Article

Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of mandelic acid-containing cosmetic formulations for acne skin care

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Abstract

Introduction. Acne vulgaris is a common, chronic skin disease that shows a characteristic clinical picture. Skin lesions occur primarily in the seborrheic areas of the body, i.e., the face, back, and chest. Mandelic acid yields very good results when used to treat excessive actinic keratosis (keratosis actinica), hyperpigmentation (lentigo solaris and melasma), and meshlike wrinkles, which are primarily caused by sun-induced aging of the skin. This therapy is well suited for the care of skin with acne vulgaris. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of dermo-cosmetics containing 5% or 10% mandelic acid for the skin care of patients with acne vulgaris. Material and methods. An open study was carried out on 60 patients with papulo-pustular acne, who applied dermocosmetics to their skin for 2 months. Patients were divided into two subgroups of 30 patients each. One group was tested with a 5% mandelic acid containing cosmetic while the other group was tested with a 10% mandelic acid containing cosmetic. After the treatment was completed, acne severity was evaluated according to the Hellgren-Vincent scale. Results. Physical examinations performed during the study revealed a gradual improvement in the condition of the skin in both groups, with a reduction in the number of pustules, inflammatory nodules, and comedones. The proportion of patients in each group showing a reduction in disease severity according to the Hellgren-Vincent scale was similar. Conclusions. The results of the present study show that products containing 5% or 10% mandelic acid are both safe and effective for the treatment of acne.

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... A relatively hydrophilic molecule was chosen as the active ingredient in this work, suitable for UV determination: mandelic acid (MA). This active ingredient is an important model molecule in cosmetic and pharmaceuticals, since that yields very good results when used to treat excessive actinic keratosis, hyperpigmentation and mesh-like wrinkles, which are primarily due to sun exposure-induced aging of the skin [160]. MA is classified by the International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) as an alpha-hydroxy acid, and it is harvested from the extract of bitter almonds via the hydrolisis of benzaldehyde. ...
... Typical concentrations of MA employed in pharmaceutical applications, range until a max. 10% aqueous solutions [160]. For instance, the pH of a diluted aqueous solution of 1.5 g MA / 100 g H 2 O (1.5 %) shows a pH of 2.7. ...
Thesis
In the past decade, the growing use of numerous novel technologies as controlled-delivery systems has prompted a costly trial-and-error development of new and effective systems. In order to facilitate a more rational design and optimization, facing the set of existing possibilities, any solution that could semiautomate the product development would bring precious help to the users (formulation scientists and educators). This would facilitate the essential importance of choosing the right materials for the correct application. In this thesis, a long-term project concerning a reverse engineering is proposed, starting from a final usage property (controlled release), the global target is to develop a product design methodology which allows us to determine the optimal features of a formulation to prepare: phases in presence, composition, interface type, size and distribution of current objects, phase equilibrium, diffusion within phases and evolutionary character of the material. Considering a convenience example of structured-dispersed system: highly concentrated emulsions, the design problem has been decomposed into a hierarchical sequence of subproblems or boxes, combining constitutive models that estimate the active ingredient mass transport as a function of formulation parameters and computer-aided techniques such as molecular modeling for volume/area of molecules, or UNIFAC models for equilibria predictions as well as for mixture viscosities estimations. A subsequent full factorial design of virtual experiments has allowed to obtain a quantitative description of the release depending on the model parameters, and a principal component analysis has assessed the importance of the variables. Using a cartography focused on three surfactants (SPAN 80, PGPR and BRIJ 93), four oils (dodecane, hexadecane, isopropyl myristate and isopropyl palmitate) and mandelic acid as an active ingredient, the ab-initio physicochemical model has been experimentally validated. Results show that the mechanistic model consistently predicts the diffusion of the active ingredient from emulsions to a release medium in perfect sink conditions. This reverse engineering approach is showing to be of very high interest in the domain of formulation by allowing fast and robust screening preliminary studies on a broad range of components as well as precise and rigorous prediction tools to optimize controlled release from an identified system. It is fully recommended to implement its extensions to other similar disperse systems
... A relatively hydrophilic molecule was chosen as the active ingredient in this work, suitable for UV determination: mandelic acid (MA). This active ingredient is an important model molecule in cosmetic and pharmaceuticals, since that yields very good results when used to treat excessive actinic keratosis, hyperpigmentation and mesh-like wrinkles, which are primarily due to sun exposure-induced aging of the skin [160]. MA is classified by the International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) as an alpha-hydroxy acid, and it is harvested from the extract of bitter almonds via the hydrolisis of benzaldehyde. ...
... Typical concentrations of MA employed in pharmaceutical applications, range until a max. 10% aqueous solutions [160]. For instance, the pH of a diluted aqueous solution of 1.5 g MA / 100 g H 2 O (1.5 %) shows a pH of 2.7. ...
... Mandelic acid is the chiral compound, applied as the building block in pharmaceutical synthesis. In dermatology, mandelic acid, because of its exfoliating and moisturizing activity, is contained in creams for patients with sensitive skin with moderate acne [35]. The (R)-mandelic acid methyl ester (MAME) was used in the evaluation of the specificity of acylase from various origins (Escherichia coli, Kluyvera citrophila, Acetobacter turbidans, Bacillus megaterium) [36]. ...
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