# Forces of Internal Combustion Heat Engines

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Abstract
This paper presents an algorithm for setting the dynamic parameters of the classic main mechanism of the internal combustion engines. It shows the distribution of the forces (on the main mechanism of the engine) to the internal combustion heat engines. Dynamic, the velocities can be distributed in the same way as forces. Practically, in the dynamic regimes, the velocities have the same timing as the forces. The method is applied separately for two distinct situations: when the engine is working on a compressor and into the motor system. For the two separate cases, two independent formulas are obtained for the engine dynamic cinematic (forces speeds). Calculations should be made for an engine with a single cylinder. The velocity change in dynamic feels like a variation in the angular speed the engine shaft. It is more difficult to be considered (theoretically) the effect on multi-cylinder engine.
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International Review on Modelling and Simulations (I.RE.MO.S.), Vol. 7, n. 1
February 2014
Forces of Internal Combustion Heat Engines
Florian Ion T. Petrescu1, Relly Victoria V. Petrescu2
Abstract This paper presents an algorithm for setting the dynamic parameters of the classic
main mechanism of the internal combustion engines. It shows the distribution of the forces (on the
main mechanism of the engine) to the internal combustion heat engines. Dynamic, the velocities
can be distributed in the same way as forces. Practically, in the dynamic regimes, the velocities
have the same timing as the forces. The method is applied separately for two distinct situations:
when the engine is working on a compressor and into the motor system. For the two separate
cases, two independent formulas are obtained for the engine dynamic cinematic (forces speeds).
Calculations should be made for an engine with a single cylinder. The velocity change in dynamic
feels like a variation in the angular speed the engine shaft. It is more difficult to be considered
(theoretically) the effect on multi-cylinder engine.
Keywords: Forces distribution, Velocities distribution, Forces speeds, Dynamic regimes, Internal
combustion heat engines, Compressor system, Motor system
Nomenclature
Fm: is the motor force;
vm: is the motor velocity;
F: is the tangential force, which produces the rotation of
the element;
v: is the tangential velocity, which produces the rotation
of the element;
Fn: is the normal force, which is transmitted along the
connecting rod;
vn: is the normal velocity, which is transmitted along the
connecting rod;
FR: is the radial force, who press on the cylinder barrel in
which guides the piston;
vR: is the radial velocity, who press on the cylinder barrel
in which guides the piston (This velocity produces a
Fu: the utile force, Fu, moves the piston (when the
mechanism is in compressor system), and rotates the
crank (when the mechanism is in motor system);
vu: the utile velocity, vu, moves the piston (when the
mechanism is in compressor system), and rotates the
crank (when the mechanism is in motor system);
Fc: is the force of compression, and presses on the
crankpin (B) and then on the crank and bearing (A);
vc: is the velocity of compression, and presses on the
crankpin (B) and then on the crank and bearing (A); this
velocity produces vibrations on the bearings;
C
v
: is the normal (cinematic) velocity of the point C;
cDinC
v.
: is the dynamic velocity of the point C (in
compressor system);
mDin C
v.
: is the dynamic velocity of the point C (in motor
system);
C
a
: is the normal (cinematic) acceleration of the point
C;
cDinC
a.
: is the dynamic acceleration of the point C (in
compressor system);
mDin C
a.
: is the dynamic acceleration of the point C (in
motor system);
1=: is the position angle of the crank;
1=: is the constant angular rotation speed of the crank
(the motor shaft);
w1=w: is the variable (dynamic) angular rotation speed
of the crank (the motor shaft);
2=: is the position angle of the rod (element 2), if the
rod is considered from the point C;
: is the angular rotation speed of the rod (element 2);
2=: is the position angle of the rod, if the rod is
considered from the point B;
l1: is the length of the crank;
l2: is the length of the rod (the connecting rod);
: is the raport between l1 and l2;
c
D
: is the dynamic coefficient (in compressor system);
c
D
: is the derivative of
;
m
D
