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Assessing Psychopathy in Adults: The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version (PCL:SV)

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... Psychopathy is used as both a taxon (PCL-R ≥ 30) and a dimensional construct. Dimensional uses of the PCL-R are recommended for clinical applications (Bodholdt et al., 2000;Serin & Brown, 2000;Seto & Lalumiere, 2000). In these contexts, psychopathy is conceptualized as existing along a continuum of severity so that individuals who obtain higher PCL-R scores exhibit more serious and pervasive symptoms of psychopathy compared to their lower PCL-R counterparts. ...
... In these contexts, psychopathy is conceptualized as existing along a continuum of severity so that individuals who obtain higher PCL-R scores exhibit more serious and pervasive symptoms of psychopathy compared to their lower PCL-R counterparts. Furthermore, a score may best be considered a range of true scores, expanding in both directions by one or more standard errors of measurement depending on the contextat-large (mitigating vs. aggravating factors such as treatment setting, supervision and support networks, and coexisting diagnoses including alcohol or other drug dependence) and the imperative to reduce false positives or false negatives-all within a decision-making paradigm responsive to the specific referral questions for the individual being assessed (Bodholdt et al., 2000). Clinically, one is more interested in what ranges of psychopathy are best at predicting behavior than whether a 20 GACONO, LOVING, BODHOLDT ioral criteria. ...
... In clinical use, psychopathy level, rather than a diagnosis of psychopathy, becomes one of several weighted factors in decision making. 4 For example, whereas a score of 24 may be the optimal cutoff for determining the probability of problematic behavior in one particular setting (e.g., a forensic state hospital with adequate staffing and programming), a score of 15 or even lower should alert staff to the possibility of problematic behavior in, for example, a milieu-based day treatment program for more vulnerable seriously mentally ill patients (Bodholdt et al., 2000). Expression of psychopathic behavior is indeed moderated by setting and various aggravating or mitigating factors, and thus simple reliance on actuarially derived cutoff scores based on a taxon model makes little sense idiographically. ...
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In this article we present the reader with an understandable essay on the relation between the Rorschach and psychopathy. Some degree of sophistication and applied knowledge of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 1991) and the Rorschach (Rorschach, 1921/1942) are necessary to wade through the literature, weigh the relative merits of arguments made by proponents and detractors of Rorschach assessment, and meaningfully interpret the findings of relevant studies. Often studies reviewing the Rorschach's utility in assessing Antisocial Personality Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and psychopathy exhibit a flawed or superficial understanding of essential theoretical and methodological issues. Argument derived from a suspect or specious premise, such as the notion that the Rorschach was designed or aspires to correspond with formal diagnosis based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1952, 1994), vitiates conclusions based on such a premise. In this article, we discuss theoretical and methodological issues that can aid the reader or reviewer in achieving a more accurate understanding of this body of research.
... En virtud de lo expuesto, ha sido imprescindible contar con criterios específicos que guíen el diagnóstico de la psicopatía cautelosa y profesionalmente. Por consiguiente, Robert Hare ha trabajado en la operacionalización de los criterios propuestos por Cleckley y desarrolló la Lista de Chequeo de la Psicopatía, versión revisada (PCL-R, 1991(PCL-R, , 2003, la cual se ha consolidado como un instrumento válido y confiable para el diagnóstico del trastorno en cuestión, el cual debe ser entendido como una metodología que explora la manifestación de 20 dimensiones asociadas empíricamente con este constructo de psicopatía (Bodholdt, Richards & Gacono, 2000;Hare, 1999). ...
... Por otra parte, la validez de constructo del PCL-R se exploró al correlacionar los puntajes obtenidos en este instrumento con los resultados de las escalas de los criterios diagnósticos de los trastornos antisocial, límite, narcisista e histriónico de la personalidad del DSM-IV-TR , así como con las puntuaciones de las escalas clínicas básicas del MMPI-2, otorgando mayor atención a la escala 4 (Desviación psicopática) ya que de acuerdo con Bodholdt et al. (2000), en comparación con el resto de las escalas, esta ha presentado un nivel mayor de asociación con el trastorno de personalidad psicopático. El puntaje total y el Factor 2 del PCL-R, correlacionaron en .90 ...
