Conference PaperPDF Available

The Relationship between Loneliness and Game Preferences of Secondary School Students

Authors:
Conference Paper

The Relationship between Loneliness and Game Preferences of Secondary School Students

Abstract and Figures

Computer and video games have become a popular form of entertainment among adolescents and adults. Day by day, the numbers of computer and video game players have increased significantly. According to the “2014 Essential Facts About the Computer and Video Game Industry” report released by the Entertainment Software Association (ESA) in April 2014, total consumer spend on game industry has been $21.53 billion dollars in 2013. Recently, many researchers concentrate on the more negative aspects such as excessive play and addiction of adolescents’ computer game playing. However, the loneliness has been found to be one of the essential predictor of game addiction. The purpose of the current study was to determine the relationship between the loneliness level and game preferences of 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. To accomplish this purpose, survey method was used and the data were obtained by a game playing habits and preferences questionnaire and loneliness scale. The participants of the study consist of 843 secondary school students, ranged from 11 to 14 years, in Istanbul, Turkey. The analyses of obtained data were presented and discussed at the results and conclusion section of the study.
Content may be subject to copyright.
The Relationship between Loneliness and Game Preferences of
Secondary School Students
Mehmet Fatih Erkoç, Feridun Özçakir, Çiğdem Erkoç
1Yıldız Technical University Education Faculty, 2Okan University School of Applied Sciences,
3Yenibosna Fatih Secondary School
(Turkey)
mferkoc@yildiz.edu.tr, feridun.ozcakir@okan.edu.tr, cigdemsakar@gmail.com
Abstract
Computer and video games have become a popular form of entertainment among adolescents and
adults. Day by day, the numbers of computer and video game players have increased significantly.
According to the “2014 Essential Facts About the Computer and Video Game Industry” report released
by the Entertainment Software Association (ESA) in April 2014, total consumer spend on game
industry has been $21.53 billion dollars in 2013. Recently, many researchers concentrate on the more
negative aspects such as excessive play and addiction of adolescents’ computer game playing.
However, the loneliness has been found to be one of the essential predictor of game addiction. The
purpose of the current study was to determine the relationship between the loneliness level and game
preferences of 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. To accomplish this purpose, survey method was
used and the data were obtained by a game playing habits and preferences questionnaire and
loneliness scale. The participants of the study consist of 843 secondary school students, ranged from
11 to 14 years, in Istanbul, Turkey. The analyses of obtained data were presented and discussed at
the results and conclusion section of the study.
1. Introduction
For least 30 years, computer and video games have increasingly become popular form of
entertainment and have replaced more traditional games as leisure activities among adolescents and
adults. Today’s computer and video games are enjoyed by players all ages and backgrounds, and
they spend a good part of their leisure time on playing computer games. Day by day, the numbers of
computer and video game players have increased significantly. According to the “2014 Essential Facts
About the Computer and Video Game Industry” report released by the Entertainment Software
Association (ESA) in April 2014, %59 of Americans play video games, the average years of game
players are 31, the average number of years gamers have been playing video games are 14, %77 of
gamers play with others at least one hour per week, and total consumer spend on game industry has
been $21.53 billion dollars in 2013 [1].
Too much time spent on game play certainly cause problems in other daily life activities and results in
negative outcomes. Given the increasing sales of computer and video games and the popularity of this
medium among adolescents and adults, policy makers, scholars and the general public have
expressed concern that some players may present with pathological patterns of video game use that
interfere with life functioning [2]. Recently, many researchers concentrate on the more negative
aspects such as excessive play and addiction of adolescents’ computer game playing. In the last
decade, there is a significant increase in the number of studies examining various aspects of
problematic computer and video game play [3] [4] [5] and addiction [4] [6] [7].
