmidbauer, & Rösch, 2015). A quarter of the United Kingdom and ZERO of Indian consumers said they would be willing to pay the green premium (Johnston & Tan, 2015;Peattie, 2001;Yadav & Pathak, 2017). ...
... A study revealed that the green marketing initiative does help build up the knowledge base in customers regarding the ecological issues but does little if effecting their personal beliefs regarding the environment (Toong et al., 2015). These results were conflicted in the studies conducted in developed countries where environmental beliefs seem to significantly affect the environmental concerns among the consumers (Yilmazsoy et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this study is to ascertain the effects of environmental knowledge and green consumption as mediators on the relationship between green marketing and green buying behavior. Three dimensions have been identified in this research to describe green marketing. These are ecolabeling, green branding and green advertising. Methodology A survey research method has been utilized to collect data on a questionnaire adapted from previous research. The data collected has been analyzed with SmartPLS to assess the measurement model for reliability and validity and structural model for hypothesis testing and confirmation. Findings Focusing on the level of environmental knowledge of customers, it comes to surface that customers in developing countries have lesser knowledge in comparison to the customers in developed countries. Environmental knowledge does not mediate the relationship between green marketing and green buying behavior whereas green consumption mediates the relationship between green marketing and green buying behavior. Originality This study incorporates the social practice theory in green marketing research on organizational level. This study brings together the marketing practices under the influence of environmental knowledge for buying behavior formation in a novel manner. Also, the theoretical foundations on social practice theory and the empirical design of the study to observe the relationships with survey is a new step.
... (b) Individual well-being has had a great influence on the purchasing attitude of green products (Dagher et al., 2015;Johnstone & Tan, 2015;Lai & Cheng, 2016). Environment-friendly consumption patterns will also contribute to an individual's well-being (Chaudhuri, Giffi, Kandaswami, & Singh, 2009;Yilmazsoy, Schmidbauer, & Rösch, 2015). A quarter of the United Kingdom and ZERO of Indian consumers said they would be willing to pay the green premium (Johnston & Tan, 2015;Peattie, 2001;Yadav & Pathak, 2017). ...
... For instance, Lavelle et al. (2015) identified different segment of consumers on the basis of their environmental attitudes and socio-demographics. Similarly, Yilmazsoy et al. (2015) formed segments using attitudinal behavioral attributes in three countries (China, Germany, and Turkey). Further, Poortinga and Darton (2016) did a research in the UK in which they identified segments on the basis of individuals' attitude towards climate change and energy security. ...
Article
Consumers today not only view companies as profit centres, but also as institutions that should be sensitive to social problems such as environmental degradation. As a result, organizations have started considering the environmental needs of consumers by focusing on 'Sustainability as a business goal'. Green products may help companies to improve their bottom line and brand image. This paper forms green consumer segments on the basis of cultural values, psychographics, and demographics. Demographics include income, gender and education. Cultural values include Collectivism and Long-term orientation (LTO) from Hofstede and Man-nature orientation (MNO) from a value orientation model by Kluchohn, (1961). Psychographics are derived from Theory of planned behavior (TPB). The results indicate that there are four distinct segments. Two of these segments ‘Female Green Activists’ and ‘Green Outlook Male Activists’ are identified as the groups that are more willing to buy green products. Finally, implications from the results are derive for practitioners and policy-makers to develop targeting strategies for these segments.
... For instance, Lavelle et al. (2015) identified different segment of consumers on the basis of their environmental attitudes and sociodemographics. Similarly, Yilmazsoy et al. (2015) formed segments using attitudinal behavioural attributes in three countries (China, Germany, and Turkey). Further, Poortinga and Darton (2016) did a research in the UK in which they identified segments on the basis of individuals' attitude towards climate change and energy security. ...
... Besides threatening the future habitability of our planet, environmental problems have significant immediate business consequences. Consumer attitudes and preferences change rapidly and failing to understand such dynamics can be costly to businesses across many different sectors (Yilmazsoy et al., 2015). Consumers are becoming increasingly involved and concerned about environmental protection, and this is reflected in many contemporary marketing policies and conceptsthe ongoing changes in personal preferences and motivations affect multiple behavioural and consumption attitudes (Barber et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the current stances of the population towards environmental issues is a prerequisite for any successful implementation of environmentally concerned policies. The goal of this paper is to provide structured information on generational and other socio-demographic differences in individual environmental stances and related lifestyle preferences. Given the Likert-scale based data collected from the questionnaires, we use ordered multinomial logistic regression as our main tool for quantitative analysis. Major differences in stances are identified between genders and among different age and education groups.
