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Object Manipulation in Infants and Children

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... This should include the assessment and treatment of poorly developed in-hand manipulation skills. In the context of paediatric practices, in-hand manipulation is inherently linked to the proficiency with which a child performs scholastic, self-care and play tasks [2][3][4][5] . Children with in-hand manipulation delays are often characterised as 'clumsy', with slow and messy fine motor skills 6,7 , or they present with handwriting difficulties 4,8,9 . ...
... When considering that 60% of a school-going child's day is concerned with the fine motor task of writing 18 , it is understandable that practitioners focus on these tasks, specifically when poor in-hand manipulation is suspected. The activity of cutting provides a good opportunity to observe the simple shift movement of the supporting hand as the fingers adjust the paper for cutting 2,4 . In-hand manipulation required to adjust writing utensils includes both complex and simple rotation when correctly orientating the pencil, and complex shift when positioning the fingers on the shaft of the pencil or crayon 3,14 . ...
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Introduction: Assessment of in-hand manipulation is fundamental to guide treatment for children with fine motor delays. Limited literature is available on how South African occupational therapists assess in-hand manipulation. This study aimed to describe which current in-hand manipulation assessment methods are used and what the preferences of occupational therapists in all areas of paediatric practices are regarding a suitable instrument. Methods: Quantitative cross-sectional study design with a non-probability, purposive sampling method was used. Participants completed an EvaSys survey system online questionnaire. Results: Two-hundred-and-ninety-two (n=292) occupational therapists registered with the HPCSA participated. Limited familiarity (n=50; 17.1%) with the formal assessment instruments described in literature was reported. The informal assessment methods most commonly used were subjective observation of tasks (n=287; 98.3%) of scholastic tasks (n=261; 89.4%) and play tasks (n=255; 87.3%) for children between the ages of five to six years (n=273; 93.5%). Preferences supported a descriptive instrument accompanied by a user manual that is administered under 15 minutes, in multiple languages, and with attention to the quality of movements and compensatory techniques used by the child. Conclusion: Results showed that the current and preferred assessment methods used by occupational therapists might provide guidance for the future development of a contextual, relevant in-hand manipulation instrument for paediatric practices in South Africa.
... This systematic variation of the implement orientation was designed to prevent any bias of grip forms from the implement orientation. In a pilot study, some 3-and 4-year-olds were observed to not adjust their grip after initially picking it up, consistent with research on in-hand manipulation skills (Pehoski, 1995). The order of the five implements was varied using a Latin- square design, with each order repeated twice within each group of 10 participants. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the grip scale presented by Schneck and Henderson, the effect of grip form on drawing accuracy, and the effect of implement diameter on grip form and drawing accuracy. Sixty boys and girls who were 3, 4, and 5 years of age performed 20 trials of a precision drawing task, 4 trials each with five implements of varying diameters (4.7, 7.9, 11.1, 14.3, and 17.5 mm). First, all 1,200 grips could be coded according to Schneck and Henderson's 10-grip whole-configuration assessment system, but the interrater reliability was lower than expected (.67 proportion of perfect agreement). Second, using Schneck's five-level scoring system, the level of grip significantly affected drawing accuracy, with the highest grip level used most often with the highest accuracy scores and the lowest observed grip level used most often with the lowest accuracy scores. Third, increasing implement diameter led to significantly lower level grips but did not significantly affect accuracy. Therapists are recommended to use Schneck and Henderson's 10-grip scale only for documenting the persons' grips and changes in their grips, but if comparisons between individual persons are desired, then Schneck's five-level scale, which affords greater generalizability, should be used. Further, children with graphomotor performance deficits are not likely to benefit from grip manipulations because such strategies were shown to make better only performance that is already good.
... 19 Complementary hand use, i.e. when the hands do different things such as when one is holding and the other is manipulating, does not evolve until between 11 months and 12 months of age (item 17). 20 This agreement with the existing literature indicates that the items of HAI properly describe the skills they are intended to capture. ...
