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Triazoles are an important class of compounds used as core molecule for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical drugs. The objective of the present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of 1,2,4-triazole. The study was performed in two groups, control and treatment. The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment group. The control and treated 1,2,4-triazole were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA), Surface area analyzer, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed a decrease in unit cell volume of treated 1,2,4-triazole (662.08 10-24 cm3) as compared to control sample (666.34 10-24 cm3). Similarly, a decrease in molecular weight of treated 1,2,4-triazole (69.78 g/mol) with respect to control (70.23 g/mol) was observed. Additionally, a substantial decrease in crystallite size (G) was observed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 16.34% with respect to control. DSC analysis showed a slight increase in melting temperature of treated 1,2,4-triazole (124.22°C) as compared to control (123.76°C). Moreover, a significant increase in latent heat of fusion was noticed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 21.16% as compared to control sample. TGA analysis showed a significant increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated 1,2,4-triazole (213.40°C) as compared to control (199.68°C). Surface area analysis using BET showed a substantial increase in surface area of the treated compound by 13.52% with respect to control. However, FT-IR analysis showed no structural changes in treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control. Overall, the result showed significant alteration of physical and thermal properties of the treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control.
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Volume 3 • Issue 2 • 1000128
J Mol Pharm Org Process Res
ISSN: 2329-9053 JMPOPR, an open access journal
Research Article Open Access
Molecular Pharmaceutics &
Organic Process Research
Trivedi et al., J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 2015, 3:2
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-9053.1000128
*Corresponding author: Jana S, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt.
Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal
462026, Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel: +91-755-6660006; E-mail: publication@
trivedisrl.com
Received August 17, 2015; Accepted August 29, 2015; Published August 31, 2015
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al.
(2015) Characterization of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Bioeld
Treated 1,2,4-Triazole. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 128. doi:10.4172/2329-
9053.1000128
Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Characterization of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield
Treated 1,2,4-Triazole
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi1, Rama Mohan Tallapragada1, Alice Branton1, Dahryn Trivedi1, Gopal Nayak1, Rakesh Kumar Mishra2 and
Snehasis Jana2*
1Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA
2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal-462026, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Triazoles are an important class of compounds used as core molecule for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical
drugs. The objective of the present research was to investigate the inuence of bioeld treatment on physical,
spectral and thermal properties of 1,2,4-triazole. The study was performed in two groups, control and treatment.
The control group remained as untreated, and bioeld treatment was given to treatment group. The control and
treated 1,2,4-triazole were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC),
Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA), Surface area analyzer, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.
XRD analysis revealed a decrease in unit cell volume of treated 1,2,4-triazole (662.08 10-24 cm3) as compared to
control sample (666.34 10-24 cm3). Similarly, a decrease in molecular weight of treated 1,2,4-triazole (69.78 g/mol)
with respect to control (70.23 g/mol) was observed. Additionally, a substantial decrease in crystallite size (G) was
observed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 16.34% with respect to control. DSC analysis showed a slight increase in
melting temperature of treated 1,2,4-triazole (124.22°C) as compared to control (123.76°C). Moreover, a signicant
increase in latent heat of fusion was noticed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 21.16% as compared to control sample.
TGA analysis showed a signicant increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated
1,2,4-triazole (213.40°C) as compared to control (199.68°C). Surface area analysis using BET showed a substantial
increase in surface area of the treated compound by 13.52% with respect to control. However, FT-IR analysis
showed no structural changes in treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control. Overall, the result showed signicant
alteration of physical and thermal properties of the treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control.
Keywords: Bioeld treatment; 1,2,4-Triazole; X-ray diraction;
Dierential scanning calorimetry; ermo gravimetric analysis;
Surface area analyzer; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Abbreviations: XRD: X-Ray Diraction; DSC: Dierential
Scanning Calorimetry; TGA: ermo Gravimetric Analysis; FT-IR:
Fourier Transform Infrared.
Introduction
Now-a-days research is focused towards the introduction of
novel and biologically safe therapeutic agents. Recently nitrogen-
containing heterocycles are commonly found in most of the medicinal
compounds. Triazoles are fused heterocyclic compounds that have
received considerable attention owing to their synthetic and medicinal
importance. Especially, 1,2,4-triazole was used as core molecule
for the synthesis of dierent pharmacological agents such as anti-
inammatory, CNS stimulants, sedative, anti-anxiety, antimicrobial,
and anti-migraine activity [1]. 1,2,4-Triazole derivatives have received
considerable attention as antifungal agents such as uconazole and
itraconazole [2-4]. ese compounds have advantages due to its low
toxicity, high oral bioavailability and a broad spectrum of activity against
several fungi [5-7]. Kurtzer, et al. reported that 4-amino-5-mercapto-
3-substituted-1,2,4-triazole compound has excellent antifungal, anti-
inammatory and anti-tubercular activities that make them potential
chemotherapeutic agents [8].
e chemical and physical stability of the pharmaceutical
compounds are more desired quality attributes that directly aect its
safety, ecacy, and shelf life [9]. Hence, it is required to explore some
new alternate approach that could alter the physical and chemical
properties of the compounds. Mohammadi et al. used fast neutron and
gamma irradiation to investigate the thermal, structural and physical
properties of an organic compound [10]. Recently bioeld treatment
was used as an excellent strategy for modication of spectral properties
of various pharmaceutical drugs like paracetamol, piroxicam, and
physicochemical properties of metals, beef extract, and meat infusion
powder [11-13].