Article
Over the past decades, environmental sustainability has raised at the top of the international political agenda and has been recognized as a key driver of innovation. As a result, the number of companies developing green products has been rapidly growing and consumers have shown an increasing interest for these products. Thus, understanding the main characteristics of green products, identifying factors affecting their price and consumers’ willingness to pay more for them, sales channels and promotional tools (the 4Ps of Green Marketing) would be very useful for companies aiming at designing, developing and marketing green products. For this reason, deeply understanding Green Marketing would foster, on the one hand, cleaner production through the development of green products and, on the other hand, sustainable consumption through the successful marketing of them. To this aim, this study reviews the body of knowledge on the topic, through a systematic review of the literature. Specifically, this paper analyzes: 1) the dominant definitions of Green Marketing (and related concepts) and their evolution over time, 2) the different steps to build a Green Marketing Strategy, and 3) the characteristics of Green Marketing Mix elements. After searching for academic publications in three databases (EBSCO, Scopus, and Web of Science) and selecting publications based on their relevance for the stated aims, 114 studies have been included in the review. Results show that the definition of Green Marketing has changed over time according to the growing relevance of environmental sustainability. Regarding the Green Marketing Strategy, several ways of segmenting consumers have been identified; studies converge in giving greater relevance to green brand positioning rather than to green product positioning and many of them see it as a chance of differentiation. Referring to the Green Marketing Mix, results show that: many types of green products exist; consumers are willing to pay a premium price according to products’ functional attributes or their responsibility towards the natural environment; closed-loop supply chain and reverse logistics play a key role; a careful definition of advertisement contents is essential and ecolabels can be important tools. This study provides an in-depth analysis and synthesis of the body of knowledge so far produced in the field of Green Marketing and, as such, it has important implications for managers, scholars, and students.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Companies that wish to market a global brand need to develop a greater understanding of consumers' and potential consumers' susceptibility to global consumer culture (SGCC) with a view to standardizing/adapting their brand according to the desires and preferences of the consumers who belong to specific segments of global consumers. Thus, the aim of the study is to fill a joint segmentation research gap within and between countries based on seven dimensions of SGCC while classifying consumers according to the degree of belonging to specific and hybrid (global citizenship) segments. Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire was applied online in English in five countries across the Americas and Europe resulting in a sample of 412 consumers. Based on the fuzzy C -means cluster analysis, the study segments the sample of consumers according to the degree of belonging to specific and global citizenship segments. Findings Analysis of survey results show three groups; two distinct groups and a third with features of both, a distinct intersection group. These findings suggest that consumers in different countries develop beliefs and attitudes about global citizenship, and this perspective coincides with the characteristics of the intersection group. Consequently, the study shows that fragmentation of the needs of consumers exists within and between countries. Originality/value This study contributes to the concept of global citizenship, helping managers of global brands improve their marketing strategy decisions by implementing strategies that are standardized or adapted to specific hybrid segments of consumers that transcend national borders. This study used a statistical method to measure the degree of belonging to each segment.
Article
Full-text available
Günümüzde, çevre ve çevrecilikle ilgili farkındalığın artması, sürdürülebilirlik konusunda yükselen endişeler, işletmelerin uygulamalarında ve yönetim felsefelerinde köklü değişiklikler yapmasına neden olmaktadır. Yeşil pazarlama, işletmelerin, hayatta kalması için sadece kârlılığa değil, kurumsal ve sosyal sorumluklarına da odaklanması gerektiğine dikkat çekmektedir. Küreselleşen dünyada, rekabet avantajı kazanmak için güven veren bir kurumsal itibar, güven veren kurumsal itibar için yeşil imaj, yeşil imaj oluşturmak için yeşil pazarlama stratejileri ve güçlü yeşil pazarlama stratejileri için de yeşil pazarlama uygulamaların işletmenin her fonksiyonuyla bütünleştirilmesi çok önemlidir. Bu çalışmada, işletmenin çevre stratejileri varlığının; yeşil pazarlama uygulamaları, çevre korumaya yönelik çalışmaları, yeşil pazarlama karması unsurları, çevreye karşı sorumlulukları ve müşteri ilişkilerine göre farklılık gösterip göstermediğini ölçmek amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmanın bir diğer amacı, yeşil pazarlama stratejileri, devletin çevre düzenlemeleri, tedarikçi/ paydaşlar ve işletme amaçları arasındaki ilişkileri ölçmektir. Bu amaçla oluşturulan anket, küçük ve orta boy işletmelere e-posta yoluyla uygulanmış, 653 işletmeden geri dönüş alınmış ve elde edilen veriler analiz edilmiştir. Sonuçlar, hipotezlerin iddialarını doğrulamaktadır. Today, increasing awareness about environment and environmentalism, rising concerns about sustainability, causes fundamental changes in the practices and management philosophies of enterprises. Green marketing points out that businesses need to focus not only on profitability but also on corporate and social responsibility for their survival. In a globalizing world, it is very important to integrate green marketing practices with every function of the enterprise for a corporate reputation, a green image for trusting corporate reputation, green marketing strategies to create a green image and a strong green marketing strategy to gain competitive advantage. In this study, it is aimed to measure whether the presence of environmental strategies of the enterprise differs according to green marketing practices, environmental protection studies, green marketing mix elements, environmental responsibilities and customer relations. Another aim of the study is to measure the relationships between green marketing strategies, government environmental regulations, supplier/ stakeholders and business objectives. The questionnaire, which was formed for this purpose, was applied to small and medium-sized enterprises by email, 653 enterprises were returned and the data obtained were analyzed. The results confirm the claims of the hypotheses.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: In the present era of green consumerism, consumers are shifting towards sustainable consumption with the rising demand of green products. Despite consumers’ demand of such products, their attitudes toward eco-friendly practices can neither be the same for different consumer groups nor can be treated as they all are equally green. The purpose of this study is to operationalize the green market segmentation based on demographic, psychographic and behavioural characterization in the Indian context of green consumerism. Design/methodology/approach: The deductive approach of questionnaire survey method adapted to collect the responses from convenient sampling of Indian consumers using the measured constructs concerning to green consumer psychology. The data was analyzed by applying multivariate techniques of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), cluster and discriminant analysis. Findings: The results revealed that the three distinctive set of consumer groups are evolved as ‘keen greens’, ‘moderate greens’ and ‘reluctant greens’ based on the eight cognitive variables used in this study namely, environmental concern (EC), perceived environmental knowledge (PEK), perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE), perception of eco-label, perception of eco-brand, and environmental advertisements, green purchase intention (GPI) and green purchasing behaviour (GPB) in the Indian context. Research limitations/implications: The research findings may lack its generalizability in the Indian context, as the survey strategy is confined with the most populated territory of India. To provide its robustness, the future studies needs more heterogeneous sample across the country. The research findings could provide the key insights to policymakers and enterprises in the framing of marketing strategies to promote green consumerism in the setting of emerging economies. Originality/Value: There is dearth of literature concerning to green consumer segmentation based on ‘attitude-intention-behaviour’ approach in the Indian context. Therefore, the present study endeavors to manifest a holistic description of green consumer classification based on demographic, psychographic and behavioural characterization. At Prima facie, the study is the first that elucidates consumers’ segments profile by incorporating environmental cognitive factors from both the perspectives; ‘consumers’ inner stimuli’ and ‘external green marketing cues’ especially in the indigenous Indian setting. Keywords: Green market segmentation; Demographics; Psychographics; Green purchasing behaviour; Cluster analysis
Chapter
A humanistic paradigm framework is used to examine leading practices in contemporary creative tourism, with a particular focus on the rural and small-city context. These experiences are drawn from a research-and-application project, CREATOUR, which catalyzed a network of 40 creative-tourism initiatives in Portugal. Focusing on eight initiatives, it examines the ways in which creative-tourism strategies and practices embody and advance a humanistic paradigm. We find that creative tourism promotes human flourishing, engages the other in a journey of mutual discovery, honors the dignity of each stakeholder, and contributes to the common good in intriguing ways.