Article
Aim To create normative reference values for unilateral and bilateral use of the hands, using the Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI), a newly developed criterion‐referenced assessment measuring hand use in infants aged 3 months to 12 months at risk of cerebral palsy (CP). Method In total, 489 HAI assessments of typically developing infants (243 females, 246 males), aged 3 months to 10 months (mean 6mo 14d [SD 2mo 5d]), were collected in Italy and Sweden. Normative growth curves based on mean and SDs were created, as well as skill acquisition curves for each test item. Correlation to age and differences between groups based on sex and nationality, as well as differences between the right and the left hand, were investigated. Results The growth curves showed a steady increase in mean value and a decrease in SD over age. There were no differences between groups based on sex or nationality. There was a negligible mean difference (0.1 raw score) between the right and left hands. Interpretation HAI normative reference values are now available, which can assist in identifying deviating hand use for each month of age, as well as a side difference between hands in infants at risk of CP.
... From around 2 years of age on, these basic hand skills become more mature as children engage in activities which require more than one group of fine-motor skills. Between the ages of three and six, there is a rapid improvement in what are termed manipulative skills, such as bimanual skills, manual dexterity, eye-hand coordination, and object manipulation (Opper, 1996;Pehoski, 2006). ...
Article
Most of the fine-motor assessment tools used in Hong Kong have been designed in Western countries, so there is a need to develop a standardized assessment which is relevant to the culture and daily living tasks of the local (that is, Chinese) population. This study aimed to (1) develop a fine-motor assessment tool (the Hong Kong Preschool Fine-Motor Developmental Assessment [HK-PFMDA]) for use with young children in a Chinese population and (2) examine the HK-PFMDA's psychometric properties. The HK-PFMDA was developed by a group of occupational therapists specializing in the area of developmental disabilities in Hong Kong. A panel of 21 experts reviewed the content validity of the instrument. Rasch item analysis was used to examine the model fit of items against the rating scale model, and to explore the dimensionality of the test. Intra- and interrater reliability, convergent validity, and criterion-related validity were examined. The participants included 783 children without disabilities, 45 with autistic spectrum disorder, and 35 with developmental delay. The Rasch analysis suggested that the 87-item HK-PFMDA had a unidimensional structure, as the items explained most (91.6%) of the variance. The HK-PFMDA demonstrated excellent intra- (ICC = .99) and interrater reliability (ICC = .99), and internal consistency (α ranging from .83 to .92). In terms of validity, the HK-PFMDA had significant positive correlations with both age and the convergent measures of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS-2). A set of normative data for local children aged from birth to 6 years was established. The HK-PFMDA has shown excellent psychometric properties and is suitable for clinical application by occupational therapists in the assessment of fine-motor skills development of young children in Chinese populations.
... Older children see the speed of their movements increase and the variability in their movements decrease. Reaction times to start movements also decrease [234]. ...
Article
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This editorial paper introduces an emerging area for human–computer interaction research, which concerns interaction design and children. To avoid treating children as a homogeneous user group, it discusses some perspectives on their development, their use of technology for entertainment and education and, finally, how to involve children in the various stages of the design process.
... M. Gordon, Forssberg, Johansson, Eliasson, & Westling, 1992; for a review, see A. M. Gordon, 1994). The gradual improvement in behavioral aspects of grasping seems to parallel the gradual maturation of central descending and ascending pathways in humans (e.g., Eyre et al., 1991; see also Armand et al., Chap- ter 7), and takes place in conjunction with qualitative improvements of inde- pendent finger movements (Pehoski, 1994). Since motor development is con- sidered to reflect an increased influence by the corticospinal tract over spinal motor networks, including monosynaptic connections to the motoneurones of the distal hand muscles (Lawrence & Hopkins, 1976;Lemon, 1993), it is likely that the control of the lift task largely relies on cerebral processes. ...
Article
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Publisher Summary This chapter elaborates the sensory control of dexterous manipulation in humans. Successful manipulation requires the subject to select the appropriate pattern of motor commands based on the manipulative intent, on various constraints imposed by the task, and on the relevant physical properties of the manipulated object. The sensorimotor mechanisms employed in precision grip lifting to adapt force output to frictional condition and to object weight operate according to a predictive feed-forward sensory control policy running on at least two time scales. Contextual, cognitive, and movement phase-de pendent interpretations of multisensory input seem to be vital features of the underlying sensorimotor transformations. On an extended time scale, previous experience with the object at hand is used to adjust the motor commands parametrically in advance of the movement. This ability to parameterize default motor commands has been called anticipatory parameter control. It is found that while the task evolves, somatosensory as well as other sources of information may then modify the ongoing behavior. Force coordination across digits is partly an emergent property of these local control mechanisms.
