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Enhancing micronutrient content of beverage powder by incorporating malted finger millet

Authors:
  • Ethelind School of Home Science
  • Centre of Food Technology, University of Allahabad

Abstract

Introduction: There is growing interest in the role of the micronutrients in optimizing health, and in prevention or treatment of disease. Micronutrients play a central part in metabolism and in the maintenance of tissue function, an adequate intake therefore is necessary. Rationale: This research work was concerned with the development of micronutrient especially calcium rich instant health beverage powder from malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and gurhal powder (Hibiscus rosa- sinensis). Aims & Objectives: In this study attempts have been made to investigate that whether the extruded malted finger millet flour and hibiscus flower powder has improved the nutritional and phytochemical quality of instant health beverage powder without deteriorating their sensory properties and whether it can be a supplement for calcium deficit sedentary women. Materials and methods: Instant health beverage powder was prepared by adding malted and extruded finger millet with glucose, hibiscus flower powder, citric acid and vanilla essence. All the ingredients were mixed well. Prior to consumption this powder was dissolved in water and stirred well manually. Further Instant health beverage powder was assessed for nutritional composition. Results: Results shows that beverage powder has very high content of protein (12.25%) and calcium (96.5%) along with highly beneficial neutraceutical properties as compared with the health drinks available in market, it is because of enhanced antioxidant activity resulted due to the incorporation of gurhal leaf powder and malting of the finger millet. Conclusion: This study may prove as a potential step to utilise malted finger millet as a supplement for calcium deficit women. The nutritional composition was found sufficient enough to meet approximately one fourth of RDA of Protein and Calcium as prescribed by NIN, India for sedentary women who are the main sufferers of calcium deficiencies in various life stages like pregnancy, lactation and menopause. © 2015, Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine. All rights reserved.
INDIAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY HEALTH / VOL 26 / SUPP 02 / DEC 2014 [Enhancing Micronutrient] Jaya Tripathi et al
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SHORT ARTICLE
Enhancing micronutrient content of beverage powder by incorporating malted finger
millet
Jaya Tripathi1, Alka Gupta2, Ranu Prasad3, Vinita Puranik4
1,4Centre of Food Technology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, 2,3Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture,
Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, India
Abstract
Introduction
Methodology
Results
Conclusion
References
Citation
Tables / Figures
Corresponding Author
Citation
Abstract
Introduction: There is growing interest in the role of the micronutrients in optimizing health, and in prevention or
treatment of disease. Micronutrients play a central part in metabolism and in the maintenance of tissue function,
an adequate intake therefore is necessary. Rationale: This research work was concerned with the development
of micronutrient especially calcium rich instant health beverage powder from malted finger millet (Eleusine
coracana) and gurhal powder (Hibiscus rosa- sinensis). Aims & Objectives: In this study attempts have been made
to investigate that whether the extruded malted finger millet flour and hibiscus flower powder has improved the
nutritional and phytochemical quality of instant health beverage powder without deteriorating their sensory
properties and whether it can be a supplement for calcium deficit sedentary women. Materials and methods:
Instant health beverage powder was prepared by adding malted and extruded finger millet with glucose, hibiscus
flower powder, citric acid and vanilla essence. All the ingredients were mixed well. Prior to consumption this
powder was dissolved in water and stirred well manually. Further Instant health beverage powder was assessed
for nutritional composition. Results: Results shows that beverage powder has very high content of protein (12.25
%) and calcium (96.5 %) along with highly beneficial neutraceutical properties as compared with the health drinks
available in market, it is because of enhanced antioxidant activity resulted due to the incorporation of gurhal leaf
powder and malting of the finger millet. Conclusion: This study may prove as a potential step to utilise malted
finger millet as a supplement for calcium deficit women. The nutritional composition was found sufficient enough
to meet approximately one fourth of RDA of Protein and Calcium as prescribed by NIN, India for sedentary women
who are the main sufferers of calcium deficiencies in various life stages like pregnancy, lactation and menopause.
