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Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulfiram and Nicotinic Acid after Biofield Treatment

Authors:
  • Trivedi Global, Inc

Abstract and Figures

Disulfiram is being used clinically as an aid in chronic alcoholism, while nicotinic acid is one of a B-complex vitamin that has cholesterol lowering activity. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of disulfiram and nicotinic acid. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment of each drug. The treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, spectral properties of control and treated groups of both drugs were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR spectrum of biofield treated disulfiram showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 1496 to 1506 cm-1 and C-N stretching from 1062 to 1056 cm-1. The intensity of S-S dihedral bending peaks (665 and 553 cm-1) was also increased in biofield treated disulfiram sample, as compared to control. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated nicotinic acid showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 3071 to 3081 cm-1 and 2808 to 2818 cm-1. Likewise, C=C stretching peak was shifted to higher frequency region from 1696 cm-1 to 1703 cm-1 and C-O (COO-) stretching peak was shifted to lower frequency region from 1186 to 1180 cm-1 in treated nicotinic acid. UV spectrum of control and biofield treated disulfiram showed similar pattern of UV spectra. Whereas, the UV spectrum of biofield treated nicotinic acid exhibited the shifting of absorption maxima (λmax) with respect of control i.e., from 268.4 to 262.0 nm, 262.5 to 256.4, 257.5 to 245.6, and 212.0 to 222.4 nm. Over all, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopy results suggest an impact of biofield treatment on the force constant, bond strength, and dipole moments of treated drugs such as disulfiram and nicotinic acid that could led to change in their chemical stability as compared to control.
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Analytical & Bioanalytical
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ISSN: 2155-9872
Trivedi et al., J Anal Bioanal Tech 2015, 6:5
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2155-9872.1000265
Volume 6 • Issue 5 • 1000265
J Anal Bioanal Tech
ISSN: 2155-9872 JABT, an open access journal
Keywords: Disulram; Nicotinic acid; Bioeld treatment; Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy; Ultraviolet spectroscopy
Introduction
Disulram [bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl)disulphide] is an antabuse
drug, being used clinically as an aid to the treatment of chronic
alcoholism. It is the rst drug approved by US Food and Drug
Administration to treat the alcohol addiction [1]. Alcohol (ethanol)
transforms into acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme, which
further oxidized to acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH)
enzyme [2]. Disulram inhibits the ADH enzyme. As a result, the blood
concentration of acetaldehyde increases and causes an unpleasant
eect, thus increase the patient's motivation to remain abstinent [3]. In
addition to this, disulram is reported for protozoacidal eect in vitro
study [4,5]. Recently, disulram has shown the reactivity to latent HIV-
1 expression in a primary cell model of virus latency and presently it is
assessed in a clinical trial for its potential to diminish the latent HIV-1
reservoir in patients combination with antiretroviral therapy [6].
Nicotinic acid or niacin is one of the B-complex vitamins (Vitamin
B3) that has cholesterol lowering activity. Recent studies showed that
therapeutic doses of nicotinic acid induce a profound alteration in
plasma concentration of several lipids and lipoproteins, resulting in a
greater ability to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol
[7]. Nicotinic acid favorably aects apolipoprotein (apo), very-low-
density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL
[7,8].
e exact mechanism of nicotinic acid activity is unknown.
However, new ndings indicate that nicotinic acid inhibits directly
and non-competitively to the triglycerides synthesis enzyme i.e.,
hepatocyte diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2, which causes acceleration
of intracellular hepatic apo B degradation and thus decrease secretion
of VLDL and LDL [9]. Several evidence suggest that nicotinic acid
administered either alone or in combination with other cholesterol-
lowering medicines can reduce the risk of cardiovascular and
atherosclerosis diseases. e clinical uses of nicotinic acid are
somewhat limited due to some harmless but unpleasant side eects
like cutaneous ushing phenomenon, nausea, vomiting and headache
[10]. e chemical and physical stability of pharmaceutical drugs or
products are most desired attributes of quality that potentially aect the
ecacy, safety and shelf life of drugs [11]. Hence, it is essential to nd
out an alternate approach, which could enhance the stability of drugs
by altering the structural and bonding properties of these compounds.
Contemporarily, bioeld treatment is reported to alter the spectral
properties of various pharmaceutical drugs like paracetamol, piroxicam,
metronidazole, and tinidazole; likewise physical, and structural
properties of various metals i.e., tin, lead etc. [12-14]. e conversion of
mass into energy is well known in literature for hundreds of years that
was further explained by Hasenohrl and Einstein [15,16]. According to
Maxwell JC, every dynamic process in the human body had an electrical
signicance, which generates magnetic eld in the human body [17].
*Corresponding author: Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt.
Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd, Bhopal-462026,
Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel: +91-755-6660006; E-mail: publication@trivedisrl.com
Received July 21, 2015; Accepted August 07, 2015; Published August 14, 2015
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, et al. (2015)
Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulram and Nicotinic Acid after Bioeld
Treatment. J Anal Bioanal Tech 6: 265 doi:10.4172/2155-9872.1000265
Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Abstract
Disulram is being used clinically as an aid in chronic alcoholism, while nicotinic acid is one of a B-complex
vitamin that has cholesterol lowering activity. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of bioeld
treatment on spectral properties of disulram and nicotinic acid. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control
and treatment of each drug. The treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld treatment. Subsequently,
spectral properties of control and treated groups of both drugs were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR)
and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR spectrum of bioeld treated disulram showed the
shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 1496 to 1506 cm-1 and C-N stretching from 1062 to 1056 cm-1. The
intensity of S-S dihedral bending peaks (665 and 553 cm-1) was also increased in bioeld treated disulram sample,
as compared to control. FT-IR spectra of bioeld treated nicotinic acid showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H
stretching from 3071 to 3081 cm-1 and 2808 to 2818 cm-1. Likewise, C=C stretching peak was shifted to higher
frequency region from 1696 cm-1 to 1703 cm-1 and C-O (COO-) stretching peak was shifted to lower frequency region
from 1186 to 1180 cm-1 in treated nicotinic acid.
UV spectrum of control and bioeld treated disulram showed similar pattern of UV spectra. Whereas, the UV
spectrum of bioeld treated nicotinic acid exhibited the shifting of absorption maxima max) with respect of control
i.e., from 268.4 to 262.0 nm, 262.5 to 256.4, 257.5 to 245.6, and 212.0 to 222.4 nm.
Over all, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopy results suggest an impact of bioeld treatment on the force constant,
bond strength, and dipole moments of treated drugs such as disulram and nicotinic acid that could led to change in
their chemical stability as compared to control.
Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulfiram and Nicotinic Acid after Biofield
Treatment
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi1, Alice Branton1, Dahryn Trivedi1, Gopal Nayak1, Khemraj Bairwa2 and Snehasis Jana2*
1Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA
2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal- 462026, Madhya Pradesh, India
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, et al. (2015) Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulram and Nicotinic Acid after
Bioeld Treatment. J Anal Bioanal Tech 6: 265 doi:10.4172/2155-9872.1000265
Page 2 of 5
Volume 6 • Issue 5 • 1000265
J Anal Bioanal Tech
ISSN: 2155-9872 JABT, an open access journal
is electromagnetic eld of the human body is known as bioeld and
energy associated with this eld is known as bioeld energy [18,19].
Mr. Trivedi has the ability to harness the energy from environment or
universe and can transmit into any living or nonliving object around
this Globe. e object(s) always receive the energy and responding into
useful way, this process is known as bioeld treatment.
Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi’s bioeld treatment (e Trivedi
Eect®) has considerably changed the physicochemical, thermal and
structural properties of metals and ceramics [14,20,21]. Growth and
anatomical characteristics of some plants were also increased aer
bioeld treatment [22,23]. Further, bioeld treatment has showed
the signicant eect in the eld of agriculture science [24,25] and
microbiology [26,27].
Considering the impact of bioeld treatment on physical and
structural property of metals and ceramics, the present study was
aimed to evaluate the impact of bioeld treatment on spectral
properties of disulram and nicotinic acid. e eects were analyzed
using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-
Vis) spectroscopic techniques.
Materials and Methods
Study design
e disulram and nicotinic acid (Figure 1) samples were procured
from Sigma-Aldrich, MA, USA; and each drug was divided into two
parts i.e., control and treatment. e control samples were remained
as untreated, and treatment samples were handed over in sealed pack
to Mr. Trivedi for bioeld treatment under laboratory condition.
Mr. Trivedi provided this treatment through his energy transmission
process to the treated groups without touching the sample [12,13].
e control and treated samples of disulram and nicotinic acid were
evaluated using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy.
FT-IR spectroscopic characterization
FT-IR spectra were recorded on Shimadzu’s Fourier transform
infrared spectrometer (Japan) with frequency range of 4000-500 cm-1.
e FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of both control and treated samples
of disulram and nicotinic acid were carried out to evaluate the impact
of bioeld treatment at atomic level like force constant and bond
strength [28].
UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis
UV spectra of disulram and nicotinic acid were recorded on
Shimadzu UV-2400 PC series spectrophotometer with 1 cm quartz
cell and a slit width of 2.0 nm. e analysis was carried out using
wavelength in the range of 200-400 nm. e analysis was performed
to determine the eect of bioeld treatment on structural properties of
treated drugs [28].