... The learned task function receives real-time video streams and outputs a differential reward vector dRt, which is used as continuous feedbacks in a close-loop UVS controller to guide robot motions in the execution phase. movement patterns with outcomes [14], and (ii) from a control perspective, the human vision system plays a key role [15] in motion control feedback. ...
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We present a robot eye-hand coordination learning method that can directly learn visual task specification by watching human demonstrations. Task specification is represented as a task function, which is learned using inverse reinforcement learning(IRL\cite{Abbeel2004}) by inferring differential rewards between state changes. The learned task function is then used as continuous feedbacks in an uncalibrated visual servoing(UVS\cite{Jagersand1997}) controller designed for the execution phase. Our proposed method can directly learn from raw videos, which removes the need for hand-engineered task specification. It can also provide task interpretability by directly approximating the task function. Besides, benefiting from the use of a traditional UVS controller, our training process is efficient and the learned policy is independent from a particular robot platform. Various experiments were designed to show that, for a certain DOF task, our method can adapt to task/environment variances in target positions, backgrounds, illuminations, and occlusions without prior retraining.
... Haptic object recognition converts tactile stimuli into identifiable information such as object texture, hardness, temperature, weight or shape (Kalagher and Jones, 2011). The development of haptic object recognition using in-hand manipulation underlies a child's ability to control objects necessary for educational activities, and has been shown to directly contribute to cognitive development during infancy (Case-Smith, 2010;Pehoski, 2006). Impairments in sensation can impede the development of new motor tasks (Krumlinde-Sundholm and Eliasson, 2002). ...
Article
Introduction This article examines the effect of age and gender on somatosensory capacity for children and adolescents, and provides preliminary normative data and reliability for the SenScreen © Kids, a new standardised measure of touch, wrist position sense and haptic object recognition. Method A cross-sectional study of 88 typically developing children aged 6–15 years (mean 10.3 years; SD 2.6 years) was used to determine the developmental effects of age and gender on somatosensory capacity. Intra-rater reliability was assessed in 22 of the 88 participants at two time points (mean 8.8 years; SD 2.6 years). Results Statistically significant differences were observed between age groups for tactile discrimination, wrist position sense and haptic object recognition, but not for touch registration for which all except one participant achieved a maximum score. There was no effect of gender. Three of four SenScreen Kids subtests demonstrated good intra-rater agreement between time points. Conclusions Somatosensory capacity increased with age for typically developing children aged 6–15 years. Three subtests of the SenScreen Kids demonstrated good intra-rater reliability with typically developing children. Further investigation of reliability is required, and all subtests require psychometric testing with clinical populations.
... В 10 месяцев ребенок имеет широкий спектр движений рук и пальцев, он засовывает их в рот, стучит, машет, вращает, держит предметы и передает их из руки в руку. Также появляется навык изолирования отдельных пальцев (в первую очередь указательного), что является одним из важных моментов развития навыков манипулирования с предметами (Pehoski, 2006). К 12 месяцам дети уже осваивают пинцетный захват, что дает им возможность манипулировать предметами, поднимая их, поворачивая, помещая и вынимая их из емкости. ...
Book
Монография посвящена актуальной теме изучения и коррекции детско- родительского взаимодействия. В ней анализируются особенности взаимо- действия в замещающих семьях; семьях, воспитывающих детей с ограни- ченными возможностями здоровья и детей, не имеющих особенностей. В работе рассматривается специфика оценки детско-родительского взаимодействия. Особое внимание уделяется освещению подходов к развитию и коррекции детско-родительского взаимодействия. Монография может быть рекомендована широкому кругу лиц: специалистам, родителям, студентам и др.