Key Words
Beverage Powder; Calcium deficiency; Finger Millet; Gurhal Flower; Sedentary Women
Introduction
Neutraceutical beverages represents one of the
fastest annual growing markets worldwide, reaching
a compound annual growth rate of 13.6% between
2002 and 2007 (Heckman et al., 2010). Finger millet
is a minor millet used in the preparation of infant
food and health foods as raw and as well as malted
forms. It is basically used for preparation of flour,
pudding, porridge and roti (Chaturvedi and
Srivastava, 2008).With the changes in scenario of
utilization of processed products and awareness of
the consumers about the health benefits, finger
millet has gained attention because of its
components (Wadikar et al.,2007). The malted and
fermented finger millet flour are extensively used in
preparation of weaning food, instant mixes,
beverages and pharmaceutical products (Rao and
Muralikrishna, 2001).
Natural antioxidants like phenolic compounds and
flavonoids which are secondary plant metabolites
present in food products of plant origin (Helle and
Bertelsen, 1995; Yeh and Yen, 2003) can trap the
free radicals directly or scavenge them through a
series of coupled reactions with antioxidant
INDIAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY HEALTH / VOL 26 / SUPP 02 / DEC 2014 [Enhancing Micronutrient] Jaya Tripathi et al
340
enzymes (Rao et al., 1996). Gurhal (Hibiscus Rosa-
Sinensis) a well-known member of the family
Malvaceae, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis grows as an
evergreen herbaceous plant. A native to tropical and
sub-tropical regions, this plant is extensively
cultivated as an ornamental plant.
Aims & Objectives
To investigate that whether the extruded malted
finger millet flour and hibiscus flower powder has
improved the nutritional and phytochemical quality
of instant health beverage powder without
deteriorating their sensory properties and whether it
can be a supplement for calcium deficit sedentary
women.
Material and Methods
Raw materials: Finger Millet in a single lot was
procured from local market of Allahabad, India.
Hibiscus flowers used in this instant health beverage
powder were obtained from Department of botany,
University of Allahabad. Chemicals used for analysis
were of AR grade and purchased from Science
Corporation, Allahabad, India.
Preparation of Malted Finger Millet Flour: The
soaking period (16 hours), germination temperature
(310c) and germination period (48 hours) was
optimized for malting. The Optimized finger millet
was then dried in hot air oven at 500c for 24 hours.
Vegetative parts were removed by rubbing and then
were ground to power followed by storing in air-tight
containers at refrigeration temperature.
Preparation of Gurhal Flower Powder: The fresh
hibiscus flowers were washed thoroughly and were
then dried in hot air oven at 500 c for 3-4 hours till
the moisture percentage remains 6-7 % followed by
grinding to powder and were stored in air tight
containers (Singh et al. 2007).
Chemical Analysis: The proximate composition,
Calcium and iron content of instant health beverage
powder was determined by AOAC (2007),for
estimation of Total Phenolic content, Folin-Ciocalteu
method was adopted Singleton et al. (1999). The
Radical Scavenging Activity was estimated by DPPH
method given by De Ancos et al. (2002).
Beverage Preparation: Instant Health Beverage
Powder (22 g) was added with glucose (20 g),
hibiscus flower powder (0.25g), citric acid (0.1 g) and
vanilla essence (0.5 g). All the ingredients were
mixed well. Prior to consumption this powder was
dissolved in 168 ml of water and stirred well
manually (Jesus et al. 2012).
Results & Discussion
Flour Preparation
The use of extruded and autoclaved malted finger
millet flour was done since the extrusion process is
accompanied by pre-gelatinization of starch
granules, resulting in loss of the molecular order
and the complete degradation of polymers with the
formation of highly soluble fragments. Therefore,
suspensions of flours precooked by extrusion will
have a low tendency to form lumps, since starch
granules have been modified showing high
swelling capacity under both cold and hot
conditions, which makes extruded flours highly
recommended for preparation of instant food
products (Vasanthan et al., 2001) such as beverages.
Compositional analysis of ingredients of Instant
Health Beverage Powder
From the results, inferences can be drawn that
Instant health beverage powder have higher amount
of protein, calcium, TPC and DPPH content as
compared to same of malted finger millet or hibiscus
powder only. Udeozor and Linda (2012) also studied
on development of health drink from tiger-nut and
soybean and found the increment in amount of
calories, protein and fat content.