: is the dynamic coefficient (in motor system);
m
D
: is the derivative of
m
D
.
I. Introduction
In conditions which started to magnetic motors, oil
fuel is decreasing, energy which was obtained by burning
oil is replaced with nuclear energy, hydropower, solar
energy, wind, and other types of unconventional energy,
in the conditions in which electric motors have been
instead of internal combustion in public transport, but
more recently they have entered in the cars world (Honda
Florian Ion T. Petrescu, Relly Victoria V. Petrescu
has produced a vehicle that uses a compact electric motor
and electricity consumed by the battery is restored by a
system that uses an electric generator with hydrogen
combustion in cells, so we have a car that burns
hydrogen, but has an electric motor), which is the role
and prospects which have internal combustion engines
type Otto, Diesel or Wankel [1-30]?
Internal combustion engines in four-stroke (Otto,
Diesel, Wankel) are robust, dynamic, compact, powerful,
reliable, economic, autonomous, independent and will be
increasingly clean [1-30].
Let's look at just remember that any electric motor
that destroy ozone in the atmosphere needed our planet
by sparks emitted by collecting brushes. Immediate
consequence is that if we only use electric motors in all
sectors, we’ll have problems with higher ozone shield
that protects our planet and without which no life could
exist on Earth.
Magnetic motors (combined with the electromagnetic)
are just in the beginning, but they offer us a good
perspective, especially in the aeronautics industry [9].
Probably at the beginning they will not be used to act
as a direct transmission, but will generate electricity that
will fill the battery that will actually feed the engine
(probably an electric motor).
The Otto engines or those with internal combustion in
general, will have to adapt to hydrogen fuel [6].
It is composed of the basic (hydrogen) can extract
industrially, practically from any item (or combination)
through nuclear, chemical, photonic by radiation, by
burning, etc... (Most easily hydrogen can be extracted
from water by breaking up into constituent elements,
hydrogen and oxygen; by burning hydrogen one obtains
water again that restores a circuit in nature, with no losses
and no pollution) [6-26].
Hydrogen must be stored in reservoirs cell (a
honeycomb) for there is no danger of explosion; the best
would be if we could breaking up water directly on the
vehicle, in which case the reservoir would feed water
(and there were announced some successful) [6].
As a backup (not too desired), there are trees that can
donate a fuel oil, which could be planted on the extended
zone, or directly in the consumer court. With many years
ago, Professor Melvin Calvin, (Berkeley University),
discovered that “Euphora” tree, a rare species, contained
in its trunk a liquid that has the same characteristics as
raw oil. The same professor discovered on the territory of
Brazil, a tree which contains in its trunk a fuel with
properties similar to diesel [28].
During a journey in Brazil, the natives driven him
(Professor Calvin) to a tree called by them "Copa-Iba".
At the time of boring the tree trunk, from it to begin
flow a gold liquid, which was used as indigenous raw
material base for the preparation of perfumes or, in
concentrated form, as a balm. Nobody see that it is a pure
fuel that can be used directly by diesel engines.
Calvin said that after he poured the liquid extracted
from the tree trunk directly into the tank of his car
(equipped with a diesel), engine functioned
irreproachable.
In Brazil the tree is fairly widespread. It could be
adapted in other areas of the world, planted in the forests,
and the courts of people [28].
From a jagged tree is filled about half of the tank; one
covers the slash and it is not open until after six months;
it means that having 12 trees in a courtyard, a man can
fill monthly a tank with the new natural diesel fuel.
In some countries producing alcohol or vegetable oils,
for their use as fuel (this is not a very efficient solution).
The Indians propose a Little Car driven with
compressed air, (but one uses an internal engine as well,
to compress the air in a tank); this solution isn’t
efficiently; its low consumption is due to the small gauge
of car and its load very low.
This new little vehicle isn’t a real but only a quaint
solution.
In the future, aircraft will use ion engines, magnetic,
laser or various micro particles accelerated.