... Among them, the difference between the ages of fine hand movements is the most significant (P<0. 01) , That is, the development of fine motor is the fastest, which shows that 3-6 years old is a critical period for children's motor development, especially fine motor [18]. ...
Chapter
This chapter describes normal development of hand function and the impact of congenital differences of the upper limb. Additionally, outcome measures at ICF-CY levels are provided. Taking into account functioning on all levels, treatment of each single child is optimized, and maximum results will be received with well-informed, motivated children and their parents.
Article
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Aim Accurate assessment of in-hand manipulation is imperative when treating children with fine motor delays. A clinically suitable instrument for in-hand manipulation is required to inform the paediatric developmental and rehabilitation context. Critical evaluation of the available instrument is required to make an informed decision and direct future research. The aim of the study was to assess the available literature with a view to writing a scoping review on in-hand manipulation assessment instruments for children. Methods The Arskey and O'Malley six-stage scoping review was applied. Fifteen databases were sourced for articles published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2020. After identifying 33 eligible articles that met the inclusion criteria, the data obtained from the articles were charted. Results Eleven in-hand manipulation assessment instruments were identified and summarised according to (i) the constructs of in-hand manipulation included; (ii) clinical utility aspects of applicability and practicality and (iii) psychometric properties. Conclusion At the time of the review, none of the instruments had comprehensively completed the instrument development process to the point of standardisation with evaluated psychometric properties. Further research is recommended for the development of a gold standard in-hand manipulation assessment instrument.
Article
Aims: Compare haptic exploratory procedures (EPs) and exploratory movements (EMs) of children. This study also tested the interrater reliability of a novel digital recording method. Methods: Participants were 31 children with typical development (TD) (aged 6 years 1 month to 15 years 9 months; 14 male) and 23 children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) (aged 6 years to 15 years 5 months; 13 males; right hemiplegia, n = 12). Results: There were no statistically significant differences between groups for expected EP (p = .15), additional EPs (p = .78), or EMs (p = .69) but there was for mean duration of exploration (p < .001) and accuracy (p < .001). This suggests that although children with CP performed similar haptic EPs for each object as children with TD, they took more time and were less accurate in their identification. There was substantial agreement between the two raters' observations of expected EP, κ = .64, p < .0005. Conclusion: Children with CP performed similar haptic EPs as their TD peers. However, despite similarities, the results indicate that for children with CP manual ability was not the primary determinant of accuracy or speed of identification. This study provides evidence for a reliable method of recording haptic EPs.
Chapter
The original work of Bayley in 1969 led to an understanding of how motor skills develop in the child. The Bayley-III Scales reflect this expanded view of motor development. The original scales assumed that infant development reflects neuromaturation and genetic endowment. These assumptions led to a standardized set of procedures to elicit the sequence of skills that appear to be common to human development. Development was viewed to be lockstep, and individual variations in how children performed motor skills were not of great interest. Delays in infant development were attributed to genetic endowment or neurological deficit without considering the infant's environment and opportunities for learning. Since the original Bayley Scales, researchers have demonstrated that, although most infants follow a typical developmental sequence, the ways in which typically developing infants perform specific skills is variable. These researchers and others have demonstrated that infants organize motor actions around functional goals. Motor skill development is influenced by what the physical environment provides, including the objects available to the child. Children adapt locomotion patterns when they detect different possibilities for action. Learning new movement patterns and motor skills is a complex interaction of multiple factors. As infants and children develop strength and balance, their ability to detect possibilities for action improves.
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Learning to reach for and manipulate objects requires considerable neuromotor control and flexibility. Through environmental and object exploration individual neuromotor strategies expand, and prehensile skills improve, as infants and children overcome constraints. Infants and children with prehensile deficits often have difficulty exploring objects and the environment, thus, may not sufficiently develop the strategies needed to expand their prehensile skills. This article reviews neuromotor factors that influence prehension development, discusses limitations to prehensile function and provides guidelines that can be used to examine and enhance prehensile behaviors in infants and young children based on a task-oriented approach addressing impairments, motor strategies and function.