Results and Discussion
FT-IR spectroscopic analysis
Vibrational spectral assignment was performed on the recorded
FT-IR spectra (Figure 2) based on theoretically predicted wavenumber
and presented in Table 1. e FT-IR spectrum of control disulram
sample (Figure 2a) showed the characteristic vibrational peak at 2975
cm-1 that was assigned to C-H (CH3) stretching. Another characteristic
peak observed at 1496 cm-1 was attributed to C-H symmetrical
deformation vibrations. e absorption peaks appeared at 1351-1457
cm-1 was assigned to CH2-CH3 deformations. e vibrational peaks
at 1273 cm-1 and 1151-1195 cm-1 were assigned to C=S stretching and
C-C skeletal vibration, respectively. Further, IR peaks observed at 967-
1062 cm-1 and 818-914 cm-1 were attributed to C-N stretching and C-S
stretching, respectively. e vibrational peaks appeared at 554-666
cm-1 was assigned to S-S dihedral bending. e FT-IR data of control
disulram was well supported by the literature data [29].
e FT-IR spectrum of bioeld treated disulram (Figure 2b)
showed the vibrational peak at 2975 cm-1, which was assigned to CH3
stretching. Vibrational peak appeared at 1506 cm-1 was assigned to
C-H symmetrical deformation vibrations. Likely, the IR peaks at 1350-
1457 cm-1 were attributed to CH2-CH3 deformations. e vibrational
peaks appeared at 1273 cm-1 and 1151-1195 cm-1 were assigned to
C=S stretching and C-C skeletal vibration, respectively. e IR peaks
observed at 967-1056 cm-1 and 817-914 cm-1 were attributed to C-N
stretching and C-S stretching, respectively. e vibrational peaks at
553-665 cm-1 were assigned to S-S dihedral bending.
Altogether, the FT-IR data of bioeld treated disulram (Figure 2b)
showed the shiing in frequency of some bonds with respect to control
spectra like C-H symmetrical deformation vibrations frequency was
shied from 1496 (control) to 1506 (treated) cm-1. e frequency (ν)
of vibrational peak depends on two factors i.e., force constant (k) and
Figure 1: Chemical structure of (a) Disulram and (b) Nicotinic acid.
Figure 2: FT-IR spectra of Disulram (a) control and (b) treated.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, et al. (2015) Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulram and Nicotinic Acid after
Bioeld Treatment. J Anal Bioanal Tech 6: 265 doi:10.4172/2155-9872.1000265
Page 3 of 5
Volume 6 • Issue 5 • 1000265
J Anal Bioanal Tech
ISSN: 2155-9872 JABT, an open access journal
reduced mass (μ), which can be explained by following equation [30]
( )
1/2 /ck
νπµ
= √
here, c is speed of light.
If reduced mass is constant, then the frequency is directly
proportional to the force constant; therefore, increase in frequency
of any bond suggested a possible enhancement in force constant of
respective bond and vice versa [28]. Based on this it is hypothesized
that due to increase in frequency of C-H symmetrical deformation
(1496 to 1506 cm-1), the C-H bond strength in treated disulram
might also be increased with respect of control. Contrarily, the C-N
stretching vibration in treated disulram was sied to lower frequency
region as compared to control i.e., from 1062 to 1056 cm-1. is could
be referred to decrease in C-N bond strength aer bioeld treatment in
compression to control. In addition, the intensity of IR peak appeared
at 553-665 cm-1 (S-S dihedral bending) in bioeld treated sample
was found to be increased, with respect of control peaks in the same
frequency region. e intensity of vibrational peaks of particular bond
depends on the ratio of change in dipole moment (∂µ) to change in bond
distance (∂r) i.e., the intensity is proportionally change with changes in
dipole moment and inversely change with alteration in bond distance
[31]. Based on this, it is speculated that ratio of ∂µ/∂r might be altered
in S-S bonds (appeared in the frequency region of 553-665 cm-1) with
the inuence of bioeld treatment as compared to control.
e vibrational spectral assignment of nicotinic acid was performed
on the recorded FT-IR spectra (Figure 3) based on theoretically
predicted wavenumber and presented in Table 2. e vibrational peaks
appeared at 3071-2808 cm-1 was assigned to C-H stretchings. e IR
peaks observed at 1696-1710 cm-1 and 1596 cm-1 were assigned to C=O
(COO-) asymmetrical stretching and C=C stretching, respectively.
