Article

Performance of rubble mound breakwaters under tsunami attack, a case study: Haydarpasa Port, Istanbul, Turkey

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Abstract

Ports are one of the most vulnerable coastal utilities in case of marine natural hazards such as tsunamis and need to be protected against their devastating effects. Thus, studying the effects of tsunamis on protective structures such as breakwaters is critical. The Sea of Marmara is a part of an active earthquake zone that has generated tsunamis in the history. In terms of population density, coastal utilization, and economic potential, Marmara coastline seems most vulnerable to marine hazards. The availability of natural stones allows for wide use of rubble mound breakwaters as coastal protective structures in Turkey. The stability of these types of structures under the attack of storm waves has already been studied. However, their stability and performance under the effect of long waves and tsunami attacks have not yet been studied experimentally. The present study is a case study focusing on Haydarpasa Port, located at the southern entrance of Istanbul Bosphorus Strait (North coast of the Sea of Marmara). It aims to investigate the performance level of the port in case of tsunami attack.

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... In this study, tsunami attack on a rubble mound breakwater is assessed numerically using a Volume-Averaged Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (VARANS) solver called IHFOAM [7][8][9][10][11] developed in OpenFOAM ® environment [12]. Numerical results are compared with the physical model experiments of Guler et al. [3]. The physical model experiments focused on rubble mound breakwater of Haydarpasa Port (Haydarpasa Breakwater, hereafter), located at the southern entrance of Istanbul Bosphorus Strait in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey. ...
... Several studies concluded that 35 tsunamis have occurred in the Sea of Marmara [13,14] including the recent 1999 Marmara Event [15][16][17]. The physical model experiments [3] conducted in 105 m long wave flume of Port and Airport Research Institute (PARI) consist of both solitary wave and tsunami overflow experiments. Solitary wave experiments aimed to understand the effect of the tsunami-like long waves and to find the related tsunami overflow heights. ...
... Arikawa et al. [19] revealed that stability of breakwaters depends on the duration of the overflow, due to water level difference between the seaside and the harbor side of breakwaters. Therefore, Guler et al. [3] used tsunami overflow experiments in addition to solitary wave experiments to understand the effect of the duration of the overflow during tsunami attack and the tsunamis' action mechanism on the selected coastal structure. Selected solitary wave and tsunami overflow experiments are simulated for calibration and validation of the numerical solver. ...
Article
A numerical assessment study of tsunami attack on the rubble mound breakwater of Haydarpasa Port, located at the southern entrance of the Istanbul Bosphorus Strait in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, is carried out in this study using a Volume-Averaged Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver, IHFOAM, developed in OpenFOAM® environment. The numerical model is calibrated with and validated against the data from solitary wave and tsunami overflow experiments representing tsunami attack. Furthermore, attack of a potential tsunami near Haydarpasa Port is simulated to investigate effects of a more realistic tsunami that cannot be generated in a wave flume with the present state of the art technology. Discussions on practical engineering applications of this type of numerical modeling studies are given focusing on pressure distributions around the crown-wall of the rubble mound breakwater, and the forces acting on the single stone located behind the crown-wall at the rear side of the breakwater. Numerical modeling of stability/failure mechanism of the overall cross-section is studied throughout the paper. The present study shows that hydrodynamics along the wave flume and over the breakwater can be simulated properly for both solitary wave and tsunami overflow experiments. Stability of the overall cross-section can only be simulated qualitatively for solitary wave cases; on the other hand, the effect of the time elapsed during tsunami overflow cannot be reflected in the simulations using the present numerical tool. However, the stability of the overall cross-section under tsunami overflow is assessed by evaluating forces acting on the rear side armor unit supporting the crown-wall of the rubble mound breakwater as a practical engineering application in the present paper. Furthermore, two non-dimensional parameters are derived to discuss the stability of this armor unit; and thus, the stability condition of the overall cross-section. Approximate threshold values for these non-dimensional parameters are presented comparing experimental and numerical results as a starting point for engineers in practice. Finally, investigations on the solitary wave and tsunami overflow experiments/simulations are extended to the potential tsunami simulation in the scope of both representation of a realistic tsunami in a wave flume and stability of the rubble mound breakwater.
... Hence, rubble mound breakwaters were tested in wave flumes (Fig. 4) at the Port and Airport Research Institute (PARI), Japan and at the Technische Universität Braunschweig (TU-BS), Germany, in collaboration with Middle East Technical University (METU), Turkey. The experimental setups and results are provided in detail by Guler et al. [2015] and LWI [2015a] for the experiments at PARI and TU-BS, respectively. Briefly, the goal of the experiments was to analyze the stability of the Haydarpaşa Port, Istanbul, Turkey rubble mound breakwater, for which tsunami loads were not taken into account for the design even though it is located in a tsunami prone area. ...
... In a short summary, the wave flume at PARI consisted of the sea bottom model of two slopes (1:100 and 1:10) evolving into a horizontal section with a height of 0.115 m, over which the breakwater model was built ( Fig. 4(a)). The breakwater models tested at PARI consisted of core layer of armors of weight varying from 0 to 10 g, filter layer of thickness of 0.07 m with armor weight from 50 to 100 g, seaside [Guler et al., 2015], and (b) TU-BS: (configuration 1b) with a berm and a crown wall unit, (configuration 2b) without a crown wall unit, (configuration 3b) with a crown wall unit corresponding to the prototype of Haydarpaşa breakwater, Istanbul, Turkey and (configuration 4b) with a shifted crown wall unit [LWI, 2015a]. Not to scale. ...
... 4-7. Guler et al. [2015] provide the results of the experiments at PARI in detail. ...
Article
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The 2011 Tōhoku event showed the massive destruction potential of tsunamis. The Euro-Japan “Risk assessment and design of prevention structures for enhanced tsunami disaster resilience (RAPSODI)” project aimed at using data from the event to evaluate tsunami mitigation strategies and to validate a framework for a quantitative tsunami mortality risk analysis. Coastal structures and mitigation strategies against tsunamis in Europe and Japan are compared. Failure mechanisms of coastal protection structures exposed to tsunamis are discussed based on field data. Knowledge gaps on failure modes of different structures under different tsunami loading conditions are identified. Results of the wave-flume laboratory experiments on rubble mound breakwaters are used to assess their resilience against tsunami impact. For the risk analysis, high-resolution digital elevation data are applied for the inundation modeling. The hazard is represented by the maximum flow depth, the exposure is described by the location of the population, and the mortality is a function of flow depth and building vulnerability. A thorough search for appropriate data on the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami was performed. The results of the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami mortality hindcast for the city of Ishinomaki substantiate that the tsunami mortality risk model can help to identify high-mortality risk areas and the main risk drivers.
