Article

Use of cream containing mucus secreted by snails has an anti-aging effect on skin

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Background: A cream made from mucus secreted by snails contains 80% mucin, as well as glycosaminoglycan, allantoin for skin rejuvenation, glycolic acid for keratin removal, and collagen and elastin, which are components of dermis. Objective: The goal of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of using cream containing mucus secreted by snails to reduce wrinkles, improve skin elasticity, restore dermal density, and lift the skin. Methods: Cream containing mucus secreted by snails was applied to the lateral epicanthal areas and the left cheek of 10 subjects for 4 weeks twice per day. Wrinkles, skin elasticity, dermal density, and skin tightening were evaluated at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks. A patient survey was conducted at 4 weeks. Results: There were statistically significant differences between baseline and 4 weeks after applying the cream in terms of wrinkles, skin elasticity, dermal density, and skin tightening (p<0.05). Conclusion: Use of cream containing mucus secreted by snails seems to be effective for anti-aging of the skin. Long term follow up studies, such as 3 or 6 months, to confirm the efficacy of the cream should be conducted involving a larger number of patients.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are highly charged polysaccharides that are an important structural component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and are often used in cosmetic products (1)(2)(3). In a previous clinical trial, it was identified that a cream containing GAGs regulated wrinkles, skin elasticity, dermal density and skin tightening (4). However, although GAGs serve important roles in skin aging, their regulatory mechanism of action has not yet been fully elucidated. ...
... In addition, a protective effect of GAGs against cell apoptosis was observed. A previous study demonstrated that a cream comprised of GAGs positively regulated wrinkles, skin elasticity, dermal density and skin tightening in a clinical trial (4). Given that the expression of various proinflammatory cytokine/chemokines are significantly elevated and the expression of type I collagens is decreased in aged skin dermis, the current study suggests that GAGs may be used as anti-inflammatory and anti-aging agents for skin. ...
Article
It has been established that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) serve an important role in protecting the skin against the effects of aging. A previous clinical trial by our group identified that a cream containing GAGs reduced wrinkles and increased skin elasticity, dermal density and skin tightening. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying the anti‑aging effect of GAGs has not yet been fully elucidated. The present study assessed the influence of GAGs on cell viability, collagen synthesis and collagen synthesis‑associated signaling pathways in tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α)‑stimulated human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs); an in vitro model of aging. The results demonstrated that GAGs restored type I collagen synthesis and secretion by inhibiting extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in TNF‑α‑stimulated HDFs. However, GAGs did not activate c‑jun N‑terminal kinase or p38. It was determined that GAGs suppressed the phosphorylation of downstream transcription factors of ERK activation, activator protein‑1 (AP‑1; c‑fos and c‑jun), leading to a decrease in matrix metalloproteinase‑1 (MMP‑1) levels and the upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase‑1 in TNF‑α‑stimulated HDFs. In addition, GAGs attenuated the apoptosis of HDFs induced by TNF‑α. The current study revealed a novel mechanism: GAGs serve a crucial role in ameliorating TNF‑α‑induced MMP‑1 expression, which causes type I collagen degeneration via the inactivation of ERK/AP‑1 signaling in HDFs. The results of the present study indicate the potential application of GAGs as effective anti‑aging agents that induce wrinkle reduction.
Article
Chronic wounds result from the failure of the normal wound healing process. Any delay during the tissue repair process could be defined as chronic wound healing, potentially having a highly detrimental impact on human health. To face this problem, in the last years, the use of different technologies alternative to therapeutic agents is gaining more attention. The Helix Aspersa snail slime‐based products are increasingly being used for skin injury, thanks to their ability to make tissue repair processes faster. To date, a comprehensive overview of pure snail slime metabolome is not available. Besides, Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) technology is spreading rapidly in the medical environment and the search for AuNPs “green” synthetic routes which involve natural products as precursor agents is demanded, alongside with a deep comprehension of the kind of species, that actively take part in synthesis and product stabilization. The aim of this work isto characterize the metabolic profile of a pure snail slime sample, by an untargeted high‐resolution mass spectrometry‐based analysis. In addition, insights on AuNPs synthesis and stabilization by the main components of pure snail slime used to induce the synthesis, were obtained. The untargeted analysis provided a large list of important classes of metabolites, i.e. fatty acid derivatives, amino acids and peptides, carbohydrates and polyphenolic compounds, that could be appreciated in both samples of slime, with and without AuNPs. Moreover, a direct comparison of the obtained results suggests that mostly nitrogen and sulphur‐bearing metabolites take part in the synthesis and stabilization of AuNPs.