In results of many researches, negative outcomes were found for health related aspects, such as
problematic sleep patterns [8], or lower psychosocial wellbeing [9], as well as personal function
indicated lower academic achievement [10]. However, the loneliness, which is one of the important
subcategories of internet addiction and a predictor of pathological internet use [11] , has been found to
be one of the essential predictor of game addiction [4] [12]. Amichai-Hamburger and Ben-Artzi (2003),
in their descriptive study, aimed to examine the relationship between extroversion, neuroticism,
differential Internet use, and loneliness. They conducted a survey, with 85 participants drawn from the
departments of Psychology, for determining the relationship between frequency of Internet usage and
loneliness level and anxiety, distress, and emotional liability. Their results indicate that for men, the
use of Internet services is not related either to loneliness, neuroticism, or extraversion. However, for
women, loneliness is significantly related to both neuroticism and the use of social services in the
Internet [13]. In another study Stetina, Kothgassner, Lehenbauer, and Kryspin-Exner (2011), aimed to
examine problematic gaming behavior and depressive tendencies among people who play different
types of online-games. Their research addresses often discussed fundamental questions regarding
problematic gaming behavior, depression and self-esteem of online-gamers. Results of their research
indicate that MMORPG users show more often problematic gaming behavior, depressive tendencies
and lower self-esteem compared to users playing other online-games [14]. In the literature, a majority
of studies on determining the predictors of problematic game playing and game addiction focused the
online game playing habits of college students or adults. Little has been researched about the
relationship between preferences and habits of secondary school students and psychological
loneliness characteristic. For these reasons, this study was aimed to determine the relationship
between the loneliness level and game preferences of 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. In this
study following research questions will attempt to answer;
Is there any relevance between time spent to game playing per week and loneliness level of
secondary school graders?
Is there any relevance between how many years they have spent on playing computer game
and loneliness level of secondary school graders?
Is there any significant difference between gender and loneliness level of secondary school
graders?
2. Method
The purpose of the current study was to determine the relationship between the loneliness level and
game preferences of 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. To accomplish this purpose, survey
method was used and the data were obtained by a game playing habits and preferences
questionnaire and loneliness scale.
2.1 Participants
The participants in this study were 843 individuals, 462 (54.8%) males and 381 females (45.2%), from
two different secondary schools in two districts in Istanbul. The distribution of participants were
following; 330 of them 5th grade (39.1%), 261 of them 6th grade (31.0%), 158 of them 7th grade
(18.7%), and 94 of them 8th grade (11.2%) students. A total of 950 survey delivered by researcher in
two school, 872 students completed this survey with a response rate of 91.8%, but 29 participants
were removed from the data analysis due to large amounts of missing data. Participants were mostly
around the age of 11-14 years old.
2.2 Data collection tools
Student Information and Game Preferences Survey: A personal information and game preferences
survey, which contains questions about children’s grade, gender, computer game experiences,
preferences of computer games, time for spending playing games per week, was prepared by
researchers in order to determine children’s game playing characteristics.
School-Based Loneliness Scale for Children (SLSC): SLSC was developed by Asher, Hymel and
Renshaw in 1984 [15] and revised by Asher and Wheeler in 1985 [16] and it has been adapted to the
Turkish by Kaya in 2005 [17]. The original scale consists of 24 items, assessing children's feelings of
loneliness and social dissatisfaction, and all items were rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale from
“Always true for me (scored 5)” to “That’s not true for me (scored 1)”. In the original scale result was
found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's a = .90) and internally reliable (split-half correlation
between forms = .83; Spearman-Brown reliability coefficient = .91; Guttman split-half reliability
coefficient - .91).
2.3 Analysis of collected data
The SPSS version 22.0 package software was used for analyzing collected data via “Student
Information and Game Preferences Survey and School-Based Loneliness Scale for Children. The t-
test was used to determine the significant difference between gender and loneliness level of students,
and Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to determine the relevance between time spent to
game playing per week and how many years they have spent on playing computer game and
loneliness level.
3. Results
In order to investigate whether relevance between times spent to game playing per week and
loneliness level of secondary school graders, Pearson correlation statistical analysis was performed.