... Hettiarachchi and De Silva (2014) believe that mitigation alternatives must consider the complete range of coastal hazards, both episodic and constant, vital perspectives of vulnerability and overall risk assessment. On a separate note, Guler et al. (2015), display a case study focusing on Haydarpasa Port, which is located at the southern entrance of Istanbul Bosphorus Strait (North coast of the Ocean of Marmara). By looking at the performance level of the port in case of a tsunami attack, Guler et al. (2015) emphasize the impacts of tsunamis on protective structures such as breakwaters, which is critical for future coastal utilization and financial potential. ...
... On a separate note, Guler et al. (2015), display a case study focusing on Haydarpasa Port, which is located at the southern entrance of Istanbul Bosphorus Strait (North coast of the Ocean of Marmara). By looking at the performance level of the port in case of a tsunami attack, Guler et al. (2015) emphasize the impacts of tsunamis on protective structures such as breakwaters, which is critical for future coastal utilization and financial potential. ...
Article
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In terms of global transport issues, the port industry provides a major advantage by linking countries through seaborne trade. Nonetheless, natural hazards often threaten the profitability of seaport operations. Since most ports are situated in coastal areas, they are highly vulnerable to earthquakes and tsunamis. Earthquakes and tsunamis phenomena have been critically addressed at the operational planning stage in the maritime transport sector, where the disruption management department considers these phenomena as the major events that can lead to operation disruption. A new framework to study the destruction of earthquakes and tsunamis during seaport operations is established in this paper. For modeling the disruption analysis, a blend of various decision-making approaches such as Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Evidential Reasoning (ER), is used to model the disturbance analysis. Firstly, by using the AHP process, the disruption of earthquakes and tsunamis in seaport operations is defined and prioritized. Secondly, the disruption stages are assessed and synthesized by using the ER method. Penang Port is chosen as a case study to illustrate the applicability of the research model. This analysis model is capable of assisting seaport operators to perform self-assessment of earthquakes and tsunamis to improve the operational sustainability in a seaport.
... Concerning the measurement of the damage to the structure, a long time has passed since the pioneering work of Hudson [2], who measured the cross-sections by using a sounding rod equipped with a circular spirit level, a graduated scale and a ball-and-socket foot. Nowadays, in hydraulic laboratories the measurement of armour layer damage is generally performed through mechanical or laser profiling [9][10][11][12][13] or visually by means of video cameras [6,8,9,[14][15][16]. ...
... The use of profilers, though very accurate, requires that the experiment is stopped, therefore dynamic observations cannot be obtained. Moreover, often several profiles need to be measured in the spanwise direction, in order to obtain average or maximum estimates of the damage along the breakwater length [12,13]. This is to avoid under-or over-estimates of the damage levels, depending on the position of the control section in the flume. ...
Article
Breakwaters play a crucial role in the protection of coastal zones. Their maintenance is critical to safeguard the daily activities of harbours and marine areas. The evaluation of damage is a necessity for timely preservation works. Traditional monitoring methods span various techniques, ranging from mechanical profilers to optical systems. Current methods though are expensive, requiring remarkably sophisticated technologies which demand a high degree of expertise to be operated. In this paper, we propose an affordable yet accurate fully automated method based on 3D cameras. Our technique is non invasive, allowing hence non intrusive as well as fast measure of damage over time, simultaneously above and below sea water level. Experimental results obtained on laboratory breakwater models demonstrated that the proposed point cloud method, which does not depend on the imaging sensor and can be applied to any 3D dataset of rubble mound breakwater, can achieve accurate damage estimation, even when using a budget RGB-D camera. One of the additional advantages of using RGB-D cameras is the possibility to obtain measurements also in the presence of water.
... Öte yandan, bazı araştırmacılar tarafından can kaybının ve hasarın büyüklüğünün sebepleri arasında, özellikle Fukushima Nükleer Santrali'nin tasarımında gözetilmesi gereken bazı mühendislik hesaplamalarında bölgede oluşabilecek muhtemel tsunaminin yanlış seçildiği gösterilmektedir [18]. Literatürde yer alan karşıt görüşler bir kenara bırakıldığında yaygın olarak ortaya çıkan görüşe göre, önlemlerin afetin yıkıcılığını engelleyememesinin başlıca sebebi, bu büyüklükte bir depremin bölgede öngörülmemesidir [19]. ...
... Özellikle koruduğu alan itibariyle, yıkılması veya hasar alması durumunda ciddi can ve mal kaybına yol açacak kıyı yapılarının da tsunami etkisi altındaki performanslarının incelenmesi, muhtemel bir afet durumu için önem taşımaktadır. Örneğin, tsunami etkisi altındaki performansı değerlendirilen Haydarpaşa Dalgakıranı'nın, muhtemel bir tsunami etkisi altında kronman duvarının kayması suretiyle yıkılacağı Japonya'da yapılan deneysel çalışmalar yardımıyla ortaya konmuştur[19].Afet farkındalığı, afetler ile birlikte yaşamak ve kent belleğinin devamlılığının sağlanması konularında ise Türkiye ve Japonya arasında ciddi farklılıklar bulunmaktadır. Avrupa Birliği 7. Çerçeve Programı tarafından desteklenen, ODTÜ ve Boğaziçi Üniversitesi'nin de içinde bulunduğu 16 ülkeden 26 katılımcı kurumun ortaklaşa gerçekleştirdiği "Avrupa için Tsunamilere Karşı Araştırma, Strateji, Saptama ve Risk Azaltma Projesi (ASTARTE)" (http://www.astarteproject.eu) ...
Article
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11 Mart 2011 tarihinde gerçekleşen 9.1 şiddetindeki depremin yarattığı tsunami, Japonya’nın doğu kıyısı boyunca çok sayıda can kaybına ve ciddi hasara yol açmıştır. 2011 Tsunamisi’nin ardından Japonya’da yapılan planlama ve yeniden yapım çalışmaları alınması gereken önlemlere önemli bir örnek teşkil etmektedir. Bu çalışmada afetin beş yıl ardından bölgeye yapılan iki saha araştırma gezisinde gözlemlenen yapısal ve sosyal planlama, yapılanma, afet yönetimi ve afet farkındalığı yaratma çalışmaları ayrıntılarıyla sunulmuş ve Türkiye’deki mevcut çalışmalar tartışılmıştır. Tsunami generated by the earthquake on March, 11, 2011 caused a high number of casualties and significant economic loss. Planning and reconstruction studies after 2011 Tsunami in Japan are important examples of countermeasures against tsunamis. In this study, observations from two field surveys conducted after five years of the tsunami event focusing structural and nonstructural countermeasures in addition to disaster management and creation of disaster awareness studies are presented in details, and current studies in Turkey are discussed.
