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ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE IPA: New Zealand English

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Abstract

In this illustration, we present a transcription and discussion of the variety of English spoken by people of European descent in New Zealand. Locally, such people are referred to as being P¯ akeh¯ a, using the M¯ aori word. P¯ akeh¯ a speech is illustrated here in the speech of three educated women. Variation in New Zealand English has been illustrated in a number of publications. Much of this variation, however, is lost in the formal environment of reading a short passage for a microphone, especially when, as is the case in the accompanying recordings, the readers are middle-class women. Thus some of the features which might be expected from New Zealanders do not occur in these recordings, although the speakers are all clearly New Zealanders.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE IPA New Zealand English
Laurie Bauer, Paul Warren, Dianne Bardsley,
Marianna Kennedy & George Major
School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies
Victoria University of Wellington
laurie.bauer@vuw.ac.nz
,
paul.warren@vuw.ac.nz
,
dianne.bardsley@vuw.ac.nz
,
marianna.kennedy@vuw.ac.nz
,
george.major@vuw.ac.nz
In this illustration, we present a transcription and discussion of the variety of English spoken
by people of European descent in New Zealand. Locally, such people are referred to as
being P¯
akeh¯
a, using the M¯
aori word. P¯
akeh¯
a speech is illustrated here in the speech of three
educated women. Variation in New Zealand English has been illustrated in a number of
publications. Much of this variation, however, is lost in the formal environment of reading
a short passage for a microphone, especially when, as is the case in the accompanying
recordings, the readers are middle-class women. Thus some of the features which might be
expected from New Zealanders do not occur in these recordings, although the speakers are
all clearly New Zealanders.
Consonants
Bilabial
Labio-
dental Dental Alveolar
Post -
alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive pb td kg
Affricate ÙÃ
Fricative fvTDszSZ h
Nasal m n N
Approximant w ® j w
Lateral
approximant l
The consonants of New Zealand English do not differ in terms of number of phonemes from
what is found in other comparable varieties of English. For most New Zealanders today there
is no independent // phoneme, although this can still be heard from some conservative or
southern speakers in words like which and whale. New Zealanders do not have an /x/ phoneme,
though [ç] may be heard as an allophone of /j/ in words like huge and pewter.
Journal of the International Phonetic Association (2007) 37/1 C
International Phonetic Association
doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830 Printed in the United Kingdom
98 Journal of the International Phonetic Association: Illustrations of the IPA
ppie ttie kcoo
bbuy ddie ggoo
ffie Tthigh Ùetch
vvie Dthy Ãedge
ssue SConfucian
zzoo Zconfusion
mmy nnigh Nhang
wwhy ®rye jyou
llie hhigh
Vowels
The transcription system here is based largely on Bauer & Warren (2004a), with minor
modifications due to Bauer & Warren (2004b). The various vowels are identified in the list
below using the lexical sets of Wells (1982). Approximate locations of the vowels, including
starting and ending points for diphthongs, are given in the accompanying figures (1–3). The
system is not designed primarily for the speakers in the accompanying sound files, but as a
more general transcription of New Zealand English, and in some instances slightly broader
speakers are envisaged in the transcription system. Note for instance that the speakers in
the recording have more retracted starting points for the FAC E and MOUTH vowels than is
indicated in the transcription and vowel charts. As a rule, our choice of transcription symbols
is intended to draw attention to differences from other varieties of English without being
excessively narrow. Thus the most romanic symbol is often avoided, but diacritics are equally
avoided.
In general, the vowel system of New Zealand English can be said to match the vowel
system of other non-rhotic standard varieties of English such as RP and Australian English.
Phonetically, however, there are important differences, which are indicated in the transcription.
Phonemically there are three differences or potential differences. Many speakers, particularly
younger speakers, have a NEAR-SQUARE merger. Most speakers have a separate vowel phoneme
in what we term the GOLD lexical set. And there is no distinction between the unstressed vowels
in words like villages and villagers. Since the KIT and the commAvowels contrast only in
unstressed syllables in RP, and since the KIT vowel is notoriously very centralised in New
i
eo

ɵ
ɘ
υ
ɒ
ɐ, ɐ
ε
Figure 1 Approximate positions for the New Zealand English monophthongs.
