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Cross-Language Activation Begins During Speech Planning and Extends Into Second Language Speech

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Abstract

Three groups of native English speakers named words aloud in Spanish, their second language (L2). Intermediate proficiency learners in a classroom setting (Experiment 1) and in a domestic immersion program (Experiment 2) were compared to a group of highly proficient English–Spanish speakers. All three groups named cognate words more quickly and accurately than matched noncognates, indicating that all speakers experienced cross-language activation during speech planning. However, only the classroom learners exhibited effects of cross-language activation in their articulation: Cognate words were named with shorter overall durations, but longer (more English-like) voice onset times. Inhibition of the first language during L2 speech planning appears to impact the stages of speech production at which cross-language activation patterns can be observed.

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... Blumstein, 2006; for bilingual speakers, cf. Amengual, 2012;Goldrick, Runnqvist, & Costa, 2014;Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2015), and studies of language comprehension have repeatedly demonstrated that listeners develop acute sensitivity to low-level phonetic regularities (for monolingual listeners, cf. Beddor, McGowan, Boland, Coetzee, & Brasher, 2013;Dahan, Magnuson, Tanenhaus, & Hogan, 2001;McMurray, Tanenhaus, & Aslin, 2002; for bilingual listeners, cf. ...
... In certain instances, the activation of the nontarget language may be beneficial to production planning processes. For example, bilingual word and picture naming studies typically find relatively faster processing of cognates, words that share both form and meaning in a bilingual's two languages, relative to non-cognates (e.g., Colomé & Miozzo, 2010;Costa, Caramazza, & Sebastian-Galles, 2000;Hoshino & Kroll, 2008;Jacobs et al., 2015). While these findings suggest that a certain amount of cross-talk between languages may be unavoidable, they also demonstrate that cross-language activation is not necessarily detrimental to language processing. ...
... While the literature on cognate production rather unequivocally demonstrates that cross-language representational overlap can be a boon to lexical access, recent phonetic work indicates that the activation of non-target phonological representations can interfere with accurate phonetic production. Work by Amengual (2012), Goldrick et al. (2014), andJacobs et al. (2015) demonstrates that the voice onset time (VOT; a timing parameter involved in the production of stop consonants) of cognate words is subject to stronger phonological influence from the non-target language than that of non-cognates. Importantly, the phonetic effects in these studies appear to be the result of online processing demands, rather than (or perhaps in addition to) any qualitative differences in the long-term representation of cognate words. ...
Article
We exploit the unique phonetic properties of bilingual speech to ask how processes occurring during planning affect speech articulation, and whether listeners can use the phonetic modulations that occur in anticipation of a codeswitch to help restrict their lexical search to the appropriate language. An analysis of spontaneous bilingual codeswitching in the Bangor Miami Corpus (Deuchar, Davies, Herring, Parafita Couto, & Carter, 2014) reveals that in anticipation of switching languages, Spanish–English bilinguals produce slowed speech rate and cross-language phonological influence on consonant voice onset time. A study of speech comprehension using the visual world paradigm demonstrates that bilingual listeners can indeed exploit these low-level phonetic cues to anticipate that a codeswitch is coming and to suppress activation of the non-target language. We discuss the implications of these results for current theories of bilingual language regulation, and situate them in terms of recent proposals relating the coupling of the production and comprehension systems more generally.
... Cognates are translation equivalents that are phonologically similar between languages; for example, one of the English-Spanish cognate pairs used in Goldrick et al.'s (2014) study was telephone and teléfono. It has been widely hypothesized that the phonological overlap in cognate pairs triggers cross-language activation during speech production (e.g., Amengual, 2012;Costa, Caramazza, & Sebastián-Gallés, 2000;Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2016;Kroll, Michael, Tokowicz, & Dufour, 2002;Schwartz, Kroll, & Diaz, 2007). In particular, during the articulation of target words, cognates exert an effect on the activation of the nontarget language, so that increased phonetic influence from the nontarget language is transferred to the production of the target language (Amengual, 2012;Jacobs et al., 2016). ...
... It has been widely hypothesized that the phonological overlap in cognate pairs triggers cross-language activation during speech production (e.g., Amengual, 2012;Costa, Caramazza, & Sebastián-Gallés, 2000;Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2016;Kroll, Michael, Tokowicz, & Dufour, 2002;Schwartz, Kroll, & Diaz, 2007). In particular, during the articulation of target words, cognates exert an effect on the activation of the nontarget language, so that increased phonetic influence from the nontarget language is transferred to the production of the target language (Amengual, 2012;Jacobs et al., 2016). Consistent with previous studies using cognate words (Amengual, 2012;Jacobs et al., 2016), Goldrick et al. (2014) demonstrated a stronger phonological influence of cognates when switching from the nontarget (L1 Spanish) to the target (L2 English) language. ...
... In particular, during the articulation of target words, cognates exert an effect on the activation of the nontarget language, so that increased phonetic influence from the nontarget language is transferred to the production of the target language (Amengual, 2012;Jacobs et al., 2016). Consistent with previous studies using cognate words (Amengual, 2012;Jacobs et al., 2016), Goldrick et al. (2014) demonstrated a stronger phonological influence of cognates when switching from the nontarget (L1 Spanish) to the target (L2 English) language. Considering the possible influence of cognates on bilingual speech production, it is critically important to examine whether the nontarget language influences the production of the target language at switching when no common cognates exist, as in Cantonese and English, the focus of the present study. ...
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Bilinguals are susceptible to interaction between their two phonetic systems during speech processing. Using a language-switching paradigm, this study investigated differences in phonetic transfer of Cantonese–English bilingual adults with various language dominance profiles (Cantonese-dominant, English-dominant, and balanced bilinguals). Measurements of voice onset time revealed that unbalanced bilinguals and balanced bilinguals responded differently to language switching. Among unbalanced bilinguals, production of the dominant language shifted toward the nondominant language, with no effect in the opposite direction. However, balanced bilinguals’ speech production was unaffected by language switching. These results are analogous to the inhibitory control model, suggesting an asymmetrical switch cost of language switching at the phonetic level of speech production in unbalanced bilinguals. In contrast, the absence of switch cost in balanced bilinguals implies differences in the mechanism underlying balanced bilinguals’ and unbalanced bilinguals’ speech production.
... Word recognition and word naming experiments have shown that L2 cognate words are translated more rapidly and accurately than non-cognates (de Groot, 1992a,b), that there is faster (and more accurate) lexical access for cognate words compared to noncognates in lexical decision tasks (Caramazza and Brones, 1979;Dijkstra et al., 1998Dijkstra et al., , 1999de Groot et al., 2002), that cognates show greater repetition priming effects (Cristoffanini et al., 1986;Sánchez-Casas et al., 1992;de Bot et al., 1995), that cognates are easier to learn (de Groot et al., 2002), and that there are facilitatory effects of cognates in production (Costa et al., 2005), with cognates being named faster in word naming tasks (de Groot et al., 2002) and picture naming tasks Hoshino and Kroll, 2008). Recent studies have also examined the effect of cognate status on the acoustic realization of phonetic segments, and the results support a cognate effect in bilingual speech production (Cochrane, 1980;Flege and Munro, 1994;Brown and Harper, 2009;Amengual, 2012;Mora and Nadeu, 2012;Goldrick et al., 2014;Brown and Amengual, 2015;Jacobs et al., 2016). These findings provide evidence of cross-language effects in the interface between the phonological and the lexical levels. ...
... The cascaded activation models propose that processes at the lexical and phonological levels of planning can cascade down to affect the articulatory realization of acoustic targets. For instance, Jacobs et al. (2016) investigated effects of cross-language activation in the productions of L2 Spanish speakers of differing proficiencies (highly proficient speakers, intermediate learners in a domestic immersion program, and intermediate speakers in a classroom setting). Because the results from their study show effects of cognate status only in the articulation of the intermediate classroom learners of Spanish but not with the other groups, the authors argue that the speech production system of these bilinguals is cascaded, but that it exhibits "staged vs. cascading behavior as a function of task difficulty" (Jacobs et al., 2016, p. 25). ...