Recently it was discovered that electrical process occurring in
the human body has a relation with the magnetic eld. Rivera-Ruiz
et al. reported that electrocardiography has been extensively used to
measure the bioeld of the human body [14]. According to Amperes
law, the moving charge produces the magnetic eld in surrounding
space. Likewise, human body emits the electromagnetic waves in the
form of bio-photons, which surrounds the body, and it is commonly
known as bioeld. erefore, the bioeld consists of an electromagnetic
eld, being generated by moving electrically charged particles (ions,
cell, molecule, etc.) inside the human body. us, human beings have
the ability to harness the energy from environment/Universe and can
transmit into any object (living or non-living) around the Globe. e
object(s) always receive the energy and responding in a useful manner
that is called bioeld energy. Mr. Trivedis unique bioeld treatment
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Characterization of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of
Bioeld Treated 1,2,4-Triazole. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 128. doi:10.4172/2329-9053.1000128
Page 2 of 6
Volume 3 • Issue 2 • 1000128
J Mol Pharm Org Process Res
ISSN: 2329-9053 JMPOPR, an open access journal
is also known as e Trivedi Eect®. Mr. Trivedi bioeld treatment is
known to transform the characteristics of various living and nonliving
things. e bioeld treatment has improved the growth and production
of agriculture crops [15-18] and signicantly altered the phenotypic
characteristics of various pathogenic microbes [19-21]. Additionally,
bioeld treatment has substantially altered the medicinal, growth and
anatomical properties of ashwagandha [22].
Based on the excellent outcome from bioeld treatment and
interesting pharmaceutical applications of 1,2,4-Triazole, this work
was undertaken to investigate the impact of bioeld treatment on this
compound.
Materials and Methods
1,2,4-triazole was procured from SD Fine Chemicals Limited,
India. e sample was divided into two parts; one was kept as a control
sample while the treatment group (T) was in sealed pack and handed
over to Mr. Trivedi for bioeld treatment under laboratory condition.
Mr. Trivedi provided the treatment through his energy transmission
process to the treated group without touching the sample. e control
and treated samples were characterized by XRD, DSC, TGA, surface
area analysis, and FT-IR.
Characterization
X-ray diraction (XRD) study
XRD analysis of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole was carried out
on Phillips, Holland PW 1710 X-ray diractometer system, which had
a copper anode with nickel lter. e radiation of wavelength used by
the XRD system was 1.54056 Å. e data obtained from this XRD were
in the form of a chart of 2θ vs. intensity and a detailed table containing
peak intensity counts, d value (Å), peak width (θ°), relative intensity
(%) etc. e crystallite size (G) was calculated by using formula:
( )
/G k bCos
λθ
=
Here, λ is the wavelength of radiation used, b is full width half-
maximum (FWHM) of peaks and k is the equipment constant (=0.94).
Percent change in unit cell volume was calculated using following
formula
Percent change in unit cell volume=
( )
/ 100Vt Vc Vc

×
e molecular weight of atom was calculated using following
equation:
Molecular weight= number of protons x weight of a proton +
number of neutrons x weight of a neutron + number of electrons x
weight of an electron.
Molecular weight in g/mol was calculated from the weights of
all atoms in a molecule multiplied by the Avogadro number (6.023 ×
1023). e percent change in molecular weight was calculated using the
following equation:
Percent change in molecular weight=
( )
/ 100Mt Mc Mc
×
Where, Mc and Mt are molecular weight of control and treated
powder sample respectively
Percentage change in crystallite size was calculated using following
formula:
Percentage change in crystallite size=
( )
/ 100Gt Gc Gc
×
Where, Gc and Gt are crystallite size of control and treated powder
samples respectively.
Dierential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
DSC was used to investigate the melting temperature and latent
heat of fusion (∆H) of samples. e control and treated 1,2,4-triazole
samples were analyzed using a Pyris-6 Perkin Elmer DSC on a heating
rate of 10°C/min under air atmosphere and air was ushed at a ow rate
of 5 mL/min. e sample was kept in an aluminum pan and covered
with a lid. Another blank covered aluminum pan was used as reference
in the study.