... De forma similar, en el presente estudio se pudo determinar una correlación significativa entre la escala 4 (Pd) o "desviación psicopática" del MMPI-2 y el Puntaje Total y el Factor 2 del PCL-R, lo cual respalda el planteamiento de Bodholdt et al. (2000) en términos de que en comparación con el resto de las escalas del MMPI-2, la escala 4 (Pd) ha presentado un nivel mayor de asociación con el trastorno de la psicopatía. En esta investigación la anterior asociación sería entendida fundamentalmente como la tendencia de las privadas de libertad clasificadas con rasgos psicopáticos a mostrar conductas socialmente desviadas y dificultades para ajustarse a las normas. ...
... 3. If the dependent measure was the Rorschach, was R (number of responses) considered? 5 Increased R is found in certain sex offender groups, (Bridges, et al., 1998;Gacono et al., 2000), whereas low R is typical among many criminal groups. Thus, R can act as a moderator influencing the relationship between Rorschach variables and criterion variables. ...
... One of many continuing challenges for clinicians is applying nomothetic findings to individual (idiographic) cases. Optimal PCL-R dimensional scores for various risk paradigms (i.e., treatability, violence, institutional management, recidivism) within specific settings must be determined (Bodholdt, Richards, & Gacono, 2000;Gacono, Nieberding, et al., 2001). In this regard, dimensional scores are preferable to taxonomic designations, multi-methods of assessment are recommended, and sensitivity to age, gender and ethnicity are preferred (Gacono, 2000a & b). ...
... These instruments not only inform and guide our thinking, but comprise a significant step toward aiding the clinical-forensic issues of prediction and risk, including violent recidivism, treatability, and management (Gacono, 2000a;. While sophistication is required for separating the research wheat from the chaff within the psychopathy literature, we might echo Hare's (1996) "Psychopathy (was): a clinical construct whose time has come, with Gacono's (2000), "Psychopathy is a construct that is likely here to stay" (p. 407). ...
... 85 2017). The literature suggests that the offenders' characteristics as psychopathic traits are a key variable for successful treatment (Richards et al., 2016). Psychopathic individuals show less motivation to change and are likely to deceive and manipulate the therapist, to have problems during treatment and to drop out of treatment (Richards et al., 2016;Salekin, Worley, & Grimes, 2010). ...
... The literature suggests that the offenders' characteristics as psychopathic traits are a key variable for successful treatment (Richards et al., 2016). Psychopathic individuals show less motivation to change and are likely to deceive and manipulate the therapist, to have problems during treatment and to drop out of treatment (Richards et al., 2016;Salekin, Worley, & Grimes, 2010). These negative treatment outcomes lead to therapeutic pessimism; however, the belief that the psychopath is untreatable seems to have little scientific support (Salekin, 2002). ...
... Although there have been theoretical studies examining the role of psychopathic traits in partnerviolent men (Huss, Covell, & Langhinrichsen-Rohling, 2006;Huss & Langhinrichsen-Rohling, 2000;Juodis, Starzomski, Porter, & Woodworth, 2014b), to date, there has been no systematic review that uses explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research and to collect and analyze data from this research (Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff, Altman, & The PRISMA Group, 2009). Despite a large body of literature suggesting the strong predictive power of psychopathy on dangerousnessviolent and aggressive behavior (Hecht, Berg, Lilienfeld, & Latzman, 2016;Reidy et al., 2015), violent criminal behavior (Dil & Kazmi, 2016;Wiklund, Ruchkin, Koposov, & Af Klinteberg, 2014), recidivism (Richards et al., 2016;Sturup, Karlberg, Fredriksson, Lihoff, & Kristiansson, 2016), and even violent recidivism (Richards et al., 2016;Sitney, Caldwell, & Caldwell, 2016)little is known about the role of psychopathic traits in IPV perpetration. Although traditional batterer typologies have suggested that psychopaths could belong to a specific batterer subtype-type 86 1 batterers, proposed by Gottman et al. (1995), and Jacobson and Gottman (1998), or generally violent/antisocial (GVA) batterers, proposed by Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994)-further empirical studies testing these hypotheses are necessary. ...