... This cross-linguistic influence was robust for both language dominance groups when producing the experimental stimuli as well as when identifying aurally presented stimuli either as a word or a non-word. Interference at the lexical/phonetic interface has been accounted for in previous studies (Brown and Harper, 2009;Amengual, 2012;Mora and Nadeu, 2012;Brown and Amengual, 2015;Jacobs et al., 2016), but this acoustic interference must be operationalized in a theoretical model that accounts for the observed alterations in the lexical representations of bilingual individuals. This study argues that an exemplar model of lexical representation can be applied to bilingual data to explain cognate effects in which bilinguals do not separate "clouds of memory traces" in each language -they are in fact interconnected-and that the phonetic features of cognate lexical items form a stronger link than non-cognates, thus enhancing cross-language influence. ...
Article
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The present study examines cognate effects in the phonetic production and processing of the Catalan back mid-vowel contrast (/o/-/ɔ/) by 24 early and highly proficient Spanish-Catalan bilinguals in Majorca (Spain). Participants completed a picture-naming task and a forced-choice lexical decision task in which they were presented with either words (e.g. /bɔsk/ ‘forest’) or non-words based on real words, but with the alternate mid-vowel pair in stressed position (*/bosk/). The same cognate and non-cognate lexical items were included in the production and lexical decision experiments. The results indicate that even though these early bilinguals maintained the back mid-vowel contrast in their productions, they had great difficulties identifying non-words and real words based on the identity of the Catalan mid-vowel. The analyses revealed language dominance and cognate effects: Spanish-dominants exhibited higher error rates than Catalan-dominants, and production and lexical decision accuracy were also affected by cognate status. The present study contributes to the discussion of the organization of early bilinguals’ dominant and non-dominant sound systems, and proposes that exemplar theoretic approaches can be extended to include bilingual lexical connections that account for the interactions between the phonetic and lexical levels of early bilingual individuals.
... While the studies above examine contexts where longer RTs have been reported in other studies, none of these phonetic studies have actually measured RTs within their experiments. Jacobs et al. (2016) is the lone exception, measuring all 3 of the dependent measures discussed here (n.b. without by-trial analysis of RT-phonetic relationships). Jacobs et al. (2016) examined Spanish word naming by three groups of Spanish-English bilinguals: intermediate-level Spanish learners, studying in classroom-based courses in an English-dominant environment; advanced learners in the same context; and intermediatelevel Spanish learners participating in a Spanish immersion program. ...
... Jacobs et al. (2016) is the lone exception, measuring all 3 of the dependent measures discussed here (n.b. without by-trial analysis of RT-phonetic relationships). Jacobs et al. (2016) examined Spanish word naming by three groups of Spanish-English bilinguals: intermediate-level Spanish learners, studying in classroom-based courses in an English-dominant environment; advanced learners in the same context; and intermediatelevel Spanish learners participating in a Spanish immersion program. Measures of RT, word duration, and VOT were gathered for cognates (translation equivalents sharing form and meaning; e.g., perfecto) and non-cognates beginning with voiceless stops (e.g., percance, Eng. ...
... They were produced with longer VOTs than non-cognates, consistent with the non-target language English. Jacobs et al. (2016) suggests that while cross-language activation may facilitate retrieval of similar phonological targets, it hampers accurate production, yielding articulations blending properties of the phonetic systems of the two languages (see Muscalu and Smiley, 2019, for related results in typing). ...
Article
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Speakers learning a second language show systematic differences from native speakers in the retrieval, planning, and articulation of speech. A key challenge in examining the interrelationship between these differences at various stages of production is the need for manual annotation of fine-grained properties of speech. We introduce a new method for automatically analysing voice onset time (VOT), a key phonetic feature indexing differences in sound systems cross-linguistically. In contrast to previous approaches, our method allows reliable measurement of prevoicing, a dimension of VOT variation used by many languages. Analysis of VOTs, word durations, and reaction times from German-speaking learners of Spanish (Baus et al., 2013) suggest that while there are links between the factors impacting planning and articulation, these two processes also exhibit some degree of independence. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of speech production and future research in bilingual language processing.
... repeatedly demonstrated that bilinguals 1 process, recognize and produce cognates faster than non-cognates in a variety of tasks, a phenomenon known as the cognate facilitation effect or the cognate advantage (e.g. Bice & Kroll, 2015;Caramazza & Brones, 1979;Costa, Caramazza, & Sebastian-Galles, 2000;Costa, Santesteban, & Caño, 2005;De Groot & Comijs, 1995;De Groot, Dannenburg, & van Hell, 1994;Dijkstra et al., 2010;Dijkstra, Grainger, & van Heuven, 1999;Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2015;Lemhöfer et al., 2008;Lemhöfer & Dijkstra, 2004;Mulder, Dijkstra, & Baayen, 2015; Van Hell & De Groot, 2008). For example, in picture naming tasks in L2, cognates are named faster than non-cognates, even when L1 is not explicitly mentioned (e.g. ...
... For example, in picture naming tasks in L2, cognates are named faster than non-cognates, even when L1 is not explicitly mentioned (e.g. Costa et al., 2000;Costa et al., 2005;Jacobs et al., 2015; Van Hell & De Groot, 2008). Cognates that are identical or nearly identical between L1 and L2 are also translated faster and more correctly than non-cognates, both from L1 to L2 and from L2 to L1 (e.g. ...
Article
We explored the acquisition of three types of second language (L2) words in a paired–associates learning task. Seventy–six Polish participants were presented with 24 nonwords paired with pictures; they completed 8 interleaving test blocks of form production and meaning recognition, both followed by feedback. The nonwords included “cognates” (nonwords resembling the Polish word for the object depicted in a given picture), “false cognates” (resembling a different Polish word than depicted), and “non–cognates” (nonwords different from Polish words). We measured the learning trajectories for all word types across the blocks. Cognates were fastest to learn in the recognition blocks as well as in the production blocks. Compared to non–cognates, false cognates were learned equally fast in the recognition blocks, but faster in the production blocks. This suggests the learning of false cognates benefits from the overlap in L1–L2 form and is not harmed by L1 interference, while the learning of cognates benefits from both form overlap and conceptual overlap. The study is unique as it examines how learners acquire both the form of new words, and the link between the L2 forms and their meanings. It also explores the dynamics of the learning process.
... An important consideration is that the bilinguals tested in the current study were immersed in an L2 context outside of the testing situation. Research on the effects of L2 immersion on language processes has shown that access to the L1 lexicon is reduced after a period of immersion in the L2 (Linck, Kroll & Sunderman, 2009) and that the suppression of the dominant language in an immersion context reduces competition of the L1 during L2 production (Jacobs, Fricke & Kroll, 2016). Based on previous research, the consequences of this suppression would be reduced L1 interference (perhaps by restricting co-activation of the L1 during L2 use) with a negative impact on L1 access (Jacobs et al., 2016;Linck et al., 2009). ...
... Research on the effects of L2 immersion on language processes has shown that access to the L1 lexicon is reduced after a period of immersion in the L2 (Linck, Kroll & Sunderman, 2009) and that the suppression of the dominant language in an immersion context reduces competition of the L1 during L2 production (Jacobs, Fricke & Kroll, 2016). Based on previous research, the consequences of this suppression would be reduced L1 interference (perhaps by restricting co-activation of the L1 during L2 use) with a negative impact on L1 access (Jacobs et al., 2016;Linck et al., 2009). It would be useful to compare bilinguals on the same task before they came to the U.S. and again after several months of immersion to better understand how L1 immersion might impact the translation facilitation effect. ...
Article
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When bilinguals produce words in one language, their translation equivalents in the other language are thought to be activated as well. A common assumption is that this parallel co-activation produces interference, which slows down word retrieval. The current study aimed to evaluate the assumption of lexical interference during word retrieval by testing whether late Portuguese-English bilinguals were slower to name pictures in their native language when they knew the word in their second language compared to when they only knew the native language label. Instead of interfering with production, knowing the second-language label facilitated speed of word retrieval in the native language for both cognate and non-cognate translation-equivalent pairs. We suggest that using the second language may provide an indirect frequency boost for translation-equivalent words in the native language. This frequency boost has both long-term and short-term effects, strengthening connections to native-language labels when the translation equivalent is retrieved.
