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Compositional studies of some pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed cultivars commonly consumed in Pakistan


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The present study was aimed at evaluating the composition and nutrition of some commonly consumed pea cultivars. The investigated parameters included proximate composition, vitamin contents, antinutritional factors (ANF), fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, amino acid and mineral contents. Variability was observed among investigated cultivars in terms of amino acid and sugar contents. Despite variations among sugar contents, sucrose and raffinose were noted as being present in highest and lowest concentrations, respectively, in all cultivars. The distribution patterns of various amino acids in these cultivars suggested sulphur-containing amino acids as limiting amino acids. Analysis showed almost similar proportions of biochemical constituents among all cultivars. The data show that, in terms of both quality and quantity, the pea cultivars can serve as a significant source of essential amino acids, and bioactive constituents to meet the demand of populations of Pakistan.
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Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 25 - 2013 295
- Keywords: pea cultivars, chemical composition, Pakistan -
OF SOME PEA (pIsum satIVum L.)
1The Patent Ofce, 2nd Floor-Kandawala Building, M.A. Jinnah Road, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Agronomy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan-60800, Pakistan
3 Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences,
Tuwima Str. 10, 10-747 Olsztyn, Poland
4Department of Horticulture, Ataturk University, Erzurum-25240, Turkey
*Corresponding author:
The present study was aimed at evaluating the composition and nutrition of some commonly
consumed pea cultivars. The investigated parameters included proximate composition, vitamin
contents, antinutritional factors (ANF), fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, amino acid and mineral
contents. Variability was observed among investigated cultivars in terms of amino acid and sug-
ar contents. Despite variations among sugar contents, sucrose and raffinose were noted as be-
ing present in highest and lowest concentrations, respectively, in all cultivars. The distribution
patterns of various amino acids in these cultivars suggested sulphur-containing amino acids as
limiting amino acids. Analysis showed almost similar proportions of biochemical constituents
among all cultivars. The data show that, in terms of both quality and quantity, the pea cultivars
can serve as a significant source of essential amino acids, and bioactive constituents to meet the
demand of populations of Pakistan.
296 Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 25 - 2013
Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual self-pol-
linated food legumes used throughout Pakistan
in people of all income and age groups due to its
nutritive value and pleasant taste. Short grow-
ing duration and relatively simple production
stimulated its production making it a commer-
cial commodity. It is cultivated on 10 thousand
hectares with a total production of 82 thousand
tons in Pakistan (ASHRAF et al., 2011). The high
cost of food crops coupled with the expensive and
scarce source of animal proteins as well as the
dwindling family income, has made pea a cheap
source various food constituents for indigenous
people of Pakistan. It is used in livestock feeds
as a source of energy and protein and also in
feeds for aquatic species.
Recent researches conducted by numerous
authors (GDALA et al., 1992; ZDUN
´CZYK et al.,
1997; BASTIANELLI et al., 1998) show that pro-
gress in pea breeding results not only in higher
yields, but also in changes in the chemical com-
position of seeds. Further it is also recognized
that genotypic variation and cultivation meth-
ods are two major factors influencing levels of
chemical constituents in pea seeds (MARZO et
al., 1997).Various cultivars of pea are being used
throughout Pakistan however no detailed study
exists exploring its compositional and nutrition-
al potential. So information is needed on the bi-
ochemical composition of pea cultivars to help
understand their nutritional profiles from pro-
duction and consumption points of view. In this
context as part of our continuous studies on in-
digenous flora of Pakistan (KALEEM et al., 2012,
RIZWAN et al., 2012, ZIA-UL-HAQ et al., 2011 a,
b; 2012 a, b; 2013 a, b) we have evaluated four
commonly consumed pea varieties in Pakistan
from compositional point of view.
The seeds of four pea (Pisum sativum L.) cul-
tivars, Metvor, Samrina Zard, Climax Improved,
and PF-400 were procured from Department of
Agronomy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Mul-
tan. Seeds of all the cultivars were divided into
groups for storage in stainless-steel containers
at 4oC prior to analysis.
Proximate analysis and vitamin contents
Moisture, crude fat, ash, protein and carbo-
hydrates were determined according to AOAC
International methods (AOAC, 1998) and re-
sults expressed in Table 1. Vitamin C were also
measured by AOAC method (AOAC, 1998). Thia-
mine content was determined by the thiochrome
method and riboflavin content by the fluores-
cence method (GSTIRNER, 1965). Niacin was de-
termined by a reported method (ARINATHAN et
al., 2003) (Fig. 1).
Antinutritional factors (ANF) profile
A reported method of (ODUNFA, 1983) was
used for separation of oligosaccharides by thin-
layer chromatography. 50 µL of ethanol extract
were spotted on precoated silica gel plates at 2
cm intervals along with 20 µL of reference stand-
ard mixture containing sucrose, raffinose, and
stachyose. n-propanol, ethyl acetate and water
(6:1:3 v/v) was used as solvent system. After 4 h
development of the plates, the oligosaccharides
were quantified by the guide strip technique of
(SUGIMOTO and VANBUREN, 1970). The sugars
content estimated according to the phenol-sul-
phuric acid method (DUBOIS et al., 1956). Phyt-
ic acid was determined as reported previously
(ZIA-UL-HAQ et al. 2013a) and results are shown
in Table 2.