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Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) requires effective batterer intervention programs. Although psychopathy seems to be a key variable for successful treatment, little is known about the role of psychopathic traits among male IPV perpetrators. Therefore, a systematic review of all empirical quantitative studies (N = 41) on the relationship between psychopathic traits and male-to-female IPV perpetration was carried out. Overall, the findings from these studies supported the role of psychopathy as a robust predictor of male-tofemale IPV perpetration among both convicted and non-convicted partner-violent men. Male batterers do not seem to be a homogeneous group in terms of their psychopathic traits. The existence of a batterer subtype consistent with successful psychopathy and its implications for treatment outcomes should be further examined. Although psychopathy seems to be a useful variable to predict frequency of IPV (and then, IPV recidivism), this construct seems to fail to predict IPV severity. Further research is necessary to clarify the role of psychopathic traits on IPV risk assessment. Methodological deficiencies, mainly related to psychopathy measurement, have been evidenced. Alternative psychopathy assessment tools that exclude criminality/antisociality as diagnostic criteria are recommended. © 2018 Sociedad Universitaria de Investigación en Psicología y Salud. Publicado por Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Psicólogos, España.
... En virtud de lo expuesto, ha sido imprescindible contar con criterios específicos que guíen el diagnóstico de la psicopatía cautelosa y profesionalmente. Por consiguiente, Robert Hare ha trabajado en la operacionalización de los criterios propuestos por Cleckley y desarrolló la Lista de Chequeo de la Psicopatía, versión revisada (PCL-R, 1991(PCL-R, , 2003, la cual se ha consolidado como un instrumento válido y confiable para el diagnóstico del trastorno en cuestión, el cual debe ser entendido como una metodología que explora la manifestación de 20 dimensiones asociadas empíricamente con este constructo de psicopatía (Bodholdt, Richards & Gacono, 2000;Hare, 1999). ...
... Por otra parte, la validez de constructo del PCL-R se exploró al correlacionar los puntajes obtenidos en este instrumento con los resultados de las escalas de los criterios diagnósticos de los trastornos antisocial, límite, narcisista e histriónico de la personalidad del DSM-IV-TR , así como con las puntuaciones de las escalas clínicas básicas del MMPI-2, otorgando mayor atención a la escala 4 (Desviación psicopática) ya que de acuerdo con Bodholdt et al. (2000), en comparación con el resto de las escalas, esta ha presentado un nivel mayor de asociación con el trastorno de personalidad psicopático. El puntaje total y el Factor 2 del PCL-R, correlacionaron en .90 ...
... De forma similar, en el presente estudio se pudo determinar una correlación significativa entre la escala 4 (Pd) o "desviación psicopática" del MMPI-2 y el Puntaje Total y el Factor 2 del PCL-R, lo cual respalda el planteamiento de Bodholdt et al. (2000) en términos de que en comparación con el resto de las escalas del MMPI-2, la escala 4 (Pd) ha presentado un nivel mayor de asociación con el trastorno de la psicopatía. En esta investigación la anterior asociación sería entendida fundamentalmente como la tendencia de las privadas de libertad clasificadas con rasgos psicopáticos a mostrar conductas socialmente desviadas y dificultades para ajustarse a las normas. ...
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the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between psychological disorders and disturbances with criminal violence in a sample of Costa Rican female offenders. This investigation intended to provide some empirical and conceptual support to the field of forensic psychological assessment given that there is not enough research in our country concerning this specialized area. The sample was comprised of 60 female incarcerated offenders located at the correctional center "El Buen Pastor", who were classified according to their criminal history as violent and nonviolent offenders. PCL-R and MMPI-2 were used among other instruments. These instruments showed good reliability coefficients with this sample of female offenders. On the other hand, PLC-R results made it possible to know the prevalence of psychopathy in this sample as well as the fact that no significant differences existed between violent and nonviolent female offenders related to this personality disorder. Likewise, this study allowed to find out that offender with violent criminal history manifested a better level of psychological and social adjustment than those offenders with no violent criminal history. Finally, it was observed that instrumental violent offenders showed a pattern of psychological features less functional than reactive/hostile violent offenders.
... and substantiation through related corroborative sources. High psychopathy scores have consistently been related to findings of criminal recidivism, including violent recidivism, and are viewed as a particularly intractable dispositional factor that should never be ignored (Bodholdt, Richards, & Gacono, 2000;Gacono, 2000). High PCL or PCL-R scores have been associated with a higher frequency and wider variety of offenses committed (Hare, 1991), higher frequency of violent offenses (Hare, 1991), higher re-offense rates (Hare, 1991), poor treatment response (Hughes, Hogue, Hollin, & Champion, 1997;Ogloff, Wong, & Greenwood, 1990;Rice, Harris, & Cormier, 1992), and more serious and persistent institutional misbehavior (Gacono, Meloy, Sheppard, Speth, & Roske, 1995;Gacono, Meloy, Speth, & Roske, 1997;Heilbrun et al., 1998). ...