... In these terms, facilitation was interpreted as dual activation with successful selection Kroll, Bobb & Wodniecka, 2006;Kroll, Dijkstra, Janssen & Schriefers, 2000), whereas interference was interpreted as dual activation with impeded selection, due to (temporarily) unresolved competition between L1 and L2 representations Green, 1998;Hermans, 2004;Kroll & Stewart, 1994). It was also proposed that responses in one language are open to influence from a second language at one or more of the linguistic levels involved in retrieval -conceptual, lexical, sublexical, and even articulatory (Jacobs, Fricke & Kroll, 2015;Kroll et al., 2006). Further, the level at which competition between L1 and L2 is resolved varies considerably with the type of word (e.g., cognates, homophones, homographs), type of response required (e.g., lexical decision, naming task), degree of activation of the nontarget word, bilingual competence, etc. (Dijkstra, Miwa, Brummelhuis & Baayen, 2010;Kroll et al., 2006). ...
... Cognates (e.g., folclor in Romanian and folklore in English) are particularly interesting cases with respect to examining the operation of language-selection, because there is considerable overlap at all levels of representation in L1 and L2 (semantic, lexical, and sublexical) that might produce cross-language effects. Manifestations of facilitation or interference in cognates relative to noncognates or in cognates with different degrees of sublexical (orthographic and phonological) overlap have been documented in experimental paradigms including word reading (Schwartz, Kroll & Diaz, 2007), lexical-or language-decision (Dijkstra et al., 2010), picture naming Gollan & Acenas, 2004;Jacobs et al., 2015), and word translation (Kroll & Stewart, 1994) tasks. In the present study, we utilize these stimuli in an orthographic production task to elicit both facilitation and interference, with the goal of examining the course of these effects across multiple levels of representation. ...
Article
Cognate facilitation and cognate interference in word production have been elicited separately, in different paradigms. In our experiment, we created conditions for facilitation and interference to occur sequentially, and identified the levels at which the two processes manifested. Bilinguals translated cognates and noncognates from L2 to L1 and typed the translations. Response-onset latencies were shorter for cognates (cognate-facilitation) but execution latencies were longer, and cross-language orthographic errors were more frequent for cognates than for noncognates (cognate-interference). Facilitation at onset followed by interference during word execution suggests that the language-selection mechanism operated efficiently at the lexical level but inefficiently at the sublexical level. It also suggests that language selection is not an event with irreversible outcome, but selection at one level may not guarantee language-selectivity at subsequent levels. We propose that a model of bilingual language production that specifies multiple language-selection processes at multiple loci of selection can accommodate this phenomenon.
... In psycholinguistic experiments, orthographic cognates have been shown to be visually recognized faster than non-cognates and pseudo-words (e.g., Lemhöfer & Dijkstra, 2004;Mulder, Dijkstra, & Baayen, 2015)-a phenomenon known as the cognate facilitation effect. Identical or nearly identical cognates have also been found to be translated faster and more correctly than non-cognates (Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2016). Psycholinguistic word-learning experiments have indicated that cognates are easier to remember and to retrieve than other types of words (Ellis & Beaton, 1993;Lotto & De Groot, 1998; see also Meade, Midgley, Dijkstra, & Holcomb, 2017, for the effect of orthographic neighborhood) and are also more resistant to forgetting (De Groot & Keijzer, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Some second language (L2) acquisition researchers have suggested that learners should be made aware of cross‐linguistic similarity for them to benefit from cognateness. To test this assumption, we ran two longitudinal classroom quasi‐experiments with Polish learners of English. We chose 30 Polish‐English cognates, 30 false cognates, and 30 non‐cognates matched on L2 frequency and concreteness and embedded them in exercises typical of English language teaching textbooks. Participants learned the words with their teachers in their classes at school. We manipulated the experimental group's awareness of orthographic cross‐linguistic similarity in awareness‐raising workshops. The results revealed that the participants had a higher chance of knowing cognates than other word types before the study. However, they acquired cognates embedded in exercises at the same rate as other word types. Also, the awareness‐raising manipulation, regardless of its intensity, had no additional effect on their acquisition of cognates and false cognates, indicating that awareness of cognateness did not boost learning cognates.
... Cross-language interactions have been observed when bilinguals process in the second language (e.g., Dijkstra, Van Jaarsveld, & Ten Brinke, 1998), but also when they process their first language (e.g., van Hell & Dijkstra, 2002); these interactions have been reported across different language modalities (Morford, Wilkinson, Villwock, Piñar, & Kroll, 2011) and also across languages with different writing scripts (Hoshino & Kroll, 2008;Thierry & Wu, 2007). Although the majority of research revealing parallel activation between the bilinguals' two languages comes from work examining lexical access through the processing of cognates and homographs, there is a growing body of evidence supporting non-selective effects in other linguistic domains, such as phonology (e.g., Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2016) and syntax (e.g., Hartsuiker, Pickering, & Veltkamp, 2004;Hatzidaki, Branigan, & Pickering, 2011;Runnqvist, Gollan, Costa, & Ferreira, 2013;Sanoudaki & Thierry, 2014). ...
Chapter
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A central question in cognitive neuroscience concerns how individuals' cognitive abilities are shaped by learning from experience. This paper presents a critical overview of the discoveries that have emerged from the study of bilingualism, and the implications that they hold for language, cognition, and the brain. In particular, we review the range of cognitive control processes that appear to be influenced by bilingualism and the theoretical frameworks that have been proposed to account for the differences between bilinguals and monolinguals as well as among bilinguals themselves. We discuss current research directions on the consequences of bilingualism, and report emerging findings on the role of bilingual experience in the adaptation of the bilingual language system.
... languages compete for selection, a problem solved by active inhibition of the language which is not to be used in the present context (Green, 1998;Hermans, Bongaerts, De Bot, & Schreuder, 1998;Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2016;Kroll, Bobb, Misra, & Guo, 2008;Misra, Guo, Bobb, & Kroll, 2012;Spalek, Hoshino, Wu, Damian, & Thierry, 2014). However, other studies also identified situations in which no selection for competition occurred, arguing for target language-specific lexical selection (Colomé, 2001;Costa, Miozzo, & Caramazza, 1999). ...
Chapter
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The chapter gives an overview of studies investigating the behavioral, neurophysiological, and hemodynamic processes underlying bilingual word production. Assuming selection by competition during lexical access as a working model (e.g., Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999; Roelofs, 1992), we will discuss research on the functional and neuroanatomical representations of first and second languages during single-word production in healthy bilingual speakers. We will emphasize three related aspects: (1) are the languages of bilinguals underpinned by common or distinct brain regions and neural signatures during production, (2) how are such potential differences manifested in functional output measures, and (3) to what extent are potential dissociations modulated by moderating factors such as proficiency, time of exposure, and immersion of the L2.
... Studies of phonetic codeswitching have taken a number of methodological approaches, including naturalistic and experimental designs, and revealed both asymmetrical unilingual interactions (Antoniou, Best, Tyler & Kroos, 2011;Muldner, Hoiting, Sanger, Blumenfeld & Toivonen, 2017;Olson, 2013) and bidirectional interactions (Bullock & Toribio, 2009;Piccinini & Arvaniti, 2015), although some found no effect of switching (Grosjean & Miller, 1994). Moreover, there is evidence that phonetic switching is more prevalent for cognates than non-cognates (Jacobs, Fricke & Kroll, 2016). Of particular interest for the present study, Simonet (2014) found that Catalan /o/ and /ɔ/ were produced with lower F1-f0 values in switched contexts, in which Catalan and Spanish items were alternated, than unilingual contexts, and hence with more Spanish-like properties. ...