Article
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Children with unilateral disability in hand function (cerebral palsy hemiplegia, brachial plexus palsy) manage bimanual activities by interacting their dominant hand with their affected one as an “assisting” hand. Assisting hand's characteristics are well defined by the concept which underlies the assisting hand assessment (AHA). This new assessment tool, developed by Lena Krumlinde-Sundholm et al., is valid for children between 18 months and 12 years of age, and presents interesting psychometric properties (internal consistency, test-retest reliability, intra- and inter-raters reliability, responsiveness to change). The AHA intends to measure and describe how effectively children with a unilateral disability use their affected hand in play activities requiring bimanual performance, through 22 items. Each item is scored on a 4-point scale, from 1 to 4, according to specific scoring criteria. Scoring is conducted by scrutinizing the video recording and results’ analysis allows defining treatment goals (hierarchy of items). The innovative point of the AHA lies in the fact that it considers real performance. It allows to measure one treatment's impact in real conditions. This tool can be used by French-speaking therapists who follow a course that lead to certification. Always being developed, the AHA will soon be usable for other age groups and diagnostic groups.
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The Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) provides a new perspective of hand function evaluation relevant for children with unilateral upper limb disabilities. It measures how effectively the involved hand is actually used for bimanual activity, which, for these children, might be the most important aspect of their hand function. The aim of this paper is to report the conceptual framework and the evidence for validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change for the measures. Previously, the AHA has been evaluated for children aged 18 months to 5 years and excellent inter- and intrarater reliability was demonstrated. This paper reports further evidence of construct validity and reliability for the AHA measures involving an extended age range of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy or obstetric brachial plexus palsy from 18 months to 12 years of age (mean age 4y 11mo [SD 2y 9mo] range 18mo–12y 8mo). A Rasch measurement model was used to analyze 409 assessments from 303 children (170 males, 133 females). The analysis generated a scale demonstrating large capacity to reliably separate and spread personal ability measures, indicating sensitivity to change and a hierarchy of the items ranging them from easy to hard. Aspects of item fit, relationship between age and ability measures, and development of assisting hand function are discussed.
Article
Background To determine if the “unaffected” hand in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) is truly unaffected. Methods We performed a retrospective review of manual dexterity as measured by the Functional Dexterity Test (FDT) in 66 children (39 boys, 27 girls, mean age: 11 years 4 months) with hemiplegic CP. Data were stratified by Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) level, birth weight, and gestational age at birth, and compared with previously published normative values. Results The FDT speed of the less affected hand is significantly lower than typically developing (TD) children ( P < .001). The development of dexterity is significantly lower than TD children (0.009 vs. 0.036 pegs/s/year, P < .001), with a deficit that increases with age. MACS score, birth weight, and age at gestation are not predictors of dexterity. The dexterity of the less affected hand is poorly correlated with that of the more affected hand. Conclusions Both dexterity and rate of fine motor skill acquisition in the less affected hand of children with hemiplegic CP is significantly less than that of TD children. The less affected hand should be evaluated and included in comprehensive treatment plans for these children.
Article
The aim of this study was to describe how the usefulness of the hemiplegic hand develops in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 18 months and 8 years. A prospective longitudinal study of 43 children (22 males, 21 females) with unilateral CP was conducted. Inclusion age was 18 months to 5 years 4 months (mean 2y 8mo [SD 1y 1mo]). Children were assessed with the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) 3 to 11 times per child over a mean period of 4 years 6 months. Two models were used for grouping children: by AHA score at 18 months and by Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) levels. Estimated average motor development curves were fitted with a nonlinear mixed-effects model. Children with a high AHA score (high ability level) at 18 months reached a significantly higher ability level and at a higher progression rate than children with a low 18-month AHA score. Limits of development differed between the three MACS levels. Results indicate that the AHA score at 18 months can be used to discuss future development of affected hand use in bimanual tasks in children with unilateral CP.