Now, and the life of the jet engine begin to end. Even
in these conditions internal combustion engines will be
maintained in land vehicles (at least), for power,
reliability and especially their dynamics.
Otto engines design [1-30], includes and the dynamic
design.
Old gasoline engine, we carry every day for nearly
150 years. “Old Otto engine” (and his brother, Diesel) is
today: younger, more robust, more dynamic, more
powerful, more economical, more independent, more
reliable, quieter, cleaner, more compact, more
sophisticated, more stylish, more secure, and more
especially necessary. At the global level we can manage
to remove annually about 60,000 cars. But annually
appear other million cars (see the table 1).
Table 1. World cars produced
year
cars produced
in the world
2011
59,929,016
2010
58,264,852
2009
47,772,598
2008
52,726,117
2007
53,201,346
2006
49,918,578
2005
46,862,978
2004
44,554,268
2003
41,968,666
2002
41,358,394
2001
39,825,888
2000
41,215,653
1999
39,759,847
Planet supports now about one billion motor vehicles
in circulation. Even if we stop totally production of heat
engines, would still need 10,000 years to eliminate total
the existing car park. Electric current is still produced in
Florian Ion T. Petrescu, Relly Victoria V. Petrescu
majority by combustion of hydrocarbons, making the
hydrocarbon losses to be higher when we use electric
motors. When we will have electric current obtained only
from green energy, sustainable and renewable energy
sources, it is only then that we'll be able to enter
Otto and diesel engines are today the best solution for
the transport of our day-to-day work, together and with
electric motors and those with reaction.
For these reasons it is imperative as we can calculate
exactly the engine efficiency, in order to can increase it
permanently.
II. Presents the Algorithm for the Otto
Engine in Compressor System
It presents an algorithm for setting the dynamic
parameters of the classic main mechanism of the internal
combustion engines. It shows the distribution of the
forces (on the main mechanism of the engine) to the
internal combustion heat engines [25]. Dynamic, the
velocities can be distributed in the same way as forces.
Practically, in the dynamic regimes, the velocities have
the same timing as the forces [19-23].
The method is applied separately for two distinct
situations: when the engine is working on a compressor
and into the motor system. For the two separate cases,
two independent formulas are obtained for the engine
dynamic cinematic (forces speeds). Calculations should
be made for an engine with a single cylinder. It is more
difficult to be considered (theoretically) the effect on
multi-cylinder engine.
We starting with the engine main mechanism in
compressor system (when the motor mechanism is acting
from the crank; see the fig. 1) [19-23].
Now we are going to watch forces distribution in this
case (fig. 1). The motor force Fm, perpendicular in B on
the crank 1, is divided in two components: Fn and F. The
normal force, Fn, is transmitted along the rod (connecting
rod) from point B to the point C. The tangential force, F,
is a rotating force which made the rotation of the
connecting rod (element 2). The Fn (normal) force from
the point C is divided as well in two components: Fu and
FR. The utile force, Fu, moves the piston, and the radial
force, FR, press on the cylinder barrel in which guides the
piston. Dynamic, the velocities can be distributed in the
same way as forces. Practically, in the dynamic regimes,
the velocities have the same timing as the forces: vm: is
the motor velocity; vn: is the normal velocity, which is
transmitted along the connecting rod; v: is the tangential
velocity, which produces the rotation of the element; vR:
is the radial velocity, who press on the cylinder barrel in
which guides the piston (This velocity produces a radial
vibration); vu: The utile velocity, moves the piston (when
the mechanism is in compressor system).
Fig. 1. The forces and velocities distribution in engine
mechanism, when it is operated of the crank (element 1)
We can write the following relations of calculation (1-
2).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
c
C
c
C
c
C
cDin
C
cDin
C
C
CC
C
cccDinc
c
cc
C
cDinC
u
cDinC
mnR
mnu
mm
mmn
Bm
dt
d
v
dt
d
a
ll
a
lva
lv
dt
d
DDw
D
D
l
Dvv
lvv
vvv
vvv
vvv
vvv
lvv
..
2
11
1
1
.
2
1
.
1
.
2
2
1
sin cossin
sin
cos
coscossin
sinsin
2sincossin2;
sin
sin
sin
sinsin
cossincos
sinsinsin
coscos
sinsin
(1)
Florian Ion T. Petrescu, Relly Victoria V. Petrescu
 