Absorption peaks appeared at 1417, 1323, and 1301 cm-1 were
attributed to C=N symmetric stretching, C=O symmetrical stretching,
and C-N stretching, respectively. e C-O (COO-) stretching peak
was assigned to IR bend observed at 1186 cm-1. Further, C-H in plane
and out plane bending vibrations was assigned to peaks observed in
the range of 1033-1114 cm-1 and 642-812 cm-1, respectively. e FT-IR
data of control nicotinic acid was well supported by the literature data
[32,33].
e FT-IR spectrum of bioeld treated nicotinic acid (Figure 3)
showed the absorption bands at 2818-3081 cm-1 that were assigned
to C-H stretching. Vibrational peaks appeared at 1703-1714 cm-1
and 1594 cm-1 were assigned to C=O (COO-) asymmetric stretching
and C=C stretching, respectively. Likewise, the IR peaks observed
at 1417, 1324, and 1301 cm-1 were assigned to C=N stretching, C=O
(COO-) symmetric stretching, and C-N stretching, respectively. e IR
absorption peak appeared at 1180 cm-1 was attributed to C-O (COO-)
stretching. Further, the C-H in plane and out plane bending vibrations
was assigned to IR peaks observed at 1037-1116 cm-1 and 642-812 cm-1,
respectively.
Overall, the FT-IR data of biofield treated nicotinic acid (Figure
3) showed the shifting in wavenumber of some bonds with respect
to control sample. For instance, the C-H stretching towards higher
frequency region i.e., from 3071 to 3081 cm-1 and 2808 to 2818 cm-
1. This could be due to increase in force constant of C-H bond.
Likewise, a slight upstream shifting in C=O stretching peak from
1710 to 1714 cm-1 and 1696 to 1703 cm-1 in treated nicotinic acid
also suggests an increase in force constant of C=O bond in treated
sample as compared to control. Contrarily, a slight downstream
shifting in wavenumber of treated nicotinic acid from 1186 to 1180
cm-1 C-O (COO- stretching); and from 1033 to 1037 cm-1 (=C-H
in plane bending) suggests the decrease in force constant of C-O
bond and decrease in rigidity of =C-H bond in treated sample as
compared to control.
UV-Vis spectroscopy
Wave number (cm-1)Frequency Assignment
Control Treated
2975 2975 CH3 stretching
1496 1506 C-H symmetrical deformation vibrations
1351-1457 1350-1457 CH2 and CH3 deformation
1273 1273 C=S stretching
1151-1195 1151-1195 C-C skeletal vibrations
967-1062 967-1056 C-N stretching
818-914 817-914 C-S stretching
554-666 553-665 S-S stretching
Table 1: FT-IR vibrational peaks observed in Disulram.
Figure 3: FT-IR spectra of Nicotinic acid (a) control and (b) treated.
Wave number (cm-1)Frequency assignment
Control Treated
2808-3071 2818-3081 C-H stretching
1696-1710 1703-1714 C=O (COO-) asymmetric stretching
1596 1594 C=C stretching
1417 1417 C=N stretching
1323 1324 C=O (COO-) symmetric stretching
1301 1301 C-N stretching
1186 1180 C-OH (Ph-OH) stretching
1033-1114 1037-1116 =C-H in-plane bending
642-812 642-812 =C-H out of plane bending
Table 2: FT-IR vibrational peaks observed in Nicotinic acid.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, et al. (2015) Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulram and Nicotinic Acid after
Bioeld Treatment. J Anal Bioanal Tech 6: 265 doi:10.4172/2155-9872.1000265
Page 4 of 5
Volume 6 • Issue 5 • 1000265
J Anal Bioanal Tech
ISSN: 2155-9872 JABT, an open access journal
UV spectra of control and treated disulram showed a similar
pattern of UV spectra with absorption maxima (λmax) of 219.8, 250.2,
and 281.6 nm in control and 220.8, 249.4, and 281.2 nm in treated
sample. This indicates no significant change in the UV spectral
property of treated disulfiram with respect to control sample.
The UV spectra of control and treated nicotinic acid are showed
in Figure 4. The UV spectrum of treated nicotinic acid (Figure 4)
exhibited the shifting of absorption maxima (λmax) from 268.4 to
262.0 nm, 262.5 to 256.4 nm, 257.5 to 245.6 nm, and 212.0 to 222.4
nm. The existing literature on principle of UV spectroscopy suggests
that a compound can absorbs UV light due to presence of either
or both conjugated pi (π) -bonding systems (π-π* transition) and
nonbonding electron system (n-π* transition) in the compound.
The UV absorption phenomenon occurred when electrons travelled
from low energy orbital (i.e., σ, n, and π) to high energy orbital (i.e.,
σ* and π*). ere is certain energy gap between σ-σ*, σ-π*, π-π* and
n-π* orbitals. When this energy gap altered, the wavelength (λmax) was
also altered respectively [28]. Based on this, it is speculated that, due to
inuence of bioeld treatment, the energy gap between π-π* and n-π*
transition in nicotinic acid might be altered, which causes shiing of
wavelength (λmax) in treated nicotinic acid as compared to control. To
the best of our knowledge, this is the rst report showing an impact
of bioeld treatment on structural properties like force constant, bond
strength, dipole moment of disulram and nicotinic acid.