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Background The assessment of preschoolers’ motor skills is essential to know young children’s motor development and evaluate the intervention effects of promotion in children’s sports activities. The purpose of this study was to review the motor skills assessment tools in Chinese pre-school-aged children, compare them in the international context, and provide guidelines to find appropriate motor skill assessment tools for developing children in China. Methods A comprehensive literature search was carried out using the WANFAGN, CNKI, VIP, ERIC, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and SPORT Discus databases. Relevant articles published between January 2000 and May 2020 were retrieved. Studies that described the discriminative and evaluative measures of motor skills among the population aged 3–6 years in China were included. Results A total of 17 studies were included in this study describing seven tools, including four self-developed tools and three international tools used in China. TGMD-2 appeared in a large proportion of the studies. The international tools used in China were incomplete in terms of translation, verification of reliability and validity, item selection, and implementation. Regarding the self-constructed tools, the CDCC was the most utilized self-developed tool, but it was mainly applied in intellectual development assessment. By comparing Chinese self-constructed and international tools, the construction of the CDCC and the Gross Motor Development Assessment Scale contained relatively complete development steps. However, the test content, validity and reliability, implementation instruction, and generalizability of self-constructed tools are still lacking. Conclusions Both international and self-developed motor skills assessment tools have been rarely applied in China. Available tools lack enough validation and appropriate adjustments. Cultural differences in motor development between Chinese and Western populations should be considered when constructing a Chinese localized motor skill assessment tool.
Article
Manipulative development of Japanese young children aged 2 to 6 years old was studied, using drawing with a pencil as the performance skill, and the results were compared with those of British children reported by Rosenbloom and Horton (1971). Manipulation of a pencil develops from the most immature palmar grasp stage when drawing is made chiefly by the motion of the arm and the shoulder, and progresses through the period when children try various finger postures. Next they acquire the tripod posture and, finally, the small, highly coordinated movements of the fingers are possible at about 4 years of age in boys and 3 1/2 years of age in girls. Grasping position moves progressively from the upper part to the lower part of the pencil. Comparison of British and Japanese children shows that Japanese children are more advanced than British children at around 3 years of age in manipulation of a pencil. It is suggested that these differences can be attributed to cultural factors.
Article
In 3 weekly sessions, 12-13- and 17-19-month-olds were tested for a hand preference for removing toys from a box with a clear Plexiglas door. Bimanual strategies involving complete or incomplete differentiation of roles for the 2 hands in opening the door and removing the toys were coded. The 17-19-month-olds showed a hand preference for the strategy involving completely differentiated bimanual attempts, preferring to open the door with the right hand and to remove the toys with the left hand. This preference was stable across sessions in most infants. Relative to their hand preference for reaching, infants at the 2 ages showed opposite preferences for this strategy, the older infants leading off the sequence with their preferred hand and the younger infants with their nonpreferred hand. The 12-13-month-olds showed a hand preference for incompletely differentiated bimanual attempts, preferring to open the door with both hands and to remove the toys with the right hand, although this preference was stable across sessions only in some infants. The major implications of these results for the development of skill, foresight, and handedness are discussed.
Article
Observed 64 infants, equally divided by sex and term or preterm birth, to examine the influence of preterm birth and sex on action-schemes. Both groups demonstrated the same types of action-schemes and spent similar proportions of time involved in direct object explorations. Group differences were apparent in the duration of individual action-schemes, particularly the low duration of mouthing observed with the preterm males. It is suggested that this atypical behavior in these Ss reflects a subtle aspect of behavioral disorganization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This paper traces the development of manual manipulative ability in the infant's interaction with objects. Using both observations and archival data, it identifies a sequence of 10 stages and argues that at each stage, the responsiveness potential of objects is determined (and limited) by the infant's current manual manipulative ability. As this ability develops, the infant learns new patterns of manipulation that allow it to expand its realms of perceived control. The acquisition of perceptions of control over objects emerges via the infant's experience of contingent responses to its manual manipulation of objects. Responsiveness is not viewed as a characteristic that is intrinsic to the object but as a potential that depends on the infant's stage of manual manipulation. The sequence of stages of manual manipulation, which has not been previously identified, underlies the infant's changing pattern of interest in manipulable objects in the first year.