... Remarkable progress has been made in the past 20 years on the aspect of numerical analysis. Many scholars have studied the stability of various types of breakwaters and the dynamic response of their seabed foundation by adopting elastoplastic finite element model developed by themselves or the commercial companies [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. However, the deformable seabed foundation was often regarded as a permeable but rigid medium in these models. ...
Article
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In the past several years, a series of artificial islands have been constructed on the top of coral reefs by China in the South China Sea by way of reclamation. A large number of revetment breakwater also has been built along the margin of these artificial islands. The stability of these revetment breakwater is the precondition for the normal service performance of these reclaimed coral sand islands. In this study, taking the reclamation engineering in the South China Sea as the background, a series of wave flume physical model tests (geometrical similarity scale is set to 1:10) are performed to investigate the dynamics and the stability of the revetment breakwater and its reclaimed coral sand foundation under the impact of regular wave. Experimental results show that the revetment breakwater has a maximum final settlement of 6 mm if built on loose coral sand foundation. Furthermore, there is indeed excess pore pressure generated in the reclaimed coral foundation with a maximum magnitude of 1.5 kPa. It is found that the excess pore pressure has not caused liquefaction in the coral sand foundation due to the fact that the accumulation of excess pore pressure only occurred in the first 10 cycles of wave loading. Finally, it is concluded that the revetment breakwater and its reclaimed coral sand foundation basically are stable under regular wave impacting. However, excessive water overtopping would be a potential threat for the vegetation behind the breakwater, as well as for the desalinated underground water of the reclaimed lands.
... Hence, breakwater is susceptible to wave-induced failure, and gains lots of attention from coastal engineers and researchers. Recently, focusing on the wave-induced seabed response, many efforts are being devoted to deal with WSSI around breakwaters, including field monitoring (Dean et al., 1997;Guler et al., 2015), analytical solutions (Jeng, 1997), physical modelling (Kudella et al., 2006) and numerical simulation (Jeng et al., 2001;Mostafa et al., 1999;Ulker et al., 2010;Jeng et al., 2013;Ye et al., , 2016. However, most of the studies only consider the WSSI in front of the breakwater trunk. ...
Article
The problem of wave-structure-seabed interactions (WSSI) around impermeable slope breakwater head is numerically investigated with a three-dimensional (3D) integrated model. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are adopted to simulate the wave-induced fluid motion, and Biot's theory for poro-elastic medium is employed to describe the seabed behaviour under wave loading. A calculation scheme is established to integrate both wave motion and seabed response. The numerical results reveal that wave-induced flow field in the vicinity of breakwater heads is significantly disturbed by the existence of the structure, leading to wave reflection, diffraction and overtopping. Furthermore, the wave-induced negative pore pressure and liquefaction near the front of the breakwater heads is significant. The parametric study concludes that the increase of breakwater slope intensifies the seabed response and liquefaction around the breakwater head, and therefore it is proposed to design breakwaters with a mild slope.
... Only a limited number of field experiments that simulate the tsunami wave interaction with coastal structures are available (Goto et al., 2012;Sriram et al., 2006). Most experimental investigations are laboratory experiments either small scale (Enet et al., 2003;Roeber et al., 2009;Sriram et al., 2006;Wiegel, 1955) or large scale (Guler et al., 2015), using pools and channels (Briggs et al., 1995;Kamel, 1970;Nouri et al., 2010;Palermo et al., 2009;Ramsden, 1996;Srivastava and Babu, 2009;Yeh, 2007). ...
Article
This article presents numerical simulations of tsunami waves that are generated using different experimental techniques in laboratory tests. Comparisons of the numerical predictions of the tsunami wave shapes with different experimental measurements of the wave shapes have been carried out, and a good agreement was obtained. Four different laboratory techniques to create tsunami waves were examined: a sudden release of a water column, a horizontal or vertical motion of a piston, and a rotation of a rigid plate. Comparison of waves of the same height that are formed by these four different methods shows that the horizontal piston motion produces the shortest wave, and the vertical piston motion produces the longest wave. The wave produced by a plate rotation is similar to the wave caused by the "water column release," but it is slightly longer. It was found that different techniques produce different wave characteristics; therefore, selection of the proper laboratory technique requires some considerations including a comparison with the required real tsunami wave that should be simulated. It should be emphasized that this research aims at simulating the tsunami waves that are produced by different common laboratory techniques; however, it refrains from assessing the adequacy of any of this techniques to properly represent a real specific tsunami wave. Further to developing the computational procedures for tsunami wave simulations, this article extends the numerical study to examine the interaction of a tsunami wave with a rigid wall and investigate the dynamic pressure distribution on the wall surface. It was found that the peak pressure of a tsunami wave acting on a rigid wall that is produced by the horizontal piston has the lowest magnitude (among the waves of the same height, caused by these four techniques), while the pressure due to a rotational plate has the highest magnitude.
... A water tank on both ends of the apparatus was used to store and supply water for generation of the tsunami waves. As solitary waves are not capable of simulating the impact of tsunami attacks [13,27], a continuous water flow over the cross-section is used. During the tsunami overflow tests, water pumps were used to maintain the seawater levels on both the sides of the breakwater. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many breakwaters have collapsed in the past due to earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis, resulting in considerable devastation as the breakwaters failed to prevent the tsunami from entering the coastal plain areas. Breakwater failures are mainly caused by damage to its foundation ground. However, the damage mechanism of breakwater foundation during earthquakes and tsunamis remains unclear. This study focuses on the breakwater failure mechanism due to collapse of its foundation under the action of an earthquake and subsequent tsunami. In addition, reinforcing countermeasures for breakwater foundation to mitigate damage due to compound geodisasters triggered by earthquakes and tsunamis are proposed. Sheet piles and gabions were used in the breakwater foundation as reinforcing countermeasures. To evaluate the effectiveness of the reinforced foundation, a series of shaking table tests and hydraulic model tests were performed. The tsunami overflow tests were conducted on the same model after the earthquake loadings, and comparisons were made between the conventional and reinforced foundations. It was observed during the tests that the reinforced foundation could effectively reduce the damage to the breakwater caused by earthquake and tsunami-induced forces. Numerical analyses were performed to clarify the mechanism of the soil–breakwater–reinforcement–fluid system. Overall, this study is useful in practical engineering, and the reinforcing foundation model could be adopted for offshore structures to reduce damage from earthquakes and tsunamis in the future.