Mineral analysis
The pea samples were incinerated at 450°C
for 12 h in a muffle furnace and acid digest was
prepared by oxidizing each sub-sample with a
nitric/perchloric acid (2:1) mixture. Aliquots
were used to estimate Na and K by flame pho-
tometer (Flame Photometer Model-EEL). The
minerals, such as calcium, manganese, mag-
nesium, zinc, iron and copper, were determined
with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer
(Perkin-Elmer Model 5000) while Phosphorus
Table 1 - Proximate composition (%) of pea cultivars.
Contents Metvor Samrina Zard Climax Improved PF-400
Total protein 20.51b±1.71 23.80a±1.66 22.37a±1.60 20.60b±1.72
Total ash 3.16c±0.19 3.54b±.18 3.72a±0.19 3.52b±0.18
Total fat 2.35b±0.05 2.19c±0.05 2.63a±0.09 2.38b±0.09
Crude ber 10.74a±1.7 9.14b±1.6 11.24a±1.2 10.99a±1.6
Total carbohydrates 56.54a±1.82 52.43a±1.73 50.86b±1.10 54.81a±1.75
Moisture 6.70c±0.31 8.90a±0.32 9.18a±0.28 7.7b±0.19
Data are expressed as means±standard; values having different letters differ signicantly (p<0.05).
Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 25 - 2013 297
Fig. 1 - Vitamin contents (mg/100 g) of pea cultivars. Data are expressed as means±standard deviations; values having
different letters differ significantly (p<0.05).
was determined by the phosphovanado-molyb-
date (yellow) method (AOAC, 1998) (Table 3).
The samples were quantified against standard
solutions of known concentration that were an-
alyzed concurrently.
Amino acid analysis
Samples (300 mg), in triplicate from each cul-
tivar, were hydrolyzed with 6 N HCl in an evacu-
Table 2 - Anti-nutritional contents (g/ kg) of pea cultivars.
Cultivars Sucrose Raffinose Stachyose Verbascose Phytic acid
Metvor 50.7b±0.10 8.43c±0.07 36.7a±0.09 14.80c±0.12 8.30a±0.13
Samrina Zard 46.4c±0.09 9.15b±0.06 33.8b±0.02 19.27a±0.15 7.25b±0.14
Climax Improved 55.9a±0.03 10.03a±0.04 27.1d±0.16 16.4b±0.17 6.19c±0.18
PF-400 48.3bc±0.08 9.29b±0.05 30.9c±0.12 18.1a±0.11 7.34b±0.06
Data are expressed as means±standard deviations; values having different letters differ signicantly (p<0.05).
Table 3 - Mineral composition (mg/100) g of pea cultivars.
Minerals Metvor Samrina Climax Improved PF-400 NRC/NAS
Zard pattern for infants (1989)
Sodium 111a±2.65 107b±2.38 106b±1.33 108b±1.89 113-200
Potassium 1014b±6.43 1017a±3.78 1021a±4.08 1019a±0.09 500-700
Phosphorus 284b±3.61 291a±2.13 282b±3.08 279b±2.92 500
Calcium 110a±6.24 107b±5.48 111a±4.73 108b±5.10 600
Iron 2.1ns±0.26 1.9ns±0.69 2.3ns±0.52 2.0ns±0.19 10
Copper 9.9b±0.10 10.9a±0.07 11.5a±0.04 10.2b±0.09 0.6-0.7
Zinc 3.4ns±0.20 3.1ns±0.17 3.6ns±0.11 3.2ns±0.07 5
Manganese 2.6ns±0.03 2.2ns±0.02 2.4ns±0.06 2.7ns±0.05 0.3-1
Magnesium 4.0ns±0.04 4.3ns±0.07 4.1ns±0.05 4.4ns±0.03 -
Data are expressed as means±standard deviations; values having different letters differ signicantly (p<0.05).
ated test tube for 24 h at 105°C. The dried res-
idue was dissolved in citrate buffer (pH 2.2) af-
ter flash evaporation. Aliquots were analysed in
an automatic amino acid analyser (Hitachi Per-
kin-Elmer Model KLA 3B), using the buffer sys-
tem described earlier (ZARKADAS et al., 1993).
Methionine and cystine were analysed sepa-
rately after performic acid treatment and sub-
sequent hydrolysis with HCl (KHALIL and DU-
RANI, 1990). Tryptophan was determined after
298 Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 25 - 2013
alkali (NaOH) hydrolysis by the colorimetric
method (FREIDMAN and FINELY, 1971) (Table 4).
In vitro protein digestibility
A multienzyme technique was used to meas-
ure the in vitro protein digestibility (EKPE-
NYONG and BORCHERS, 1979) as reported pre-
viously (ZIA-UL-HAQ et al., 2013a) (Fig. 2).
Table 4 - Amino acid composition (%) of pea cultivars with FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) patterns of amino acid requirements for
different age groups.