Article
In Experiment I, 26-week-old infants were repeatedly exposed to 1 object and then shown a second object that was different in color or that was different in shape and texture. During repeated exposures, infants looked at an manipulated the object less, but response latencies did not change. Looking and manipulation increased upon introduction of the novel object in the shape and texture change condition. The novel object in the color change condition elicited an increase in looking but not in manipulation. The purpose of Experiment II was to determine if the coordination of visual and manipulative exploration in the shape and texture change condition was primarily due to the new tactile information or because of the introduction of more than 1 physical change. In this experiment, the novel object differed either in shape or in texture, For both conditions, there was a decline in looking and manipulation times during familiarization and recovery of novel objects for both looking and manipulation. It was concluded that either shape or texture information is sufficient to coordinate visual and manipulative differential responding.
Article
The development of fine motor and adaptive skills during the first 2 years of life is reported in 97 high-risk preterm children and 94 healthy term children. Most stages of fine motor and adaptive development were found to occur at slightly later ages among preterm children. Neurological development was significantly correlated with fine motor and adaptive development in preterm children only. No significant influence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal variables on fine motor and adaptive development was noted. No significant sex differences were observed in both the term and preterm group. The strongest predictors of later intellectual functioning were fine motor performance at 9 months and fine motor and adaptive skills at 18 to 24 months.
Article
1. Cutaneous reflexes have been recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle following electrical stimulation of the digital nerves of the index finger in man. Recordings have been obtained from 127 children, aged from 3 to 18 years while each performed an isometric abduction of the index finger and whole hand grips. 2. In the adult, reflexes recorded while subjects performed an isometric abduction of the index finger consisted of three readily identifiable components within the first 100 ms. These were an initial short spinal latency increase in EMG (E1), followed by a decrease (I1), followed by a prominent longer-latency increase (E2) which was normally larger in size than the shorter-latency increase. 3. The configuration of the reflex changed during development. When recorded during an abduction, the E1 component was present in all children and showed a small but progressive reduction in size with age. With increasing age, both the I1 and E2 components were present in an increasing proportion of children and increased in size until the adult configuration was reached at 14-15 years. 4. Comparison of reflexes recorded during sustained whole hand grips with reflexes recorded during an isometric index finger abduction revealed differences in all three components. When recorded during those grips used in the present study the E1 component was generally significantly larger while the I1 component was generally significantly smaller than when recorded during index finger abduction. At all ages the E2 component was significantly smaller when recorded during a grip. 5. The configuration of the reflex during an isometric index finger abduction was compared with the ability of the child to perform rapid finger movements. Those children who had no E2 component tended not to perform well in the tests of rapid finger movement. However, there was no simple relationship between the size of the E2 component and ability to produce rapid finger movements.
Article
Seventy-nine premature infants weighting less than 1501 g at birth but appropriate for gestational age underwent a neurodevelopmental examination at one, three, six, nine and 12 months post-term, and a standard neurological examination and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale at three to four years of age. Children were classified as normal, suspect or abnormal on the three-year neurological examination, on the IQ test, and on composite neurodevelopmental outcome at age three years. Results showed that items from both the nine- and 12-month neurodevelopmental examinations correctly classified about 80 per cent of the children as to composite outcome at three years. In addition, the 12-month examination enabled correct prediction for 89 per cent of the children as to neurological outcome and for 82 per cent as to IQ. Neurodevelopmental examination of high-risk infants in the last quarter of the first year of life (post-term) should assist pediatricians in predicting which children will be normal and which will require early intervention.
Article
The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered to 92 white, middle-class infants, half of them premature and half full-term, at 1 year of age from term to determine whether this instrument is useful in characterizing the abilities of premature infants. Although both full-term and premature infants achieved mental and motor development scores within the average range, full-term infants attained significantly higher scores on both the Mental and Motor Scales. Both groups scored significantly lower on motor than mental functioning; however, the difference was significantly greater for premature infants. As a group, premature infants also evidenced greater variability in their performance on both the Mental and Motor Scales, and they showed greater intra-individual variability in performance of motor ability. Furthermore, premature infants were less likely to succeed on items testing eye-hand coordination, imitation, and vocalization. Preselected perinatal risk variables accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mental and motor ability of premature infants.