Percentage change in latent heat of fusion was calculated using
following equations:
[ ]
Treated Control
Control
H H
% change in Latent heat of fusion 100
H
∆ −∆
= ×
Where, ΔH Control and ΔH Treated are the latent heat of fusion of
control and treated samples, respectively.
ermo Gravimetric Analysis-Dierential ermal Analysis
(TGA-DTA)
ermal stability of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole were analyzed
by using Mettler Toledo simultaneous TGA and Dierential thermal
analyzer (DTA). e samples were heated from room temperature to
400°C with a heating rate of 5°C/min under air atmosphere.
Percent change in temperature at which maximum weight loss
occur in sample was calculated using following equation:
( )
% , , / , 100 change in Tmax Tmax treated Tmax control Tmax control


=−×
Where, Tmax, control and Tmax, treated are the maximum thermal
decomposition temperature in control and treated sample, respectively.
Surface area analysis
Surface area of 1,2,4-triazole were characterized by surface area
analyzer, SMART SORB 90 Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) using ASTM
D 5604 method which had a detection range of 0.2-1000 m2/g. Percent
changes in surface area were calculated using following equation:
[ ]
Treated Control
Control
S S
% change in surface area 100
S
= ×
Where, SControl and S Tre ate d are the surface area of control and treated
samples respectively.
FT-IR spectroscopy
FT-IR spectra were recorded on Shimadzu’s Fourier transform
infrared spectrometer (Japan) with frequency range of 4000-500 cm-
1. e treated sample was divided in two parts T1 and T2 for FT-IR
analysis.
Results and Discussions
XRD study
XRD diractograms of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole are shown
in Figure 1.
XRD diractogram of control 1,2,4-triazole showed intense
crystalline peaks at 2θ equal to 17.91°, 22.23°, 22.41°, 22.57°, 24.40°,
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Characterization of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of
Bioeld Treated 1,2,4-Triazole. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 128. doi:10.4172/2329-9053.1000128
Page 3 of 6
Volume 3 • Issue 2 • 1000128
J Mol Pharm Org Process Res
ISSN: 2329-9053 JMPOPR, an open access journal
24.67°, 26.16°, 26.40°, 27.74°, 28.10°, 31.14°, 32.34°, 32.54°, 54.70° and
54.86°. Similarly, the treated 1,2,4-triazole showed crystalline peaks at
2θ equal to 18.00°, 18.20°, 18.97°, 22.26°, 22.44°, 22.65°, 23.77°, 24.42°,
24.70°, 26.21°, 26.37°, 28.12° and 31.32°. e result showed that few XRD
peaks of control 1,2,4-triazole originally present at 2θ equal to 22.57°,
24.67° and 28.10° were shied to 22.65°, 24.70° and 28.12° respectively,
in treated sample. Moreover, the intensity was signicantly increased
for these XRD peaks of treated 1,2,4-triazole as compared to control,
indicating an increase in crystallinity (Figure 1). It is hypothesized that
bioeld treatment may cause the formation of the long-range order of
treated 1,2,4-triazole molecules which leads to increase in crystallinity
with respect to control. Based on the XRD data of control and treated
1,2,4-triazole the crystal structure was orthorhombic.
e unit cell volume, molecular weight and crystallite size of
control and treated 1,2,4-triazole were computed from the respective
XRD diractogram and data are depicted in Table 1.
e unit cell volume of control 1,2,4-triazole was 666.34×10-24 cm3;
however it was decreased slightly to 662.08 × 10-24 cm3 in treated sample.
e decrease in volume of unit cell volume was 0.64% as compared
to control. It is assumed that compressive stress may applied due to
bioeld treatment that decreases the parameter and unit cell volume.
Whereas the molecular weight of control 1,2,4-triazole was decreased
by 0.64% with respect to control. It is speculated that bioeld may cause
an alteration in proton to neutron ratio in the treated 1,2,4-triazole that
leads to a reduction in molecular weight.
e crystallite size of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole were
computed from the Scherrer formula (crystallite size=kλ/bcos θ) and
presented in Figure 2.
e crystallite size of control 1,2,4-triazole was 84.36 nm and it
was decreased to 70.58 nm in treated 1,2,4-triazole. e result showed
a decrease in crystallite size of bioeld treated 1,2,4-triazole by 16.33%
with respect to control. Researchers have reported that ball milling and
similar other treatment methods cause a substantial decrease in grain
size and crystallite size of materials [23]. Suryanarayana reported that
crystallite size/grain size decreases rapidly in early stages of milling and
then slowly reaches a few nanometers in a short time [24]. Previously
it was reported that bioeld treatment had substantially reduced
the crystallite size of vanadium pentoxide powders [25]. Hence, it is
assumed that bioeld treatment may provide energy milling to the
treated 1,2,4-triazole samples that lead the creation of linear defects
particularly dislocations which results in higher dislocation density and
decrease in crystallite size [23].