 
 
c
C
c
C
cDin
C
c
C
c
c
C
cDinC
c
C
DvDaa
vl
a
D
Dvv
D
lv
.
1
.
2
1
22
sin coscos
2sin
sin
sin
1
sin
sinsin
cosarccos
cos1sin
coscos
(2)
The forces of mechanism can be seen in the Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The forces of mechanism, when it is operated from
the crank (element 1)
Express motive power through conservation of
powers of all the mechanism (system 3).
 
 
1
11
22
2211
2211
sinsin
sinsin
;0
0
2222
2222
3322
22
lFM
ly
yFxFMyF
F
FF
y
yFyFxFMlF
F
FFyFyFyF
xFMlFP
mm
C
G
iy
GG
ix
G
i
C
iy
C
m
mu
C
C
iy
CG
iy
GG
ix
G
i
m
u
RuCRG
iy
GG
iy
G
G
ix
G
i
m
(3)
In the diagram below (fig. 3) we compare this new
torque with the classic.
The new torque was determined considering the
variation of velocities with forces and forces variation
due to velocities (system 3) [19-23].
Fig. 3. The classical torque and the new torque
III. Presents the Algorithm for the Otto
Engine in Motor System
Now, we shall see the engine main mechanism in
motor system (when the motor mechanism is acting from
the piston; see the fig. 4) [19-23].
In this case the useful power is a real one, being
produced by the motor piston (element 3).
Florian Ion T. Petrescu, Relly Victoria V. Petrescu
It is to be noted that motive power on now from the
piston is divided in two components, normal and
tangential, only normal component being transmitted
through con rod to the coupler B, where shall also be
divided into two other components, Fu and Fc, of which
only useful component is turning the handle, while
component of compression presses on the crankpin (B)
and then on the crank and bearing (A).
Dynamic, the velocities can be distributed in the same
way as forces. Practically, in the dynamic regimes, the
velocities have the same timing as the forces: vm: is the
motor velocity; vn: is the normal velocity, which is
transmitted along the connecting rod; v: is the tangential
velocity, which produces the rotation of the rod (element
2); vc: is the velocity of compression, and presses on the
crankpin (B) and then on the crank and bearing (A); this
velocity produces vibrations on the bearings; vu: the utile
velocity, rotates the crank (when the mechanism is in
motor system).
Fig. 4. The forces and velocities distribution in engine
mechanism, when it is operated of the piston (element 3)
We can write the following relations of calculation (4-
5).
   
   
   
 
 
m
C
m
C
mDin
C
c
C
m
m
mm
B
mDin
B
mDin
Bu
u
mnu
mn
DvDaa
vl
a
D
D
DlDvv
vlv
l
v
vvv
vv
.
1
2
1
.
.2
1
1
sin coscos
2sin
sin
sin
sinsin
sin
sin
sinsinsin
sin
(4)
 
 
 
 
 