According to analysis results, the mean time spent to playing computer game per week was 10.39
hours (SD=9.72), and loneliness scale mean score was 25.97 (SD=11.54). Analysis results can be
seen in Table 1.
Table 1. Pearson correlation results for time spent per week and loneliness level
Loneliness level
Time spent per week
Pearson Correlation
.196
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
843
As shown in Table 1, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between times spent to
playing computer game per week and loneliness level of students (r=.196, p<.01). As a result of this
analysis, it can be said that the students who spend more time to playing computer game are lonelier
than others.
In order to investigate whether correlation between how many years they have spent on playing
computer game and loneliness level of secondary school graders, Pearson correlation statistical
analysis was performed. The mean spent year of participants to playing game was 2.31 years
(SD=0.93). In the Table 2, the results of performed statistical analysis in order to answer the second
research question can be seen.
Table 2. Pearson correlation results for spent years to playing game and loneliness level
Loneliness level
Spent years to playing
game
Pearson Correlation
.10
Sig. (2-tailed)
.780
N
843
As shown in Table 2, there was not a statistically significant correlation between how many years they
have spent on playing computer game and loneliness level of students (r=.10, p>.05). When the
average gaming years of students examined (2.31 years), it can be said that they are new gamers.
Therefore, the no significant relationship between spent years to playing computer game and
loneliness level may be observed.
Last of all, in order to answer the third research question independent sample t-test was performed
and analysis results were presented in Table 3. The mean loneliness score of female and male
students was respectively 25.69 (SD=12.08) and 26.20 (SD=11.10).
Table 3. Independent sample t-test results of gender and loneliness level of students.
Gender
N
Mean
sd
t
Female
381
25,69
12,08
-.631
Male
462
26,20
11.10
According to results, there was not a significant difference between gender and loneliness level of
students (t(841)=.-631, p>.05). Although it is possible to find studies in the literature which defend the
gender is a predictor of loneliness, for only this study, we can say that the gender factor was not a
predictor of loneliness level.
4. Conclusion
The purpose of the present study was to reveal relationship between loneliness and excessive
computer game playing which are two major problems among adolescents nowadays. The results of
this study shows us that much times spent to playing computer or video games can cause
psychological problems such as loneliness. Loneliness is an important psychological problem which
typically includes anxious feelings about a lack of connectedness or commonality and it may be a
symptom of another social or psychological problem, such as chronic depression, and antisocial and
self-destructive behavior. Moreover, loneliness often has a negative impact on learning for children in
these ages. As researchers and parents, we know that higher levels of interaction with friend can
improve well-being and social relationships are vital predictor of quality of life for adolescents.
Therefore, parents should encourage their children to make friends and play with them at least one
twice a week, instead of excessive computer or video game playing. Above all, parents should spend
more time with their children and try to communicate and understand them.
References
[1] Entertainment Software Association. (2015, March). Essential Facts about the Computer and
Video Game Industry: 2014 Sales, Demographic, and Usage Data. Web: http://www.theesa.com.
[2] Ferguson, C. J., Coulson, M., & Barnett, J. (2011). A meta-analysis of pathological gaming
prevalence and comorbidity with mental health, academic and social problems. Journal of
psychiatric research, 45(12), 1573-1578.
[3] Grüsser, S. M., Thalemann, R., & Griffiths, M. D. (2006). Excessive computer game playing:
evidence for addiction and aggression?. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10(2), 290-292.
[4] Kim, E. J., Namkoong, K., Ku, T., & Kim, S. J. (2008). The relationship between online game
addiction and aggression, self-control and narcissistic personality traits. European psychiatry,
23(3), 212-218.
[5] Festl, R., Scharkow, M., & Quandt, T. (2013). Problematic computer game use among
adolescents, younger and older adults. Addiction, 108(3), 592-599.
[6] Charlton, J. P., & Danforth, I. D. (2007). Distinguishing addiction and high engagement in the
context of online game playing. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(3), 1531-1548.