... As with any other standardized assessment method, ethical guidelines must guide implementation and use (Gacono, 2000). In all cases, sensitivity to the issue of using the PCL-R score for designating an individual as a "psychopath" is always relevant and a process that has been assiduously argued against (Bodholdt et al., 2000). We have emphasized using PCL-R scores as one organizing point within a much larger body of data brought to bear on clinical decisions or recommendations for the particular individual referred, in all their individuality, and relative to the particular setting, circumstances, and other relevant environmental factors at hand. ...
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In the present chapter, we discuss the role of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and Rorschach in forensic psychological assessment. We stress the importance of using a multi-method over a mono-method assessment approach and advocate for the incremental validity of psychological testing over interviews alone as an essential aspect of assessment practice. The ability to integrate the nomothetic strengths of the PCL-R with the idiographic potential of the Rorschach allows for conclusions to be refined into nuanced person-context interactions most useful in areas such as risk assessment, forming diagnostic impressions, and determining treatability. A case example involving an incarcerated antisocial male with a history of exclusively affective violence is presented.
... In the current study, scores for both the 2-factor (Factor 1: interpersonal-affective features; Factor 2: antisocial and behavioral life-style characteristics) and the 4-facet (Facet 1: Interpersonal, Facet 2: Affective, Facet 3: impulsive-lifestyle, Facet 4: antisocial behavior) were used. A vast amount of research supports the reliability and validity of the PCL-R as a measure of psychopathy in forensic-correctional populations (e.g., Bodholdt et al. 2000), and it has proven effective for predicting antisocial, violent, and criminal behavior as well as recidivism (e.g., Bodholdt et al. 2000). ...
... In the current study, scores for both the 2-factor (Factor 1: interpersonal-affective features; Factor 2: antisocial and behavioral life-style characteristics) and the 4-facet (Facet 1: Interpersonal, Facet 2: Affective, Facet 3: impulsive-lifestyle, Facet 4: antisocial behavior) were used. A vast amount of research supports the reliability and validity of the PCL-R as a measure of psychopathy in forensic-correctional populations (e.g., Bodholdt et al. 2000), and it has proven effective for predicting antisocial, violent, and criminal behavior as well as recidivism (e.g., Bodholdt et al. 2000). ...
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Psychopathy, as described by the triarchic model, encompasses three distinct phenotypes: boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. The current study sought to operationalize these in a sample of 100 Dutch male forensic-psychiatric patients with differing forms of personality pathology who participated in a multi-site randomized clinical trial. Using an established construct-rating approach, triarchic scales were created using items from clinician-rated and self-report versions of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) adapted for forensic populations, the SNAP-F. Internal psychometric properties and criterion-related validity were evaluated. SNAP-F-Triarchic Meanness and Disinhibition scales showed acceptable internal consistencies, whereas the Boldness scales (which comprised fewer items) showed lower numbers. The scales showed associations with self-report and interview-based criterion measures largely in line with predictions, with higher validity for criteria assessed in the same measurement domain. Implications of findings for prediction of key outcomes in clinical settings are discussed, along with promising directions for future research.
... Psychopathy has been associated with criminal conduct, in particular violent criminal conduct [2,4,5]. Moreover, studies have found high levels of psychopathy in violent criminals in prison [6] and associate a high likelihood of recidivism with these individuals [7][8][9]. With regard to the prevalence of psychopathy, it is estimated that it fluctuates between 1% and 3.5% in the general population [10,11], with this percentage increasing to 10%-25% in the prison population [2,12]. ...
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High scores in psychopathy were associated with acts of violence, and the prevalence of this condition is greater among the prison population than among the general population. In terms of its relation to femicide, two studies, one carried out in Sweden and another in Spain with a prison population, found that psychopathy is an uncommon condition among perpetrators of femicide. This study analyzes 97 cases of femicide in the whole of Spain, in which it was possible to evaluate the degree of psychopathy of the perpetrators using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The scores are analyzed not only directly, but also in terms of Factors and Facets. The results show an average in the total score of the PCL-R of 14.4, with only 13 subjects (13.4%) presenting scores of 25 or more, and just 3 (3.1%) of these presenting scores of 30 or higher. It was found that, in general, high scores in psychopathy are associated with shorter relationships and less time between the first complaint, the breakup, and the femicide. What is more, characteristics of the victims, such as addiction to toxic substances or economic dependency, also demonstrated a relationship to the scores of the perpetrators of femicide in the PCL-R. Lastly, it was found that the scores in the different dimensions of psychopathy are associated with different types of violence, whereby there was a noteworthy difference between the most explicit violence and control exercised over the partner.