Article
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This paper examines the vowel productions of three groups of adult Galician-Spanish bilinguals: Spanish-dominant (SD) bilinguals, Galician-dominant (GD) bilinguals, and Dual Switch (DS) bilinguals who had early experience with Galician in the home, predominantly used Spanish upon school entry, but in adolescence/adulthood switched to Galician for ideological reasons. To examine how linguistic experience with Galician and Spanish affected the participants’ speech, a cued picture-naming task, conducted in unilingual and code switched conditions, was used to elicit the Galician mid vowel contrasts /e-ɛ/ and /o-ɔ/ and the Spanish mid vowels /e/ and /o/. The results revealed no difference in either condition in normalised F1 and F2 across the front and back vowels in the two languages. These patterns not only held for the SD bilinguals, for whom vowel mergers were expected, but also the DS and GD bilinguals. As such, the study is the first to document widespread mergers of Galician mid-vowels in bilinguals with extensive early Galician language experience and regular use, and to demonstrate overlap with Spanish mid-vowel categories. The findings suggest that psycholinguistic factors, such as age of acquisition or language use, can only partially explain the data and that input-related and socio-indexical factors are equally critical in understanding the acquisition and maintenance of language-specific speech patterns.
... Despite the fact that bilinguals are able to functionally manage their languages, previous research has shown that the constant co-activation of bilinguals' languages lead them to interact and influence each other at a fine-grained level, even when one of their languages is not being used: Effects of one language on the other have been shown in the lexical and phonological domains, as evidenced by both behavioral and brain-based studies (e.g., for the lexical domain: Costa, 2005;Gullifer, Kroll, & Dussias, 2013;Wu, Cristino, Leek, & Thierry, 2013;e.g., for the phonological domain: Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2016;Jared & Kroll, 2001). However, relatively little research has addressed whether cross-linguistic interaction and influence also occurs in the syntactic domain for bilinguals, where, due to co-activation, one would predict that the properties of the grammar of one language would be active while the other language is being used. ...
Chapter
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A critical question about bilingualism is how two or more languages are processed in the bilingual mind (e.g., Kroll, Bobb, & Hoshino, 2014). Previous research shows that bilinguals’ languages interact, at least at the lexical and phonological levels. Relatively little research has addressed whether this occurs at the syntactic level during sentence processing. One event-related potential study with Welsh-English bilinguals showed co-activation of syntactic properties of one language that affected processing of the other language (Sanoudaki & Thierry, 2014, 2015). The current study replicates Sanoudaki and Thierry with Spanish-English bilinguals, and the results largely reproduce their findings of syntactic co-activation during sentence processing. These converging results have implications for theories about bilingual language processing regarding how syntax may interact in the bilingual mind.
... Cognates have been found to be usually more easily processed in many experimental paradigms, both in production and in comprehension tasks. For example, either identical (e.g., piano-piano) or nearly-identical cognates (e.g., important-importante) are translated faster and with higher accuracy than non-cognates in translation tasks [7][8][9] as well as in naming tasks [10,11]. Furthermore, cognates are faster recognised than matched non-cognates in lexical decision and word identification tasks, especially in the second language (hereafter, L2, see [12][13][14][15][16]). ...
Preprint
The effects of cognate synonymy in L2 word learning are explored. Participants learned the names of well-known concrete concepts in a new fictional language following a picture-word association paradigm. Half of the concepts (set A) had two possible translations in the new language (i.e., both words were synonyms): one was a cognate in participants’ L1 and the other one was not. The other half of the concepts (set B) had only one possible translation in the new language, a non-cognate word. After learning the new words, participants’ memory was tested in a picture-word matching task and a translation recognition task. In line with previous findings, our results clearly indicate that cognates are much easier to learn, as we found that the cognate translation was remembered much better than both its non-cognate synonym and the non-cognate from set B. Our results also seem to suggest that non-cognates without cognate synonyms (set B) are better learned than non-cognates with cognate synonyms (set A). This suggests that, at early stages of L2 acquisition, learning a cognate would produce a poorer acquisition of its non-cognate synonym, as compared to a solely learned non-cognate. These results are discussed under the light of different theories and models of bilingual mental lexicon.
... If cognates have bilingual exemplar connections, that is, bilinguals associate the phonetically overlapping exemplars of a cognate word from both languages in the same cloud, their production targets for the sounds in that word, averaged over all the exemplars, will differ from the production targets of the same sounds in non-cognate words. While Amengual (2012) reported the effect of cognates on VOT to be independent of language experience, that is, present in both heritage speakers and L2 learners, Jacobs et al. (2016) found this effect only for their intermediate L2 classroom learners but not for intermediate L2 immersion learners or for highly proficient learners. ...
Article
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Previous research indicates that alternating between a bilingual’s languages during speech production can lead to short-term increases in cross-language phonetic interaction. However, discrepancies exist between the reported L1–L2 effects in terms of direction and magnitude, and sometimes the effects are not found at all. The present study focused on L1 interference in L2, examining Voice Onset Time (VOT) of English voiceless stops produced by L1-dominant Czech-English bilinguals—interpreter trainees highly proficient in L2-English. We tested two hypotheses: (1) switching between languages induces an immediate increase in L1 interference during code-switching; and (2) due to global language co-activation, an increase in L1-to-L2 interference occurs when bilinguals interpret (translate) a message from L1 into L2 even if they do not produce L1 speech. Fourteen bilinguals uttered L2-English sentences under three conditions: L2-only, code-switching into L2, and interpreting into L2. Against expectation, the results showed that English VOT in the bilingual tasks tended to be longer and less Czech-like compared to the English-only task. This contradicts an earlier finding of L2 VOT converging temporarily towards L1 VOT values for comparable bilingual tasks performed by speakers from the same bilingual population. Participant-level inspection of our data suggests that besides language-background differences, individual language-switching strategies contribute to discrepancies between studies.
... These regulatory mechanisms may be differentially impacted by the context in which language use takes place (see Kroll, Bobb & Wodniecka, 2006). To illustrate, Jacobs, Fricke, and Kroll (2016) demonstrated that the cross-language activation that L2 learners experience in production could be influenced by the language immersion context. Independent of L2 proficiency, learners immersed in the L1 showed crosslanguage influence in their phonetic production, while those immersed in the L2 did not. ...
Article
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Although variation in the ways individuals process language has long been a topic of interest and discussion in the psycholinguistic literature, only recently have studies of bilingualism and its cognitive consequences begun to reveal the fundamental dynamics between language and cognition. We argue that the active use of two languages provides a lens through which the interactions between language use, language processing, and the contexts in which these take place can be fully understood. Far from bilingualism being considered a special case, it may provide the common basis upon which the principles of language learning and use can be modeled.
... Production is necessarily a top-down process governed by an abstract intention to speak and, in theory, could include selection of the language to be spoken early in speech planning. Despite that possibility, the evidence suggests that bilingual production, like comprehension, is fundamentally open to the activation of both languages during early stages of speech planning and, under some circumstances, cross-language activation can persist all the way through to articulation (e.g., Costa, 2005;Hanulovà, Davidson, & Indefrey, 2011;Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2016;Kroll et al., 2006;Kroll & Gollan, 2014). These processes are thought to engage domain general cognitive resources that enable bilinguals to speak the intended language (e.g., see McClain & Goldrick, this volume). ...
Chapter
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Bilingualism is a tool that provides cognitive and language scientists with a means to investigate the interactions between language and cognition that would otherwise be impenetrable in the minds and brains of monolingual speakers. In this chapter we review the highlights of the recent research on the consequences of bilingualism for language processing, for cognition, and for the neural processes that support them. Contrary to the view that monolinguals are the norm and bilinguals the exception, the new research takes the bilingual, not as a more complex language user, but as a model for the plasticity of the systems associated with language development and language use. We describe three models of bilingual processing that provide an historical framework for research on this topic. We then review the evidence for the parallel activation of the bilingual's two languages and its consequences for language, cognition, and the brain.
... However, it is still debated whether lexical selection, too, is non-specific with respect to language. Some studies suggest that lexical entries / representations from both languages compete for selection, and that to resolve this competition, the non-target language is actively inhibited (Abutalebi & Green, 2007;Costa, Colomé, Gómez, & Sebastián-Gallés, 2003;Green, 1998;Hermans et al., 1998;Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2016;Kroll, Bobb, Misra, & Guo, 2008;Misra, Guo, Bobb, & Kroll, 2012;Spalek, Hoshino, Wu, Damian, & Thierry, 2014), while others advocate language-specific lexical selection in which no competition for selection arises between two languages (Colomé, 2001;Costa, Miozzo, & Caramazza, 1999). More recently, it has been proposed that lexical selection in bilingual language production may be thought of as a dynamic process, in which language-selectivity can be achieved temporarily depending on a number of variables both specific to the speakers involved (e.g. ...