Laurie Bauer et al.: New Zealand English 99
ɐ
o
e
ɑe
oe
ɒɯ
Figure 2 Approximate start and finish targets for the closing diphthongs in New Zealand English.
ə
Figure 3 Approximate start and finish targets for the centering diphthongs in New Zealand English.
Zealand English, thus contrasting strongly with the Australian pronunciation, KIT can be
attributed to the same phoneme as the commAvowel.
9KIT 8NURSE œe FAC E
eDRESS iFLEECE Ae PRICE
ETRAP oe CHOICE
åSTRUT åBATH,PA L M ,START åË GOAT
ÅLOT ËGOOSE œo MOUTH
UFOOT oTHOUGHT,NORTH,FORCE Ũ GOLD
ihappYNEAR
9commA,lettER SQUARE
¨treacLE Ë´ CURE
100 Journal of the International Phonetic Association: Illustrations of the IPA
Minimal pairs to show the phonemic values of these vowels when they occur in stressed
syllables are given below.
itea peat Ëtwo
9pit œe Tay p a t e
epet Ae tie
Epat oe toy
åputt åË toe
åtar part œo tau pout
Åpot Ũ toll
otore port tier
Uput tare
8pert Ë´ tour
Stress
Stress as such is not very different from other varieties such as RP, Australian or North
American standard Englishes, though full vowels are more likely to occur in unstressed
syllables in New Zealand English than in these other varieties. This has been claimed to give
New Zealand English a more ‘syllable-timed’ rhythm than other varieties.
Intonation
The most widely discussed feature of New Zealand English intonation is undoubtedly the High
Rising Terminal (HRT), a dramatic rise at the end of statement utterances, particularly used
by younger speakers of the variety. This tune is often misinterpreted by non-NZE speakers
as signalling a questioning or uncertain attitude, but in fact it appears to serve a discourse
function of including the hearer in the conversation. There is some indication that such rises
on statements are phonetically distinct, in terms of timing of the rise, from rises on questions.
The only other intonational feature that has received much comment is a tendency for pitch
on unaccented syllables to stay relatively high, compared with other varieties.
Conventions
/p/ is aspirated and /t/and/k/ are affricated when they occur initially in a stressed syllable
(with no preceding syllable-initial /s/). /p/and/k/ may also be aspirated intervocalically even
where not initial in a stressed syllable. In the same position /t/ is usually voiced, possibly
tapped as [|]. All three plosives may also be aspirated word-finally, especially before a pause,
though there is an increasing tendency for /t/, and to a lesser extent /p/and/k/, to be glottally
reinforced or replaced by [/] in this position. This could lead to [/] becoming a phoneme in
New Zealand English, though we do not believe it is yet perceived in such terms. We have
transcribed it in the passage below where it occurs. As in other varieties of English, voiced
obstruents are devoiced adjacent to a pause or a voiceless segment. In individual lexical items,
this devoicing may also affect intervocalic obstruents.
Aspiration/affrication of plosives is realised as devoicing of a following sonorant
consonant where there is one in the same syllable. /®/ is typically an approximant, with []an
extremely rare alternative. It is a fricative following /t/or/d/, and may be a tap following /T/.
/l/ is typically somewhat velarised prevocalically and usually vocalised non-prevocalically,
especially in broader varieties, which is illustrated in the word-lists accompanying the
recording of the passage. The precise nature of the vowel is variable, and the suggested
transcription symbol [¨] is chosen for its lack of ambiguity rather than for its precise quality.
