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Abstract

Biological scientific collections are important source of information and testimonies of biodiversity. Development of research in taxonomy, systematics, and curatory are imperative for efficient conservation and understanding of the biodiversity. For historical reasons, there are relatively few Brazilian taxonomists, and often lack knowledge on the importance, existence, and taxonomic and geographic magnitude of many scientific collections that house mammal species of Brazil. Here I list scientific collections with Brazilian mammals in Europe. Among these, some are quite famous, such as the Natural History Museum and the Museum für Naturkunde, and others less well known, such as the Senckenberg Museum.
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... Contudo, ao contrário das expedições europeias que visavam a conquista de novos territórios para seus impérios, as expedições americanas tinham como objetivo primordial a ampliação do comércio internacional e a busca por novas fontes de matérias-primas de valor comercial e cultural, bem como apreender conhecimentos sobre novas culturas (Philbrick, 2004). O marco dessas expedições americanas é o "U.S. Exploring Expedition" (livremente traduzido APRESENTAÇÃO Dando sequência à série de ensaios iniciada na edição número 65 do Boletim da Sociedade Brasileira de Mastozoologia com 'Coleções Científicas de Mamíferos do Brasil: I -Brasil' (Bezerra, 2013), seguida por 'Coleções Científicas de Mamíferos do Brasil: II -Europa' (Bezerra, 2015), apresento agora um ensaio sobre as importantes coleções científicas para o estudo das espécies de mamíferos silvestres recentes do Brasil presentes nos Estados Unidos da América. Como nas edições anteriores, as coleções presentes no território americano também apresentam características próprias em termos de formação de acervos e de abrangência taxonômica e geográfica dos espécimes ali depositados. ...
... No Brasil, realizou campanha à região do rio Xingu em 1986, nos municípios de Altamira e Marabá, no estado do Pará, acompanhada de Michael D. Carleton e Don E. Wilson, e parte do material coletado nesta viagem está depositado no USNM e no Museu de Zoologia do Universidade de São Paulo (Voss & Emmons 1996). Notória é a sua descrição de Juscelinomys huanchacae (Emmons, 1999) A lista das instituições apresentadas no presente trabalho, assim como o foram nas edições anteriores (Bezerra 2013;2015), não é exaustiva. O foco é indicar aquelas consideradas mais importantes pelo número de tipos nominais ou de espécies e espécimes representantes da fauna de mamíferos silvestres recentes que ocorrem no Brasil. ...
... Hoje o acervo da coleção de mamíferos recentes conta com cerca de 590.000 espécimes, sendo o maior do mundo para mamíferos. Possui 3.220 tipos primários (Fisher & Ludwig, 2014), somente suplantado pela coleção do Natural History Museum de Londres, que abriga mais de 11.000 espécimes-tipo (Bezerra, 2015 Anualmente recebem centenas de pesquisadores e estudantes de graduação e pós-graduação, incluindo diversos brasileiros em todas as categorias listadas, além da consulta pelos próprios pesquisadores e alunos vinculados. Seus acervos fomentam uma grande quantidade de dissertações, teses e artigos científicos e de divulgação. ...
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Brazilian Mammals in Scientific Collections: III – United States of America. Here I list and comment about scientific collections with Brazilian mammals in United States of America. These collections began to systematically gathering specimens from South America from second half of 19th century, and are among the main institutions that housed specimens from Brazil. Among these, some are quite famous, such as the o American Museum of Natural History e o The Field Museum of Natural History, and others less well known, such as the Museum of Texas Tech University and the Museum of Southwestern Biology.
... naturalists from Germany, Austria and, soon after, from other European countries (Hershkovitz, 1987). Among them were important names for Brazilian mammalogy, such as Johann Baptist Ritter von Spix, Alexander Philipp Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied, Johann Natterer, Peter Wilhelm Lund, and Johannes Theodor Reinhardt (Bezerra, 2015). These naturalists traveled throughout Brazil collecting specimens and ethnographic material, and recording in paintings, drawings and descriptions the sceneries, indigenous people, flora, and fauna of Brazil. ...