Amino acids Metvor Samrina Climax PF-400
2-5 years
10-12 years
Zard Improved
Lysine 8.0a±0.03 7.7b±0.01 7.8b±0.08 8.2a±0.03 5.8 4.4
Histidine 2.4a±0.05 2.1b±0.02 2.0b±0.01 2.4a±0.02 1.9 1.9
Isoleucine 4.5a±0.05 4.4a±0.07 4.2b±0.05 4.0c±0.07 2.8 2.8
Leucine 7.2ns±0.05 7.3ns±0.03 7.4ns±0.04 7.1ns±0.01 6.6 4.4
Cystine 1.7bs±0.08 1.9a±0.04 1.5c±0.03 1.7b±0.08 2.5
Tyrosine 3.7b±0.01 3.4c±0.06 3.9a±0.02 3.7b±0.05 6.3
Threonine 3.6ns±0.04 3.8ns±0.04 4.0ns±0.03 3.7ns±0.04 3.4 2.8
Tryptophan 0.9a±0.03 0.7c±0.09 0.8b±0.02 0.8b±0.05 1.1 0.9
Valine 5.0a±0.05 4.8c±0.08 5.0a±0.04 4.9b±0.07 3.5 2.5
Arginine 7.2a±0.03 7.3a±0.04 7.0b±0.03 7.3a±0.05
Methionine 1.3a±0.02 1.1c±0.05 1.2b±0.09 1.3a±0.02
Phenylalanine 5.3a±0.12 4.9b±0.06 4.7b±0.07 5.2a±0.08
Alanine 5.5a±0.03 5.2b±0.07 5.6a±0.05 5.4a±0.01
Aspartic acid 11.2a±0.07 11.4a±0.08 10.5b±0.07 11.0a±0.05
Glutamic acid 19.0b±0.05 20.5a±0.07 20.8a±0.09 20.2a±0.09
Glyine 4.5b±0.04 4.6b±0.05 4.9a±0.04 4.2c±0.04
Proline 3.9a±0.02 3.7a±0.03 3.5b±0.01 3.8a±0.07
Serine 4.9ns±0.03 5.3ns±0.05 5.2ns±0.08 5.1ns±0.03
Data are expressed as means±standard deviations; values having different letters differ signicantly (p<0.05).
d Patterns of amino acid requirements for different age groups;
b =Tyr+phe;
Fatty acid (FA) composition
Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were pre-
pared according to the standard of IUPAC meth-
od 2.301, and analyzed on a SHIMADZU gas chro-
matograph model 17-A with flame ionization de-
tector (FID). Separation was done on a capillary
column (30 m x 0.32 mm x 0.25 m; Supelco;
Bellefonte, Pa., USA). Nitrogen was used as a
Fig. 2 - In vitro protein digestibility (%) of pea cultivars. Data are expressed as means±standard deviations; values having
different letters differ significantly (p<0.05).
Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 25 - 2013 299
carrier gas at a flow rate of 3.0 mL/min. Col-
umn temperature was programmed from 180°
to 220°C at the rate of 3°C/min. Initial and fi-
nal temperatures were held for 2 and 10 min,
respectively. Injector and detector were kept
at 230° and 250°C, respectively. A sample vol-
ume of 1.0 L was injected with the split ra-
tio of 1:75. FAMEs were identified by compar-
ing their relative and absolute retention times
to those of authentic standards. The quantifica-
tion was done by a Chromatography Station for
Windows (CSW32) data handling software (Data
Apex Ltd. CZ-158 00 Pague 5, the Czech Repub-
lic). The fatty acid composition was reported as
a relative percentage of the total peak area and
the results were calculated as mg/100 g of pea
seeds (Table 5).
Tocopherol, sterols and squalene analysis
Samples were finely ground (1.0 mm mesh
size) using a Moulinex Optiblend 2000 and 1
g of each sample was weighed into a 25×150
mm Pyrex culture tube with Teflon-lined screw
cap. Samples were spiked with 2.5 mL internal
standard (50 g 6-ketocholesterol dissolved in
2.5 mL ethanol). Samples were hydrolysed un-
der acidic conditions by a modification of a pro-
cedure previously described by (TOIVO et al.,
2001) briefly, absolute ethanol (1 mL) and HCl
(6M, 5 mL) were added to each tube and samples
were shaken vigorously. Tubes were then kept at
80°C for 1 h in a water bath, during which tubes
were shaken every 10 min. The tubes were then
cooled on ice and 5 mL ethanol, 10 ml hexane/
diethyl-ether (1:1, v/v) were added to each sam-
ple. Tubes were vortexed (1 min) and then cen-
trifuged at 1,000 rpm (10 min). The upper sol-
vent layer was removed and the extraction re-
peated with a further 10 mL hexane/diethyl-
ether. The combined extracts were dried under
nitrogen and stored in a refrigerator until sapon-
ified by a procedure previously described (MAGU-
IRE et al., 2004) for phytosterols, squalene and
tocopherols analysis by HPLC. The HPLC sys-
tem consisted of a Waters 510 pump and a Wa-
ters 717 plus autosampler (Waters Corporation,
Milford, Massachusetts, USA). For phytoster-
ol analyses, 20 L sample was injected onto a
Luna C8 (2) column (250×4.6 mm i.d.; Phenom-
enex, Cheshire, UK). Detection was done by a
Waters 995 photodiode array detector. The mo-
bile phase was 80% acetonitrile and 20% water
at a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min. Column temper-
ature was maintained at 50°C. The HPLC sys-
tem used for squalene and tocopherol analysis
was the same, except the column used was a
Supelcosil LC-18-DB (250×4.6 mm i.d.; Supel-
co, Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, USA). Concerning
tocopherol analysis, reverse phase chromatog-
raphy does not distinguish between the β-and
γ-isomers of tocopherol, thus the sum of these
isomers is shown throughout as β+γ-tocopherol
(Table 6 and Fig. 3).