... Specifically, the necessity of new laboratory experiments with a realistic generation of tsunami waves was pointed out as a valuable approach to complement field surveys. Some approaches have been presented in the last years to analyze tsunami wave interaction with RMBs, such as Hanzawa et al., in 2012 on detached rubble-mound breakwaters, Harbitz et al., 2016 andGuler et al., 2015, on a scaled model of the Haydarpasa port in Istanbul, Turkey. These works were a step forward in the study of the interaction between RMB and tsunami waves, but new studies are needed to extend the results to other typologies, configurations and flow behaviors, focused on covering not only the hydrodynamics but also the stability analysis of the armor units at an adequate scale. ...
Article
Recent tragic tsunami events, like those that occurred in the Indian Ocean in 2004, and in Japan in 2011, have revealed the need of further work to reduce tsunami risk in coastal areas. An important aspect towards risk reduction is the study of the interaction between tsunami waves and coastal structures as these are the first to receive the tsunami's energy. Dikes and breakwaters must have an adequate structural behavior and maintain some functionality and operability under tsunami attacks to be able to contribute to the reduction of its consequences. Within this scope, laboratory experiments on scaled models of two typical Mediterranean rubble-mound breakwater typologies under tsunami waves were conducted for the first time. The tsunami's action was split into 2 parts: (1) the first impact of solitons was tested by means of large solitary waves and, (2) the subsequent overflow was approached by applying a pump-driven wave maker. The damage on the breakwaters due to these actions was measured and assessed. The result is an in-deep analysis of the relationships among Stability Number, Damage Level and Number of tsunami waves. The outcome of this analysis includes the development of a set of formulae that provide, in the range of the conducted tests, the value of the Damage Parameter, so that tsunami actions can be taken into account in the design of rubble mound structures. Finally, based on the results of these experiments, the threshold values of the Damage Parameter used to characterize damage in armors (Initiation of damage, initiation of destruction, destruction) was particularized for tsunami actions.
... Among the existing works, wave-structure interaction has been thoroughly studied in the past decades [26][27][28][29][30][31]. Recently, focusing on the wave-induced seabed response, many efforts are being devoted to deal with WSSI around breakwaters, including field monitoring [32], analytical solution [33], physical modelling [34,35] and numerical simulation [2,[36][37][38]. However, most of the studies only consider the 2D (two-dimensional) WSSI in front of the breakwater trunk rather than the breakwater head, as the latter involves a 3D flow regime around the head. ...
Article
In this paper, wave-induced pore pressure distribution and momentary liquefaction of seabed soil around impermeable slope-type breakwater head are investigated. The wave-induced fluid motion is governed by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the Biot's theory for poro-elastic medium is adopted to simulate seabed behaviour. The wave motion and seabed response in vicinity of breakwater head, which have rarely been investigated in the literature, are reported in detail. An iterative calculation scheme is proposed to integrate the wave motion and seabed response. The results reveal that: (i) Wave-induced flow field in the vicinity of breakwater head is significantly disturbed by wave-structure-seabed interaction, leading to wave reflection, diffraction and overtopping; (ii) Seabed response on the seaward side of the breakwater head is more significant than those on the landward side; (iii) Existence of breakwater aggravates the seabed liquefaction at the seaward side of the breakwater, and alleviates the seabed liquefaction at the landward side of the breakwater; (iv) Decreasing breakwater slope could moderate the seabed liquefaction in the vicinity of the breakwater head, and a mild breakwater slope is proposed to be adopted in practice.
... ,Asakura et al. (2003),Ikeno et al. (2007),Nouri et al. (2010), Guler et al. (2015,) , or numerical models(Arikawa et al. (2012), Jianhong et al. (2013), McCabe et al. (2014)). Arikawa et al. (2012) run the RANS CADMAS-SURF/3D model to simulate the Kamaishi breakwater stability including the porous media under a realistic signal of the Tohoku tsunami obtaining a very good agreement with large-scale experiments. ...
Thesis
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During the Tohoku tsunami in 2011, field surveys of the east coast of Japan showed the weakness of coastal defences, as even the world largest tsunami breakwater (Kamaishi) almost completely collapsed due to this event. In this PhD, the aim is to investigate the interaction between breakwaters, the most common offshore coastal structures protecting urban areas and harbour entries, and waves and especially tsunami waves. In the first part of the work, the generation of undular bores in the near-shore area of Sendai during the Tohoku event is numerically investigated with the numerical model BOSZ (Boussinesq-type model). It is shown that the second wave, which stroke the coast during this event, transformed into an undular bore, whereas the first wave did not due to steepness differences. Tsunami loads, moments and bearing stress applied on the offshore breakwater of the Soma Port are calculated using two models: BOSZ and THETIS (Navier-Stokes VOF model). BOSZ results are compared to THETIS for the tsunami wave-breakwater interaction. The impact study is carried out at a relatively large scale aiming to have a first estimation of tsunami efforts. Then, a numerical experiment using THETIS is carried out to investigate flip-through impacts on vertical breakwaters. This non-aerated wave impact is considered as the most severe type of impact in the literature (e.g. Cooker & Peregrine (1992), Hofland et al. (2011)) in terms of maximum pressure generated. The influence of the front interface on the impact dynamics and the pressure induced is analysed in a realistic breakwater configuration. Solitary waves are used to obtain three characteristic flip-through impacts involving least steep, medium steep and steepest wave front. The flow field and pressure inside the porous rubble mound are then investigated as well as horizontal and uplift forces applied on the breakwater caisson. The last part of this study is devoted to the stability of breakwater caissons submitted to flip-through impacts. The latter are here assimilated to water wedges (e.g. Cumberbatch (1960), Kihara et al. (2015)). This simple approach allows to formulate a semi-analytical model to predict caisson motion due to this type of impacts. After validation with numerical results, the water wedge method gives rich informations about forces, motion duration and sliding distance depending on the wave impact characteristics and breakwater caisson dimensions.