... El PCL-R ha obtenido excelentes niveles de confiabilidad y validez en distintos contextos forenses, así como con poblaciones femeninas y más actualmente se ha adaptado con poblaciones adolescentes (Bodholdt, Richards y Gacono, 2000). Algunos investigadores han sugerido la existencia de rasgos psicopáticos que por sí mismos podrían garantizar el diagnóstico de psicopatía. ...
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This article reviews some basic principles concerning forensic psychological assessment. Some of the more relevant ideas regarding the contemporary debate with reference to forensic psychological assessment are presented. Psychometric issues related with the practice of forensic psychological assessment are discussed, specially focusing in the different nature of clinical and forensic assessment strategies, and making some strong emphasis in the special requirements in the forensic arena. Additionally, a typology of psychological assessment instruments within the forensic field is shown. As a final point, some ideas on the subject of writing psychological forensic reports are described.
... In our study, we have chosen the four-factor model in which Factor 1 refers to interpersonal characteristics (e.g., superficial charm, grandiose sense of self), Factor 2 to affective features (e.g., lack of empathy, shallow affect), Factor 3 to lifestyle characteristics (e.g., impulsivity, irresponsibility), and Factor 4 to antisocial behaviour (e.g., lack of behavioural control in adulthood and childhood; Hare, 2003;Vitacco et al., 2005). International research has shown that the PCL-R is a reliable and valid instrument (e.g., Bodholdt, Richards, & Gacono, 2000;Hare, Clark, Grann, & Thornton, 2000;Hemphill, Hare, & Wong, 1998;Hildebrand, de Ruiter, de Vogel, & van der Wolf, 2002;Wong & Hare, 2005). In a subsample of 83 (n = 83) patients, the ICC for average raters of the PCL-R total score in our study was .92 ...
Article
Purpose: A clear understanding of an offender’s criminal behavior is a prerequisite for determining suitable treatment. In the literature, several specific frameworks or therapeutic approaches that aim to explicate criminal behavior can be distinguished (e.g., Cognitive Analytic Therapy, Offence Paralleling Behavior paradigm), but Schema Therapy is becoming an increasingly popular paradigm. According to forensic ST’s theoretical framework, criminal and violent behavior can be explained by an unfolding sequence of schema modes, or moment-to-moment states that represent emotions, cognitions and behavior. In this study, we examine the validity of this theory and the relationship between schema modes, psychopathy and institutional violence. Methods: Schema modes were assessed retrospectively from descriptions of patients’ crimes in a sample of 95 hospitalized cluster B personality disordered offenders. Psychopathy was rated with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and institutional transgressions were coded from daily hospital reports. Results: Our findings show that criminal behavior is often preceded by schema modes that refer to feelings of vulnerability and abandonment, loneliness, and states of intoxication. Criminal behavior itself is characterized by schema modes that refer to states of impulsivity, anger and the use of overcompensatory strategies involving threats, intimidation and aggression. Schema modes involving bullying and manipulation were positively correlated with the interpersonal facet of psychopathy; the vulnerable child mode was negatively correlated with the affective facet of psychopathy. The schema modes in this study moderately predicted later institutional transgressions. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the schema mode concept is of explanatory value in understanding criminal and violent behavior. Keywords: schema modes, model for criminal behavior, institutional violence, offenders.
... El PCL-R ha obtenido excelentes niveles de confiabilidad y validez en distintos contextos forenses, así como con poblaciones femeninas y más actualmente se ha adaptado con poblaciones adolescentes (Bodholdt, Richards y Gacono, 2000). Algunos investigadores han sugerido la existencia de rasgos psicopáticos que por sí mismos podrían garantizar el diagnóstico de psicopatía. ...