Statistical analysis
Analyses were performed in triplicate and
values marked by the same letter in same col-
umn of same class are not significantly differ-
ent (P < 0.05). Data were analyzed by using the
“MSTATC” statistical computer package.
Compositional studies
Peas enjoy the distinction of being an impor-
tant constituent of diets of the people of Paki-
stan as an excellent and inexpensive source of
Table 5 - Fatty acid profile of pea cultivars.
Fatty acid Metvor Samrina Zard Climax Improved PF-400
16:0 10.57b±0.03 11.67a±0.05 12.21a±0.09 11.98a±0.07
16:1 0.09b±0.02 0.13a±0.04 0.07b±0.03 0.06b±0.09
17:0 0.19a±0.09 0.09b±0.02 0.21a±0.04 0.25a±0.06
18:0 3.04a±0.07 2.72b±0.08 2.95a±0.05 2.68b±0.01
18:1 28.41a±0.08 26.31b±0.05 25.05c±0.08 26.16b±0.07
18:2 47.49a±0.05 46.98b±0.03 47.77a±0.05 46.89b±0.05
18:3 9.77b±0.07 11.21a±0.2 10.99a±0.01 11.43a±0.06
20:0 0.24c±0.04 0.39a±0.01 0.31b±0.05 0.27bc±0.04
20:1 0.20c±0.01 0.50a±0.03 0.44a±0.07 0.28b±0.08
Data are expressed as means±standard deviations; values having different letters differ signicantly (p<0.05).
Table 6 - Squalene, α-Tocopherol and β+γ-Tocopherol content
(mg/100 g) of pea cultivars.
Cultivar Squalene α-Tocopherol β+γ-Tocopherol
Metvor 1.7a±0.03 11.6b±0.05 5.5ns±0.02
Samrina Zard 0.5b±0.01 12.4b±0.01 4.9ns±0.04
Climax Improved 0.6b±0.02 10.9b±0.03 5.3ns±0.07
PF-400 0.9b±0.04 13.3a±0.02 5.1ns±0.05
Data are expressed as means±standard deviations; values having dif-
ferent letters differ signicantly (p<0.05).
300 Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 25 - 2013
protein, fatty acids, essential amino acids, vita-
mins and minerals. The data on the proximate
composition, along with some of antinutritional
factors is summarized in Table 1. The carbohy-
drates showed a range from 52 to 58%. As pea
seeds have high content of high-quality starch
(MCLEAN et al., 1974), these can serve as a very
good source of energy as well as protein for milk
cows at a lower production level or in the declin-
ing stage of lactation period (KHORASANI et al.,
1992). The observed range for chemical compo-
sition is close to that reported earlier (COSTA et
al., 2006).
Vitamin contents (Fig. 1) differed from that al-
ready measured (VIDAL-VALVERDE et al., 2003;
URBANO et al., 2005; MORYMA and OBA, 2008).
The reason may be that measurements units
differed from previous work. Similarly agroge-
oclimatological conditions also affect vitamin
contents percentage in legume seeds. Vitamin
C contents are different from reported earlier
(MICHIE and KAZUKO, 2008). Food levels of vita-
min C and flavonoids not only vary greatly de-
pending on species and variety, growing loca-
tion, harvesting time, storage, processing, and
other conditions, but also with respect to meth-
odological differences (ADRIAN et al., 2004).Vita-
min C and the flavonoids are both very strong
antioxidant agents and their biological activities
are in part synergistic (ISLER et al., 1988). Vita-
min C is essential for connective tissue forma-
tion and maintenance, immune system stimula-
tion, works as anti-oxidant, and enhances iron
utilization among other roles (SHRIMPTON, 1993).
As for mineral substances (Table 2), potas-
sium and phosphorus dominate while the cal-
cium content is relatively low. Potassium con-
Fig. 3 - β-Sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol content (mg/100 g) of pea cultivars. Da ta ar e exp resse d as me ans±sta ndard de-
viations; values having different letters differ significantly (p<0.05).
tent ranged from 1,014 mg/100 g in Metvor
to 1,021 mg/100 g in Climax Improved. Sodi-
um was found in lower quantity in Climax Im-
proved (106 mg/100 g) while Climax Improved
had the highest iron (2.3 mg/100 g) content.
All cultivars contained good amounts of calci-
um, zinc and copper. The results correspond to
those already reported for Pea in Pakistan (AM-
JAD et al., 2006). These results revealed that
peas may provide a sufficient amount of min-
erals to meet the human mineral requirement
(NRC/NAS, 1989). However, excess of one min-
eral may prevent others being absorbed and uti-
lized properly. A significant decrease of systol-
ic blood pressure has been reported with calci-
um supplementation for the hypertensive per-
sons, since magnesium works in conjunction
with calcium to help in transmitting nerve im-
pulse to the brain (ALLENDER et al., 2006; HALL-
FRISCH et al., 2000). Mineral supplementation
can be used as an alternative approach to cor-
rect this imbalance.
The data (Table 4) indicated that all essential
amino acids, except s-containing types and tryp-
tophan, are present in excessive amounts in all
the cultivars analyzed. Pea seeds have relatively
favorable lysine content, but the content of me-
thionine and tryptophan has to be are very low.