Conclusion
e FT-IR data of bioeld treated disulram showed an alteration
in the wavenumber of C-H and C-N stretching; whereas, wavenumbers
of C-H, C=O, and C-O stretching, and =C-H bending were altered
in bioeld treated nicotinic acid, with respect of control. Also, the
peak intensity at 553-665 cm-1 (S-S dihedral bending) was increased
in bioeld treated disulram, as compared to control. is alteration
in wavenumber referred to alteration in the force constant and bond
strength of respective group. e UV spectral data of bioeld treated
nicotinic acid also support the possible change in the structural
property with respect of control.
In conclusion, the results suggest a signicant impact of bioeld
treatment on structural property like force constant, bond strength,
dipole moment, and energy gap between bonding and nonbonding
orbital of treated drug with respect to control.
Figure 4: UV spectra of Nicotinic acid (a) control and (b) treated.
Acknowledgement
The authors would like to acknowledge the whole team of MGV Pharmacy
College, Nashik for providing the instrumental facility. Authors would also like to
thank Trivedi Science™, Trivedi Master Wellness™ and Trivedi Testimonials for
their consistent support during the work.
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Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, et al. (2015) Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulram and Nicotinic Acid after
Bioeld Treatment. J Anal Bioanal Tech 6: 265 doi:10.4172/2155-9872.1000265
Page 5 of 5
Volume 6 • Issue 5 • 1000265
J Anal Bioanal Tech
ISSN: 2155-9872 JABT, an open access journal
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Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, et al. (2015)
Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulram and Nicotinic Acid after Bioeld
Treatment. J Anal Bioanal Tech 6: 265 doi:10.4172/2155-9872.1000265
... C -H of CH 3 has a vibrational peak at 2975 cm − 1 , while the peak at 1496 cm − 1 is attributed to C-H symmetrical deformation vibrations [37]. Moreover, CH 2 -CH 3 show peaks between 1351 and 1457 cm − 1 , and C--S bond stretching and C-C skeletal bond vibration have peaks at 1273 cm − 1 and 1151-1195 cm − 1 , respectively [37,38]. Furthermore, C-N and C-S, S-S bonds show peaks between 967 and 1062 cm − 1 , 818-914 cm − 1 and 554-666 cm − 1 , respectively [38]. ...
... Moreover, CH 2 -CH 3 show peaks between 1351 and 1457 cm − 1 , and C--S bond stretching and C-C skeletal bond vibration have peaks at 1273 cm − 1 and 1151-1195 cm − 1 , respectively [37,38]. Furthermore, C-N and C-S, S-S bonds show peaks between 967 and 1062 cm − 1 , 818-914 cm − 1 and 554-666 cm − 1 , respectively [38]. DS@CA/PEO nanofiber scaffold shows the same peaks of CA/PEO and DS, but the peaks have more intensity and become sharper ( Fig. 2(b, c, d)). ...
Article
Full-text available
Cancer and microbial infections threaten human health. Currently, chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer lack selectivity between normal and cancer cells, exacerbating this problem. Effective anticancer drug encapsulation is the golden key to solving this issue. Disulfiram (DS), an anticancer drug, has low solubility and selectivity and to tackle this concern, cellulose acetate (CA) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) was selected as a matrix to prepare nanofiber containing DS ([email protected]/PEO) via electrospinning technique. [email protected]/PEO nanofiber was characterized by SEM, FTIR, TGA, and X-rd patterns and the results confirmed DS incorporation in CA/PEO nanofiber. [email protected]/PEO nanofiber scaffold showed higher safety than DS-free on human normal cells (Wi-38) with revealing similar anticancer activity of DS-free against colon cancer line (Caco-2) and breast cancer line (MDA-MB 231). This higher selectivity of [email protected]/PEO towards cancer cells than normal cells was associated with maintaining apoptotic activity and aldehyde dehydrogenase-inhibitory potency of DS. The latter efficacy led to eradicating colon and breast cancer stem cells, as evidenced by flow cytometry. Moreover, [email protected]/PEO nanofiber scaffold showed potent antibacterial activity (in vitro) against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. These results investigated that [email protected]/PEO nanofiber scaffold could be a potential dual candidate as a selective anticancer and antimicrobial agent.