[7] Ng, B. D., & Wiemer-Hastings, P. (2005). Addiction to the internet and online gaming.
CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8(2), 110-113.
[8] Dworak, M., Schierl, T., Bruns, T., & Strüder, H. K. (2007). Impact of singular excessive computer
game and television exposure on sleep patterns and memory performance of school-aged
children. Pediatrics, 120(5), 978-985.
[9] Lemmens, J. S., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2011). Psychosocial causes and consequences of
pathological gaming. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 144-152.
[10] Jeong, E. J., & Kim, D. H. (2011). Social activities, self-efficacy, game attitudes, and game
addiction. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(4), 213-221.
[11] Davis, R. A. (2001). A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use. Computers in
human behavior, 17(2), 187-195.
[12] Liu, M., & Peng, W. (2009). Cognitive and psychological predictors of the negative outcomes
associated with playing MMOGs (massively multiplayer online games). Computers in Human
Behavior, 25(6), 1306-1311.
[13] Amichai-Hamburger, Y., & Ben-Artzi, E. (2003). Loneliness and Internet use. Computers in human
behavior, 19(1), 71-80.
[14] Stetina, B. U., Kothgassner, O. D., Lehenbauer, M., & Kryspin-Exner, I. (2011). Beyond the
fascination of online-games: Probing addictive behavior and depression in the world of online-
gaming. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 473-479.
[15] Asher, S. R., Hymel, S., & Renshaw, P. D. (1984). Loneliness in children. Child development,
1456-1464.
[16] Asher, S. R., & Wheeler, V. A. (1985). Children's loneliness: a comparison of rejected and
neglected peer status. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 53(4), 500.
[17] Kaya, A. (2005). Çocuklar için Yalnızlık Ölçeği’nin Türkçe Formu’nun geçerlik ve güvenirlik
çalışması. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 19, 220237.
... Although loneliness was not mentioned explicitly, it is a negative consequence of the behaviour. Various studies were done on the topic and more often than not, positive correlations were found (Erkoç, Özçakir & Erkoç, 2015;Eren & Örsal, 2018;Wang, 2018), especially in that of male players. It could also be due to them having a larger interest in technology (Kanat, 2019). ...
... As predicted based on the findings of past literature (Wang, Jackson & Zhang, 2011;Erkoç, Özçakir & Erkoç, 2015;Eren & Örsal, 2018) in addition to the data analysis, it was determined that there was a significant positive correlation between loneliness and VGA. It was reported that the majority of participants were found to be male. ...
Article
Full-text available
... Although loneliness was not mentioned explicitly, it is a negative consequence of the behaviour. Various studies were done on the topic and more often than not, positive correlations were found (Erkoç, Özçakir & Erkoç, 2015;Eren & Örsal, 2018;Wang, 2018), especially in that of male players. It could also be due to them having a larger interest in technology (Kanat, 2019). ...