Results are comparable to those of earlier work-
ers (AMJAD et al., 2006). These types of result
are also obtained for chickpea. Amino acid defi-
ciency can be met by consuming large amounts
of legumes, or by taking a mixture of legumes,
or by employing the complementarity that exists
between high sulphur amino acid cereals and
legumes, especially the soybean (ZIA-UL-HAQ et
al., 2007, 2011).
Ital. J. Food Sci., vol. 25 - 2013 301
In vitro protein digestibility data (Fig. 2) re-
vealed that values are lowest in PF-400 and high-
est in Climax Improved. A considerable variation
has been reported for pea protein digestibility in
the literature (VIDAL-VALVERDE et al., 2003). Di-
gestibility of legume proteins is poor. However, it
can be improved through heat-treatments, e.g.
cooking, autoclaving and roasting.
Data about the qualitative and quantitative
composition of fatty acids are summarized in
Table 5. Fatty acid profile of all pea cultivars
reveals the lipids as a good source of the nu-
tritionally essential linoleic and oleic acids. Li-
noleic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid were
the dominating fatty acids. The nutritional val-
ue of linoleic acid is due to its metabolism at
tissue levels which produce the hormone-like
prostaglandins. The activity of these prosta-
glandins includes lowering of blood pressure
and constriction of smooth muscle (AURAND et
al., 1987). Linoleic and linolenic acids are the
most important essential fatty acids required
for growth, physiological functions and mainte-
nance. Most of the fatty acids were unsaturated
fatty acids, while saturated fatty acids (main-
ly, palmitic acid) contributed little of the total
fatty acids content. The fatty acid composition
and high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids
make pea a special legume, suitable for nutri-
tional applications. The presence of high lev-
els of unsaturated fatty acids, in all the pres-
ently studied cultivars, is nutritionally desira-
ble and results are comparable with some edi-
ble legumes (RYAN et al., 2007).
Our results (Table 6 and Fig. 3) indicated that
the pea seeds are exceptionally a rich source of
tocopherols and sterols. Our values are in line
with that reported earlier (RYAN et al., 2007).
Regional and cultivars variations for the distri-
bution of campesterol, stigmasterol, b-sitoster-
ol, D5, avenasterol and clerosterol have already
been reported in the literature. As with many of
the other traits, no previously reported data on
the tocopherol and sterol contents of pea seeds
from Pakistan are available in literature. Phytos-
terols are supposed to have a wide range of ef-
fects like anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and
anticarcinogenic activities (BERGER et al., 2004).
Several studies have indicated that plant sterols
inhibit the intestinal absorption of cholesterol,
thereby lowering total plasma cholesterol and low-
density lipoprotein (LDL) levels (DEJONG et al.,
2003). Squalene is believed to be an important
dietary cancer chemopreventive agent (SMITH,
2000). It also has been shown to act as an anti-
dote to reduce accidental drug-induced toxicities
(SENTHILKUMAR et al., 2006). It has been dem-
onstrated to be a potent quencher of singlet ox-
ygen, (KOHNO et al., 1995). The tocopherol con-
tent in food is inversely associated with mortal-
ity from cardiovascular disease. In addition, to-
copherols, due to their capacity to quench free
radical damage, play a putative role in preven-
tion of Alzheimer’s disease and cancer (TUCKER
and TOWNSEND, 2005).
Anti-nutritional contents
Pea seeds although highly digestible, con-
tain some antinutritional substances that limit
their consumption and utilization. Among these
are the indigestible oligosaccharides, raffinose,
stachyose, and verbascose. These sugars are not
utilized by monogastric animals, including hu-
mans, who lack the specific α-galactosidase en-
zyme needed to digest those however their low
concentration precludes any significance in hu-
man nutrition. Phytic acid and sugar contents
(Table 2) are close to investigated earlier. (VID-
AL-VALVERDE et al., 2003). Intensive breeding
efforts have helped to reduce the content and
range of antinutritional substances. It is also
recognized that varieties with a higher content
of antinutritional substances produce higher
yields, possibly due to the existence of mecha-
nisms of higher resistance of these varieties to
diseases and animal predators. Further theses
antinutritional contents may be removed by dif-
ferent processing methods.
Current study indicated that peas are a good
source of vitamins like thiamine, niacin and ri-
boflavin and much needed iron, but relatively
poor source of calcium and sulphur containing
amino acids. Anti-nutritional contents present in
pea seeds may be reduced by various treatments.
In recent years, area, production and produc-
tivity of pea in Pakistan has showed an impres-
sive positive annual growth. Concerted efforts
are needed to evaluate and, introduce improved
pea cultivars with high yield potential and dis-
ease resistance with passage of time. The wide-
spread use and diversity of pea products bodes
well for the crops future and attests to its ver-
satility as food and feed.
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Paper received August 6, 2012 Accepted January 5, 2013
... As there is no report available on vitamin contents of mash bean, so vitamin contents cannot be compared to previous results. However the vitamin contents are in close proximity to that of Pisum sativum as per our previous studies [16]. High contents of niacin are good from medical point of view as this water-soluble vitamin is excreted by urine from human body and its continuous supply by eating mash bean seeds will complete its deficiency. ...
... Protein digestibility was below 50 percent while starch digestibility was above 50 percent in all analyzed cultivars. A significant variation has been observed for protein digestibility of legume seeds previously for mash bean and other legumes [16,17]. The sensory, textural and nutritional characteristics of products made from legumes are due to various functional properties of proteins. ...