... The characteristic bands of intact NA are broad bands at 3450 [73] and sharp ones at 3073 and 2830 cm −1 due to the O-H and C-H stretch modes. FT-IR shows two major peaks associated with carboxylic acid at 1710 and 1320 cm −1 due to asymmetric and symmetric bonds (▲, black up-pointing triangle) [74][75][76]. As the NaOH is titrated up, NA could be deprotonated and intercalated in the LDH interlayer, so the peaks related to -COOH would be changed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although nicotinic acid (NA) has several clinical benefits, its potency cannot be fully utilized due to several undesirable side effects, including cutaneous flushing, GIT-associated symptoms, etc. To overcome such issues and improve the NA efficacy, a new inorganic–organic nanohybrids system was rationally designed. For making such a hybrid system, NA was intercalated into LDH through a coprecipitation technique and then coated with Eudragit® S100 to make the final drug delivery system called Eudragit® S100-coated NA-LDH. The as-made drug delivery system not only improved the NA release profile but also exhibited good bio-compatibility as tested on L929 cells. Such an inorganic–organic nanohybrid drug delivery agent is expected to reduce the undesirable side effects associated with NA and hopefully improve the pharmacological effects without inducing any undesirable toxicity.
... However, a band at lower than 600 cm −1 is due to the interatomic vibration of silver metal. 46 3.1.2. FESEM and EDS Analysis. ...
Article
Full-text available
Here, in the present study, silver nanoparticles (SNPs) in the size range 6-10 nm have been synthesized by a chemical reduction method using nicotinamide (NTA), an anti-inflammatory agent, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), a good stabilizing agent, to preparing the nanoparticles in the 6-10 nm size range. Kinetic studies on the formation of SNPs have been performed spectrophotometrically at 410 nm (strong plasmon band) in aqueous medium as a function of [AgNO3], [NTA], [NaOH], and [CTAB]. The plot of ln(A ∞ - A t ) versus time exhibited a straight line and the pseudo-first-order rate constants of different variables were calculated from its slope. On the basis of experimental findings, a plausible mechanism was proposed for the formation of SNPs colloid. From the mechanism, it is proved that the reduction of silver ions proceeded through the formation of silver oxide in colloidal form by their reaction with hydroxide ions and NTA after performing their function and readily undergo hydrolysis to form nicotinic acid as a hydrolysis product with the release of ammonia gas. The preliminary characterization of the SNPs was carried out by using a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The detailed characterization of SNPs was also carried out using other experimental techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). SNPs show a remarkable catalytic activity of up to 90% for the reduction of the cationic dye methylene blue.
... The peaks between 1630-1540 cm −1 and around 1410 cm −1 are due to the C=C stretching, while the peaks between 1330-1240 cm −1 are ascribed to C=N stretching. This may be attributed to the coordinate bond formed between Zn 2+ ions and the N atoms of the pyridine moiety in nicotinic acid [73,74]. Thus, the FTIR study strongly supports the formation of nicotinic acid capped Mn 2+ :ZnS Qds. ...
Article
Full-text available
This work investigates the degradation of the azo dye solochrome dark blue (SDB) by measurement of the photocatalytic, sonocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic activities, under low ul-trasonic frequency (40 kHz) and UV-C (254 nm) light, using Mn-doped ZnS semiconductor quantum dots (Mn 2+ :ZnS Qds) as catalysts, prepared by a simple chemical precipitation procedure. In order to study the different morphological and optical crystal properties, various characterization techniques were used, such as high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption at −196 °C and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The average particle size of the semiconductor Qds was in the range of 3-4 nm. The optimal parameters affecting dye degradation, such as the catalyst loading, solution pH, time of irradiation, initial concentration of dye, dopant concentration, ultrasonic power and frequency effect were evaluated. The synthesized catalytic material exhibited a high activity for sonophotocatalytic degradation of SDB (89%), larger than that observed for sonocatalysis (69.7%) or photocatalysis (55.2%) alone, which was due to the improved electron-holes separation, formation of more reactive radicals and enhancement of the active surface area. Qds showed good stability and reusability after five repeated cycles. Finally, the degradation products were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).
... The National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) has been recognized and accepted Biofield Energy Healing as CAM health care approach in addition to other therapies, medicines and practices such as natural products, deep breathing, yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, meditation, massage, special diets, homeopathy, progressive relaxation, guided imagery, acupressure, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, hypnotherapy, healing touch, movement therapy, Pilates, Rolfing structural integration, mindfulness, Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese herbs and medicines, naturopathy, essential oils, aromatherapy, Reiki, cranial sacral therapy and applied prayer (as is common in all religions, like Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism) [21]. The Trivedi Effect ® -Biofield Energy Consciousness Healing Treatment has astonishingly ability to transform the characteristic properties of several organic compounds [22][23][24][25], pharmaceuticals [26,27], nutraceuticals [28], metals and ceramic [29,30], culture medium [31,32] and improve the overall productivity of agricultural crops [33,34], skin health [35,36], modulation in the efficacy of various living cells [37][38][39], and alteration of the isotopic abundance ratio in the organic compounds [40][41][42][43]. Thus, this study was designed to analyses the impact of Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) on the physicochemical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of copper chloride by using various analytical techniques such as, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-visible, and FT-IR spectroscopy. ...