... Offshore breakwaters are common for deep water ports (Ali & Diwedar, 2014;Guler et al., 2015). A primary function of the breakwater is to reduce wave height within the port. ...
Article
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A careful planning in a port development is vital. Offshore breakwater is known to reduce wave height approaching a port, but it is not always the case. Different ports have different characteristics. This article chose to analyse Sattahip Port. Necessary information such as annual wave climate, long-term tidal records, and bathymetric map were collected and synthesized. Numerical simulations were carried out by MIKE21 PMS. The simulation results showed that the existing breakwater at the port could only protect some parts of the port. If the whole area of the port were to be sheltered, a new offshore breakwater had to be installed at a certain location. The existing breakwater could not be extended because it was interfered by the existing navigational channel. The new breakwater at the nearest island was another option but it was proved by the simulation results that the new breakwater could not reduce the wave height as planned. If the wave simulation was not undertaken, decision makers might proceed in the wrong direction and millions of dollars would be wasted.
... Meanwhile, in order to mitigate the tsunami hazard, researchers are trying to improve protective structures since coastal structures are widely used for shore and harbor protections. Interactions between tsunami waves and coastal structures have been studied to better understand the performance of coastal structures under tsunami attacks (e.g., [9][10][11]). In addition to coastal structures, the effects of coastal vegetation (such as fringing reefs, which are abundant in tropical and sub-tropical regions) on tsunami hazards have also attracted researchers' attentions, and numerous post-disaster surveys on tsunami hazards over reef-fringed coasts have been conducted. ...
Article
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This study utilized a shock-capturing Boussinesq model FUNWAVE-TVD to investigate the maximum momentum flux in the solitary wave run-up zone over back-reef slopes. Validation results of the present model were compared to the previous version of FUNWAVE using the eddy viscosity breaking model to demonstrate the advantages of the shock-capturing method in predicting the breaking solitary wave transformation and run-up over fringing reefs. A series of numerical experiments was designed comprehensively and performed then to obtain a new formulation for the envelope of the spatial distribution of the maximum momentum flux within the solitary wave run-up zone over back-reef beaches, which is different from the one used over uniformly-sloping beaches. Finally, the effects of the variation of reef parameters (i.e., the fore-reef slope angle, reef flat width, and water depth over the reef flat) on the maximum momentum flux at the initial shoreline were investigated to better understand the role of fringing reefs in the mitigation of tsunami hazard.
... https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.103522 Received 28 January 2019; Received in revised form 18 June 2019; Accepted 7 July 2019 Harbitz et al. (2016) and Guler et al.(2015Guler et al.( , 2018, conducted laboratory experiments on RMBs with crown-walls under tsunami-like actions. The former used solitary waves and bores to model tsunamis, and the latter used solitary waves and a constant flow to model overflow. ...
Article
Rubble mound-breakwaters are commonly constructed with a parapet or crown-wall at the crest. The design of these superstructures depends on the expected storm wave load history throughout the service life cycle. In tsunami-prone areas, this design must include tsunami actions since their loads can definitely exceed those of storm waves. However, tsunami loads are rarely accounted for. This study aimed at incorporating tsunami actions in the design of crown-walls of rubble-mound breakwaters for the first time. Within this scope, laboratory experiments on a scaled model of a typical Mediterranean rubble-mound breakwater typology under tsunami actions were conducted. This paper is the continuation of our previous paper, Aniel-Quiroga et al. (2018) [1], in which experiments were presented and a stability analysis of the armor units was conducted. This research paper presents the second part of the analysis focused on understanding the pressures that crown-walls of rubble-mound breakwaters must support due to tsunami-like actions. These pressures were measured and analyzed, providing the horizontal and uplift pressure time series and laws. The magnitude and timing of the maximum pressure peaks were identified. The maximum horizontal pressure is caused by the first impact of the tsunami. By contrast, the maximum uplift pressure is prompted by a pressure wave generated by the overtopped water falling into the leeside. This pressure wave penetrates the structure from the rear slope. As a result of this analysis, pressures were characterized, allowing the presentation of a new complete methodology that provides, for the tested structure, the design procedure of the crown-wall under tsunami actions. A new formulation to calculate the run-up of solitary waves on the tested rubble-mound breakwater slope is presented here.
... Therefore, armour layer damage is generally assessed based on bathymetric surveys made with mechanical or laser profiling equipment (e.g. De Schoesitter et al., 2014;van Gent, 2014;Guler, 2015;Chavez et al., 2019), or through video cameras based techniques (e.g. Kramer, 2005;Cihan andYuksel, 2011, Lemos et al., 2017). ...
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The analysis of damage in rubble mound scour protections is crucial for the armour stability assessment. Former methodologies focused on the analysis of the maximum damage number. This work introduces a complementary methodology to determine and characterize damage statistical distribution based on a flexible arrangement of sub-areas. The sub-areas are overlapping and can be varied in size, allowing a refined damage analysis. To capture the variation of damage with changing sub-area layout, the methodology is coupled with a statistical evaluation of damage numbers, which is enabled by the definition of a grid ratio between armour stone size and sub-area size, (Dn50)²/Asub. The methodology is applied to high resolution bathymetric surveys from two stability tests of large-scale rip-rap scour protection around a monopile foundation and combined wave and current loading. Results show that the methodology provides a complementary understanding of damage distribution to the maximum damage acquired from previous methodologies. In addition, it allows a comparison of damage characteristics between tests despite different shapes of the foundation. Research concludes that the size of the sub-areas influences significantly damage description. Characteristic measures as the maximum damage number and standard deviation become stable at a grid ratio (Dn50)²/Asub equal to 1/4.
... Due to the limited applicability of the Isbash (1936) formulas, an estimation method based on overflow depth was established to determine the required mass of armor units (Mitsui et al. 2016). Experimental investigations of tsunami waves impacting rubble-mound breakwaters were carried out with solitary waves and wave overflow approaches (Aniel-Quiroga et al. 2018;Guler et al. 2015). Aniel-Quiroga et al. (2018) took into consideration the damage parameter, the freeboard, the stability number, and the number of waves. ...
Article
Breakwaters are effective structures for mitigating tsunami-induced damage. However, pieces of the breakwater can be displaced by the turbulent tsunami flow, which undermines the stability of the breakwater and reduces its mitigation effectiveness. Assessing the damage to breakwaters in tsunami-prone coasts is, therefore, valuable for the port authority, cargo owners, and coastal residents. Physical experiments were conducted to assess potential damage to a typical composite breakwater in New Zealand due to tsunamis. Higher breakwaters can resist a stronger bore impact and experience delayed initiation of the same damage. A new parameter is proposed to assess the damage in the armor layer, which takes into account the size and density of armor units, the height of the breakwater, and the tsunami bore depth.