... One ml of this extract was made 6 ml by distilled H 2 O; after addition of cyanogen bromide (3 ml) and shaking, aniline (4%, 1 ml) was added. After 5 min, yellow color formed was spectrophotometrically measured at 420 nm against blank and niacin contents were calculated by a standard graph [16]. Thiochrome method and fluorescence method were Values in the same row having different letters differ significantly with least significant difference (LSD) at probability (p < 0.05). ...
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In recent years, the desire to adopt a healthy diet has drawn attention to legume seeds and food products derived from them. Mash bean is an important legume crop used in Pakistan however a systematic mapping of the chemical composition of mash bean seeds is lacking. Therefore seeds of four mash bean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, family Leguminoseae) cultivars (NARC-Mash-1, NARC-Mash-2, NARC-Mash-3, NARC-Mash-97) commonly consumed in Pakistan have been analyzed for their chemical composition, antioxidant potential and biological activities like inhibition of formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) activity and tyrosinase inhibition activity. The investigated cultivars varied in terms of biochemical composition to various extents. Mineral composition indicated potassium and zinc in highest and lowest amounts respectively, in all cultivars. The amino acid profile in protein of these cultivars suggested cysteine is present in lowest quantity in all cultivars while fatty acid distribution pattern indicated unsaturated fatty acids as major fatty acids in all cultivars. All cultivars were found to be rich source of tocopherols and sterols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) fingerprints of seed flour and extracts indicated major functional groups such as polysaccharides, lipids, amides, amines and amino acids. Results indicated that all investigated cultivars possessed appreciable antioxidant potential. All cultivars are rich source of protein and possess sufficient content of dietary fiber, a balanced amino acid profile, low saturated fatty acids and antioxidant capacity that rationalizes many traditional uses of seeds of this crop besides its nutritional importance. The collected data will be useful for academic and corporate researchers, nutritionists and clinical dieticians as well as consumers. If proper attention is paid, it may become an important export commodity and may fetch considerable foreign exchange for Pakistan.
... Changes in nitrogen contents in seeds, straw, pod walls, and roots in the present study may also have been related to the rich soil high in assimilable forms of potassium. Such a possibility has been suggested by: Andrzejewska et al. (2015); Wang et al. (2010), andZia-Ul-Hag et al. (2013). ...
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Background. The aim of the conducted research was to determine the changes in nitrogen and magnesium contents in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and in soil under the effect of diversified nitrogen doses, as well as to calculate bioaccumulation factors and to demonstrate the relationships between the studied characteristics. Material and methods. In a two-year-long field experiment, carried out at the experimental plot of the Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, four plots with different fertilization levels were established: 0 (control plot), N1, N2, and N3 (N1-10, N2-20, and N3-30 kg·ha-1). No phosphorus or potassium fertilization was applied because soil richness in assimilable phosphorus was established as very high, and in assimilable potassium as high. In the plant and soil material, total nitrogen content was established with the CHN/S method and total magnesium content with the ICP-AES method. Nitrogen and magnesium bioaccumulation factors and a coefficient of correlation were calculated. Results. Nitrogen fertilization (10, 20 and 30 kg·ha-1) significantly diversified nitrogen content in seeds, straw, and pod walls of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and magnesium content in seeds and pod walls. Average nitrogen contents in pea were as follows: seeds (37.3) > roots (14.0) > straw (10.6) > pod walls (9.2) g·kg-1 d.m. Magnesium content went in the opposite direction: pod walls (2.97) > straw > (2.20) > roots (1.68) > seeds (1.18) g·kg-1 d.m. Total nitrogen content in the soil varied between 1.96 g·kg-1 and 2.31 g·kg-1 of soil, and total magnesium content between 0.75 g·kg-1 and 0.79 g·kg-1 of soil. Nitrogen and magnesium bioaccumulation factors in the pea biomass were high. Conclusion. The established nitrogen and magnesium contents in the dry matter of pea were within the limits of partition values that determine the acceptable amounts of those elements in fodder. The applied nitrogen fertilization at the doses of 10-30 kg·ha-1 did not affect negatively the changes in nitrogen and magnesium contents in pea and in the soil.
... Wang et al. 50 reported mean values of condensed tannins ranging from 890 to 5180 mg kg −1 , and Zia-Ul-Haq et al. 51 obtained values between 570 and 680 mg kg −1 . Xu and Change 48 evaluated condensed tannins using different extraction solvents, obtaining a value of 1710 mg kg −1 using acidic 70% acetone (Table 1). ...
Biofortification refers to an approach to increase micronutrient concentrations in the edible parts of plants with increased bioavailability to the human population. Conventional, agronomic and transgenic breeding methods can be used to develop these biofortified crops, offering sustainable and cost‐effective strategies. Pea has long been recognized as a valuable, nutritious food for the human diet, but there is a limited amount of information about it, which prevents the full micronutrient enrichment potential of this pulse crop to be reached. Considerations must include not only micronutrient concentrations but also the amount of the nutrient that can be absorbed by the consumer, after processing and cooking. Development of biofortified pea that retains nutrients during cooking and processing is not only essential for fighting micronutrient malnutrition, but also necessary to improve agricultural productivity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... giving additional body to the mass due to long polymer chain of polysaccharide chain of carbohydrate [1]. ...