... The items of the PCL-R can be divided into different facets, and in our study, we used the 4-facet model: Facet 1 refers to interpersonal characteristics (e.g., grandiose sense of self), Facet 2 to affective features (e.g., lack of empathy), Facet 3 to lifestyle characteristics (e.g., impulsivity), and Facet 4 to antisocial behaviour (Hare, 2003;Vitacco, Neumann, & Jackson, 2005). The psychometric properties of the PCL-R have been well established (Bodholdt, Richards, & Gacono, 2000;Hare, Clark, Grann, & Thornton, 2000;Hildebrand, de Ruiter, de Vogel, & van der Wolf, 2002). In a subsample of 37 patients, the intraclass correlation coefficient for the PCL-R total score in our study was .95 ...
Article
(submitted for publication) Purpose: A core element of Schema Therapy (ST) is ‘schema modes’ or fluctuating emotional states. ST assumes that particular personality pathology consists of specific combinations of maladaptive schema modes. There is confirmatory evidence for the modes hypothesized to be central to Borderline and Narcissistic personality disorder (PD) in non-forensic patients. In this study, we tested three aspects of the construct validity of schema modes in cluster-B PDs offenders, examining its factorial validity, and the relations among personality disorders and violence risk. Method: Our sample consisted of 70 offenders who were diagnosed with an Antisocial, Borderline, or Narcissistic PD. Schema modes were assessed with the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI), personality disorder with the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP), and violence risk with the Historical, Clinical and Risk management scheme (HCR-20). Results: When controlling for the two other PDs, three schema mode factors distinguished Antisocial PD as a disorder involving both low scores on internalizing and high scores on externalizing modes, and Borderline PD as involving high scores on internalizing modes. Furthermore, the externalizing emotional states were a significant predictor for violence risk inside the hospital. Conclusions: The hypothesized mode models were partially supported for all 3 PDs. The findings support the construct validity of schema modes in a forensic sample.
... Various criteria have been used to differentiate psychopathy from other personality disorders in categorical, dimensional and prototypical approaches. Categorical approach proved to be a useful perspective in defining psychopathy -both when it was perceived in terms of antisocial personality and when it was differentiated from it [2,3]. Reconstruction of clinical picture of psychopathy in dimensional model allowed researchers to describe a constellation of personality traits specific to psychopathy, which determine one's style of functioning in social environment [4][5][6]. ...
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Aim. Aim of this research was to determine whether di erences in clinical picture of psy- chopathy (on the basis of which subtypes of psychopathy are identi ed) re ect di erences in pathology of personality organization (integration) according to O. Kernberg. Method. The research was conducted on 417 subjects, of whom 88.5% were criminals, 11.5% – non-criminals. Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R), developed by S.O. Lilienfeld, was used to assess level of psychopathy while personality organization level was assessed by Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI) developed by F. Leichsenring. K-means cluster analysis was supported by AUC. Results. Cluster analysis allowed for di erentiation of two groups: cluster 1 – fearlessly dominating psychopaths and cluster 2 – egocentrically-impulsive psychopaths. Egocentrically- impulsive psychopaths are signi cantly more frequently characterized by borderline person- ality organization than psychopaths from cluster 1. In addition to symptoms of psychopathy they show evidence of deeper identity disorders, apply primitive defense mechanisms more frequently, experience fear of fusion and severe problems in reality testing. Conclusions. Di erences in picture of psychopathy re ect di erent pathology of per- sonality organization. Results con rm the thesis of distinctive nature of coldheartedness and its invariant presence in picture of psychopathy regardless of con guration of other traits in both subtypes.
... Some researchers have utilized the PCL:SV (Screening Version; Hart, Cox, & Hare, 1995) to designate psychopathy for group comparisons (Rogers, Johansen, Chang, & Salekin, 1997;Salekin, Rogers, & Sewell, 1998). However, the PCL:SV is a screening tool and was not designed to diagnose psychopathy and hence cannot be used in a categorical manner (Bodholdt, Richards, & Gacono, 2000;Gacono, Loving, Evans, et al., 2001). Other studies have lowered their PCL-R cutoff scores (PCL-R < 30; Peaslee, Fleming, Baumgardner, Silbaugh, & Thackrey, 1992) and/or had few psychopaths (PCL-R ≥ 30) in their samples (Vitale & Newman, 2001;Vitale, Smith, Brinkley, & Newman, 2002). ...