Article
This study is an investigation of how environmental consciousness and health consciousness influence consumers' ecological purchase intentions regarding eco‐friendly products (pollution‐reduction behavior) and self‐protective products (pollution‐avoidance behavior). Data collected in a between‐subject experiment indicate that environmental and health consciousness influence ecological purchase intentions. Moreover, haze pollution moderates these effects. On hazy days, environmental consciousness motivates ecological intentions; on clear days, health consciousness motivates ecological purchase intentions. In addition, perceived self‐competence moderates the impacts of environmental consciousness and health consciousness on purchase intentions. Consumers with high self‐competence are only influenced by environmental consciousness. Health consciousness has the strongest effects on consumers who have low self‐competence. Implications for policymakers and managers are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective on the relation between targeting strategy and green brand positioning strategy. The research method used was the in-depth individual interview, conducted among specialists from organic certified companies, who have in their portfolio a green brand which they sell on the organic food market in Romania. In order to provide an integrative view on the analyzed topic, the research was conducted among manufacturers, processors, distributors and retailers. The results showed that in the case of targeting the mass market, the selected positioning bases selected are mainly from the category of those specific to conventional products, while the importance of green positioning bases decreases (positioning at standards imposed by the legislation in force). On the other hand, if the company chooses to address only the segment of green consumers, then it is more likely that the company opts for those attributes and benefits that define green products (positioning above the standards imposed by the legislation in force). This paper offers a view on how to select the positioning bases needed to define the green brand positioning, taking into account the strategy chosen on a higher level (targeting strategy).
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify critical personality traits affecting and influencing buying behaviour in high involvement consumer durables. It also intends to guide practitioners in selecting appropriate marketing frameworks, consumer segments and processes considering the characteristics of consumer behaviour in developing economies. Design/methodology/approach It systematically reviews the literature on consumer personality traits, its measurement and related consumer buying behaviour. It uses data collected from potential car buyers at various car showrooms across the Indian subcontinent. The authors have worked with the online survey firm Qualtrics, to gather a data set of 328 car purchase intenders’ responses to their validated survey. The model was tested using the SmartPLS. Findings The personality traits of imagination, agreeableness and social factors positively influenced attitude towards automobiles with advanced technology. Further, in line with the theory of planned behaviour, it is seen that a positive attitude towards advanced technology and design for automobiles makes a person more willing to pay for the same. Research limitations/implications The study is confined to consumers intending to purchase a car, who are Indian residents. Originality/value It adds to the comparatively lesser body of study on the impact of personality traits on intentions and attitudes in high involvement consumer durable purchases. Further, it serves as an empirical examination of the adoption of new technologies, in the context of high involvement consumer durables. For practicing managers, it provides a reference for deciding future development directions and approaches related to the effective market launch strategies and commercialization of advanced technology automobiles in India.
Article
Full-text available
The importance of the relation between targeting and positioning strategies is amplified in the context of the green market, as a result of the difficulty that many companies face in attracting an important customer base. The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective on the relation between the targeting strategy and the green brand positioning strategy. The research method used was the in-depth individual interview, conducted among specialists from organic certified companies, who have in their portfolio a green brand which they sell on the organic food market in Romania. In order to provide an integrative view on the analyzed topic, the research was conducted among manufacturers, processors, distributors and retailers. The results showed that in the case of targeting the mass market, the selected positioning bases selected are mainly from the category of those specific to conventional products, while the importance of green positioning bases decreases (positioning at standards imposed by the legislation in force). On the other hand, if the company chooses to address only the segment of green consumers, then it is more likely that the company opts for those attributes and benefits that define green products (positioning above the standards imposed by the legislation in force). This paper offers a view on how to select the positioning bases needed to define the green brand positioning, taking into account the strategy chosen on a higher level (targeting strategy). Future studies could, through quantitative research, deepen and verify the relation between the proposed strategic alternatives for green brands.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Sustainability principles have been practiced and researched in marketing for nearly five decades, but the challenges we face today are still significant. This context defines the purpose of this paper, which is to find, synthesize and critically evaluate the existing literature on marketing in a sustainability context from 1969 to 2019. The ultimate aim is to provide a unified body of literature on sustainability marketing and classify the extant literature. Design/methodology/approach – The relevant articles from selected journals were identified and manually verified using the Scopus database. The SPAR- 4- SLR protocol provides the framework for the methodology. In total, 749 articles were eligible for inclusion in the study. Findings – The research findings are presented in the form of article categorization into 11 thematic categories. The thematic categories outlined previous studies’ trend and contribution characteristics under the individual category, illustrating their implications. Practical implications – The literature review aids in understanding the current state of research and piques researchers’ interest in sustainability marketing. The findings of the study will be a valuable resource for future scholars, managers and policymakers. Originality/value – This study contributes to the existing literature by providing valuable insights from previous research on the research trend in sustainability marketing and by providing a recommendation for future research avenues. After a long hiatus, this is the most up-to-date comprehensive article, providing a general overview of research trends. Keywords Sustainability marketing, Social marketing, Green marketing, Environmental marketing, Sustainability, Literature review, Bibliometrics
Article
Full-text available
The green movement in newly industrialized countries often lags behind the West. While the green awareness has started to rise rapidly in some of these countries, the ability of attitudes to predict behaviour for environmentally sensitive products is questionable. A survey of 552 Hong Kong citizens was conducted to examine how consistent consumers’ actions were with their attitudes towards seven environmentally sensitive products. The results have shown that consumers’ environmental concern is not reflected in their purchasing behaviour. This calls for more education and initiative from both the government and businessmen to induce people to channel their attitudes into actions.