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An experiment was carried out at the research field of Gokuleshwor Agriculture and Animal Science College Baitadi, Nepal from August 5, 2019, to November 10, 2019, to evaluate the impact of plant spacing on yield and yield contributing traits of black gram. The experiment was carried out at four levels of spacing viz. T1 (30×5 cm), T2 (30×10 cm), T3 (45×10 cm) and T4 (60×10 cm). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design having four replications. The differential plant spacing showed remarkable differences in yield and yield contributing traits of black gram cultivation practices at 0.05 level of significance. The highest plant spacing of 60×10 cm performed better in yield contributing traits such as; number of branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1 and number of seeds pod-1. Whereas, the maximum straw yield was found at closure spacing of 30×5 cm. Similarly, grain yield and harvest index were found superior at the spacing of 30×10 cm. Therefore, plant spacing of 30×10 cm can be recommended to the farmers of Baitadi after confirming the results for a few years. Keywords: Branches; Black gram; Harvest Index; Spacing; Yield
... The 1000 seed weight determined in the present study had lower values (on average 250 g at a potassium rate of 124 kg·ha -1 ) as compared with the results obtained by Księżak (2009). It should be assumed that these differences result from the content of available potassium in the soil and varietal traits of the pea, like the other components of chemical composition (Zia-Ul-Hag et al., 2013, Andrzejewska et al., 2015. In a study by Bujak and Frant (2010) conducted in soil abundant in available potassium, the rate of this component at a level of 66.4 kg·ha -1 allowed for obtaining the highest 1000 seed weight (219.7 g). ...
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Background. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of different potassium fertilization rates on the yield and nitrogen content and uptake by field pea. Also, an attempt was made to make a modelled estimation of the amount of nitrogen biologically reduced by the bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum living in symbiosis with field pea and free bacteria in the soil, in conditions of different rates of potassium fertilization. Material and methods. The study was carried out based on a field experiment in 2010 and 2012, in a completely randomized design with four replications, on experimental plots of the Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities. The study involved the application of nitrogen fertilization at a rate of 20 kg·ha-1 and six potassium fertilization levels: NK 0 ; NK 1 ; NK 2 ; NK 3 ; NK 4 ; NK 5. Potassium was applied at rates: K 0-0; K 1-41.5; K 2-83; K 3-124; K 4-166; K 5-207.5 kg·ha-1. Results. The significantly highest yields of field pea seeds were obtained in the treatments where the applied potassium fertilization rate was 124 kg·ha-1. Straw and pod yields were different in each year of the study. The content of nitrogen in seeds, straw and pods was significantly reduced under the influence of higher doses of potassium fertilizers. The highest nitrogen uptake in the yield of field pea was found in the variant where the rate of potassium was 124 kg·ha-1. Conclusion. The study showed that to obtain the highest seed yield, the highest 1000 seed weight and the highest nitrogen uptake with the total yield of field pea, the optimal potassium rate was 124 kg·ha-1 .
... The soil mineral composition has been well documented as the leading reason for differences in mineral composition in plants. However, variability in the mineral content was observed among pea cultivars (Wang and Duan 2004;Zia-Ul-Haq et al. 2013). Furthermore, Ray et al. (2014) reported that, when different pulse species were grown at the same locations, some pulses accumulated more minerals. ...
The United Nations has declared 2016 as the International Year of harvested as dry seeds. Although some pulse crops are harvested green (e.g., green peas), these are classified as vegetables because the pods are often consumed along with the mature and sometimes immature seeds. Other dried legumes such as soybean and peanut meet the definition of being a leguminous crop that is harvested as dry seeds; however, these crops are grown primarily for oil content and, thus, are not categorized as pulses. There are hundreds of pulse varieties grown worldwide; these include, for example, dry edible beans, chickpeas, cowpeas, and lentils. This review will cover the proximate (e.g., protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals), and phytonutrient (e.g., polyphenolics and carotenoid) composition of dry edible beans, peas, lentils, and chickpeas. Soybean and peanuts will not be covered in this review. The effects of processing on composition will also be covered. The health benefits related to folates, fiber, and polyphenolics will be highlighted. The health benefits discussed will include cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and weight control. The current review will not cover antinutrient compounds; this topic will be covered in a separate review article published in the same issue.
... Hence plants enjoy the attraction of common man as well as of the scientific community for investigation, authentication and rationalization of their food and therapeutic effects. As a part of our continuous efforts to explore the medicinal flora of Pakistan123 we focused on a member of the family Convolvulaceae that comprises nearly 1,650 predominantly tropical species. The genus Ipomoea, with approximately 500–600 species, is the largest in the family [4] and twenty species are found in Pakistan [5]. ...
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Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory), a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.
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Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. is an important medicinal tree found in Pakistan. The present study evaluates the composition and antioxidant potential of various parts of the A. lebbeck plant. Compositional studies indicated carbohydrates as major components while saponin was found as a major antinutrient in both pods and seeds. Potassium was found in the highest amount and copper in the lowest. The amino acid profile indicated that arginine and lysine are present in excessive amounts in seeds while glutamic acid and aspartic acid are present in the highest concentrations in pods. While the linoleic acid was detected as the major fatty acid in pod and seed oil, a-tocopherol was determined as the major tocopherol component in oil. In vitro antioxidant assays such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity showed that the examined extracts have potent antioxidant potential.