... The region has distinctive characteristics in terms of its complex tectonic structure and the high possibility of an earthquake occurrence with a magnitude larger than 7.0 offshore of Istanbul. Therefore, there has been a wide range of studies in the Marmara Sea region regarding the fault mechanisms, seismic activities, earthquakes, and triggered tsunamis (Armijo et al., 2002(Armijo et al., , 2005Okay et al., 1999;Le Pichon et al., 2001;Yaltırak, 2002;McNeill et al., 2004;Aksu et al., 2000;Imren et al., 2001;Pondard et al., 2007;Yalçıner et al., 1999Yalçıner et al., , 2000Yalçıner et al., , 2002Aytore et al., 2016;Hébert et al., 2005;Altınok et al., 2003Altınok et al., , 2011Guler et al., 2015;Cankaya et al., 2016;Tufekci et al., 2018;Latcharote et al., 2016). ...
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In this study, time-dependent probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) is performed for Tuzla, Istanbul, in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, using various earthquake scenarios of Prince Island Fault (PIF) within the next 50 and 100 years. The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique is used to generate a synthetic earthquake catalogue, which includes earthquakes having moment magnitudes between Mw6.5 and 7.1. This interval defines the minimum and maximum magnitudes for the fault in the case of an entire fault rupture, which depends on the characteristic fault model. Based on this catalogue, probability of occurrence and associated tsunami wave heights are calculated for each event. The study associates the probabilistic approach with tsunami numerical modeling. The tsunami numerical code NAMI DANCE was used for tsunami simulations. According to the results of the analysis, distribution of probability of occurrence corresponding to tsunami hydrodynamic parameters is represented. Maximum positive and negative wave amplitudes show that tsunami wave heights up to 1 m have 65 % probability of exceedance for the next 50 years and this value increases by 85 % in the Tuzla region for the next 100 years. Inundation depth also exceeds 1 m in the region with probabilities of occurrence of 60 % and 80 % for the next 50 and 100 years, respectively. Moreover, probabilistic inundation maps are generated to investigate inundated zones and the amount of water penetrated inland. Probability of exceedance of 0.3 m wave height ranges between 10 % and 75 % according to these probabilistic inundation maps, and the maximum inundation distance calculated in the entire earthquake catalogue is 60 m in this test site. Furthermore, synthetic gauge points are selected along the western coast of Istanbul by including Tuzla coasts. Tuzla is one of the areas that shows high probability exceedance of 0.3 m wave height, which is around 90 %, for the next 50 years while this probability reaches up to more than 95 % for the next 100 years.
... Tsunami loading on coastal structures has been investigated through both laboratory experiments (Cross 1967;Ramsden 1996;Asakura et al. 2003;Ikeno et al. 2007;Nouri et al. 2010;Guler et al. 2015;Kihara et al. 2015) and numerical studies (see Arikawa et al. 2012;Jianhong et al. 2013;McCabe et al. 2014, among others). Most of the numerical work is based on solutions from Navier-Stokes models describing the complexity of the interaction processes between fluid and structures. ...
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Tsunami waves are often very energetic and therefore pose a significant threat to coastal structures. However, most coastal defenses such as detached breakwaters are designed to protect against storm waves, with the consequence that tsunamis often lead to a catastrophic failure of these structures. This numerical study was inspired by the wave scenario, which occurred at Soma Port in Japan, during the 2011 Tohoku tsunami where a combination of tsunami-type waves and shorter period undular bores caused severe damage to a detached caisson breakwater. The objective herein is to analyze the role that undular bores play on breakwater stability in the case of a tsunami propagating over a gentle slope into shallow water. Two complementary wave models, one of Boussinesq type and the other of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) volume of fluid (VOF) type, are used to compute the propagation of a representative tsunami composed of multiple waves components and their impact on a detached breakwater. The presence of an undular bore is controlled by the balance between wave nonlinearity and dispersion. As the draw-down from the first wave reduces the water depth around the breakwater and leaves the structure almost completely exposed, only the second wave transforms into an undular bore. This causes wave breaking far offshore from the breakwater where a large amount of energy is dissipated ultimately resulting in much less-destructive wave impact at the structure. The un-dular bore influences the wave loading on the breakwater, though the bulk of the wave loads and the excessive bearing pressures were computed for the long-lasting overtopping process of the first wave. These findings facilitate the damage assessment of detached breakwaters as they relate some specific tsunami features to structural stability and failure mechanisms. The results also provide information regarding the applicability and usefulness of different numerical modeling approach for the analysis of the stability of detached breakwaters under tsuna-mis. For this particular case, even depth-integrated numerical models provide conclusive solutions. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first numerical study addressing breakwater stability with respect to the impact of undular bores under tsunami conditions.
Article
In this study, taking the reclamation engineering in the South China Sea as the background, several wave flume experiments (geometrical similarity scale is set as 1:10) are performed to study the dynamics and the stability of a reclaimed calcareous sand foundation and the breakwater built on it, under the impacting of tsunami wave. Tsunami wave is similarly simulated by N wave in the wave flume. It is shown by the experimental results that the revetment breakwater has no visible displacement, and there is no significant deformation in the reclaimed coral sand foundation, regardless the foundation is in dense or loose state under tsunami wave attacking. Furthermore, there is indeed excess pore pressure generated in the reclaimed coral foundation with a maximum magnitude of 1.5 kPa, caused by the water overtopping or the seepage. It is found that the excess pore pressure has not caused liquefaction in the reclaimed calcareous sand foundation due to the fact that there is only one peak impacting for the tsunami wave-induced load, rather than a cyclic one. Finally, it is concluded that the reclaimed calcareous sand foundation and the breakwater built on it are basically stable under tsunami wave impacting. However, the excessive water overtopping would be a potential threat for the vegetation behind the breakwater, as well as for the underground desalinated water in the reclaimed lands.