... As predicted based on the findings of past literature (Wang, Jackson & Zhang, 2011;Erkoç, Özçakir & Erkoç, 2015;Eren & Örsal, 2018) in addition to the data analysis, it was determined that there was a significant positive correlation between loneliness and VGA. It was reported that the majority of participants were found to be male. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents is prevalent and its rate has increased in recent years worldwide. The role of parents on adolescents psychological wellbeing is evident in numerous literature, however little is known on the relationship between helicopter parenting and NSSI in a representative sample of adolescents from Malaysia. Aim: The present study aims to identify the relationship between NSSI and helicopter parenting among adolescents in Kedah, Malaysia. Furthermore, the study also examined the gender and place of living differences related to NSSI behavior. Method: A cross-sectional study consisted of 230 adolescents (31.0% male and 68.2% female; Mage 19.4 SD=2.12) completed the helicopter parenting and NSSI questionnaires. The respondents of this study were selected using a convenience sampling method from a private college located in the Kulim district of Kedah, Malaysia. Findings: Analysis revealed that 129 (56.1%) out of 230 respondents reported having engaged in at least one incidence of NSSI in the previous 12 months with females reportedly engaged in a higher frequency of NSSI behaviour (M=14.12, SD=5.42). The finding also demonstrated a large positive correlation between helicopter parenting and NSSI behavior among adolescents. Significant differences in NSSI were found between adolescents from urban and rural areas with higher frequency of NSSI behavior for adolescents from urban areas. Conclusion: NSSI behavior is found to be common among adolescents in Kedah, Malaysia. The development of prevention and intervention strategies should focus on parenting style as an important indicator for preventing or reducing NSSI among adolescents in Malaysia. Keywords: Helicopter parenting, Nonsuicidal self-injury, NSSI, Adolescents, Malaysia Page (431)
... Human beings are born with an innate capacity to develop long-term and meaningful social relationships (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). However, individuals with a stronger sense of loneliness are prone to immerse themselves in the virtual world and use Internet games as a medium to satisfy their innate need for social interactions (Erkoç, Özçakir, & Erkoç, 2015;Lemmens, Valkenburg, & Peter, 2011). Currently, most of the studies on loneliness conducted in Malaysia have been mainly focused on Internet and social networking addictions among university students and adolescents (e.g., Cheak, Goh, & Chin, 2012;Haque et al., 2016;Teong & Ang, 2016;Zainudin, Din, & Othman, 2013). ...
Article
Insufficient attention has been given to the integration of the mediating effect of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) symptoms on loneliness and four components of aggression—physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility—in the Malaysian context. In the present study, 410 participants with (a) at least 1 year of Internet gaming experience and (b) between ages 20– to 39 years were recruited using the probability proportional to size sampling method. Participants were undergraduate students and working adults. Self‐reported questionnaires (the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale, University of California, Los Angeles Loneliness Scale, and the Buss‐Perry Aggression Questionnaire) were used. The present study found that loneliness positively predicted four components of aggression (i.e., anger, hostility, physical aggression, and verbal aggression) and symptoms of IGD. Relationships between loneliness and the four components of aggression were partially mediated by IGD symptoms. The present study enriches and consolidates existing empirical evidence, particularly in the Malaysian context. If the mediating effect is not emphasized, it may lead to spurious conclusions that can significantly diminish the effectiveness of interventions that are meant to manage aggression.
... As per the increasing popularity among adolescents (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18) for the computer games, it's very common to develop the addiction towards them. This increasing demand and impulsivity among adolescents for computer games make these programs very challenging and in order to reach the higher level of the game they do everything in their possession. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this advanced technology era, computer games have their own impact on the human life. People of all ages enjoy these games and draw an immense pleasure from them. With the advancement in these computer games, the time adolescents devote to these games results in increased level of addiction. The present study is an attempt to investigate the relationship of computer game addiction with loneliness and aggression level in adolescents. The sample consisted of 100 participants and the tools used were Computer Game Addiction Scale (CAS) (Lemmens et al. 2009), UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell et al. 1978) and Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) (Buss& Perry, 1992).The results reveal that there is no significant relationship between Computer Game Addiction and Loneliness as well as on the Aggression levels in adolescents.
Article
Full-text available
Playing digital games has been associated with forms of addictive behavior. Past research on the subject has often been criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds, due mainly to measurement or sampling issues. The present study aims to overcome these two limitations, and presents data from a representative study in Germany using an already established instrument for measuring problematic game use. Large-scale, representative study using a computer-assisted telephone survey. Germany. A total of 580 adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age, 1866 younger adults between 19–39 years and 1936 older adults aged 40 years and older (overall n = 4382). Problematic game use was measured with the Gaming Addiction Short Scale (GAS), which covers seven criteria including salience, withdrawal and conflicts. Additionally, differential aspects of personality, as well as gaming behaviour, were measured. Only seven respondents [0.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1, 0.3] met all criteria of the GAS Scale. In contrast, 3.7% (95% CI: 3.1, 4.3) of the respondents can be considered problematic users, meeting at least half these conditions. The percentage of problematic gamers among adolescents is above average (7.6%, 95% CI: 5.6, 10.1). High GAS scores are associated with aggression, low sociability and self-efficacy and lower satisfaction with life. Additionally, these scores correspond with intensive use and preferences for certain gaming genres across all age groups. Following Gaming Addiction Short Scale criteria, gaming addiction is currently not a widespread phenomenon among adolescents and adults in Germany. Gaming Addiction Short Scale scores are associated with intensive use, as well as certain problematic aspects of individuals' personalities and social lives.