DSC study
DSC was used to study the latent heat of fusion and melting behavior
of the 1,2,4-triazole. Figure 3 showed the DSC thermogram of control
and treated 1,2,4-triazole. DSC thermogram of control 1,2,4-triazole
showed a sharp endothermic peak at 123.76°C. However the treated
Figure 1: XRD diffractogram of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole.
Compound Characteristics Control Treated
Unit cell volume (10-24 cm3) 666.34 662.08
Molecular weight (g/mol) 70.23 69.78
Table 1: XRD data (unit cell volume, crystallite size and molecular weight) of
control and treated 1,2,4-triazole.
Figure 2: Crystallite size of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole.
Figure 2: Crystallite size of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole.
Figure 3: DSC thermogram of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Characterization of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of
Bioeld Treated 1,2,4-Triazole. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 128. doi:10.4172/2329-9053.1000128
Page 4 of 6
Volume 3 • Issue 2 • 1000128
J Mol Pharm Org Process Res
ISSN: 2329-9053 JMPOPR, an open access journal
1,2,4-triazole showed an intense endothermic peak at 124.22°C,
corresponded to melting temperature of the sample (Figure 3).
is showed a slight increase in melting temperature of the bioeld
treated sample with respect to control. When molecules come out
from the regular pattern of the material and starts to vibrate thermally,
that is known as melting temperature. Researchers have showed that
melting temperature of a material depends on its kinetic energy [26].
It is assumed that bioeld treatment may altered the kinetic energy
of the treated 1,2,4-triazole that leads to a slight increase in melting
temperature with respect to control.
Latent heat of fusion of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole were
computed from the respective thermograms and data are reported in
Table 2.
It was suggested that a material consist of strong intermolecular
forces between them that holds them tightly on their positions. e
energy needed to overcome this strong intermolecular force is known
as latent heat of fusion. is latent heat of fusion is stored as potential
energy in the atoms during its phase transition from solid to liquid. e
control sample showed a latent heat of fusion of 132.51 J/g and it was
considerably increased in treated 1,2,4-triazole (160.55 J/g). e result
showed a signicant increase in latent heat of fusion by 21.16% with
respect to the control sample. It is speculated that bioeld treatment
may alter the stored potential energy in the sample that leads to increase
in latent heat of fusion of the sample.
TGA analysis
ermo gravimetric analysis is a technique used to evaluate the
thermal stability, vaporization and sublimation of the sample. TGA
thermogram of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole are presented in
Figure 4.
e control 1,2,4-triazole started to degrade thermally around 186°C
(onset), and it stopped at around 226°C (end set). During this process,
the sample lost 53.79% of its weight. However, the treated 1,2,4-triazole
started to thermally decompose at 200°C (onset), and it terminated at
around 243°C (end set). e sample lost 50.71% of its weight during
this process. is showed an increase in onset temperature of treated
1,2,4-triazole with respect to the control sample. is may be inferred
as high thermal stability of treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control.
DTA thermogram of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole are presented
in Figure 4. DTA thermogram of control 1,2,4-triazole showed two
endothermic peaks at 121.98°C and 210.42°C. e rst endothermic
peak was corresponded to melting temperature and second was due
to thermal decomposition of the sample. DTA thermogram of treated
1,2,4-triazole also showed two endothermic peaks at 123.15°C and
222.93°C. e former peak was due to melting temperature of the
treated 1,2,4-triazole and latter peak was corresponded to thermal
decomposition of the sample. DTA showed an increase in decomposition
temperature of treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control.
Derivative thermo gravimetry (DTG) thermogram of control
1,2,4-triazole showed maximum thermal decomposition temperature
(Tmax) at 199.68°C and it was increased substantially to 213.40°C in
treated 1,2,4-triazole. e result showed 6.87% increase in Tmax of
treated 1,2,4-triazole as compared to control sample. Overall, the
increase in onset temperature, and Tmax corroborated the high thermal
stability of treated compound as compared to control 1,2,4-triazole.
According to Boltzman law of energy distribution among molecules at
any temperature a portion of molecules will possess energy higher than
the bond energy.
K=Ae-E/RT
Where, A is the frequency factor related to vibration frequency of a
critical mode of vibration in molecules and E is the excess energy which
must be concentrated in the molecule in order to decompose it. K is
the rate of decomposition. In this equation temperature (T) is inversely
proportional to rate of thermal decomposition (K). Similarly in this
work rate of decomposition was decreased with increasing temperature
and increase in thermal stability. Additionally, it was reported that A
should be minimized in order to increase the thermal stability of the
organic compounds [27]. Hence, it is assumed that bioeld treatment
may be acted on the treated 1,2,4-triazole and minimized the frequency
of critical mode of vibration of molecules that leads to increase in
thermal stability of treated sample with respect to control.