There is considerable neutralisation of vowels before /l/, with the distinction between /e/
and /E/ being the most thoroughly neutralised pair in this environment. The vowel in the FOOT
Laurie Bauer et al.: New Zealand English 101
lexical set is fronted and unrounded in some lexical items, typically, for example, in good,
but see also the word could both in the passage and in the words in isolation from Speakers
1 and 2. There is an open variant of the commAvowel which occurs at word-boundaries,
and especially phrase-initially and phrase-finally. This is clearly illustrated in the word pewter
spoken by Speaker 3. This is then perceived as being an unstressed version of the STRUT vowel,
and has been so transcribed here. The happYvowel is perceived by New Zealanders as being
phonemically identical to the FLEECE vowel, though they are transcribed differently here.
Both can be diphthongised. THOUGHT/NORTH/FORCE is often diphthongised in lengthening
environments. NEAR,SQUARE and CURE may be disyllabic in all environments.
The recorded passage
The passage used here is the traditional one, ‘North Wind and the Sun’, made more
geographically and culturally appropriate by having the North Wind replaced by the Southerly.
A series of words is also presented to illustrate some of the vocalic phenomena which are not
elicited by the passage, and to illustrate some of the phenomena that are commented on in
this text. Minimal pairs or potential minimal pairs were not read next to each other, though
speakers could clearly remember having read a similar word earlier.
Three female speakers read the passage. The transcription given below is the transcription
for Speaker 1, except that there is a reading error, so that she actually says ‘the Southerly
wind’ where the passage had ‘the Southerly’ on the second occurrence of the phrase.
Speakers 1 and 2 are in their twenties and were both MA students in the School of
Linguistics and Applied Language Studies at Victoria University at the time of recording.
Speaker 1 is a native of Dunedin and Speaker 2 is a native of Nelson, both in New Zealand’s
South Island. Speaker 3 is an older, conservative speaker, raised in a North Island rural area
and a former secondary school teacher of English.
Phonemic differences in the readings of the passage are small. Speaker 2 says /mo®iblË/
with a linking-r; Speaker 3 has a full vowel in than, a third syllable in traveller in some of the
repetitions of this word, a /d/ontheendofand, and no linking-r but a full vowel in of in
the phrase stronger of the two. There are also minor differences in stress. In phonetic terms,
the open STRUT vowel of Speaker 1, the centralised KIT vowel of Speaker 2 and the close TRAP
vowel of Speaker 3 are worthy of note. All the speakers diphthongise the GOOSE vowel in the
word two at the end of the passage.
In the wordlist material, the hypercorrect clear /l/ of Speaker 3 (in some words) in final
position contrasts with the vocalisation of the two younger speakers, as does the clear (if
perhaps deliberately so) distinction between beer and bear and between Alan and Ellen.The
raised vowel in the first pronunciation of the word southerly may be an error or may be another
hypercorrection. Note though that she has smile as the expected disyllable and has a glottal
stop in fitness. The younger speakers merge Alan and Ellen, as expected, and have variable
mergers in the fill,full,fool set and a long back vowel in school (note that the GOOSE vowel
is a back vowel in New Zealand English only before an erstwhile /l/, even if that /l/hasnow
vanished).
The reading passage
The Southerly wind and the Sun were disputing which was the stronger, when a
traveller came along wrapped in a warm cloak. They agreed that the one who
first succeeded in making the traveller take his cloak off should be
considered stronger than the other. Then the Southerly blew as hard as he could,
but the more he blew, the more closely the traveller wrapped his cloak around
him; and at last the Southerly gave up the attempt. Then the Sun shone out
warmly, and immediately the traveller took off his cloak. And so the Southerly
was obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two.