Article
Thirty six infants (26 full term and 10 preterm) were classified at 8 months of age on the basis of their demonstrating coordinated fine motor ability or clumsiness. Comparisons were made of the duration and frequency of commonly observed behaviors (e.g. reaching for objects) exhibited by the infants in each group. The results indicated that the coordinated group did significantly more object exploring, both manipulative and oral, than the clumsy group. Multivariate analyses of commonly observed behaviors showed a significant overall group difference for frequency of behaviors and a trend towards duration of behaviors. The results are discussed in terms of each group's style of object interaction.
Article
Children in three school grades (kindergarten, Grades 2 and 4) were given 21 preference tasks (unimanual and bimanual) and 5 skill tasks, with half the children retested after a 2-wk. interval. Age changes in performance on each task, in intercorrelations among tasks, and in the reliability of retest performance point to several ways in which tasks differ from one another and also to the general importance of considering the growth of skill in both hands and the development of divisions of labor between them.
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According to the modular model, skill development proceeds through the development of stable units of action called subroutines. The development of these programmed units frees the child to attend to those parts of the action not yet mastered. Once consolidated they can be applied to many different contexts. Thus, complex skill sequences can be produced. The theory generates several predictions, most fundamental being an association between increasing proficiency and increasing consistency. Experiment 1 was a longitudinal study in which six 12-month-old children were observed over a period of eight months. Various manipulative tasks were used, notably the placement of rods in corresponding holes. Experiment 2 was a cross-sectional study of performance consistency in rod placement (N = 30). Results showed that consistency decreases as proficiency increases. It is concluded therefore that the programmed components of complex actions are not characterized by the invariance predicted by modular theory.
Article
The purpose of this study was to look at the development of two in-hand skills of rotation. Three questions were asked: (a) Do boys' and girls' performance differ significantly? (b) Does performance improve with age? and (c) Can periods of rapid improvement with age be seen on the tasks presented? The in-hand manipulation skill of rotation was measured in 154 right-handed children between the ages of 3-0 years and 6-11 years as well as in 13 adults. The participants were videotaped as they either turned over small pegs in a pegboard or rotated a peg in their fingertips. The number of pegs dropped when turning and placing them back in the board, the number of times a peg could be rotated in the fingertips, the time it took to complete each task, and the methods participate used to accomplish the two tasks were recorded from the videotapes. The results indicated no differences between the performance of boys and girls on any of the variables studied, but performance did change with age, and periods of rapid change were identified. Further, when compared on methods used, the children did not achieve the same speed or consistency as the adult participants. The development of in-hand manipulation skills of rotation involves improvement in the dimension of speed, method, and consistency. Observation of these skills in a child can add to a therapist's understanding of the child's fine motor abilities. The variability in children's performance needs to be considered in both evaluation and treatment planning.
Article
In 2 studies, developmental changes in variability associated with handwriting were investigated. In Study 1, variability in grip patterns and pen positioning relative to a flat surface were examined in 3- and 5-year-olds and adults. The results indicated that between 3 and 5 years of age there is a reduction in the number of grips that individual children routinely use and a reduction in variability associated with pen-surface positioning. In Study 2, the 3-year-old children who participated in Study 1 were tested 6 months later. In comparison to young 3-year-old children, older 3-year-olds use an adult grip pattern more often and are less variable in pen-surface positioning, although the use of multiple grip patterns is still common. The findings from both studies are considered in relation to prior research that emphasized modal patterns of motor development and newer work that uses developmental changes in variability to understand the acquisition of motor skill.
Article
This experiment investigates neonatal intersensory functioning between touch and vision for texture density. The experiment compared manual activity (holding time and hand pressure frequency) recorded on objects in the presence (test period) or absence of visual information (pre-test and post-test periods). Thirty-two babies were assigned to four experimental conditions according to texture density of the objects held and seen during the test period: Objects had either the same (matching conditions) or different (mismatching conditions) texture density information. The results clearly showed that in matching conditions, holding times were systematically increased during the test period. However, hand pressure frequency remained unchanged over the three test periods. In the mismatching conditions, holding times remained unchanged over the three test periods. However, hand pressure frequency systematically changed during the test period according to the texture density of the visual object. These results indicate newborns' capability to compare texture density information across modalities.