Surface Area Analysis
e surface area of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole were evaluated
using BET analyzer and results are presented in Figure 5. e control
1,2,4-triazole showed a surface area of 0.3802 m2/g and it was increased
considerably to 0.4316 m2/g in treated sample. e result showed an
increase in surface area by 13.52% with respect to control. e possible
Parameter Control Treated
Latent heat of fusion ΔH (J/g) 132.51 160.55
Melting temperature (°C) 123.76°C 124.22 °C
Tmax (°C) 199.68 °C 213.40 °C
Weight loss (%) 53.79 50.70
Table 2: Thermal analysis data of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole.
Figure 4: TGA thermogram of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Characterization of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of
Bioeld Treated 1,2,4-Triazole. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 128. doi:10.4172/2329-9053.1000128
Page 5 of 6
Volume 3 • Issue 2 • 1000128
J Mol Pharm Org Process Res
ISSN: 2329-9053 JMPOPR, an open access journal
cause of an increase in surface area of treated 1,2,4-triazole could be
the decrease in particle size of 1,2,4-triazole aer bioeld treatment.
It was reported that decrease in particle size increases the surface area
and vice versa [28,29]. Bioeld treatment may provide energy milling
which led to the formation of grain into sub grain that caused decrease
in particle size and increase in surface area [30].
FT-IR spectroscopy
FT-IR spectra of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole (T1 and T2)
samples are presented in Figure 6.e FT-IR spectrum of control
1,2,4-triazole showed characteristic absorption peaks at 3097 and 3032
cm-1 due to C-H aromatic vibrations. Vibration peak at 3126 cm-1 was
due N-H stretching of the sample. FT-IR peaks at 1529 and 1483 cm-1
were corresponded to C=C stretching for aromatic groups. Vibration
peak for –N=N stretching was observed at 1543 cm-1 [31]. Likewise,
the FT-IR spectrum of 1,2,4-triazole (T1) showed absorptions peaks
at 3095, and 3034 cm-1 that were due to C-H aromatic vibrations.
N-H stretching vibration was observed at 3128 cm-1 in the sample.
FT-IR peaks observed at 1529, and 1483 cm-1 were corresponded to
C=C (aromatic) stretching vibration peak (Figure 6). Vibration peak
for –N=N stretching was observed at 1543 cm-1. FT-IR spectrum of
1,2,4-triazole (T2) showed absorption peaks at 3028 cm-1 that were due
to C-H (aromatic) stretching vibrations. N-H stretching vibration peak
was observed at 3128 cm-1 in the sample. C=C (aromatic) stretching
vibrations were observed at 1529, and 1481 cm-1. N=N stretching peak
was observed at 1543 cm-1 in the sample. Overall, the FT-IR results
showed no signicant structural changes in treated 1,2,4-triazole (T1
and T2) with respect to control sample.
Conclusions
XRD results showed a reduction in unit cell volume and molecular
weight of treated 1,2,4-triazole as compared to control. A substantial
decrease in crystallite size was evidenced in treated 1,2,4-triazole that
may be due to compressive stress caused through bioeld treatment
with respect to control. DSC characterization showed a slight increase
in melting temperature with respect to control. A signicant increase
in latent heat of fusion was observed in treated 1,2,4-triazole than the
control sample. TGA showed a substantial increase in Tmax of treated
compound as compared to control. is indicated the increase in
thermal stability of 1,2,4-triazole aer bioeld treatment. e surface
area was increased considerably in treated sample that may improve
the solubility of the compound with respect to control. However, no
signicant change was found in FT-IR absorption peaks of treated
1,2,4-triazole in comparison with control. Based on results it was found
that bioeld treatment has signicantly inuenced the physical and
thermal properties of treated 1,2,4-triazole. It is assumed that treated
1,2,4-triazole could be used for synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds.
Acknowledgement
Authors thank Dr. Cheng Dong of NLSC, institute of physics, and Chinese
academy of sciences for permitting us to use Powder X software for analyzing
XRD results. The authors would also like to thank Trivedi Science, Trivedi Master
Wellness and Trivedi Testimonials for their support during the work.
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neutron and gamma irradiation on thermal, structural and colorant properties of
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11. Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of bioeld
treatment on spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam. Chem Sci J
6: 98.
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
Control Treated
Surface area (m
2
/g)
Figure 5: Surface area of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole.
Figure 6: FT-IR spectra of control and treated 1,2,4-triazole.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Characterization of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of
Bioeld Treated 1,2,4-Triazole. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 128. doi:10.4172/2329-9053.1000128
Page 6 of 6
Volume 3 • Issue 2 • 1000128
J Mol Pharm Org Process Res
ISSN: 2329-9053 JMPOPR, an open access journal
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physical and thermal characteristics of silicon, tin and lead powders. J Material
Sci Eng 2: 125.
13. Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Jana S, et al. (2015) Bio-eld
treatment: An effective strategy to improve the quality of beef extract and meat
infusion powder. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 389.