Article
Full-text available
Dunlap and Van Liere's New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) Scale, published in 1978, has become a widely used measure of proenvironmental orientation. This article develops a revised NEP Scale designed to improve upon the original one in several respects: ( 1 ) It taps a wider range of facets of an ecological worldview, ( 2 ) It offers a balanced set of pro- and anti-NEP items, and ( 3 ) It avoids outmoded terminology. The new scale, termed the New Ecological Paradigm Scale, consists of 15 items. Results of a 1990 Washington State survey suggest that the items can be treated as an internally consistent summated rating scale and also indicate a modest growth in pro-NEP responses among Washington residents over the 14 years since the original study.
Article
Full-text available
The authors construct a psychographic profile of the green consumer in terms of variables directly related to purchase behavior, such as price consciousness and general care in shopping, interest in new products, and brand loyalty. Additionally, they address attitudes toward advertising and media preferences. Data from 3264 respondents to the DDB Needham Life Style Study were analyzed. The results show the green consumer to be an opinion leader and a careful shopper who seeks information on products, including information from advertising, but also suggest that the green consumer is rather skeptical of advertising. The implications are that green consumers may be receptive to green marketing and advertising, but marketers should take care not to alienate them by using ambiguous or misleading messages.
Article
Full-text available
As ecological concerns evolve and diffuse throughout society, advertisers are interested in developing green (i.e., environmental) messages and are interested in targeting green customer segments. Unfortunately for advertisers, many green consumers have negative attitudes about business, and they often have negative impressions of the advertising industry. Here, this dilemma is examined from a variety of perspectives.
Article
Full-text available
This paper develops a new approach to sustainability marketing: repositioning activities as normal, or not normal, to encourage the adoption of more sustainable consumer practices. The paper is grounded in theories of social normalisation, conformity, and social practice theory. Previous qualitative work by the authors suggests that some sustainable behaviours are not adopted because they are perceived to be not normal, and that some unsustainable behaviours persist because they are seen as normal. This paper shows how consumer perceptions of the extent to which behaviours are normal or not normal can be identified and used in the design of sustainability marketing strategies. The research involved a survey of 1000 UK respondents' attitudes to 15 specific activities, and identifies marketing strategies for (re)positioning these activities as either normal or not normal, as appropriate. In addition, the paper provides guidance for targeting these normalisation strategies at specific demographic groups.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the influence of value orientations measured at the individual level (individualism, collectivism, and locus of control) and of economic status on environmental beliefs and behavior. Structural equation modeling reveals that the preferred model is one in which the value orientations and economic status influence beliefs about recycling, which in turn influence recycling behavior, bur the influence of the value orientations and economic status differs as a function of the type of environmental belief: Individualism and economic status are related to beliefs about the inconvenience of recycling; collectivism and locus of control are related to beliefs about the importance of recycling. Moreover. specific beliefs about the importance of recycling have both a direct influence on recycling behavior and an effect that is mediated by beliefs about the inconvenience of recycling. The authors present the implications of the study for public policy and marketing communication efforts.
Article
Full-text available
We propose the bagplot, a bivariate generalization of the univariate boxplot. The key notion is the half space location depth of a point relative to a bivariate dataset, which extends the univariate concept of rank. The “depth median” is the deepest location, and it is surrounded by a “bag” containing the n/2 observations with largest depth. Magnifying the bag by a factor 3 yields the “fence” (which is not plotted). Observations between the bag and the fence are marked by a light gray loop, whereas observations outside the fence are flagged as outliers. The bagplot visualizes the location, spread, correlation, skewness, and tails of the data. It is equivariant for linear transformations, and not limited to elliptical distributions. Software for drawing the bagplot is made available for the S-Plus and MATLAB environments. The bagplot is illustrated on several datasets—for example, in a scatterplot matrix of multivariate data.
Article
Full-text available
Looking to the future of green marketing, examines the dynamic nature of ecologically conscious consumer behavior. The study also provides a method of profiling and segmenting college students based upon ecologically conscious consumer behavior. Findings indicate that, despite a significant amount of past research attention, demographic criteria are not as useful a profiling method as psychographic criteria. Consistent with past findings, the study indicates that perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE) provides the greatest insight into ecologically conscious consumer behavior. Further, the inclusion of altruism to the profile appears to add significantly to past efforts. Additional constructs examined suggest that environmental segmentation alternatives are more stable than past profiles that have relied primarily on demographic criteria.
Article
Full-text available
Packaging is a major contributor to the escalating solid waste stream. This paper presents results of a study that attempts to determine variables which can be used to discriminate between groups that are and are not willing to purchase ecologically packaged products. Attitude toward ecologically conscious living, attitude toward litter, locus of control and the perception of pollution as a problem were found to be significant discriminating variables. Implications for marketers and public policymakers are provided, as well as directions for future research.