Belinjau (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed flour was evaluated for nutritional composition, antioxidant activity and functional properties. Seed flour was found to be rich in protein (19.0 g/100 g), crude fibre (8.66 g/100 g), carbohydrates (64.1%), total dietary fibre (14.5%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids, fatty acids and minerals. Antioxidant compounds such as total phenols (15.1 and 12.6 mg GAE/100 g), tannins (35.6 and 16.1 mg CE/100 g) and flavonoids (709 and 81.6 mg CEQ/100 g) were higher in ethanolic extracts over aqueous extracts, respectively. Inhibition of DPPH was high in ethanol extracts (48.9%) compared to aqueous extracts (19.7%), whereas aqueous extracts showed a higher FRAP value compared to ethanol extracts (0.98 and 0.61 mmol Fe(II)/100 g, respectively). Results on functional properties revealed acceptable water and oil absorption capacities (5.51 and 1.98 g/g, respectively), emulsion capacity and stability (15.3% and 6.90%, respectively), and foaming capacity (5.78%). FTIR spectral analysis showed seed flour to encompass major functional groups such as: amines, amides, amino acids, polysaccharides, carboxylic acids, esters and lipids. As belinjau seed flour possesses a rich nutraceutical value, it has high potential to be used as a basic raw material to develop new low cost nutritious functional foods.
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Four improved lentil cultivars viz., Masoor 85, Masoor 93, NIAB Masoor 2002 and NIAB Masoor 2006 grown and consumed in Pakistan have been systematically analyzed to determine and compare their nutritional and compositional properties. Proximate analysis, anti-nutritional contents, amino acid and fatty acid profiles of the oil extracted along with mineral content from all four cultivars were investigated. Mineral composition showed that sufficient amounts of Ca, P, K, Cu, Zn and Mg were present to meet the macro and micro-nutrients demand in human diets. Despite variations, potassium and manganese were noted as being present in highest and lowest concentrations, respectively, in all cultivars. The distribution patterns of various amino acids in these cultivars suggested sulfur containing amino acids as limiting amino acids. Fatty acid profile indicated unsaturated fatty acids as major fatty acids in all cultivars. The data show that, in terms of both quality and quantity, all four lentil cultivars can serve as a significant source of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids and trace minerals to meet the demand of population of Pakistan.
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Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. is an important medicinal tree found in Pakistan. The present study evaluates the composition and antioxidant potential of various parts of the A. lebbeck plant. Compositional studies indicated carbohydrates as major components while saponin was found as a major antinutrient in both pods and seeds. Potassium was found in the highest amount and copper in the lowest. The amino acid profile indicated that arginine and lysine are present in excessive amounts in seeds while glutamic acid and aspartic acid are present in the highest concentrations in pods. While the linoleic acid was detected as the major fatty acid in pod and seed oil, a-tocopherol was determined as the major tocopherol component in oil. In vitro antioxidant assays such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity showed that the examined extracts have potent antioxidant potential.
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The present study was conducted to examine various biological activities of a methanol extract of Agave attenuata leaves. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane fraction from the extract revealed the presence of 31 compounds, with mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (11.37%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (6.33%), n-docosane (6.30%) and eicosane (6.02%) as the major components. The leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (10.541–39.35 GAE, mg/100 g) and total flavonoid contents (43.35–304.8 CE, mg/100 g). The extract and some of its fractions showed moderate antimicrobial effects. Leaves extract and fractions also exhibited a good antioxidant potential when measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation assays. The hemolytic effect of the plant was found to be in a range of 1.01%–2.64%. From the present study it is concluded that this plant could be used as a source of natural antioxidants and functional food nutraceutical applications.
The concept of a disease caused by a nutrient deficiency has its origin in the studies of Lind in 1753 (see Stewart, 1953) on the cause of scurvy and in the demonstration by Cook (1776) and quoted by Carpenter (1986), of the practical value of Lind’s hypothesis. By the end of the eighteenth century the impact on the navy of the control of scurvy was so great that it was asserted that it was equivalent to doubling the fighting force (Dudley, 1953). A century later the classic publications of Eijkman (1890, 1896), Funk (1912) and Hopkins (1912) established a generalised theory that a number of ‘specific accessory constituents’, later termed vitamins by Drummond (1920), were uniquely associated with the occurrence of specific diseases with overt clinical symptoms.
When averaged over a wide range in soil nitrogen and moisture conditions, cultivar differences in yield and protein content of non-inoculated field peas (Pisum sativum L.) were relatively small. The inherent differences in seed weight were responsible for most of the variations in yield among the three cultivars. Nitrogen fertilization in the growth room experiment markedly increased plant weight, seed yield and protein content, and water-use efficiency was substantially improved. When maintained within the upper half of the available range, soil moisture supply had only a limited influence on plant growth. Periodic wilting did cause a severe reduction in plant weight and seed yield, but there was little change in protein content. For these fertilizer and moisture treatments, responses in seed yield were primarily due to changes in number of pods per plant; the seeds per pod and seed weight were relatively stable. It appeared that field peas were efficient converters of soil nitrogen to seed protein and, in the absence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, nitrogen fertilization was the principal factor influencing the protein content of field peas. The correlation coefficient between yield and protein content was very low.