m
C
m
C
mDin
C
c
C
m
m
C
mDin C
m
C
DvDaa
vl
a
D
Dvv
D
lv
.
1
.
2
1
22
sin coscos
2sin
sin
sin
1
sin
sinsin
cosarccos
cos1sin
coscos
(5)
IV. The Diagrams
The diagrams of velocities and accelerations can be
seen in the figures below [19-23]. In fig. 5 it presents the
velocities (cinematic and dynamic) in compressor system
Florian Ion T. Petrescu, Relly Victoria V. Petrescu
and in the fig. 7 the same velocities in motor system. The
acceleration (cinematic and dynamic) can be seen in the
fig. 6 (compressor system) and 8 (motor system);
(=0.33; n=3000 [rpm]).
Fig. 5. The cinematic and dynamic velocities to a heat
mono cylinder engine, in compressor system
Fig. 6. The cinematic and dynamic accelerations to a
heat mono cylinder engine, in compressor system
Fig. 7. The cinematic and dynamic velocities to a heat
mono cylinder engine, in motor system
Fig. 8. The cinematic and dynamic accelerations to a
heat mono cylinder engine, in motor system
V. Conclusions
To the internal combustion heat engines the real
velocities and accelerations (in dynamic regimes) are
different that the cinematic (classic) velocities and
accelerations. Dynamic, the velocities can be distributed
in the same way as forces. Practically, in the dynamic
regimes, the velocities have the same timing as the forces.
The method is applied separately for two distinct
situations: when the engine is working on a compressor
and into the motor system. Large variations occur in
motor system. The velocity change in dynamic feels like
a variation in the angular speed the engine shaft.
Calculations should be made for an engine with a single
cylinder. It is more difficult to be considered
(theoretically) the effect on multi-cylinder engine [27].
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Authors’ information
1Dr. Eng. Florian Ion T. Petrescu, Senior Lecturer at UPB (Bucharest
Polytechnic University), TMR (Theory of Mechanisms and Robots)
department.
2Dr. Eng. Relly Victoria V. Petrescu, Senior Lecturer at UPB
(Bucharest Polytechnic University), TTL (Transport, Traffic and
Logistics) department. 1. Ph.D. Eng. Florian Ion T. PETRESCU
Senior Lecturer at UPB (Bucharest
Polytechnic University), Theory of
Mechanisms and Robots department,
Date of birth: March.28.1958; Higher
education: Polytechnic University of
with overall average 9.63;
Doctoral Thesis: "Theoretical and
Applied Contributions About the Dynamic of Planar Mechanisms with
Superior Joints".
Expert in: Industrial Design, Mechanical Design, Engines Design,
Mechanical Transmissions, Dynamics, Vibrations, Mechanisms,
Machines, Robots, Automotive, Vehicles, Aircraft, Aerospace, Physics,
Nuclear Physics, Quantum Physics.
Association:
Vice President of ARoTMM (Romanian Association on Theory of
Mechanisms and Machines, Bucharest Branch);
Vice President of SRR (Romanian Society of Robotics, Bucharest
Branch);
Member of Board of IFToMM (International Federation on Theory of
Mechanisms and Machines);
Member: ARoTMM, IFToMM, SIAR, FISITA, SRR, AGIR.
2. Ph.D. Eng. Relly Victoria V.
PETRESCU
Senior Lecturer at UPB (Bucharest
Polytechnic University), Transport,
Traffic and Logistics department,
Citizenship: Romanian;
Date of birth: March.13.1958;
Higher education: Polytechnic
University of Bucharest, Faculty of
average 9.50;
Doctoral Thesis: "Contributions to analysis and synthesis of
mechanisms with bars and sprocket".
Expert in Industrial Design, Engineering Mechanical Design,
Engines Design, Mechanical Transmissions, Projective and descriptive
geometry, Technical drawing, CAD, Automotive engineering, Vehicles,
Transportations.
Association:
Member ARoTMM, IFToMM, SIAR, FISITA, SRR, SORGING,
AGIR.
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In this study, the authors present a new method to dynamically synthesize a mechanism with rotary cam and rotated tappet with roll, used with priority at the distribution mechanisms from the heat engines with internal combustion. This type of distribution can improve the changes of gases and may decrease significantly the level of vibration, noises and emissions. As long as we produce electricity and heat by burning fossil fuels it is pointless to try to replace all thermal engines with electric motors, as the loss of energy and pollution will be even larger. However, thermal engines should be continuously improved to reduce fuel consumption. A great loss of power is attributed to heat engines with internal combustion and distribution mechanism, a reason for the improvement of the functionality of this mechanism. The dynamic synthesis of this type of distribution mechanism can be made shortly, by the Cartesian coordinates, but to determine these coordinates we need trigonometric parameters of the mechanism. Dynamics and forces of this distribution mechanism are presented as well. One introduces the dynamic coefficient D.
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This paper describes an experimental study conducted to identify the common engine part load conditions between Malaysian city driving and NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) test on a 4 cylinder gasoline fuelled engine, with multi-point fuel injection system, and continuous variable transmission vehicle. This is to pinpoint a regional area from the part load map in the attempt to strategize key technologies such as CDA (Cylinder Deactivation) or CNG (Compressed Natural Gas). Technologies such as CDA or CNG do not operate at all engine operations. Due to certain drawbacks, the operation of the technologies must be strategized to obtain most benefit from the engine. With the knowledge of the common part load region, these technologies could be integrated and strategized into the region to reduce overall fuel consumption. With improvements in fuel consumption respective to the identified common part load operations, the overall fuel consumption benefit does not only serve the legislation but also most importantly benefit the local consumers who travel on Malaysian roads.
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The rising energy needs resulting from increased claim and diminishing supply, alternative energy sources are receiving more attention. In addition, the increasing global concern has caused to focus on the oxygenated diesel fuels because of the environmental pollution from internal combustion engines. Vegetable oils possess almost the same heat values as that of diesel fuel with inherently high viscosity. Vegetable oil is easily available, renewable fuel with short carbon cycle period and is environment friendly. These are the triggering factors for research all over the world to consider vegetable oils and their derivatives as alternative to petroleum diesel. Researchers experimented that vegetable oil fuelled engine power output and fuel consumption are comparable to diesel when fuelled with vegetable oil and its blends and produce less carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and particulate emissions compared to mineral diesel fuel but higher NOx emissions than that of pure diesel fuel. This paper reviews the various production techniques, properties of vegetable oil and its biodiesel along with the challenges faced and experiments carried out by various researchers around the world.
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