Article
Full-text available
A consumer model of environmentally responsible purchase behaviour was tested using covariance structural analysis. The model successfully predicted the purchase of environmentally responsible and non-responsible product alternatives. A hierarchial relationship from values to product specific attitudes to purchase intention to purchase behaviour was confirmed. Individual consequences, which take the personal implications of consumption into account, were found to be just as important in predicting intention as the environmental consequences of a product. The study empirically tested a values typology as a basis to explain attitude formation.
Article
Full-text available
The green movement in newly industrialized countries often lags behind the West. While the green awareness has started to rise rapidly in some of these countries, the ability of attitudes to predict behaviour for environmentally sensitive products is questionable. A survey of 552 Hong Kong citizens was conducted to examine how consistent consumers’ actions were with their attitudes towards seven environmentally sensitive products. The results have shown that consumers’ environmental concern is not reflected in their purchasing behaviour. This calls for more education and initiative from both the government and businessmen to induce people to channel their attitudes into actions.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce the idea of green atmospherics and propose a conceptual framework for green service environment factors and a typology for green consumers. Design/methodology/approach – This paper takes the form of a conceptual piece. and offers a new approach to green consumerism. Green atmospherics goes beyond many of the typical factors explored in previous service environment studies. The paper examines how many terms commonplace in the design and architectural literature can be translated into the marketing arena. Factors such as daylighting, recycling, offgassing, insulation, optimal energy performance and design for the environment are discussed. Findings – The paper proposes that “going green” goes beyond having recyclable or even sustainable products, to an ideology that incorporates improving worker morale and retention, and giving back to the communities they are located in. Additionally, the paper makes a case for classifying green consumers based on a psychographic segmentation approach compared to the more traditional socioeconomic classification. Originality/value – This paper offers a conceptual framework for assessing green atmospherics within service environments and proposes a green consumer typology that references “stimuli” versus “socio-demographics” for categorization. A new categorization is proposed and the importance of this topic to consumers, practitioners and researchers are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Concerns related to the environment are evident in the increasingly ecologically conscious marketplace. Using various statistical analyses, investigats the demographic, psychological and behavioral profiles of consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. Finds that this segment of consumers were more likely to be females, married and with at least one child living at home. They reported that today’s ecological problems are severe, that corporations do not act responsibly toward the environment and that behaving in an ecologically favorable fashion is important and not inconvenient. They place a high importance on security and warm relationships with others, and they often consider ecological issues when making a purchase. Managerial implications for green marketers and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – To discover whether there are market segments for the fashion industry that cut across countries and respond differently to advertising messages. Design/methodology/approach – A survey was administered to Korean, European, and US female consumers. Cluster analysis is used in an attempt to identify lifestyle segments that cut across cultures. Findings – Four cross-national market segments are identified. These segments can be labeled as follows: “information seekers,” “sensation seekers,” “utilitarian consumers,” and “conspicuous consumers.” Findings also reveal that fashion lifestyle segment had a stronger effect on the reaction to a set of three ads for a major global fashion company (one each from the French, Korean, and US editions of Vogue magazine) than did consumer nationality. Practical implications – Findings suggest that it is viable and perhaps desirable for global marketers in the fashion industry to target cross-national market segments as opposed to developing individual segmentation schemes for each country. Originality/value – Relatively few studies examining the viability of cross-national segmentation have been studies. The study provides insight on building global brand equity and suggests standardized advertising is appropriate for some fashion marketers.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This paper has two overall goals. The first is to serve as a broad overview of the literature on the subject theme, with three main objectives in mind: to highlight the complexities of international market selection or segmentation as a field of study and as a strategic decision by international firms; to explore the various ways and perspectives from which this area has been studied; and to suggest areas for future research by drawing on the preceding discussion. The second goal of the paper is to act as an introduction to the IMR special issue on the title theme, by outlining the special issue's objectives and the contributions to it. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on the relevant literatures, the paper begins by outlining the factors that make the field complex in both theoretical and applied terms, moves to consider the research streams that comprise its main components, and concludes by drawing conclusions and implications for future research. Findings – A large part of the complexity characterizing this field arises from the fact that it is closely intertwined with the broader area of internationalization and a number of other decisions related to it, such as the “go/no-go” decision and the firm's choice of mode of entry. From the research perspective, theory development has been impeded by a high degree of fragmentation, which has resulted in various different streams studying the same general issues from widely different perspectives. Research limitations/implications – The paper identifies a large number of directions for potential future research, not the least of which is the need for integrative research that addresses the fragmentation identified in the study. Practical implications – Although this is primarily a theoretical paper directed at researchers, practitioners can gain useful insights from it by examining the various factors that have a bearing on their internationalization decisions. Originality/value – The objectives of the main part of the paper will have been met if it succeeds in stimulating interest in further research and discussion on the core issues. The second part summarizes the contributions to the special issue and draws attention to the main message that each aims to convey.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify distinct market segments based on several environmental variables. Given the complexity and the range of variables that may determine the characterisation of these groups, as was made evident in the literature review, it was decided to focus this research mainly on analysing the environmental and demographic criteria. Design/methodology/approach – The data were collected through a survey of Portuguese consumers, aged over 18. The model of data collection was a survey conducted by self-administered questionnaire. A total of 887 were considered valid (the final sample). The questionnaire is composed of two sections. In the first part, data are collected about the demographic characteristics of respondents. The second part examines the environmental dimension (concern, affect, knowledge, environmentally friendly behaviours, information search, activism, green products buying behaviour, sensitivity to price, waste separation/recycling, perceived efficiency, scepticism, etc.). After collection, the data were statistically analysed and interpreted using the statistical software Statistical Package for Social Sciences 15.0. The data obtained were submitted to a multivariate statistical analysis, which included the following sequence of statistical treatment: factor analysis, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. After this, a characterisation was made of the segments found. Findings – The results of this study show that there are consumers who buy green products and that certain environmental and demographic variables are significant for differentiating between the “greener” segment and the other segments. Yet, generally speaking, one is left with the impression that the Portuguese, despite their support for policies designed to improve the environment, do not translate their concerns into actions: they rarely join environmentalist associations and they do not take part in policy making. Their participation is often based on protecting the environment by saving electricity and water, which shows that these concerns may be more closely related with economic factors than with an environmental consciousness. It can be concluded that Portuguese consumers understand the challenges currently placed before the environment, and that they are aware of the existence of environmental problems, even though their concerns are not always translated into environmentally friendly behaviour. It was also noted that there are consumers who are prepared to base their buying decisions on purchasing products that do not harm the environment. In fact, it was seen that there is a segment of “greener” consumers in the sample that differs significantly in some aspects from the other market segments. Originality/value – The importance of market segmentation is highlighted, together with a presentation of the most relevant criteria for differentiating individuals in terms of their environmental behaviour. The results of this study show that there are consumers who buy green products and that certain environmental and demographic variables are significant for differentiating between the “greener” segment and the other segments.