102 Journal of the International Phonetic Association: Illustrations of the IPA
The transcription
D9"D9li "w9nd 9nD9"sån w9d9s"pjËt9Nw9Ùw9zD9"st®ÅNg9wen 9
"t®Evlå kœem 9"lÅN "®Ept 9n9"wom"klåËk Dœe 9"g®idD9/D9"wån hË
"f8ssåk"sid9d9n"mœek9ND9"t®Evlå "tœek 9z"klåËk Åf |"SUd bi
k9n"s9d9d"st®ÅNg9D9nDi"åDå"Den D9"D9li blË9z"d9zhi"kUd |
b9/D9"mohi "blË|D9mo"klåËsli D9"trEvl9"®Ept h9z"klåËk 9"®œond
h9mEn 9t"sD9"D9li "gœev åp Di9"tempt "Den D9"sån SÅn "œo/
"womli |9n9"midi9/li D9"t®Evl9tUk "Åf h9z"klåËk 9n"såË D9"D9li
w9z9"blAeÃdt9k9n"fes D9/D9"sån w9zD9"st®ÅNg9®9vD9"
References
BAUER ,L.&WARREN, P. (2004a). New Zealand English: phonology. In Kortmann, B., Schneider, E. W.,
Burridge, K., Mesthrie, R. & Upton, C. (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English, 580–602. Berlin &
New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
BAUER ,L.&WARREN, P. (2004b). Curing the Goat’s Mouth. In Cassidy, S., Cox, F., Mannell, R. &
Palethorpe, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th Australian International Conference on Speech Science
and Technology, 215–220. Canberra: Australian Speech Science and Technology Association Inc.
WELLS, J. C. (1982). Accents of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
... More broadly, the notion that social information attributed to a speaker can influence the categorization of speech has been supported by experiments demonstrating that the perceived age of a speaker can also induce perceptual biases in listeners. Drager (2011) observed that the perceptual boundary between dress and trap vowels for NZE-speakers shifted according to the implied age of a speaker with older listeners perceiving more (Cox & Palethorpe, 2007) and NZE (Bauer et al., 2007). ...
... Consistent with and Hay and Drager (2010), the target vowels in this study are kit, dress, and trap. Figure 1.1 gives a schematic of the approximate relative positioning in the vowel space of kit, dress, and trap for AusE and NZE (according to Palethorpe, 2007 andBauer, Warren, Bardsley, Kennedy, &Major, 2007). For consistency and clarity, Wells' (1982) lexical set labels will be used when referring to vowels. ...
... Consistent with and Hay and Drager (2010), the target vowels in this study are kit, dress, and trap. Figure 1.1 gives a schematic of the approximate relative positioning in the vowel space of kit, dress, and trap for AusE and NZE (according to Palethorpe, 2007 andBauer, Warren, Bardsley, Kennedy, &Major, 2007). For consistency and clarity, Wells' (1982) lexical set labels will be used when referring to vowels. ...
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... To answer this question, a speech production task was designed using the voice of a male Australian as that of the model talker (like the RP speaker in the Bourhis and Giles study) and New Zealand participants. Australian and New Zealand Englishes (AuE and NZE) share many basic dialect features (Bauer, Warren, Bardsley, Kennedy, & Major 2007, Cox & Palethorpe 2007, but there are several key differences in the front vowel monophthongs (Watson, Harrington, & Evans 1998, Easton & Bauer 2000. Ongoing sound changes in NZE have made the front vowel space particularly distinct in the two dialects (Maclagan & Hay 2007). ...
... Note that in each case, the NZE vowel articulations feature a more retracted tongue shape than the one used by the Tongan participants, in agreement with the overall differences observed at the back of the tongue during note productions. Acoustic descriptions of NZE (Gordon et al., 2004;Maclagan and Hay, 2004;Bauer et al., 2007;Bauer and Warren, 2008) indicate that NZE DRESS (/e/) is 'close' compared to a more 'cardinal' pronunciation of the /e/ vowel in Tongan; similarly, the NZE THOUGHT vowel (/o:/) is comparatively raised, possibly due to a chain shift documented for other varieties of English that motivates it to move into the space vacated by the fronted GOOSE vowel (/0:/) (Ferragne and Pellegrino, 2010, p. 30;cf. Scobbie et al., 2012;Stuart-Smith et al., 2015). ...