Full-text available
Article
A new glycosaminoglycan has been isolated from the giant African snail Achatina fulica. This polysaccharide had a molecular weight of 29,000, calculated based on the viscometry, and a uniform repeating disaccharide structure of -->4)-2-acetyl,2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranose (1-->4)-2-sulfo-alpha-L-idopyranosyluronic acid (1-->. This polysaccharide represents a new, previously undescribed glycosaminoglycan. It is related to the heparin and heparan sulfate families of glycosaminoglycans but is distinctly different from all known members of these classes of glycosaminoglycans. The structure of this polysaccharide, with adjacent N-acetylglucosamine and 2-sulfo-iduronic acid residues, also poses interesting questions about how it is made in light of our current understanding of the biosynthesis of heparin and heparan sulfate. This glycosaminoglycan represents 3-5% of the dry weight of this snail's soft body tissues, suggesting important biological roles for the survival of this organism, and may offer new means to control this pest. Snail glycosaminoglycan tightly binds divalent cations, such as copper(II), suggesting a primary role in metal uptake in the snail. Finally, this new polysaccharide might be applied, like the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide, to the study of glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis and to the semisynthesis of new glycosaminoglycan analogs having important biological activities.
Article
Background: Skin smoothness in aging skin, in combination of intrinsic aging and photoaging, is of ever-increasing interest which leads to the development of various wrinkle diminuation products including those containing herbal medicines. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of cosmetics containing roots of Ephedra sinica-and Betula platyphylla var. japonica on reducing skin furrows. Method: Creams containing Ephedra sinica's root and Betula platyphylla var. japonica were applied to forearms of 30 healthy subjects in 2 age groups for 8 weeks and 4 weeks, respectively while silicone skin replicas were taken from medial and lateral sides of the forearm every 4 weeks of the study starting from the week 0. Then the changes of the skin furrows were analyzed with skin visiometer. Results: 1. At week 8, a significant reduction of average roughness and maximum roughness were observed in volunteers younger than age 50 on their Ephedra sinica's root-treated side compared with the placebo-treated side (p<0.05). 2. No statistically significant changes were observed with both Ephedra sinica's root and Betula platyphylla var. japonica in the group of age over 50. 3. Comparison of the changes between treatment groups of both Ephedra sinica's root and Betula platyphylla var. japonica at any assessment time did not show statistically significant differences between the medial and lateral side of forearm, while the treatment group of Ephedra sinica's root showed statistically significant differences between the young and old at week 8 (p<0.05). Conclusions: The treatment of Ephedra sinica's root seems to be partially effective in improving skin furrows in youth. To our knowledge, this study is the first trial to evaluate the efficacy of both Ephedra sinica's root and Betula platyphylla var. japonica on decreasing wrinkle in the world.
Article
The recently developed Skin Visiometer, based on light transmission through blue-coloured silicone replicas, was used to study skin microrelief. Calibrated metal plates displaying lines with depths between 6 and 361 microns, were used to determine the accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility of the technique as well as the parameters of importance during measurement. The precision of the measurements was particularly good between 10 microns and 361 microns. The sensitivity of the method was between 10 and 20 microns. Replicas of volar forearm skin were taken from four groups (n = 15) of male and female volunteers in the age ranges 20 to 30 years and 55 to 65 years. In addition to the instrumental roughness parameters (Rz, Rt, Rm and Ra), the surface of the furrows, the number of primary and secondary lines and the number of intersections were determined. For both sexes, significantly lower values were observed for Rz, Rm and Rt in the younger age group than in the older age group. In addition, the numbers of primary and secondary lines and the number of intersections were higher, pointing to a more structured microrelief in younger forearm skin. Diurnal rhythm, the relative humidity of the measuring room and the position of the forearm were found to be significant factors, while room temperature and precleansing of the skin with mild products were not. Following the application of a hydrating cream (twice daily for 14 days) to the forearm skin of the older female age group, the Rz, Rt, Rm and Ra decreased, while the other parameters measured, except for the surface taken in by the lines, increased, indicating that the microrelief was modified towards the typical pattern observed in young skin.
Article
UV irradiation acts as a broad activator of cell surface growth factor and cytokine receptors. This ligand-independent receptor activation induces multiple downstream signaling pathways that regulate expression of multiple genes. These signaling pathways converge to stimulate transcription factor AP-1. Among genes whose expression is regulated by AP-1 are several matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) family members and type I procollagen. UV-enhanced matrix degradation is accompanied with decreased collagen production mediated not only by activation of AP-1, but also by inhibition of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling. Several alterations to skin connective tissue that occur during aging are mediated by mechanisms that are similar to those that occur in response to UV irradiation. Thus, skin aging is associated with increased AP-1 activity, increased MMP expression, impaired TGF-beta signaling, enhanced collagen degradation, and decreased collagen synthesis. Knowledge gained from examining molecular responses of human skin to UV irradiation provides not only a framework for understanding mechanisms involved in skin aging, but also may help in development of new clinical strategies to impede chronological and UV-induced skin aging.
Article
Acharan sulfate (AS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) prepared from the giant African snail, Achatina fulica. In this study, some biological activities of AS were evaluated on the basis of structural similarities to heparin/heparan sulfate and the biological functions of GAGs. We demonstrated that it exhibited strong immunostimulating activities as measured by carbon clearance test in mice and in vivo phagocytosis. It also exhibited a significant hypoglycemic activity in epinephrine (EP)-induced hyperglycemia as well as antifatigue effects by weight-loaded forced swimming test. And it showed hypolipidemic activities in cholesterol-rich mixture induced hyperlipidemia in rats. The above results indicate that AS has diverse biological activities and suggest therapeutically important target molecules.