Article
Full-text available
Given their definition of subjective norms, rational-choice theories must be located within the realm of social conventionality. However, subjective norms can be grounded in moral as well as conventional considerations. Not surprisingly, then, rational-choice theories insufficiently explain behaviors that are at least partially moral, such as ecological behavior. The present paper establishes an expanded rational-choice model of environmental attitude that extends into the moral domain by using feelings of personal obligation toward the environment (i. e., feelings of responsibility) as an additional predictor of intentions to behave ecologically. Findings from two studies are presented. In Study 1 a sample of Swiss adults (N = 436) was used to test the proposed model. Study 2 replicates the findings of Study 1 with a sample of California college students (N = 488). Assessments were carried out in a structural equation modeling framework. Environmental knowledge, environmental values, and responsibility feelings together explained 45% (50% in Study 2) of the variance of ecological behavior intention which, in turn, predicted 76% (94%) of the explainable variance of general ecological behavior. As the inclusion of responsibility feelings increased the proportion of explained variance of ecological behavior intention by 5% (10%) above and beyond a more basic attitude model, the moral extension of the proposed attitude model is largely supported.
Book
The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. "Cluster analysis is the increasingly important and practical subject of finding groupings in data. The authors set out to write a book for the user who does not necessarily have an extensive background in mathematics. They succeed very well." textemdash}Mathematical Reviews "Finding Groups in Data [is] a clear, readable, and interesting presentation of a small number of clustering methods. In addition, the book introduced some interesting innovations of applied value to clustering literature." textemdash{Journal of Classification "This is a very good, easy-to-read, and practical book. It has many nice features and is highly recommended for students and practitioners in various fields of study." textemdashTechnometrics An introduction to the practical application of cluster analysis, this text presents a selection of methods that together can deal with most applications. These methods are chosen for their robustness, consistency, and general applicability. This book discusses various types of data, including interval-scaled and binary variables as well as similarity data, and explains how these can be transformed prior to clustering.
Article
With the increasing globalization of the business world, international segmentation becomes an ever more important concept in marketing. The globalization forces now at work push many companies to extend or reorganize their marketing strategies across borders and target international segments of consumers. It is the purpose of this paper to review the international market segmentation literature and to identify its future prospects and threats. We critically assess the current status of international market segmentation research and provide a systematic overview of 25 previous empirical studies with respect to the samples used for segmentation, segmentation bases and methods, geographic configuration of segments, and validation efforts. We discuss a number of conceptual and methodological issues that deserve more attention if international market segmentation is to fulfill its high potential. The conceptual issues include construct equivalence of the segmentation basis used, level of aggregation in the segmentation process, and choice of the segmentation basis. The methodological issues include measure equivalence and sample equivalence of the segmentation basis, segmentation methods employed, and whether national sample sizes should be proportional to population sizes. We describe a case study to illustrate and integrate the various issues and conclude with suggestions for future research to stimulate further advances in the area. D
Article
The essential guide for forward-thinking business leaders who see the Green Wave coming and want to profit from it. This book explores what every executive must know to manage the environmental challenges facing society and business. Based on the authors' years of experience and hundreds of interviews with corporate leaders around the world, Green to Gold shows how companies generate lasting value, cutting costs, reducing risk, increasing revenues, and creating strong brands, by building environmental thinking into their business strategies. Daniel C. Esty and Andrew S. Winston provide clear how-to advice and concrete examples from companies like BP, Toyota, IKEA, GE, and Nike that are achieving both environmental and business success. The authors show how these cutting-edge companies are establishing an "eco-advantage" in the marketplace as traditional elements of competitive differentiation fade in importance. Esty and Winston not only highlight successful strategies but also make plain what does not work by describing why environmental initiatives sometimes fail despite the best intentions. Green to Gold is written for executives at every level and for businesses of all kinds and sizes. Esty and Winston guide leaders through a complex new world of resource shortfalls, regulatory restrictions, and growing pressure from customers and other stakeholders to strive for sustainability. With a sharp focus on execution, Esty and Winston offer a thoughtful, pragmatic, and inspiring road map that companies can use to cope with environmental pressures and responsibilities while sparking innovation that will drive long-term growth. Green to Gold is the new template for global CEOs who want to be good stewards of the Earth while simultaneously building the bottom line. © 2006 by Daniel C. Esty and Andrew S. Winston. All rights reserved.