Article
Full-text available
Mental health professionals, policy makers and the general public continue to debate the issue of pathological video gaming. Scholars disagree on the prevalence and diagnostic criteria for this potential new disorder. The current meta-analysis considers existing scholarship to examine how differing measurement methods influence prevalence rates and associations with other mental health problems. Thirty three published studies and doctoral dissertations were analyzed in meta-analysis. Prevalence rates and comorbidity with other mental health problems were examined according to measurement method. Prevalence estimates and comorbidity with other problems varied widely between studies. Measurement which attempted to replicate "pathological gambling" approaches produced higher prevalence estimates and lower comorbidity estimates than methods which focused on the interfering nature of pathological gaming. The most precise measures produce an overall prevalence rate of 3.1%. Diagnostic analogies with pathological gambling may produce spuriously high prevalence estimates, potentially over identifying non-pathological players as pathological. Diagnostic approaches focused on the interfering nature on other life needs and responsibilities may have greater validity and utility.
Article
Children experiencing difficulties in their peer relations have typically been identified using external sources of information, such as teacher referrals or ratings, sociometric measures, and/or behavioral observations. There is a need to supplement these assessment procedures with self-report measures that assess the degree to which the children themselves feel satisfaction with their peer relationships. In this study, a 16-item self-report measure of loneliness and social dissatisfaction was developed. In surveying 506 third- through sixth-grade children, the measure was found to be internally reliable. More than 10% of children reported feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction, and children's feelings of loneliness were significantly related to their sociometric status. The relationship of loneliness and sociometric status to school achievement was also examined.
Article
This article introduces a cognitive-behavioral model of Pathological Internet Use (PIU). While previous studies on Internet addiction have described behavioral factors, such as withdrawal and tolerance, the present article focuses on the maladaptive cognitions associated with PIU. The cognitive-behavioral model of PIU distinguishes between specific PIU and generalized PIU. Specific PIU refers to the condition in which an individual pathologically uses the Internet for a particular purpose, such as online sex or online gambling, whereas generalized PIU describes a more global set of behaviors. The model implies a more important role of cognitions in PIU, and describes the means by which PIU is both developed and maintained. Furthermore, it provides a framework for the development of cognitive-behavioral interventions for PIU.
Article
This study considered whether the distinction between core and peripheral criteria for behavioral addiction, previously drawn with respect to computing activities in general, applies in the specific area of Massively Multiplayer Online Game playing. Questionnaire items were administered over the Internet to 442 game players. Factor-analysis of the data supported the previous findings for computing in general. An addiction factor loaded on items tapping previously identified core criteria (conflict, withdrawal symptoms, relapse and reinstatement and behavioral salience) and a (non-pathological) engagement factor loaded on items tapping previously identified peripheral criteria (cognitive salience, tolerance and euphoria). Analysis of response frequencies supported the existence of a developmental process whereby peripheral criteria are met before core criteria. Players who might be considered addicted using a monothetic classification system involving only the core criteria were shown to spend a significantly greater amount of time playing per week than those endorsing only the peripheral criteria. It is concluded that the study supports the idea that it is inappropriate to use some of the previously used criteria for addiction when researching or diagnosing computer-related addictions. Implications of the present findings for Internet-mediated data collection methodologies are also discussed.