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Although male psychopathy has been linked to histrionic, narcissistic, and antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), less is known about female psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Rorschach were used to explore the personality functioning of 45 incarcerated female offenders with ASPD delineated by their psychopathy level. Psychopaths (PCL-R > or = 30) and nonpsychopaths (PCL-R < 24) were compared on Rorschach measures of self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Compared to female offenders with ASPD who were nonpsychopathic, female offenders with ASPD who were psychopathic exhibited marked disturbances in self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of the ASPD diagnosis in women, support the utility of the psychopathy construct with female offenders, and implicate important differences between men and women with ASPD. These gender differences have relevance to the evaluation (PCL-R scoring) and treatment of female offenders. Our findings are discussed within the context of the female psychopath's hypothesized hysterical character style.
... Various criteria have been used to differentiate psychopathy from other personality disorders in categorical, dimensional and prototypical approaches. Categorical approach proved to be a useful perspective in defining psychopathy -both when it was perceived in terms of antisocial personality and when it was differentiated from it [2,3]. Reconstruction of clinical picture of psychopathy in dimensional model allowed researchers to describe a constellation of personality traits specific to psychopathy, which determine one's style of functioning in social environment [4][5][6]. ...
... It is noteworthy that only one sample utilizing the PCL:SV was included in the mega-sample. While the four-factor, non-hierarchical correlated model of PCL psychopathy is gaining momentum as the preferred latent factor structure (Hare et al., 2018), the unidimensional, hierarchical two-factor/fourfacet model for PCL measures remains the most commonly used conceptualization clinically (Hare, 2016;Richards et al., 2016). ...
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The Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) is often utilized in both community and forensic psychiatric settings for formulation, treatment assessments and risk assessment. Accordingly, it is essential to assess the psychometric properties of the PCL:SV. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize research examining the PCL:SV to determine the most appropriate factor structure, independent of other PCL measures. Using a PRISMA protocol, 2893 articles were screened, with 19 included for analysis. Consistent with research on other PCL measures, the results supported the use of three- and four-factor models of PCL:SV psychopathy in community and psychiatric populations, with more tentative support for the original two-factor structure. Findings associated with the PCL:SV latent factor structure were less clear for the studies sampling forensic, nonpsychiatric populations. The choice of which PCL:SV factor structure to adopt for clinical purposes remains dependent on the clinician’s theoretical perspectives of the psychopathy construct.
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The human brain has developed the capability for routine sensory-motor monitoring and controls, present in all living beings, and additional skills for symbolic and verbal expressions of all sensory-motor activities and emotional experiences. Each brain could monitor and become aware of its own thoughts and emotions, all of which constitute the “mind”. Each person mentally creates verbal and symbolic expressions related to all sensory-motor activities and emotional experiences, and what one proposes to carry out. Each human being mentally creates an immensely enriched virtual mental world, and they succeed in physically realizing most of them. Different parts of the human brain contribute to different types of processing of incoming signals and retrieved signals already stored in the brain and the newly created and modified ideas are stored and used by the individual. The ideas and signals stored create emotional arousal, which the individual may experience and may make use of while dealing with the world and the individuals and other items of the which the individual may encounter in life. The ideas created within the brain may be played repeatedly and when the individual listens to his/her own ideas, the person becomes aware of the ideas. Normally awareness develops during the creation of new ideas, and during their retrieval. Oneself becoming aware or conscious of own ideas and the ideas expressed by others could develop an extensive knowledge base and may help in all planning and action executions, with others and materials of the world that one may encounter face to face or during their retrieval periods. The knowledge base has helped man to enhance the same, as well as, create new entities, which has been a routine human contribution during each person’s life. The emotions aroused during such interactions with the persons who may present ideas or own retrieved ideas are experienced by the self, who may express the emotionally loaded words or actions to others. The mind decides the world one lives in and mentally shares the realities one faces during one’s life period. Living is the process when one could share the same realities and the world, and could have experiences of the same and express own emotional reactions towards those realities.
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In this paper, I argue that the certainty about the wrongness of killing must not be considered as a universal, but as a local one. Initially, I show that there exist communities in which the wrongness of killing innocents is not a moral certainty and that this kind of case cannot be justified by arguing that such people are psychopaths. Lastly, I argue that universal certainties do not admit of exceptions: thus, the fact that some exceptional cases affect the certainty that killing innocents is wrong, leads me to conclude that it is a local certainty.