... Many experiments were scientifically performed in order to prove the impact of the Trivedi Effect ® on the non-living and living object(s). The Trivedi Effect ® was proved with significantly outcome in various field of science, i.e. metals and ceramic [16][17][18], organic compounds [19,20], nutraceuticals [21,22], pharmaceuticals [23,24], cancer cells [25,26], microorganisms [27,28], and crops [29,30]. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the impact of the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical, and thermal properties of antimony powder using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size analysis (PSA), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/ differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG). ...
... Such energy therapies are included under the Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and also recommended by the National Institute of Health/National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NIH/NCCAM) due to their several advantages [15]. The Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has also been reported for its astonishing ability to affect the characteristic properties of several pharmaceuticals [16,17], nutraceuticals [18], organic compounds [19,20], metals and ceramic [21][22][23], improve the overall productivity of agricultural crops [24,25], impacted the culture medium [26,27], skin health [28,29], and the isotopic abundance ratio in the organic compounds [30][31][32]. Thus, the current study was designed to determine the impact of Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) on the physicochemical, thermal and spectral properties of ashwagandha root extract by using various analytical techniques such as, particle size analysis (PSA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/ differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG), UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy. ...
Article
Ashwagandha root extract is widely used in nutraceutical preparations due to its broad range of pharmacological activities. The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) on the physico- chemical, thermal and spectral properties of ashwagandha root extract by using various analytical techniques. The sample of ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts in which one part was kept untreated and called as control sample; while the other part was provided with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by the Biofield Energy Healer, Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi and termed as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The study reported that the particle size values at d 10 , d 50 , d 90 , and D (4,3) in the Biofield Energy Treated sample was significantly decreased by 9.23%, 9.04%, 11.86%, and 10.59%, respectively compared with the control sample. Thus, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 10.75% compared to the control sample. The PXRD analysis showed that the control as well as the Biofield Energy Treated samples was amorphous in nature. The DSC analysis showed that the onset evaporation temperature and latent heat of vaporization were significantly altered by 2.18% and-10.29%, respectively in the Biofield Energy Treated sample compared with the control sample. The TGA analysis indicated the four step thermal degradation of both the samples. The 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , and 4 th steps of thermal degradation of the treated sample showed an alteration in the weight loss by -6.59%, 1.97%, -1.80%, and -8.65%, respectively along with 0.81% reduction in the total weight loss, compared with the control sample. Besides, the maximum thermal degradation temperature (T max ) in the control sample was observed at 234.17°C and 365.12°C for the two broad peaks, which was decreased by 1.73% and 0.82%, respectively compared to the control sample. The overall analysis suggests that the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might enhance the solubility, absorption, and bioavailability profile of ashwagandha root extract along with altered thermal stability. Such altered properties might help in designing better pharmaceutical and nutraceutical preparations; thereby provide better therapeutic response against various diseases such as amnesia, arthritis, anxiety, cancer, impotence, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases.
... Many scientific experiments were conducted to prove the impact of the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the non-living and living object(s). The Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment was proved with significant outcome in field of organic chemistry [11,12], material science [13,14], nutraceuticals [15,16], pharmaceutical sciences [17,18], cell biology [19,20], microbiology [21,22], and agriculture science [23,24]. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the impact of the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical properties of V 2 O 5 powder using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and particle size analysis (PSA). ...
Article
Iron sulphate is used in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia and other chronic disorders such as heart and kidney diseases. This study has the objective to analyze the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical, spectroscopic and thermal properties of iron sulphate using various analytical techniques. In this, the test compound, i.e., iron sulphate was divided into two parts; one as control (without Biofield Energy Treatment), and the other as Biofield Energy Treated, which received the Biofield Energy Treatment remotely by the renowned Healer, Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi. The PXRD analysis of the Biofield Energy Treated sample showed significant alterations in the range of -39.49 to 301.40% in the relative intensities, and from -15.40 to 33.36% in the crystallite sizes, compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was also increased by 4.98% as compared to the control sample. The particle sizes in the treated sample at d10, d50, d90 and D(4,3) values were significantly increased by 67.12%, 47.72%, 33.18% and 42.01%, respectively; whereas, the specific surface area was significantly reduced by 38.39%, compared with the control sample. The TGA thermograms showed three steps of thermal degradation in which, the weight loss of Biofield Energy Treated sample in the first and second step was reduced by 5.82% and 16.09%, respectively, while, it was increased by 6.78% in the third step, compared to the control sample. The total weight loss in the treated sample was also reduced by 2.76%, along with slight alteration in the maximum thermal decomposition temperature, compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed the decrease in the melting temperatures of the 1st, 2nd and 4th peaks by 8.24%, 19.29%, and 0.61%, respectively, while 4.57% increase in the 3rd peak of the treated sample, compared with the control sample. The latent heat of fusion (ΔH) corresponding to the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th peaks of the treated sample also showed alterations by -92.29, -86.29, 60.92, and 6.37%, respectively, compared with the control sample. The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might produce a novel polymorphic form of iron sulphate having increased crystallite and particle size along with enhanced thermal stability. It may help in improving the quality, safety and stability during the process of handling, storage, and shipment of the iron sulphate with better therapeutic response against iron deficiency anaemia.