... A set of material and information never before known to the Brazilian natural sciences, which are the primordial source for the knowledge of several research areas in Brazil. Presently, several mammalian studies could not be complete without consulting the material and publications derived from these expeditions (Bezerra, 2015). Indeed, the arrival of these naturalists in Brazil was not by chance, since Archduchess Leopoldine was a very educated woman, as expected of a child born of the Habsburg House, and was greatly interested in natural sciences, arts, and culture (Ribeiro, 2005). ...
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Despite the relatively short history of the Brazilian Society of Mammalogy (SBMz) with its 31 years, some remarkable women made significant contributions, not only to the SBMz, but also to the Brazilian mammalogy in general. Even before the consolidation of the SBMz, several women, regardless of their position in the society and academy, developed and participated in activities that were essential to the current knowledge on Neotropical mammalogy. To highlight the contributions of such women and her successors in Mammalogy, we describe the careers and accomplishments of 21 women in short biographical notes. Our selection includes women that worked from the early 20 th century until the beginnings of the 21 st century in two categories: SBMz's members and relevant non-members. We shall not forget the Archduchess Leopoldine of Austria, an educated and natural sciences enthusiast that, through her marriage with the Crown Prince D. Pedro I of Brazil, literally brought in her "wedding baggage" the opening to the natural history knowledge of Brazil in early XIX century. Resumo: Mulheres na mastozoologia brasileira: as pioneiras e a Sociedade Brasileira de Mastoozologia. Apesar da Sociedade Brasileira de Mastozoologia (SBMz) ser relativamente nova (31 anos), algumas mulheres notáveis fizeram significativas contribuições, não somente para a SBMz, mas para o estudo de mamíferos no Brasil, porém nunca receberam uma merecida homenagem. Ainda, antes da consolidação da SBMz, algumas delas, a despeito de sua posição na sociedade e na academia, desenvolveram ou participaram de atos que foram essenciais para o que hoje conhecemos sobre a Mastozoologia Neotropical. Para divulgar as contribuições dessas importantes mulheres na mastozoologia, nós elaboramos resumos biográficos de 21 delas, do início do século XX até o ano 2000, separando os registros entre membros da SBMz e aquelas que não são membros. Não podemos nos esquecer da Arquiduquesa Leopoldina da Áustria, uma mulher extremamente culta e interessada em ciências naturais, que no início do século XIX, através de seu casamento com o Príncipe-herdeiro D. Pedro I do Brasil, literalmente trouxe em sua bagagem de núpcias o que seria a abertura do Brasil para o conhecimento científico nas disciplinas da história natural. Palavras-Chave: Emilie Snethlage; Imperatriz Maria Leopoldina; Mastozoologia Neotropical; Pesquisa; Século XX. We delineated our essay to include pioneer women dedicated to studies on the Brazilian mammalian fauna and women that contributed to consolidate mammalogy in Brazil (several still contributing to this date). For the latter group, we have arbitrarily included those women with PhD completed until 2000 (four exceptions, being two PhDs, a collection manager and a noblewoman, are explained in the proper sections). Consequently, some important women were excluded, but were not forgotten. Some of the women mentioned herein suffered some kind of prejudice or harassment during their careers, as most women still do in most professions nowadays. In spite of that, they have become examples of successful women and here they are remembered for their great contribution to mammalogy in Brazil. We included, when possible, personal notes from our own experience or the experience of colleagues that have known, lived and/or worked with some of these exceptional women. The account was organized in chronological order of their graduation. Their professional information was taken from Plataforma Lattes (http://buscatextual.cnpq. br/buscatextual), or other sources when specified, and the cutoff date was May 2018, when the first draft of EnSAioS 128 Boletim da Sociedade Brasileira de Mastozoologia, 85: 128-143, 2019
... In 1959, Nikolaj Vorontzov officially named the tribe Oryzomyini, but an "oryzomyine" lineage was previously identified by Hershkovitz (1944) as a "natural assemblage" of related cricetines that share some cranial and molar characters. Almost 80% of the Oryzomyini species were described before 1959 and all of them by foreign naturalists and researchers, as a result of field expeditions occurred between the XVI and XIX centuries, when Brazil was a colony of Portugal and at the beginning of the Republican period in Brazilian (Ávila-Pires & Oliveira, 2014;Percequillo, 2017 (Bezerra, 2015;Percequillo, 2017). ...
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3372/SPNHC2016
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