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The rst electrocardiograph. Tex Heart Inst J 35: 174-178.
15. Shinde V, Sances F, Patil S, Spence A (2012) Impact of bioeld treatment on
growth and yield of lettuce and tomato. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 6: 100-105.
16. Sances F, Flora E, Patil S, Spence A, Shinde V (2013) Impact of bioeld
treatment on ginseng and organic blueberry yield. Agrivita J Agric Sci 35: 22-29.
17. Lenssen AW (2013) Bioeld and fungicide seed treatment inuences on
soybean productivity, seed quality and weed community. Agricultural Journal
8: 138-143.
18. Patil SA, Nayak GB, Barve SS, Tembe RP, Khan RR (2012) Impact of bioeld
treatment on growth and anatomical characteristics of Pogostemon cablin
(Benth.). Biotechnology; 11: 154-162.
19. Trivedi MK, Patil S (2008) Impact of an external energy on Staphylococcus
epidermis [ATCC –13518] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical
reactions – An experimental study. J Accord Integr Med 4: 230-235.
20. Trivedi MK, Patil S (2008) Impact of an external energy on Yersinia enterocolitica
[ATCC–23715] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions:
An experimental study. Internet J Alternative Med 6: 2.
21. Trivedi MK, Bhardwaj Y, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bulbule A (2009) Impact of an
external energy on Enterococcus faecalis [ATCC – 51299] in relation to
antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions – An experimental study. J
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Material Sci Eng S11: 001.
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elements in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash particles. J Contam
Hydrol 94: 178-194.
30. Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Latiyal O (2015) Studies of the
atomic and crystalline characteristics of ceramic oxide nano powders after bio
eld treatment. Ind Eng Manage 4: 161.
31. Goyal, PK, Bhandari A, Rana AC, Jain CB (2010) Synthesis of some
3-substituted -4h-1,2,4-triazole derivatives with potent anti-inammatory
activity. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 3: 244-246.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et
al. (2015) Characterization of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties
of Bioeld Treated 1,2,4-Triazole. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 128.
doi:10.4172/2329-9053.1000128
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... In Figure 15a, an FTIR spectrum of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole is presented. The bands at 3083 cm −1 and 3054 cm −1 are assigned to C-H aromatic vibrations [59]. A strong band at 3211 cm −1 is attributed to stretching vibrations of N-H bonds in amino groups [59], while those at 1531 and 1472 cm −1 originated from C=C stretching vibrations of aromatic domains in 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole molecules [59]. ...
... The bands at 3083 cm −1 and 3054 cm −1 are assigned to C-H aromatic vibrations [59]. A strong band at 3211 cm −1 is attributed to stretching vibrations of N-H bonds in amino groups [59], while those at 1531 and 1472 cm −1 originated from C=C stretching vibrations of aromatic domains in 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole molecules [59]. High-intensity bands located at 1595 and 1045 cm −1 indicate the presence of endocyclic N=N and C-N-C, respectively [60]. ...
... The bands at 3083 cm −1 and 3054 cm −1 are assigned to C-H aromatic vibrations [59]. A strong band at 3211 cm −1 is attributed to stretching vibrations of N-H bonds in amino groups [59], while those at 1531 and 1472 cm −1 originated from C=C stretching vibrations of aromatic domains in 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole molecules [59]. High-intensity bands located at 1595 and 1045 cm −1 indicate the presence of endocyclic N=N and C-N-C, respectively [60]. ...
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New hybrid kaolinite was obtained for the first time by intercalation of 1,2,4-triazole (TAZ) in the interlayer space of methoxykaolinite. The successful synthesis of the material (K-TAZ) was fully confirmed by XRD, FTIR, and solid state ¹³C NMR spectroscopy characterizations. Thermogravimetric analysis of K-TAZ confirmed the quantitative intercalation of TAZ and allowed the determination of the chemical formula of the nanohybrid material (Si2Al2O5(OH)3,72(OCH3)0,28(TAZ)0,50(H2O)0,17(CH3CH2OH)0,06). The material was subsequently used as copper corrosion inhibitor in a concentrated NaCl aqueous solution (0.5 M), TAZ being well-known as copper corrosion inhibitor. K-TAZ behaves like a mixed inhibitor (cathodic and anodic) with an inhibition efficiency reaching 96.9% when an inhibitor concentration of 320 mg L⁻¹ was used. The study of the role played by different constituents of K-TAZ on metal protection showed that the cathodic inhibition was mainly due to free methoxykaolinite particles while the de-intercalated TAZ molecules provides the anodic protection. Thermodynamic studies of the process revealed that K-TAZ protects the copper by reinforcing (through physical adsorption) the protective layer made of copper oxide and chlorides produced when the metal react with the corrosive sodium chloride solution. This work clearly demonstrates the potential use of kaolinite for the enhancement of the efficiency of some selected metal corrosion inhibitors.