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Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca) is a Gram-negative microbe generally associated with community and hospital-acquired infections. Due to its clinical significance, we evaluated the effect of biofield treatment on phenotype and biotype characteristics of K. oxytoca (ATCC 43165). The study was performed into three groups i.e. C (control), T1 (treatment, revived); and T2 (treatment, lyophilized). Subsequently, groups T1 and T2 were received biofield treatment and control group was remained as untreated. The antimicrobial sensitivity results showed 3.33% and 6.67% alteration in antimicrobials susceptibility in group T1 cells on day 5 and 10, respectively, and 3.33% alteration in antimicrobials susceptibility was observed in group T2 cells on day 10 as compared to control. The sensitivity patterns of cefazolin were changed from resistant (R) to intermediate (I) on day 5, and resistance (R) to susceptible (S) on day 10, in T1 cells of K. oxytoca. The MIC value of cefazolin was decreased by 2-fold in group T1 on day 10 as compared to control. The biofield treated K. oxytoca exhibited the changes in biochemical reactions about 3.03% and 15.15% of total tested biochemicals in group T1 cells on day 5 and 10, respectively as compared to control. The biotype number of K. oxytoca was altered in biofield treated group and organism identified as Raoultella ornithinolytica in T1 on day 10 as compared to control, which is the prominent finding of this study. These changes were found in treated bacteria that might be due to some alteration happened in metabolic/enzymatic pathway and/or at genetic level of K. oxytoca. Based on these data, it is speculated that biofiled treatment could be an alternative approach that can improve the effectiveness of the existing antimicrobials against the resistant pathogens.
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"Disulfiram is being used clinically as an aid in chronic alcoholism, while nicotinic acid is one of a B-complex vitamin that has cholesterol lowering activity. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of disulfiram and nicotinic acid. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment of each drug. The treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, spectral properties of control and treated groups of both drugs were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR spectrum of biofield treated disulfiram showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 1496 to 1506 cm-1 and C-N stretching from 1062 to 1056 cm-1. The intensity of S-S dihedral bending peaks (665 and 553 cm-1) was also increased in biofield treated disulfiram sample, as compared to control. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated nicotinic acid showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 3071 to 3081 cm-1 and 2808 to 2818 cm-1. Likewise, C=C stretching peak was shifted to higher frequency region from 1696 cm-1 to 1703 cm-1 and C-O (COO-) stretching peak was shifted to lower frequency region from 1186 to 1180 cm-1 in treated nicotinic acid. UV spectrum of control and biofield treated disulfiram showed similar pattern of UV spectra. Whereas, the UV spectrum of biofield treated nicotinic acid exhibited the shifting of absorption maxima (λmax) with respect of control i.e., from 268.4 to 262.0 nm, 262.5 to 256.4, 257.5 to 245.6, and 212.0 to 222.4 nm. Over all, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopy results suggest an impact of biofield treatment on the force constant, bond strength, and dipole moments of treated drugs such as disulfiram and nicotinic acid that could led to change in their chemical stability as compared to control."
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Vanadium pentoxide powders are very useful in producing ferrous as well as aluminium alloys, in removing carbon and sulphur and as catalysts in synthesizing ammonia and sulphuric acid. It is also used as corrosion inhibitor petroleum and chemical processing. In the present investigation V2O5 powders are exposed to biofield. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size is found to decrease with increase in number of days after treatment up to a maximum of 15.9% in 110 days indicating severe fracture at agglomerate/ crystallite boundaries. The BET surface area showed a surprising decrease (it should increase as particle size is decreased) of 7.22% in 109 days indicating the surface densification/ removal of sharp surface corners/ formation of large particles. SEM photographs indeed showed that samples exposed to biofield after 20 days showed increase in size as well as rounded corners. Thermal analysis indicated an increase in melting temperature by 9.9% in samples treated after 57 days along with a much reduced change in weight. X-ray diffraction of the powder samples indicated both increase and decrease in crystallite size, unit cell volume and molecular weight of samples exposed to biofield after 28, 104, 124 and 139 days. These results indicate that the catalytic nature of vanadium pentoxide can be controlled by exposing to bio field and using after a specific number of days after exposure.
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