Comparison of Nutrient content of Instant Health
Beverage Powder and RDA of Sedentary Women as
given by NIN
Instant Health Beverage Powder was compared with
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) of
sedentary women as given by National Institute of
Nutrition of India. On the basis of results it can be
concluded that cereal beverage powder fulfil 20.54
% of energy requirement of RDA of a sedentary
women whereas protein and fat requirements are
fulfilled 20.41 % and 8.90 % respectively. As far
Calcium content is considered, this cereal beverage
powder mix fulfils approx. 25 % of requirement of
calcium which is highly beneficial for sedentary
women specially who face bone related problems in
menopausal phase. Jesus et al. (2012) also did the
similar study on development of neutraceutical
beverage from extruded whole maize and chick pea
flours and found that the one serving of beverage
developed covers 26.36% and 17.65% of the daily
protein requirements for children 1-3 and 4-8years
old, respectively.
Conclusion
It can be concluded from results that incorporating
malted finger millet and hibiscus flower powder led
INDIAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY HEALTH / VOL 26 / SUPP 02 / DEC 2014 [Enhancing Micronutrient] Jaya Tripathi et al
341
to an increase in nutritional content specially calcium
and antioxidants as like total polyphenols and radical
scavenging activity in the beverage powder and this
instant health beverage powder could be used for
health promotion and disease prevention as an
alternative to beverages with low nutritional /
neutraceutical value.
Recommendations
1. This instant health beverage powder could serve
as a supplement for the population suffering from
calcium deficiency diseases.
2. This beverage powder can compete with other
health drinks available in market in terms of
nutritional and phytochemicals content.
Relevance of the study
The present study focuses on use of processed i.e.
malted finger millet in development of beverage
powder because it is evident from studies that
malting enhances the micronutrient content of
foods.
Authors Contribution
JT: Substantial contributions to conception and
design, acquisition of data, or analysis and
interpretation of data; drafting the article or revising
it critically for important intellectual content; Final
approval of the version to be published. AG: Final
approval of the version to be published. RP: Final
approval of the version to be published. VP: drafting
the article or revising it critically for important
intellectual content
References
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Tables
TA BLE 1 CO MP OSITIONAL AN ALYSIS O F INGRE DI ENTS FO R I NSTANT HEALTH BEVERAGE POWDER
Particulars
Hibiscus powder
Malted finger millet flour
Beverage Powder
Moisture %
4.6
7.82
1.12
Protein %
22.75
10.50
12.25
Fat %
2.39
2.48
1.78
Fibre %
1.25
3.16
3.67
Ash %
0.44
3.66
2.97
Calcium (mg/100 g)
0.84
386
96.5
INDIAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY HEALTH / VOL 26 / SUPP 02 / DEC 2014 [Enhancing Micronutrient] Jaya Tripathi et al
342
TA BLE 2 CO MP ARISON O F NUTRIEN T CONTENT OF INS TANT HE ALTH BEVE RAGE PO WDER AND R DA OF
SEDENTARY W OMEN AS GIVEN B Y NIN
Figures
FI GURE 1 FL OW SHEE T FOR PRE PA RATION OF FLOUR FOR IN STANT H EA LTH BEVER AGE POWD ER
Iron (mg/100 g)
0.38
4.6
1.15
TPC (mg/100g)
54.36
124
118
DPPH %
93.35
47.78
43.66
Particulars
Beverage powder
RDA (Sedentary Women)
RDA % fulfilled by Powder Drink
Energy (Kcal/ 100 g)
385.14
1875
20.54
Protein %
7.00
50
20.41
Fat %
0.3
20
8.90
Carbohydrates
88.61
100
31.50
Calcium (mg/100 g)
96.5
400
24.12
Iron (mg/100 g)
1.15
30
3.83
Malted Finger Millet Flour + Water
Extrude in Pasta Maker (Dolly Mini P3) and Cut into Pieces
of 15-20 mm
Autoclave for 15 minutes at 121oC and 15 psi followed by
Microwave at 640 watt for 130 Seconds
Grind into Powder using Grinder and Sieve through 60
mesh Sieve
Store in Air-tight containers
... Another study has recommended that an instant health beverage powder supplement or an extract of finger millet can use to combat the calcium-deficient diseases. The study also reveals that this drink can compete with any sort of health drink available in the market (Tripathi et al. 2014). ...
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