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Thymol is a renewable substance and has a high antimicrobial efficiency, which indicates that it could be used to produce sustainable biocides. In this study, we used kraft lignin as a partial replacement for a traditional surfactant in order to solubilize thymol in water. In this sense, this article reports an unprecedented method for using a kraft lignin solution to stabilize a thymol-based biocide with high fungicidal activity. The results showed that the lignin was crucial for stabilizing the suspensions. When the lignin was not added to the surfactant, there was a water-oil phase separation and the thymol crystallized after its rest for 30 days. Results obtained by in vitro experiments indicated that one of the studied lignin:thymol suspension (volume ratio of 1:0.1) presented an excellent fungal resistance. Furthermore, even the sample with the smallest thymol concentration (c.a. 0.5%) was able to inhibit the mycelial growth of the bracket fungus (Ganoderma applanatum), which is a promising feature for a biocidal application. • HIGHLIGHTS • This research addresses multidisciplinary concepts for obtaining sustainable products; • Lignin is a good renewable stabilizer for thymol suspensions in water; • Thymol and lignin, at three different mass ratios, were successfully applied for obtaining stable suspensions; • Lignin-thymol suspensions seem to be promising biocides.
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Ce travail de thèse porte sur la mise en forme et la caractérisation de complexes à transition de spin immobilisés dans des films minces de silice mésoporeuse, ordonnés et orientés perpendiculairement à l’électrode. De tels films sont obtenus par la méthode d’auto-assemblage assistée électrochimiquement (EASA). L’objectif principal de cette thèse est d’élaborer des nanocomposites à base de silice, dans laquelle des complexes de coordination sont confinés, qui soient à la fois redox et photo actifs c’est à dire dont les propriétés peuvent être contrôlées soit par la lumière, soit par application d’un potentiel. Pour atteindre cet objectif, nous avons suivi différentes approches de confinement à savoir l’encapsulation dite « one pot », l’imprégnation dans les films de silice préformés (non modifiés ou fonctionnalisés par des groupements sulfonate), et enfin en combinant la chimie click à la méthode EASA. Comme prototypes, nous avons utilisé le complexe [Fe(Htrz)3]2+, qui est un polymère monodimensionnel, et le complexe mononucléaire [Fe(bpy)3]2+. Les recherches effectuées ont permis de mettre en évidence le rôle joué par la structure polymérique du complexe [Fe(Htrz)3]2+ dans la formation du film, et son influence sur la mésostructure lorsqu’on suit la méthode d’encapsulation one pot. Par ailleurs, il a été possible d’élucider la contribution du contre anion, en particulier celle des groupements sulfonate, dans le processus de complexation, ainsi que les différents facteurs prenant part à la transition de spin au sein des nanocomposites. Le manuscrit se termine par l’étude de transition de spin photo induite des complexes [Fe(bpy)3]2+ immobilisés par des liaisons covalentes dans les films de silice.
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While attempting to confine Fe(Htrz)3 (Htrz = 1,2,4,-1H-triazole) into a mesoporous silica matrix during its formation by electrochemically assisted self-assembly (EASA), we have discovered that such spin crossover complex is likely to act as the template (in place of the surfactant species) to form in one step a composite mesoporous material (Fe(Htrz)[email protected]). The EASA method usually leads to the vertical growth of mesoporous silica thin films owing to the electro-induced condensation of silica precursors (i.e., tetraethoxysilane, TEOS) around tubular micelles (i.e., made of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) oriented orthogonally to the underlying support. In the presence of Fe(Htrz)3 in the starting sol (in addition to TEOS and CTAB), two distinct situations can be reached. At low Fe(Htrz)3 concentration (≤ 3 mM), the vertically aligned mesostructure is formed and Fe(Htrz)3 complexes are incorporated along with the surfactant phase, but most of them are released upon surfactant removal. At high Fe(Htrz)3 concentration (typically 5 mM), a wormlike mesoporous film is obtained in which Fe(Htrz)3 species act as a real template for the formation of a mesoporous Fe(Htrz)[email protected] film. Interestingly, the iron-triazole complex is strongly entrapped in the silica matrix as it cannot be removed by solvent extraction (contrary to CTAB), as evidenced from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Even more attractive are the electrochemical properties of the composite Fe(Htrz)[email protected] material, exhibiting highly stable operational stability (i.e., identical voltammetric signals upon multiple successive measurements), contrary to Fe(Htrz)3 species incorporated by impregnation of the surfactant phase which are found to leach out in solution upon use. Such in situ elaborated mesoporous composite made of Fe(Htrz)3 template strongly immobilized in a silica host is thus promising for bridging the gap between soft and hard functional organic-inorganic materials, which is briefly illustrated here for the mediated detection of hydrogen peroxide thanks to the electrocatalytic properties of the Fe(Htrz)3 complex, which are maintained even when immobilized in the composite Fe(Htrz)[email protected] film.