Article
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Previous research has shown that when speakers produce words in their second language (L2), they also activate the phonological form of the translation of the word in their first language (L1). Here we investigated whether this holds in the opposite direction, i.e. when participants speak in exclusively in their L1. In a picture-word interference task, speakers named pictures in their L1 Dutch (“mes” [knife]) while ignoring L2 English auditory distractors phonologically related to the English translation of the target (“knight”) or unrelated (“plane”). Naming latencies were longer in the related compared to the unrelated condition, suggesting that the L2 translations were activated up to the phonological level. However, this pattern was only obtained when speakers were addressed in the target language (Dutch) throughout the experiment. Moreover, the size of this effect did not depend on individual L2 proficiency. We conclude that co-activation of two languages is not restricted to the dominant language.
... Psycholinguistic experiments on vocabulary learning methods demonstrate that cognates are faster retrieved from memory and more resistant to forgetting than other words, so they may be particularly easy to learn (eg Ellis and Beaton 1993;Lotto and de Groot 1998; for an overview see De Groot and Van Hell 2005). Cognates are also processed more easily in many other experimental paradigms, a phenomenon called the cognate facilitation effect: In translation tasks, identical or nearly identical cognates are translated faster and more correctly than non-cognates (De Groot 1993;Jacobs, Fricke, and Kroll 2016). In lexical decision and word identification studies, identical cognates are recognised faster than non-cognate words, particularly when the task is conducted in L2 (Dijkstra et al. 2010;Lemhöfer et al. 2008;Mulder et al. 2014). ...
Article
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In this study we explored factors that determine the knowledge of L2 words with orthographic neighbours in L1 (cognates and false cognates). We asked 150 Polish learners of English to translate 105 English non-cognate words, cognates, and false-cognates into Polish, and to assess the confidence of each translation. Confidence ratings allows us to employ a novel analytic procedure which disentangles knowing cognates and false cognates from strategic guessing. Mixed-effects logistic regression models revealed that cognates were known better, whereas false cognates were known worse, relative to non-cognate controls. The advantage of knowing cognates, but not false cognates, was modulated by the degree of similarity to their L1 equivalents. The knowledge of cognates and false cognates was not affected by the frequency of their formal equivalent in L1. Based on these findings we conclude how cross-linguistic formal similarity affects L2 word learnability, proposing a mechanism by which cognates and false cognates are acquired.
... Interestingly, these effects of cross-language interference are enhanced for lexical items that induce strong cross-linguistic activation-cognates (translation equivalents that are similar; e.g., the Spanish word for tiger is tigre). Amengual (2012) found that in cognates, Spanish-English bilinguals produced Spanish voiceless stops with longer VOTs (i.e., more English-like) than they do when producing noncognates (see Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2015, for complementary effects in English learners of Spanish). These studies suggest that interference between languages arises at the phonetic level during bilingual speech production, particularly when the nontarget language is strongly activated (e.g., producing cognates or recent production in the nontarget language). ...
Article
Though bilinguals know many more words than monolinguals, within each language bilinguals exhibit some processing disadvantages, extending to sublexical processes specifying the sound structure of words (Gollan & Goldrick, Cognition, 125(3), 491–497, 2012). This study investigated the source of this bilingual disadvantage. Spanish–English bilinguals, Mandarin–English bilinguals, and English monolinguals repeated tongue twisters composed of English nonwords. Twister materials were made up of sound sequences that are unique to the English language (nonoverlapping) or sound sequences that are highly similar—yet phonetically distinct—in the two languages for the bilingual groups (overlapping). If bilingual disadvantages in tongue-twister production result from competition between phonetic representations in their two languages, bilinguals should have more difficulty selecting an intended target when similar sounds are activated in the overlapping sound sequences. Alternatively, if bilingual disadvantages reflect the relatively reduced frequency of use of sound sequences, bilinguals should have greater difficulty in the nonoverlapping condition (as the elements of such sound sequences are limited to a single language). Consistent with the frequency-lag account, but not the competition account, both Spanish–English and Mandarin–English bilinguals were disadvantaged in tongue-twister production only when producing twisters with nonoverlapping sound sequences. Thus, the bilingual disadvantage in tongue-twister production likely reflects reduced frequency of use of sound sequences specific to each language.
... Additionally, Costa et al. (2006) proposed that less proficient bilinguals use an inhibitory mechanism which leads to asymmetrical switch costs, while proficient bilinguals use a noninhibitory mechanism leading to symmetrical switch costs and reverse dominance effects. The idea that the need for inhibition changes over time is also supported by the results of Jacobs et al. (2016), who found that the amount of cross-language activation may depend on a bilingual's proficiency. However, Finkbeiner et al. (2006a) have argued that asymmetrical switch costs are the result of using "bivalent stimuli" in experiments, and don't reflect language suppression. ...
Preprint
Bilingual language control refers to a bilingual's ability to speak exclusively in one language without the unintended language intruding. It has been debated in the literature whether bilinguals need an inhibitory mechanism to control language output or whether a non-inhibitory mechanism can be used. This paper presents mathematical models instantiating the two accounts. The models explain how participants' reaction times in language production (naming) are impacted by across-trial semantic relatedness and consistency of language (same or different language across trials). The models' predictions were compared to data from an experiment in which participants named semantically-related and-unrelated pictures in their first and second language. Results indicate that within-language facilitation effects are abolished after a language switch, supporting the predictions of the Inhibitory Model. However, within-language facilitation was observed over the course of 'stay' trials in which no language switch was required, contrary to the predictions of both models. A second experiment was conducted to determine the origin of this unexpected facilitation, by separating spreading activation effects from incremental learning effects. The results suggest the facilitation observed in Experiment 1 was due to spreading activation. Together, the modeling and data suggest that language switching abolishes spreading activation effects, but cumulative semantic interference (created by incremental learning) is unaffected by language switching. This suggests that (1) within-language control is non-competitive, (2) between-language language control is competitive and (3) learning plays a role in bilingual language speech production.
... Although L1 activation in processing L2 cognate words results in facilitation of vocabulary learning and access to lexical meaning (Tessel et al. 2018), production studies display a disruptive effect in L2 phonetic accuracy (e.g., Flege and Munro 1994). The role of language experience is not yet clear from previous studies as some argue that the disruptive effect of cognates may decrease as L2 proficiency increases (Jacobs et al. 2016) while others have failed to find a clear relationship (Amengual 2012). The goal of this paper is to investigate the relationship between cognate status and proficiency in L2 production further by examining several phonological variables. ...
Conference Paper
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En esta comunicación vamos a presentar una propuesta de Unidad Didáctica desarrollada para el primer curso de ESO, en la que la traducción pedagógica se convierte en una herramienta más en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la L2, inglés en nuestro caso. Tras su uso intensivo en el método de Gramática-Traducción y la aparición de las nuevas metodologías, en las que la comunicación paso a ser el eje principal del aprendizaje, la traducción se convirtió en una actividad denostada. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, se aprecia un aumento considerable en la investigación académica sobre el uso de la L1 y de traducción pedagógica en el aula de la L2 en todo tipo de contextos, llegando a la conclusión de que estas son no solo adecuadas sino en muchos casos convenientes. De hecho, uno de los elementos clave en las aulas actuales, la taxonomía de Bloom, sitúa a la traducción en uno de los estadios más altos de complejidad. Tras lo mencionado, pasaremos a explicar la UD, con sus objetivos, metodología y sesiones generales en las que la traducción pedagógica se convierte en una herramienta más que los alumnos pueden utilizar para la adquisición de los conocimientos y desarrollo de competencias recogidos en LOMCE LEY(también en LOM-LOE) y en el currículo andaluz, LEY. Como no pudo ser puesta en práctica en el aula, estudiaremos su adecuación por medio de un análisis DAFO
... Cognates have been found to be usually more easily processed in many experimental paradigms, both in production and in comprehension tasks. For example, either identical (e.g., piano-piano) or nearly-identical cognates (e.g., important-importante) are translated faster and with higher accuracy than non-cognates in translation tasks [7][8][9], as well as named faster and with fewer errors in naming tasks [10,11]. Furthermore, cognates are faster recognized than matched non-cognates in lexical decision and word identification tasks, especially in the second language (hereafter, L2, see [12][13][14][15][16]). ...