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Turkey is highly prone to earthquakes because of active fault zones in the region. The Marmara region located at the western extension of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is one of the most tectonically active zones in Turkey. Numerous catastrophic events such as earthquakes or earthquake/landslide-induced tsunamis have occurred in the Marmara Sea basin. According to studies on the past tsunami records, the Marmara coasts have been hit by 35 different tsunami events in the last 2000 years. The recent occurrences of catastrophic tsunamis in the world’s oceans have also raised awareness about tsunamis that might take place around the Marmara coasts. Similarly, comprehensive studies on tsunamis, such as preparation of tsunami databases, tsunami hazard analysis and assessments, risk evaluations for the potential tsunami-prone regions, and establishing warning systems have accelerated. However, a complete tsunami inundation analysis in high resolution will provide a better understanding of the effects of tsunamis on a specific critical structure located in the Marmara Sea. Ports are one of those critical structures that are susceptible to marine disasters. Resilience of ports and harbors against tsunamis are essential for proper, efficient, and successful rescue operations to reduce loss of life and property. Considering this, high-resolution simulations have been carried out in the Marmara Sea by focusing on Haydarpaşa Port of the megacity Istanbul. In the first stage of simulations, the most critical tsunami sources possibly effective for Haydarpaşa Port were inputted, and the computed tsunami parameters at the port were compared to determine the most critical tsunami scenario. In the second stage of simulations, the nested domains from 90 m gird size to 10 m grid size (in the port region) were used, and the most critical tsunami scenario was modeled. In the third stage of simulations, the topography of the port and its regions were used in the two nested domains in 3-m and 1-m resolutions and the water elevations computed from the previous simulations were inputted from the border of the large domain. A tsunami numerical code, NAMI DANCE, was used in the simulations. The tsunami parameters in the highest resolution were computed in and around the port. The effect of the data resolution on the computed results has been presented. The performance of the port structures and possible effects of tsunami on port operations have been discussed. Since the harbor protection structures have not been designed to withstand tsunamis, the breakwaters’ stability becomes one of the major concerns for less agitation and inundation under tsunami in Haydarpaşa Port for resilience. The flow depth, momentum fluxes, and current pattern are the other concerns that cause unexpected circulations and uncontrolled movements of objects on land and vessels in the sea.
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The International Conference on Coastal Engineering (ICCE) is a biennial conference held under the auspices of the Coastal Engineering Research Council of the COPRI (Coasts, Oceans, Ports, Rivers Institute) of the American Society of Civil Engineers. The Proceedings of the ICCE are provided here, with papers covering a wide range of topics including coastal waves, nearshore currents, coastal structures, sediment transport, coastal morphology, beach nourishment, and coastal management. To access the most recent issue, click on the "Current" link above. To access previous Proceedings, click on the "Archives" link. Quick Links to Individual Tables of Contents: 2014 - 2012 - 2010 - 2008 - 2006 - 2004 - 2002 - 2000 - 1998 - 1996 - 1994 - 1992 - 1990 - 1988 - 1986 - 1984 - 1982 - 1980 - 1978 - 1976 - 1974 - 1972 - 1970 - 1968 - 1966 - 1964 - 1962 - 1960 - 1957 - 1954 - 1953 - 1952 - 1951 - 1950
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The assessment of armor damage on rubble mound structures can be carried out with different methodologies that need to be properly calibrated to guarantee the reliability of the results. The most commonly used parameter for the assessment of damage is the so called damage parameter. For prototypes, the averaged eroded area can be calculated if the geometry of the structure is measured before and after the damage. In the laboratory, profiling is the most common method used to assess the damage, but there are two other methods that can be applied.
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In this paper it will be shown that the wave height parameter H50, defined as the average wave height of the 50 highest waves reaching a rubble-mound breakwater in its useful life, can describe the effect of the wave height on the history of the armor damage caused by the wave climate during the structure's usable life.Using Thompson and Shuttler (Thompson, D.M., Shuttler, R.M., 1975. Riprap design for wind wave attack: A laboratory study on random waves. HRS Wallingford, Report 61, UK) data it will be shown that H50 is the wave parameter that best represents the damage evolution with the number of waves in a sea state. Using this H50 parameter, formulae as van der Meer (van der Meer, J.W., 1988. Rock slopes and gravel beaches under wave attack. PhD Thesis. Technical University of Delft) and Losada and Giménez-Curto (Losada, M.A., Gimenez–Curto, L.A., 1979. The joint effect of the wave height and period on the stability of rubble mound breakwaters using Iribarren's number. Coastal Engineering, 3, 77–96) are transformed into sea-state damage evolution formulae. Using these H50-transformed formulae for regular and irregular sea states it will be shown how damage predictions are independent of the sea state wave height distribution.To check the capability of these H50-formulae to predict damage evolution of succession of sea states with different wave height distributions, some stability tests with regular and irregular waves have been carried out. After analysing the experimental results, it will be shown how H50-formulae can predict the observed damage independently of the sea state wave height distribution or the succession of sea states.
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The coasts of Turkey have been hit by tsunamis in the past. The first national earthquake-tsunami catalogues were compiled in the early 1980s while the most up-to-date tsunami catalogues are mainly the products of recent European projects. The EU projects GITEC and GITEC-TWO (Genesis and Impact of Tsunamis on the European Coasts) and TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region) have added important contributions in establishing and developing unified criteria for tsunami parameterisation, standards for the quality of the data, the data format and the database general architecture. On the basis of these new aspects and based on recent marine geophysical data, tsunamigenic earthquakes, tsunami intensities and their reliability have been revised. The current version of the database contains 134 events, most of which have affected the Turkish coasts seriously during the last 3500 years. The reliability index of 76 events was "probable" and "definite", so that they could be used for assessment of the risk along the Turkish coastal region and for implementation of prevention policies.
Article
This paper reports on a laboratory investigation conducted at the United States Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, to determine criteria for the design and construction of rubble-mound breakwaters. Small-scale breakwater sections are hand- constructed in a concrete wave flume 119 ft long, 5 ft wide, 4 ft deep, and subjected to mechanically generated waves to determine the stability of the armor units. A general stability equation has been derived and is being used to guide the experimental program and correlate the test data. From the test data obtained important unknown functions in the general stability equation have been determined for selected breakwater and test-wave conditions, and a new breakwater stability formula has been obtained. In conjunction with the stability tests, wave run-up data are obtained for each breakwater section and wave condition tested. Also, measurements are obtained that enable the thickness and porosity of cover layers composed of different types of armor units to be determined. The new stability formula and the experimental data obtained so far have provided essential information for an improved method of designing rubble-mound breakwaters with protective cover layers composed of quarry-stone and tetrapod armor units. Tests in progress (1959) to obtain experimental data for other special shapes of cast-concrete armor units (cubes, tetrahedrons, and tribars) should increase considerably the accuracy of rubble-mound breakwater design.