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The present research work investigated the influence of bio-field treatment on two common flavoring agents used in food industries namely beef extract powder (BEP) and meat infusion powder (MIP). The treated powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FT-IR results showed disappearance of triglycerides peaks in both the treated powders as compared to control. XRD results corroborated the amorphous nature of both control and treated samples. The BEP showed enhanced average particle size (d50) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) by 5.7% and 16.1%, respectively as compared to control. Contrarily, the MIP showed a decreased particle size (d50; 0.4% and d99; 18.1%) as compared to control. It was assumed that enormous energy was stored in MIP after bio-field treatment that led to fracture into smaller particles. The surface area was increased in both the treated powders. DSC result showed significant increase in melting temperature, in BEP and MIP, which indicated the higher thermal stability of the samples. However, the specific heat capacity (∆H) was decreased in both samples, which was probably due to high energy state of the powders.
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Background : While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiments on Yersinia enterocolitica [ATCC –23715], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mr. Mahendrakumar Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods: Yersinia enterocolitica strains in revived and lyophilized state were subjected to spiritual energy transmitted through thought intervention and/or physical touch of Mr. Trivedi to the sealed tubes containing strain and were analyzed within 10 days after incubation. Results: The results indicated that Mr.Trivedi's energy has changed 20 of 33 biochemical characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica along with significant changes in susceptibility pattern in 15 of 32 antibiotics. The Biotype number has changed from the original control strain giving rise to 2 different biotypes in treated samples while the external energy /treatment given was the same for all treated samples suggestive of random polymorphism as analyzed through an automated machine. Conclusions: These results cannot be explained by current theories of science, and indicate a potency in Mr.Trivedi's energy, providing a model for science to be able to investigate the impact of spiritual energy in a rigorous manner. In lyophilized state, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics could be altered.
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Pogostemon cablin is a known aromatic plant which is cultivated for its essential oil widely applicated in perfumery and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the effect of biofield treatment was studied on the growth of P. cablin. For this study an in vitro culture system was set up in two groups, viz., control and treatment, each of which was derived from three different explant sources, namely leaf, node and petiole. Further these in vitro plantlets were hardened and transferred to external environment. The stomatal cells and epidermal hair growth were also studied at various morphogenetic stages. The study revealed that a single spell of biofield energy treatment produced significant increase in growth in treated group throughout all the morphogenetic phases from in vitro to in vivo level. A remarkable increase in stomatal cells and epidermal hair was also seen in treated group.
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Background : While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiments on Enterococcus faecalis [ATCC –51299], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mr. Mahendrakumar Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods: Enterococcus faecalis strains in revived and lyophilized state were subjected to spiritual energy transmitted through thought intervention and/or physical touch of Mr. Trivedi to the sealed tubes containing strain, the process taking about 3 minutes and were analyzed within 10 days after incubation. All tests were performed with the help of automation on the Microscan Walkaway System in Microbiology Laboratory - accredited by The College of American Pathologists Results: The results indicated that Mr.Trivedi’s energy has changed 9 of 27 biochemical characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis along with significant changes in susceptibility pattern in 5 of 31 antibiotics. The Biotype number has changed from the original control strain giving rise to 2 different biotypes in treated samples while the external energy/treatment given was the same for all treated samples suggestive of random polymorphism as analyzed through the automated machine. Conclusions: These results cannot be explained by current theories of science, and indicate a potency in Mr.Trivedi’s energy, providing a model for science to be able to investigate the impact of spiritual energy in a rigorous manner. In lyophilized state, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics could be altered.
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Triazoles are an important class of compounds used as core molecule for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical drugs. The objective of the present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of 1,2,4-triazole. The study was performed in two groups, control and treatment. The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment group. The control and treated 1,2,4-triazole were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA), Surface area analyzer, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed a decrease in unit cell volume of treated 1,2,4-triazole (662.08 10-24 cm3) as compared to control sample (666.34 10-24 cm3). Similarly, a decrease in molecular weight of treated 1,2,4-triazole (69.78 g/mol) with respect to control (70.23 g/mol) was observed. Additionally, a substantial decrease in crystallite size (G) was observed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 16.34% with respect to control. DSC analysis showed a slight increase in melting temperature of treated 1,2,4-triazole (124.22°C) as compared to control (123.76°C). Moreover, a significant increase in latent heat of fusion was noticed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 21.16% as compared to control sample. TGA analysis showed a significant increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated 1,2,4-triazole (213.40°C) as compared to control (199.68°C). Surface area analysis using BET showed a substantial increase in surface area of the treated compound by 13.52% with respect to control. However, FT-IR analysis showed no structural changes in treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control. Overall, the result showed significant alteration of physical and thermal properties of the treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control.
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