Article
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The effects of cognate synonymy in L2 word learning are explored. Participants learned the names of well-known concrete concepts in a new fictional language following a picture-word association paradigm. Half of the concepts (set A) had two possible translations in the new language (i.e., both words were synonyms): one was a cognate in participants’ L1 and the other one was not. The other half of the concepts (set B) had only one possible translation in the new language, a non-cognate word. After learning the new words, participants’ memory was tested in a picture-word matching task and a translation recognition task. In line with previous findings, our results clearly indicate that cognates are much easier to learn, as we found that the cognate translation was remembered much better than both its non-cognate synonym and the non-cognate from set B. Our results also seem to suggest that non-cognates without cognate synonyms (set B) are better learned than non-cognates with cognate synonyms (set A). This suggests that, at early stages of L2 acquisition, learning a cognate would produce a poorer acquisition of its non-cognate synonym, as compared to a solely learned non-cognate. These results are discussed in the light of different theories and models of bilingual mental lexicon.
... Additionally, Costa et al. (2006) proposed that less proficient bilinguals use an inhibitory mechanism which leads to asymmetrical switch costs, while proficient bilinguals use a noninhibitory mechanism leading to symmetrical switch costs and reverse dominance effects. The idea that the need for inhibition changes over time is also supported by the results of Jacobs et al. (2016), who found that the amount of cross-language activation may depend on a bilingual's proficiency. However, Finkbeiner et al. (2006a) have argued that asymmetrical switch costs are the result of using "bivalent stimuli" in experiments, and don't reflect language suppression. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bilingual language control refers to a bilingual's ability to speak exclusively in one language without the unintended language intruding. It has been debated in the literature whether bilinguals need an inhibitory mechanism to control language output or whether a non-inhibitory mechanism can be used. This paper presents mathematical models instantiating the two accounts. The models explain how participants' reaction times in language production (naming) are impacted by across-trial semantic relatedness and consistency of language (same or different language across trials). The models' predictions were compared to data from an experiment in which participants named semantically-related and-unrelated pictures in their first and second language. Results indicate that within-language facilitation effects are abolished after a language switch, supporting the predictions of the Inhibitory Model. However, within-language facilitation was observed over the course of 'stay' trials in which no language switch was required, contrary to the predictions of both models. A second experiment was conducted to determine the origin of this unexpected facilitation, by separating spreading activation effects from incremental learning effects. The results suggest the facilitation observed in Experiment 1 was due to spreading activation. Together, the modeling and data suggest that language switching abolishes spreading activation effects, but cumulative semantic interference (created by incremental learning) is unaffected by language switching. This suggests that (1) within-language control is non-competitive, (2) between-language language control is competitive and (3) learning plays a role in bilingual language speech production.
... At the same time, other research demonstrates that language immersion confers some special benefits for adult language learning (Freed, 1995;Freed, Segalowitz, & Dewey, 2004;. Immersion has been hypothesized to not only increase the level of exposure to the newly learned L2, but also to actively suppress the native or first language (L1, Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2016;Linck, Kroll, & Sunderman, 2009). ...
Article
When bilinguals switch languages they regulate the more dominant language to enable spoken production in the less dominant language. How do they engage cognitive control to accomplish regulation? We examined this issue by comparing the consequences of training on language switching in two different contexts. Chinese-English bilinguals were immersed in English (L2) while studying abroad (this study) or in Chinese (L1) in their native language environment (Zhang et al., 2015). In each study, participants performed the AX-CPT task while EEG was recorded and were then trained on language switching. While Zhang et al. found that training enhanced proactive control in the L1 context, there were no effects of training under L2 immersion conditions. Critically, L2 immersed bilinguals revealed enhanced proactive control at pre-test and greater L1 inhibition on language switching relative to L1 immersed bilinguals. We hypothesize that L2 immersion creates a natural training context that increases reliance on proactive control to enable regulation of the L1.
... Our corpus indicates that the use of institutional status was accompanied by other techniques only 27% of the time (k = 42/155), demonstrating much room for improvement in the use of multiple methods. An example of a study that applied multiple assessment techniques is Jacobs, Fricke, and Kroll (2016), which first categorized L2 learners into two groups based on their institutional status or role (students from intermediatelevel Spanish courses vs. Spanish instructors) and then demonstrated statistically significant group differences in their self-ratings and their scores on a lexical decision task. ...
Article
Given that 10 years have passed since the publication of the most recent synthesis of proficiency assessment standards, the present review revisits proficiency assessment practices in research on second language acquisition (SLA), with the goal of examining whether the way in which scholars measure and report proficiency has changed. Our sample included 500 studies from five major SLA-related journals published between 2012 and 2019. The findings indicate that whereas over 90% of the studies assessed and reported second language proficiency in some way, only 42% of them did so with an independent measure. In line with previous surveys, the most popular assessment technique was institutional status, suggesting that relatively little change has taken place over time. Use or not of an independent measure of proficiency was also found to differ by certain study characteristics (e.g., learner population, research context), providing insight into areas of focus for future improvement.
... The less dominant L2 is not only less accessible for those who are not yet proficient (e.g. Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2016), but it is also influenced by the L1, and that influence is evident even once speakers become relatively proficient (e.g. Dijkstra, Van Jaarsveld, & Brinke, 1998;Marian & Spivey, 2003). ...
Article
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A goal of early research on language processing was to characterize what is universal about language. Much of the past research focused on native speakers because the native language has been considered as providing privileged truths about acquisition, comprehension, and production. Populations or circumstances that deviated from these idealized norms were of interest but not regarded as essential to our understanding of language. In the past two decades, there has been a marked change in our understanding of how variation in language experience may inform the central and enduring questions about language. There is now evidence for significant plasticity in language learning beyond early childhood, and variation in language experience has been shown to influence both language learning and processing. In this paper, we feature what we take to be the most exciting recent new discoveries suggesting that variation in language experience provides a lens into the linguistic, cognitive, and neural mechanisms that enable language processing.
... van Hell & Dijkstra, 2002), phonology (e.g. Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2016) and syntax (e.g. Hartsuiker, Pickering, & Veltkamp, 2002;Thierry & Sanoudaki, 2012), leading Köpke (2017a, 2017b) to propose that every bilingual is an attriter, in the sense that CLI, as observed in any bilingual, and attrition rely on the same processes, the differences being merely quantitative. ...
Article
While it has long been assumed that brain plasticity declines significantly with growing maturity, recent studies in adult subjects show grey and white matter changes due to language learning that suggest high adaptability of brain structures even within short time-scales. It is not known yet whether other language development phenomena, such as attrition, may also be linked to structural changes in the brain. In behavioral and neurocognitive research on language attrition and crosslinguistic influence, findings suggest high plasticity as language interaction patterns of bilingual speakers change constantly and from early stages of language acquisition onwards. In this paper we will speculate on possible links between brain plasticity and L1 attrition in adult bilinguals, with particular attention to a number of factors that are put forward in memory frameworks in order to explain forgetting: time elapsed, frequency of L1 use, and interference from L2. In order to better understand the time-scales involved in the plastic changes during bilingual development, we then discuss some recent studies of re-exposure to L1 in formerly attrited immigrants, and their implications with respect to brain plasticity.
... However, bilinguals rarely commit this type of speech error (Poulisse, 2000); they have no apparent issue producing the intended language. At the same time, there is evidence that some types of cross-language competition may never be fully resolved, even in language production (Jacobs et al., 2016). One thought is that bilinguals recruit a form of cognitive control to help manage crosslanguage competition. ...