Article
This study characterizes participants in three related, but different environmental protection activities. The activities studied here are donating items for reuse, recycling newspapers, and walking when possible for reasons of conservation and environmental concern. The findings indicate that demographic, media usage patterns, information sources, and knowledge provide modest understanding of environmental protection activities. Participation can be better understood in terms of personal values and when aspects of helping behavior are considered. The empirical findings of this study provide policymakers with insights into how environmental protection activities can best be promoted
Article
Despite the wealth of information which exists concerning environmental behavior, it is not known which variable or variables appear to be most influential in motivating individuals to take responsible environmental action. A meta-analysis of environmental behavior research was undertaken in an attempt to determine this. An exhaustive search of the empirically based environmental behavior research conducted over the past decade yielded a substantial number of studies representative of a broad academic base. The characteristics and findings of these studies served as the data for the meta-analysis. As a result of the meta-analysis, the following variables were found to be associated with responsible environmental behavior: knowledge of issues, knowledge of action strategies, locus of control, attitudes, verbal commitment, and an individual's sense of responsibility. A model of predictors of environmental behavior is proposed.
Article
This research examines changes in the environmental coalition over the 1980s. During these years, concern over environmental problems has increased. How has the coalition favoring greater environmental protection changed? We use logistic regression to examine changing determinants of support for increased environmental spending. In brief, ideology, party identification, and age become less important as determinants, and education and urban residence become more important. The implications are discussed.
Article
This paper provides a review and categorization of the environmentally related research published in the major English language marketing journals over the period from 1971 to 1997. It traces the development from the early research which focused predominantly on the characterization of the "green" consumer, conceptualization of environmental consciousness, environmentally related behaviours such as recycling, and attitudes towards environmental problems such as pollution. This was followed by a period in which energy conservation, legislation, and public policy issues were added to the agenda which remained predominantly managerialist in perspective. While the same issues were studied within the 1990s, the research agenda was expanded again to include broader issues such as environmental values and institutions. Most recently, the macro issues of sustainable marketing and its relationship to the dominant social paradigm have been introduced into the literature. The paper concludes by arguing that the examination of the macro issues from an interdisciplinary perspective is necessary for further development of marketing thought in this area, and that a synthesis of the macro and micro perspectives is necessary for effective and enduring public policy regarding the marketing/environmental relationship.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of various attitudes and personality characteristics on environmentally-friendly behaviors, from a locus of control (LOC) perspective. Specifically, we developed and tested a model linking a related construct, environmental locus of control (ELOC), to a series of pro-environmental behaviors. Design/methodology/approach – The context related to various personal and household behaviors vis-à-vis the environment, and the subject pool consisted of a diverse group of urban consumers. A survey was employed to measure various attitudinal and personality variables corresponding to internal/external locus of control, as well as a battery of pro-environmental behaviors. The research propositions were tested using a structural equation modeling approach. Findings – We found four distinct dimensions of ELOC, two of which relate to an external LOC (“biospheric-altruism” and “corporate skepticism”) and the other two relate to an internal LOC (“economic motivation” and “individual recycling efforts”). We then linked these four dimensions to a variety of pro-environmental behaviors. Highly variable patterns were obtained, with different dimensions assuming a greater or lesser impact, or no role at all, depending on the specific behavior under analysis. Research limitations/implications – Generalizability of the findings is limited due to the sample (urban consumers from one major city), and the method employed (validity of self-report measures and the non-experimental nature of the field study). Practical implications – Our findings highlight the importance of considering the specificity of pro-environmental behaviors, when assessing the antecedent roles of pro-environmental attitudes/dispositions, which are in-and-of-themselves, complex and multidimensional. Originality/value – In this era of environmental degradation, researchers, managers, and public policy makers alike need to consider that pro-environmental attitudes are composed of multiple dispositional facets, and that the role of these facets is highly context-specific.
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to compare US and Korean consumers' intentions to purchase a high involvement, environmentally friendly product: the hybrid car. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines how social factors and culture shape intentions to purchase a hybrid car using survey data from 1,083 US drivers and 783 Korean drivers. Findings – The paper shows that self-image congruence and propensity to seek information about green products have strong positive relationships with intentions to purchase a hybrid car among consumers from both countries. Perceived social value associated with the consumption of hybrid cars also has a strong positive relationship with intentions to purchase a hybrid car among Korean and, contrary to expectations, US consumers. In contrast, social value associated with green products, in general, has a negative relationship with US consumer hybrid purchase intentions. Research limitations/implications – The use of a web-based survey of drivers regarding hybrid cars may limit the generalizability of the results to other products and countries. Therefore, it is necessary to replicate the results. Practical implications – In light of the results, marketers of hybrid cars in Korea and the USA should consider communicating about the social value of hybrid vehicle adoption and the positive reflection of ownership on the consumer's self-image, focusing on consumers who actively seek information about green products. However, marketers of hybrid cars in the USA limit references to the social value of green products, in general, which may be a turn-off. Originality/value – This paper increases knowledge about the impact of social and cultural factors on decision making regarding hybrid cars.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the green marketing consumer in the Kingdom of Bahrain through using the ecologically conscious consumer behavior (ECCB) model and profiling green consumers in the kingdom. Design/methodology/approach – Using questionnaire survey, the influence of demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, and household monthly income) and ECCB on green marketing consumers has been tested through factor analysis, regression analysis, ANOVA, and K‐means clustering. The sample consisted of 241 consumers. Findings – The findings of this study provide some understanding to the service providers and the government on the effect of demographic profile on online shopping. Of consequence, such understanding would help them in finding and implementing suitable strategies to enhance online shopping. Four types of green consumers were identified. Originality/value – The study described in the paper is the first analysis of the Kingdom of Bahrain green consumers' characteristics through providing a comprehensive understanding by combining the demographic characteristics and the ECCB model and their effect on green shopping. Furthermore, the study offers a profile of green market consumers.