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... In New Zealand English, the symbol [ ] has been employed to transcribe schwa and schwar, as well as the high front lax vowel of North American English (see Bauer, Warren, Bardsley, Kennedy, & Major, 2007 ] 9 "shirt"; and Swedish has the vowel in full [ ] "full" (Haugen, 1987). As noted earlier, in nonrhotic accents of English, we find [ ] in err and bird; and some accents have the rounded version (e.g., South Wales English): for example, word [ ] (first author's language competence). ...
... Part 1: Foundations (Bauer et al., 2007) and south Walian English shirt [ t] . The low central vowel [ ] has been described in Khmer (Jacob, 1968), Cantonese and Portuguese (IPA, 1999), and it was seen above in the German example Müller (miller) [mYl ]. ...
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Prompted by an overlap in our transcriptions of the MOUTH and GOAT vowels in New Zealand English (NZE), we conducted an acoustic analysis of these diphthongs in samples of NZE for three age groups and two speaker sex groups. In addition, we considered the realization of the CURE vowel, since the start and end points of this diphthong appeared to overlap with the end and start points of MOUTH and GOAT. We conclude that although there is overlap in MOUTH and GOAT, our initial confusion of these vowels in transcription reflects our reliance on monophthongal phoneme target values for start and end points of the diphthongs, and that a closer phonetic analysis allows better discrimination of the vowels, which should be reflected in our choice of transcription symbols. We conclude also that while the endpoint of the CURE vowel does indeed overlap with the start point of MOUTH and GOAT, the start point of CURE lies between the endpoints of the other two.
Curing the Goat's Mouth Accents of English
  • L Warren
BAUER, L. & WARREN, P. (2004b). Curing the Goat's Mouth. In Cassidy, S., Cox, F., Mannell, R. & Palethorpe, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th Australian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology, 215–220. Canberra: Australian Speech Science and Technology Association Inc. WELLS, J. C. (1982). Accents of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
New Zealand English: phonology A Handbook of Varieties of English
  • L Bauer
  • P Warren
BAUER, L. & WARREN, P. (2004a). New Zealand English: phonology. In Kortmann, B., Schneider, E. W., Burridge, K., Mesthrie, R. & Upton, C. (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English, 580–602. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
g®i…d D9/ D9 "wån hË… "f8…s såk"si…d9d 9n "moeek9N D9 "t®Evlå "toeek 9z "klåËk Åf | "SUd bi… k9n"s9d9d "st®ÅNg9 D9n Di "åDå "Den D9 "såD9li blË… 9z "hå…d 9z hi "kUd | b9/ D9 "mo… hi "blË… | D9 mo… "klåËsli D9 "trEvl9 "®Ept h9z "klåËk 9
  • L Warren
transcription D9 "såD9li "w9nd 9n D9 "sån w9 d9s"pjË…t9N w9Ù w9z D9 "st®ÅNg9 wen 9 "t®Evlå koeem 9"lÅN "®Ept 9n 9 "wo…m "klåËk Doee 9"g®i…d D9/ D9 "wån hË… "f8…s såk"si…d9d 9n "moeek9N D9 "t®Evlå "toeek 9z "klåËk Åf | "SUd bi… k9n"s9d9d "st®ÅNg9 D9n Di "åDå "Den D9 "såD9li blË… 9z "hå…d 9z hi "kUd | b9/ D9 "mo… hi "blË… | D9 mo… "klåËsli D9 "trEvl9 "®Ept h9z "klåËk 9"®oeond h9m En 9t "lå…s D9 "såD9li "goeev åp Di 9"tempt "Den D9 "sån SÅn "oeo/ "wo…mli | 9n 9"mi…di9/li D9 "t®Evl9 tUk "Åf h9z "klåËk 9n "såË D9 "såD9li w9z 9"blAeÃd t9 k9n"fes D9/ D9 "sån w9z D9 "st®ÅNg9® 9v D9 "tË… References BAUER, L. & WARREN, P. (2004a). New Zealand English: phonology. In Kortmann, B., Schneider, E. W., Burridge, K., Mesthrie, R. & Upton, C. (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English, 580-602. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.