Article
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Bilinguals have distinct linguistic experiences relative to monolinguals, stemming from interactions with the environment and individuals therein. Theories of language control hypothesize that these experiences play a role in adapting the neurocognitive systems responsible for control. Here we posit a potential mechanism for these adaptations, namely that bilinguals face additional language-related uncertainties on top of other ambiguities that regularly occur in language, such as lexical and syntactic competition. When faced with uncertainty in the environment, people adapt internal representations to lessen these uncertainties, which can aid in executive control and decision-making. We overview a cognitive framework on uncertainty, which we extend to language and bilingualism. We then review two “case studies” assessing language-related uncertainty for bilingual contexts using language entropy and network scientific approaches. Overall, we find that there is substantial individual variability in the extent to which people experience language related uncertainties in their environments, but also regularity across some contexts. This information, in turn, predicts cognitive adaptations associated with language fluency and engagement in proactive cognitive control strategies. These findings suggest that bilinguals adapt to the cumulative language-related uncertainties in the environment. We conclude by suggesting avenues for future research and links with other research domains. Ultimately, a focus on uncertainty will help bridge traditionally separate scientific domains, such as language processing, bilingualism, and decision-making.
... Language coactivation has been shown to involve all linguistic levels: conceptual, lexical, or sublexical levels (Jacobs, Fricke & Kroll, 2016;Kroll et al., 2006). Although speech production models assume that activation at the conceptual level spreads to the lexical level (e.g., Caramazza, 1997;Dell, 1986;Levelt, 1989), there is still no agreement about how this activation propagates between lexical and sublexical representations (Muscalu & Smiley, 2018). ...
Article
Bilinguals’ two languages seem to be coactivated in parallel during reading, speaking, and listening. However, this coactivation in writing has been scarcely studied. This study aimed to assess orthographic coactivation during spelling-to-dictation. We took advantage of the presence of polyvalent graphemes in Spanish (one phonological representation with two orthographic specifications, e.g., / b /for both the graphemes v and b) to manipulate orthographic congruency. Spanish–English bilinguals were presented with cross-linguistic congruent (mo v ement–mo v imiento) and incongruent words (go v ernment–go b ierno) for a dictation task. The time and accuracy to initiate writing and to type the rest-of-word (lexical and sublexical processing) were recorded in both the native language (L1) and the second language (L2). Results revealed no differences between conditions in monolinguals. Bilinguals showed a congruency and language interaction with better performance for congruent stimuli, which was evident from the beginning of typing in L2. Language coactivation and lexical–sublexical interaction during bilinguals’ writing are discussed.
... The results of these studies suggest that the activation of non-target phonological representations when bilinguals pronounce cognate items interferes with the acoustic realization of sounds in the target language, enhancing crosslinguistic influence in bilingual speech. And as shown specifically for voiceless stops, the VOTs of cognate words are subject to a stronger phonological influence from the non-target language than non-cognates (Amengual, 2012;Flege and Munro, 1994;Fricke et al., 2016;Goldrick et al., 2014;Jacobs et al., 2016). As Goldrick et al. (2014) explain, "the activation of non-target language representations for cognates will cascade to phonetic processes, enhancing the degree to which phonetic properties of the non-target language intrude during production" (p. ...
Article
The present study examines the acoustic realization of the English, Japanese, and Spanish /k/ in the productions of two groups of English-Japanese bilinguals [first language (L1) English-second language (L2) Japanese and L1 Japanese-L2 English] and one trilingual group [L1 Spanish-L2 English-third language (L3) Japanese]. With the analysis of voice onset time (VOT) as a proxy for the degree of cross-linguistic influence in each language, this experiment compares the production patterns of L2 and L3 learners of Japanese and explores the effects of language mode and cognate status on the speech patterns in each of the languages of these bilingual and trilingual individuals. By manipulating the degree of activation of the target and non-target language(s) with the use of cognates and non-cognates in monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual experimental sessions, this study investigates static as well as transient phonetic influence. Even though these bilingual and trilingual speakers produce language-specific VOT patterns for each language, the acoustic analyses also reveal evidence of phonetic convergence as a result of language mode and cognate status. These results show that trilingual speakers are able to maintain language-specific phonological categories in their L1, L2, and L3, overcoming long-term (static) traces of one language influencing the other, despite evidence of short-term (dynamic) cross-linguistic influence.
... Barlow, Branson, & Nip, 2013;Flege & Eefting, 1987;Sebastián-Gallés, Echeverría, & Bosch, 2005), and on the level of online speech processing (e.g. Goldrick, Runnqvist, & Costa, 2014;Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2016;Olson, 2013). Research has documented crosslanguage influences indicating that a bilingual's two languages are not isolated from each other even for early sequential and/or simultaneous bilinguals. ...
Preprint
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Purpose: The interconnectedness of phonological categories between the two languages of early bilinguals has previously been explored using single-probe speech production and perception data. Our goal was to tap into bilingual phonological representations in another way, namely via monitoring instances of phonetic drift due to changes in language exposure. Design: We report a case study of two teenage English-Czech simultaneous bilinguals who live in Canada and spend summers in Czechia. Voice onset time (VOT) of word-initial voiced and voiceless stops was measured upon the bilinguals' arrival to and before their departure from a two-month stay in Czechia. Data and Analysis: Each bilingual read the same set of 71 Czech and 58 English stop-initial target words (and additional fillers) at each time of measurement. The measured VOT values were submitted to linear mixed effects models, assessing the effects of target language, measurement time, and underlying voicing. Findings/Conclusions: After the immersion in a Czech-speaking environment, for both speakers the count of voiced stops realized as prevoiced (i.e. having negative VOT) increased and the measured VOT of voiced stops (appearing different for English and Czech initially) drifted towards more negative (more Czech-like) values in both languages, while no change was detected for the voiceless stops of either English (aspirated) or Czech (unaspirated). The results suggest that the bilinguals maintain three-way VOT distinctions, differentiating voiceless aspirated (English), voiceless unaspirated (Czech), and voiced (English~Czech) stops, with connected bilingual representations of the voiced categories. Originality: Data on phonetic drift in simultaneous bilinguals proficient in their two languages has not previously been published. Significance/Implications: We show that observing phonetic shifts due to changes in the ambient linguistic environment can be revealing about the organization of phonological space in simultaneous bilinguals.
... Furthermore, if cognate words can cause interference, then one way to reconcile the apparently contradictory results would be to assume that cognates might facilitate or inhibit production at different levels of processing. Indeed, previous studies suggest that interference and competition resolution between the two activated languages could arise at different levels involved in word retrieval (semantic, lexical, phonological, articulatory;Kroll, Bobb & Wodniecka, 2006;Dijkstra, Miwa, Brummelhuis & Baayen, 2010;Jacobs, Fricke & Kroll, 2015). It is thus possible that cognates also induce facilitation or inhibition at the phonological and/or lexical levels (see Li & Gollan, 2018a, 2018bMuscalu & Smiley, 2018 for tentative claims on the locus of facilitation/inhibition). ...
Article
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Most research showing that cognates are named faster than non-cognates has focused on isolated word production which might not realistically reflect cognitive demands in sentence production. Here, we explored whether cognates elicit interference by examining error rates during sentence production, and how this interference is resolved by language control mechanisms. Twenty highly proficient Spanish–English bilinguals described visual scenes with sentence structures ‘NP1-verb-NP2’ (NP = noun-phrase). Half the nouns and half the verbs were cognates and two manipulations created high control demands. Both situations that demanded higher inhibitory control pushed the cognate effect from facilitation towards interference. These findings suggest that cognates, similar to phonologically similar words within a language, can induce not only facilitation but robust interference.
... The interest in cognitive control is motivated by the increasing number of studies with bilinguals that have found a relationship between cognitive control and bilingualism, suggesting that cognitive control may be one of the underlying mechanisms that allows the mind and brain of bilinguals to accommodate the presence of two languages (Green, 1998;. These studies provide evidence that suggests that, even in monolingual contexts, bilinguals have their languages active at all times (e.g., Hatzidaki, Branigan, & Pickering, 2011;Hernandez, Li, & MacWhinney, 2005;Hoshino & Thierry, 2011;Jacobs, Fricke, & Kroll, 2016;Oppenheim, Wu, & Thierry, 2018;Sunderman & Kroll, 2006). The constant co-activation of bilinguals' languages has been shown to generate cross-linguistic competition (e.g., Marian, Bartolotti, Rochanavibhata, Bradley, & Hernandez, 2017;Marian & Spivey, 2003). ...