Article
The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale is the most frequently used measure of environmental concern, but it has not been placed in the context of a social-psychological theory of attitude formation or attitude-behavior relationships. Using data from a northern Virginia sample, this study examines NEP in relation to the variables in a theoretical model of environmental concern. We found that the NEP is indistinguishable from a scale of awareness of consequences (AC) of general environmental conditions, both psychometrically and in terms of its relations to behavioral intentions, but somewhat different in its relations to basic value orientations and sociodemographic variables. We conclude that both NEP and AC measure generalized beliefs about the nature of human-environment interactions-or "folk ecology"—a set of beliefs that may be influenced by social structure and values and that influence attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions regarding specific environmental conditions.
Article
A review of the literature suggests that traditional segmentation variables (socio-demographics) and personality indicators are of limited use for characterizing the green consumer. Explores the extent to which variables, specific to environmental consciousness, are better able to explain consumers’ pro-environmental purchasing behaviour. Two conceptualizations of the purchasing domain are addressed, namely general green purchasing behaviour and specific purchasing habits relating to five green product categories. Two data sets are used in the analysis, namely marketing students and members of the United Kingdom general public. Suggests that measures of environmental consciousness are closely linked to environmentally-responsible purchasing behaviour, although the strength of the relationships varies according to sample type, the conceptualization of the purchasing domain and the particular product category at issue.
Article
What are the socioeconomic and personality characteristics of consumers who are ecologically concerned? This article presents a measure of ecological concern and examines the relationship between this measure and consumer characteristics. The implications of the findings for marketers and public policy makers are discussed.
Article
The authors use a 1989 environmental opinion poll of the Canadian population to examine the influence of perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE) and faith in the efficacy of others (FIO) on the relationship between environmental attitudes and consumer behaviors. The results indicate that PCE moderates both the strength and form of the attitude–personal consumer behavior relationship while FIO moderates the strength and form of the attitude–support for regulatory action relationship. Implications of these results for consumer researchers, marketing managers, and policymakers are outlined.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to segment the consumer Gulf market based on actionable and strategy yielding marketing variables (i.e. ethical orientations, trust, opportunisms and Machiavellianism). Design/methodology/approach – Consumers from Saudi Arabia, Oman and Kuwait were asked to complete a survey which incorporated scales to measure consumers' ethical beliefs, Machiavellianism, ethical orientation, opportunism, trust, as well as demographic classification questions. Specifically, every attempt was made to have a broad distribution across the demographic categories of gender, age and education. Participation in the study was restricted to citizens of their respective nations. Local “data captains” were selected in each nation and trained in data collection techniques by two of the study's authors. Of the 598 questionnaires distributed, a total of 365 usable surveys were yielding an overall response rate of 61 percent. A multistage clustering approach was incorporated in order to identify the unique ethical consumer segments. Findings – The analysis resulted in three distinct segments/clusters: “Principled Purchasers”, “Suspicious Shoppers” and “Corrupt Consumers”. Members of the Principled Purchasers segment tended to be less Machiavellianistic, less opportunistic, more trusting of others, less relativistic, more idealistic and perceived questionable actions in a negative light. Suspicious Shoppers were less trusting, tended to proceed with caution in their dealings, were somewhat opportunistic but placed a high emphasis on ethical behavior. Like the Suspicious Shoppers, the Corrupt Consumers were not trusting individuals. Unlike Suspicious Shoppers, however, Corrupt Consumers were Machiavellianistic, took advantage of opportunities, were not ethically oriented and were more likely to act in an unethical manner. Research limitations/implications – Future studies should attempt to obtain data from a more diverse sample in the Middle East. Social desirability bias may have been a factor in response to some of the questions resulting in respondents providing the socially desirable response in order to appear ethical. Future studies should examine the inclusion of measures for controlling such bias. Practical implications – Companies should alter their marketing approach depending upon the segment being targeted. Companies focusing on “Principled Purchasers” should emphasize customer satisfaction and honesty in their transactions. “Suspicious Shoppers” are best appealed to by companies who can create a mutually satisfying relationship in which both parties benefit. In conducting business with “Corrupt Consumers”, international marketing managers must be aware of situations in which this group might try to exploit or deceive the firm, such as used or altered returns, product theft, illegal consumption or other immoral/illegal activities; all of which are costly to the organization and, ultimately, the general public at large. Originality/value – Despite the socio-economic similarities among Gulf countries (levels of income, market size, religion, language, etc.), important micro level differences exist and are often overlooked. Ignoring such differences may steer multinational firms towards the adoption of a simple and less expensive standardized marketing strategy across the region.
Article
The literature examining the behaviour of environmentally conscious consumers has focused mainly on the examination of non-product specific environmental knowledge and attitudes or environmental knowledge and attitudes in relation to single product lines. Employs the constructs of product-line-specific environmental knowledge and attitudes, that is knowledge of and attitudes towards the green products and their impact on the environment. Presents the results of an exploratory study examining the relationship between product-line-specific environmental knowledge and attitudes for multiple green product lines, testing hypotheses generated from the literature, utilizing a questionnaire measuring self-reports of environmental knowledge and attitudes. The results show no direct relationship exists between product-line-specific environmental knowledge and attitudes, and that consumers do not simply believe that a green product is good for the environment without also knowing how the product impacts on the environment.
Article
Two aspects of translation were investigated: (1) factors that affect translation quality, and (2) how equivalence between source and target versions can be evaluated. The variables of language, content, and difficulty were studied through an analysis of variance design. Ninety-four bilinguals from the University of Guam, representing ten languages, translated or back-translated six essays incorporating three content areas and two levels of difficulty. The five criteria for equivalence were based on comparisons of meaning or predictions of similar responses to original or translated versions. The factors of content, difficulty, language and content-language interaction were significant, and the five equivalence criteria proved workable. Conclusions are that translation quality can be predicted, and that a functionally equivalent translation can be demonstrated when responses to the original and target versions are studied.