Article
The Internet is becoming increasingly influential, but some observers have noted that heavy Internet users seem alienated from normal social contacts and may even cut these off as the Internet becomes the predominate social factor in their lives. Kraut, Patterson, Lundmark, Kiesler, Mukopadhyay, and Scherlis [American Psychologist 53 (1998) 65] carried out a longitudinal study from which they concluded that Internet use leads to loneliness among its users. However, their study did not take into account that the population of Internet users is not uniform and comprises many different personality types. People use the Internet in a variety of ways in keeping with their own personal preference. Therefore, the results of this interaction between personality and Internet use are likely to vary among different individuals and similarly the impact on user well-being will not be uniform. One of the personality characteristics that has been found to influence Internet use is that of extroversion and neuroticism [Hamburger & Ben-Artzi, Computers in Human Behavior 16 (2000) 441].For this study, 89 participants completed questionnaires pertaining to their own Internet use and feelings of loneliness and extroversion and neuroticism. The results were compared to two models (a) the Kraut et al. (1998) model which argues that Internet use leads to loneliness (b) an alternative model which argues that it is those people who are already lonely who spend time on the Internet. A satisfactory goodness of fit was found for the alternative model. Building on these results, several different directions are suggested for continuing research in this field.
Article
This study integrates research on problematic Internet use to explore the cognitive and psychological predictors of negative consequences associated with playing massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs). Participants recruited from online discussion boards completed self-report measures on their online game-related cognitions and psychological condition, social skills, psychological well-being, and negative life outcomes associated with game playing. The results demonstrated the important roles that psychological dependency and deficient self-regulation play in negative consequences associated with online gaming. The results also indicated that psychological dependency on MMOGs was predicted by cognitive preference for a virtual life—a construct that is negatively related to social control skills.
Article
Pathological use of computer and video games has been associated with indicators of psychosocial well-being, such as loneliness, low self-esteem, low social competence, and low life satisfaction. However, few studies have decisively demonstrated whether these indicators of psychosocial well-being are causes or consequences of pathological gaming. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (543 gamers). Causal relations were analyzed using autoregressive structural equation models. These analyses indicated that social competence, self-esteem, and loneliness were significant predictors of pathological gaming six months later. Thus, lower psychosocial well-being can be considered an antecedent of pathological gaming among adolescent gamers. Our analyses further indicated that loneliness was also a consequence of pathological gaming. This suggests that displacement of real-world social interaction resulting from pathological use of video games may deteriorate existing relationships, which could explain the increase in adolescent gamers’ feelings of loneliness.
Article
This study examined problematic gaming behavior and depressive tendencies among people who play different types of online-games. Other game-related variables were investigated to determine if other differences between three game types could be established. Participants in the current research (n = 468) can be classified into three independent groups. Subjected users either solely played massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) or they preferred online-ego-shooters (OES) or real-time-strategy games (RTS). Results indicate that MMORPG users show more often problematic gaming behavior, depressive tendencies and lower self-esteem compared to users playing other online-games. MMORPG users reported to playing significantly more often in order to escape from real-life problems, which might be a valuable coping strategy but might also lead to problematic gaming behavior.
Article
This study examines whether social activities with parents, online and offline social self-efficacy, and attitudes toward gaming are associated with the degree of game addiction among adolescents. Using data from a survey of 600 middle- and high-school students in South Korea, we tested the relationships of personal characteristics (grade point average and time spent on gaming each day), social self-efficacy (both on- and offline), general social activities (with parents, friends, and teachers), gaming activities with parents, and attitudes toward gaming (those of self, parents, friends, and teachers) with the degree of game addiction. In addition, we conducted ANOVA tests to determine the differences among three groups: non-addicts (NA), possible (mild or moderate) addicts (PA), and Internet addicts (IA). The results show that social self-efficacy in the real world (offline) was negatively related with the degree of game addiction, whereas social self-efficacy in the virtual world (online) indicated a positive association. Social activities with parents are negatively associated with game addiction, although no relationship is found between gaming activities with parents and game addiction. Parental attitude toward gaming has a negative relationship with the addiction. Results and implications are discussed.