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Although psychopathy is a correlate of recidivism, including violent offending, the inclusion of antisocial behavior items in the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) assessment instruments has been debated. Further, the latent factor structure underpinning the PCL measures has not been comprehensively validated in Australia. This study examined the construct validity of the PCL:SV in a sample of 192 Australian male violent offenders using structural equation modeling. The incremental validity of including the antisocial behavior items for predicting recidivism was also assessed. Approximately one-third of the sample had high scores on the PCL:SV. Construct analyses indicated strongest support for two distinct three-factor models of PCL psychopathy, with the established two- and four-factor models demonstrating poorer fit. The Antisocial factor improved predictive accuracy incrementally relative to the other three factors (Interpersonal, Affective, and Lifestyle). Area under the curve analyses revealed predictive accuracy for recidivism only for factors containing the antisocial behavior items. Findings contribute to the construct and predictive validity of the PCL measures and are discussed relative to contemporary forensic risk assessment practice.
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In this chapter, we provide a theoretical and empirically based understanding of antisocial and psychopathic women. We begin by clarifying the differences between psychopathy, sociopathy, and ASPD, and then provide a historical perspective of hysteria. While the underlying personality of the female psychopath is paranoid, malignant hysteria is their predominant personality style (Gacono & Meloy, 1994). Overviews of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and Rorschach are offered as a refresher for those experienced clinicians and as a resource for those that are not. Finally, we present group PAI and Rorschach data (also Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 [TSI-2]) for 337 female offenders including subsets of psychopathic (N = 124) and non-psychopathic (N = 57) females. We make note of the differences between female and male psychopaths.
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Historically, the cornerstone of the psychologist’s identity rested on providing competent in-depth psychological assessment (Rapaport, Gill, & Schafer, 1946). The ability to utilize a battery of assessment methods to elucidate complex issues makes the psychologist unique among other mental health professionals. Recent trends, however, have tarnished that cornerstone. Not surprisingly, the movement away from proficiency in psychological assessment has led to a decline in the need for psychologists. In this chapter, we discuss these harmful trends, define psychological assessment, offer a model for assessing female offenders, and provide examples of how record review, clinical interview, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and Rorschach Inkblot test can be useful with female offenders. We discuss the interpersonal aspects of the assessment process, evaluate gender specific patterns for several PCL-R criteria (also see Appendices A & B), and provide caveats for assessing female offenders. We conclude with a case study.
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Research on psychopathy has yet to establish whether the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [PCL-R; Hare, R. D. (1991). Manual for the revised psychology checklist. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia] predicts the same etiologically relevant correlates in African-American offenders as it does in Caucasians. Toward this end, we examined affective and information-processing deficits which have been theorized to contribute to psychopaths’ behavior problems. We classified 94 African-American offenders as psychopathic or nonpsychopathic using the PCL-R and the Welsh Anxiety Scale [Welsh, G. S. (1956). In Welsh G. S. & Dalhstrom W. G. (Eds.), Basic readings in the MMPI in psychology and medicine (pp. 264–281). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press] and assessed their performance on a lexical decision task that had differentiated the performance of Caucasian psychopathic and nonpsychopathic groups. Consistent with past research, the results provided little support for the hypothesis that African-American psychopaths display the same performance deficits as Caucasian psychopaths.
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Psychopathy is an essential construct for research and applied usage (Gacono, 2016). The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) is the only valid method for assessing the Cleckley psychopath. In this chapter, we discuss theoretical and empirical roots of psychopathy and provide clinical and forensic guidelines for use of the PCL-R. We rely on our extensive PCL-R research and clinical experience in discussing gender differences among psychopaths. Although males show a malignant narcissistic style, the female variant is characterized by a malevolent type of hysteria (Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005, 2008; Gacono & Meloy, 1994; Smith, Gacono, & Cunliffe, 2018). Gender differences are highlighted and guidelines for the assessment of psychopathic and nonpsychopathic female offenders are provided.
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The first three chapters get us clear about what basic certainty and what morality is. In these next two chapters I go on to develop a key distinction (put forth by Daniele Moyal-Sharrock) between different kinds of basic certainty, the local and the universal. I apply this distinction to basic moral certainty, in order to explain both the underlying unity and the sometimes interminable conflict between different moral systems. In exploring the universal side of the distinction, I defend two examples of basic moral certainties that must be held by all functioning moral agents. My examples are the belief (i) that some killings are wrong (K); and (ii) that some wrongs are more serious than others, or that there is some hierarchy between morally evaluable actions.
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