Article
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In the past 20 years, the field of bilingualism has made a substantial effort to better understand the set of cognitive mechanisms that allow bilinguals to functionally manage and use their lan- guages. Among the mechanisms that have been identified, cognitive control has been posited to be key for proficient bilingual language processing and use. However, the role of cognitive control in developing bilingualism, i.e., among adult learners learning a second language (L2), is still unclear with some studies indicating a relationship between cognitive control and adult L2 development/developing bilingualism and other studies finding the opposite pattern. This set of contradictory findings merits further investigation in order to deepen our understanding of the role that cognitive control plays during the process of becoming bilingual. In the present study, we aimed to address this open question by examining the role of cognitive control among adult L2 learners of Spanish at the intermediate level using multiple behavioral measures as a way to provide a multidimensional perspective on the role of cognitive control and developing bilin- gualism. Our results indicate a significant relationship between cognitive control abilities, specific to reactive control, and overall L2 proficiency. We also found a significant relationship between speed of processing and overall L2 proficiency. The results of this study contribute to the existing body of knowledge on cognitive factors related to developing bilingualism and provide critical new insight into the underlying cognitive mechanisms that may contribute to adult L2 learners becoming bilingual.
... Indeed, accumulative evidence has shown that language contexts, such as language immersion, play important roles in bilingual language production (e.g. Baus et al., 2013;Jacobs et al., 2016;Linck et al., 2009;Stasenko & Gollan, 2019;Timmer et al., 2018). For example, Linck et al. (2009) found that English learners of Spanish immersed in the L2 (Spanish) environment produced fewer words in their L1 (English) in a verbal fluency task, as compared their counterparts immersed in L1. ...
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Speech production in multilinguals involves constant inhibition of the languages currently not in use. In relation to phonological development, higher inhibitory skills may lead to the improved suppression of interference from the remaining languages in one’s repertoire and more accurate production of target features. The participants were 20 sequential multilingual learners (13-year-olds with L1 Polish, L2 English, L3 German), acquiring their L2 and L3 by formal instruction in a primary school. Inhibition was measured in a modified flanker task (Eriksen & Eriksen 1974; Poarch & Bialystok 2015). Multilingual production of voice onset time (VOT) and rhotic consonants was tested in a delayed repetition task (e.g. Kopečková et al. 2016; Krzysik 2019) in their L2 and L3. The results revealed that higher inhibitory control was related to increased global accuracy in the L2 and L3 production. Moreover, higher inhibitory control was also linked to higher accuracy in the overall L2 production, but there was no significant relationship with the L3 accuracy. These findings suggest that inhibition may play a role in phonological speech production, however, it may depend on one’s level of proficiency.
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Previous findings on adult second-language (L2) learners showed systematic phonetic changes in their production of the native language (L1) starting in the first weeks of L2 learning [Chang, C. B. (2012). Rapid and multifaceted effects of second-language learning on first-language speech production. Journal of Phonetics, 40, 249–268]. This “phonetic drift” of L1 production in novice L2 learners was consistent with reports of phonetic drift in advanced L2 learners; however, the fact that novice learners showed relatively pronounced drift was unexpected. To explore the hypothesis that this pattern is due to a novelty effect boosting the encoding and retrieval of elementary L2 experience, the current study compared the inexperienced learners analyzed previously (learners with no prior knowledge of the L2) to experienced learners enrolled in the same language program. In accordance with the hypothesis, experienced learners manifested less phonetic drift in their production of L1 stops and vowels than inexperienced learners, suggesting that progressive familiarization with an L2 leads to reduced phonetic drift at later stages of L2 experience. These findings contradict the assumption that L2 influence on the L1 is weakest at early stages of L2 learning and argue in favor of viewing the L1 and L2 both as dynamic systems undergoing continuous change.
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Despite abundant evidence of malleability in speech production, previous studies of the effects of late second-language learning on first-language speech production have been limited to advanced learners. This study examined these effects in novice learners, adult native English speakers enrolled in elementary Korean classes. In two acoustic studies, learners' production of English was found to be influenced by even brief experience with Korean. The effect was consistently one of assimilation to phonetic properties of Korean; moreover, it occurred at segmental, subsegmental, and global levels, often simultaneously. Taken together, the results suggest that cross-language linkages are established from the onset of second-language learning at multiple levels of phonological structure, allowing for pervasive influence of second-language experience on first-language representations. The findings are discussed with respect to current notions of cross-linguistic similarity, language development, and historical sound change.
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We looked at foreign-language (FL) vocabulary learning and forgetting in experienced FL learners, using a paired-associate training technique in which native-language words were paired with pseudowords. The training involved 6 presentations of the same 60 translation pairs, followed by a test after the 2nd, 4th, and 6th presentation round. A retest followed 1 week after training. The stimulus materials were manipulated on word concreteness, cognate status, and word frequency, and both productive and receptive testing took place. Cognates and concrete words were easier to learn and less susceptible to forgetting than noncognates and abstract words. Word frequency hardly affected performance. Overall, receptive testing showed better recall than productive testing. Theoretical accounts of these findings are proposed.
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Three different speech production paradigms assessed C. T. Kello, D. C. Plaut, and B. MacWhinney's (2000) claim that the characteristics of speech production flexibly vary between staged and cascaded modes depending on task demand. All experiments measured response latencies and durations of single words without and with a response deadline. Experiment 1 used a picture-word interference task; Experiment 2 blocked pictures either by semantic category or by word-initial overlap; and Experiment 3 used a Stroop paradigm. In all cases, systematic effects of semantic and form relatedness were obtained on latencies but not on response durations. These results support the assumption that articulation, as assessed by response duration, is never influenced by central cognitive processes once a response has been initiated.
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Despite an impressive psycholinguistic effort to explore the way in which two or more languages are represented and controlled, controversy surrounds both issues. We argue that problems of representation and control are intimately connected and we propose that data from functional neuroimaging may advance a resolution. Neuroimaging data, we argue, support the notion that the neural representation of a second language converges with the representation of that language learned as a first language and that language production in bilinguals is a dynamic process involving cortical and subcortical structures that make use of inhibition to resolve lexical competition and to select the intended language.
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Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals at suppressing task-irrelevant information. The present study aimed to identify how processing linguistic ambiguity during auditory comprehension may be associated with inhibitory control. Monolinguals and bilinguals listened to words in their native language (English) and identified them among four pictures while their eye-movements were tracked. Each target picture (e.g., hamper) appeared together with a similar-sounding within-language competitor picture (e.g., hammer) and two neutral pictures. Following each eye-tracking trial, priming probe trials indexed residual activation of target words, and residual inhibition of competitor words. Eye-tracking showed similar within-language competition across groups; priming showed stronger competitor inhibition in monolinguals than in bilinguals, suggesting differences in how inhibitory control was used to resolve within-language competition. Notably, correlation analyses revealed that inhibition performance on a nonlinguistic Stroop task was related to linguistic competition resolution in bilinguals but not in monolinguals. Together, monolingual-bilingual comparisons suggest that cognitive control mechanisms can be shaped by linguistic experience.
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This study examines the time course of inhibitory processes in Spanish-English bilinguals, using the procedure described in Macizo, Bajo, and Martín. Bilingual participants were required to decide whether pairs of English words were related. Critical word pairs contained a word that shared the same orthography across languages but differed in meaning (interlingual homographs such as pie, meaning foot in Spanish). In Expts 1 and 2, participants were slower to respond to homographs presented along with words related to the Spanish meaning of the homograph as compared to control words. This result agrees with the view that bilinguals non-selectively activate their two languages irrespective of the language they are using. In addition, bilinguals also slowed their responses when the English translation of the Spanish homograph meaning was presented 500 ms after responding to homographs (Expt 1). This result suggests that bilinguals inhibited the irrelevant homograph meaning. However, the inhibitory effect was not observed in Expt 2 when the between-trial interval was fixed to 750 ms which suggests that inhibition decayed over time.