Article
Based on the results of field surveys, coastal dike failures caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake were classified into eight patterns. The results of hydraulic model experiments related to major failure patterns reinforced the proposed failure processes. In addition, the aggregated length of each failure pattern showed that failure from scouring at the landward toe is the dominant failure pattern.
Article
More than 30 tsunami events have impacted the coasts of the Sea of Marmara in the past two millennium, clustering in İzmit Bay, the shores of İstanbul, Gemlik Bay, the shores of the Kapıdağ and Gelibolu Peninsulas. With respect to the last well-known tsunami, the İzmit tsunami of 17 August, 1999, available field survey run-up data and marine surveys provide an opportunity to evaluate how these events were triggered. The main purpose of this study is to determine the slope failure potential as a possible tsunamigenic source in the Sea of Marmara by utilising multi-beam bathymetry, shallow and deep seismic reflection data. On the basis of the landslide geomorphology, the generation, propagation and coastal amplifications of tsunamis related to earthquake and slope failure scenarios were tested by using tsunami simulation model TWO_LAYER. The maximum water surface elevations near the shores along the north and south coasts are obtained according to the selected scenarios of tsunami generation by using available data.
Article
Predicting the stability of armor blocks of breakwaters and revetments is a very important issue in coastal and ocean engineering. Recently, soft computing tools such as artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been used to predict the stability number of armor blocks. However, these tools are not as transparent as empirical formulas. This study presents another soft computing approach, i.e. model trees for predicting the stability number of armor blocks. The main advantage of model trees is that, unlike the other data learning tools, they are easier to use and more importantly they represent understandable mathematical rules. A total of 579 experimental test data from Van der Meer 1988 are used for developing the model. The conventional governing parameters were selected as the input variables and the obtained results were compared with those of measurements, empirical and soft computing models. Using statistical measures, it was shown that the developed models are more accurate than previous empirical and soft computing models. Furthermore, some simple rules are given for armor blocks’ design.
Article
Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work, we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate the evolution of initial rectangular-shaped humps of water propagating large distances over a constant depth. The objective is to clarify under which circumstances the front of the wave can develop into an undular bore with a leading soliton. In this connection, we discuss and test various measures for the threshold distance necessary for nonlinear and dispersive effects to manifest in a transient wave train. In part 2, we simulate the shoaling of long smooth transient and periodic waves on a mild slope and conclude that these waves are effectively non-dispersive. In this connection, we discuss the relevance of finite amplitude solitary wave theory in laboratory studies of tsunamis. We conclude that order-of-magnitude errors in effective temporal and spatial duration occur when this theory is used as an approximation for long waves on a sloping bottom. In part 3, we investigate the phenomenon of disintegration of long waves into shorter waves, which has been observed, for example, in connection with the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. This happens if the front of the tsunami becomes sufficiently steep, and as a result, the front turns into an undular bore. We discuss the importance of these very short waves in connection with breaking and runup and conclude that they do not justify a solitary wave model for the bulk tsunami.
Article
Tests of riprap stability under wave attack were conducted at prototype scale in the large wave tank at the U.S. Army Coastal Engineering Research Center (CERC). Wave heights ranging from 1.4 to 6 feet and wave periods ranging from 2.8 to 11.3 seconds, were used. Three embankment slopes, 1 on 1.5, 1 on 3.5, and 1 on 5, were tested. The riprap stone was a diorite placed on the embankments by dumping. The median stone weights of the riprap ranged from 27 to 120 pounds. The study showed that wave period, because of its influence on breaker characteristics, has a significant effect on riprap stability. Wave conditions which produce the lowest riprap stability are predictable and are associated with a collapsing-type breaker.
Article
The prediction of rubble mound breakwaters' stability is one of the most important issues in coastal and maritime engineering. The stability of breakwaters strongly depends on the wave height. Therefore, selection of an appropriate wave height parameter is very vital in the prediction of stability number. In this study, H 50 , the average of the 50 highest waves that reach the breakwater in its useful life, was used to predict the stability of the armor layer. First, H 50 was used instead of the significant wave height in the most recent stability formulas. It was found that this modification yields more accurate results. Then, for further improvement of the results, two formulas were developed using model tree. To develop the new formulas, two experimental data sets of irregular waves were used. Results indicated that the proposed formulas are more accurate than the previous ones for the prediction of the stability parameter. Finally, the proposed formulas were applied to regular waves and a wide range of damage levels and it was seen that the developed formulas are applicable in these cases as well.
Article
More than 30 tsunami events have impacted the coasts of the Sea of Marmara in the past two millennium, clustering in İzmit Bay, the shores of İstanbul, Gemlik Bay, the shores of the Kapıdağ and Gelibolu Peninsulas. With respect to the last well-known tsunami, the İzmit tsunami of 17 August, 1999, available field survey run-up data and marine surveys provide an opportunity to evaluate how these events were triggered. The main purpose of this study is to determine the slope failure potential as a possible tsunamigenic source in the Sea of Marmara by utilising multi-beam bathymetry, shallow and deep seismic reflection data. On the basis of the landslide geomorphology, the generation, propagation and coastal amplifications of tsunamis related to earthquake and slope failure scenarios were tested by using tsunami simulation model TWO_LAYER. The maximum water surface elevations near the shores along the north and south coasts are obtained according to the selected scenarios of tsunami generation by using available data.
Article
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Development of a Web GIS Tsunami Inundation Mapping Service: A Case Study of the Sea of Marmara Region
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Coasts, Marine Structures and Breakwaters, Institution of Civil Engineers Proceedings
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High performance computing for comparing performance of 2D/3D hybrid tsunami simulation models: a case study in Haydarpasa
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Stability of Rock-Fill Breakwaters
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Guidelines for Wave Modelling in Flumes and Basins: Hydraulic Model Testing in Waves
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High Resolution Tsunami Modeling and Assessment of Harbour Resilience: Case Study in Istanbul
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Damage pattern of the armor layer at the sea side
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Fig. 19. Damage pattern of the armor layer at the sea side.
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Simulation and vulnerability analysis of tsunamis affecting the Istanbul coasts
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High performance computing for comparing performance of 2D/3D hybrid tsunami simulation models: a case study in Haydarpasa Port in Istanbul, the Sea of Marmara
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Analysis of the stability of armour units during the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Tsunami
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Design of Riprap Slope Protection against Wind Waves
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High Resolution Tsunami Modeling and Assessment of Harbour Resilience: Case Study in Istanbul
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