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Effects of olive oil on lipid profiles and blood glucose in type2 diabetic patients

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Abstract

Diabetes is often associated with dyslipidemia. Olive oil is known to improve several cardiovascular risk factors. We studied the changes produced in the lipid profile after consumption of olive oil in type 2 diabetic subjects. We studied 45 individuals of both sexes with type 2 diabetes and 15 healthy subject of age 40 years or older. Only subjects not taking medicine for other health conditions and whose fasting blood glucose levels were in the range of 160- 320mg/dl and with high lipids level were included in the study. The study was conducted for 4 weeks. The subjects were allowed to take their routine diet and usual diabetic medicine. They were told to take 30 ml of olive oil per day. Diabetics showed marked dyslipidemia. Four weeks of consumption of olive oil significantly lowered the levels of fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoproteins in both groups. Reduction was more profound in diabetics than in healthy controls. Meanwhile, high density lipoproteins increased in both groups. Olive oil improved lipid profiles and blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetics.

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... ROS were found to decline on increasing the antioxidant enzymes [13] and antioxidant activity of some natural products [14]. It was found that antioxidant therapy can be subdivided into vitamins and supplements, plants and their active ingredients and drugs with antioxidant potential [14][15][16][17][18]. Also, it was found a diverse effect of different oils such as Nigela sativa [19,20] and olive [21][22][23][24][25] oils in DM. It was reported that both NS and olive oils have antidiabetic and antioxidant activities [19,21,26,27]. ...
... It was found that antioxidant therapy can be subdivided into vitamins and supplements, plants and their active ingredients and drugs with antioxidant potential [14][15][16][17][18]. Also, it was found a diverse effect of different oils such as Nigela sativa [19,20] and olive [21][22][23][24][25] oils in DM. It was reported that both NS and olive oils have antidiabetic and antioxidant activities [19,21,26,27]. Taken together, the present research is conducted to investigate the effect of STZ-induced diabetes on arylsulfatases in presence and absence of NS, olive and canola oils. ...
... This implies that some oils were useful in improving BGL in DM. Similar studies showed a significant decrease in BGL after olive [21] and NS oils treatment [33] in diabetic rats. The decrease in BGL in NS oil-treated diabetic rats may be attributed to a decrease of gluconeogenesis in liver [34,35]. ...
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Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by the overproduction of the reactive oxygen species which affects the integrity of the lysosomal membrane affecting lysosomal enzymes. The effect of these species is blocked by some natural products as antioxidants. In the current study, groups of normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were treated by Nigella sativa (NS), olive and canola oils and subjected to the study of arylsulfatases as a model of lysosomal enzymes. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of STZ-induced diabetes on arylsulfatases in presence and absence of NS, olive and canola oils. Methods: Different groups of rats were induced by STZ, treated with different oils and compared to their corresponding control group. All groups were subjected for the assays of blood glucose, insulin, catalase and arylsulfatases. A comparative kinetic study of arylsulfatses was performed to detect the alteration of catalytic characterization. Results: The results demonstrated that diabetes causes a significant elevation in the level of hepatic arylsulfatase B and a significant reduction of hepatic catalase as an antioxidant enzyme. NS and olive oils returned catalase and arylsulfatase B activities back near to normal by fixing their catalytic properties. Furthermore, the maximum velocity of arylsulfatases A and B was significantly elevated in the induced diabetes, whereas their Km values were significantly changed. The treatment of diabetic rats by NS and olive oils reduced the degree of significance. Conclusion: Diabetes induces significant alterations of the catalytic characters of arylsulfatases and some oils decrease this alteration through an antioxidant-mediated effect.
... Furthermore, the amount of daily fat intake is as important as the composition of fatty acids (46) . Current studies suggest that olive oil has positive effects especially on endothelial function, inflammation and oxidative stress owing to the MUFA and phytochemical contents of olive oil (47) . In this study, it was determined that the consumption of olive oil was significantly lower in the group of type 2 DM patients than in the control group. ...
... In this study, it was determined that the consumption of olive oil was significantly lower in the group of type 2 DM patients than in the control group. Similarly, other studies emphasised the beneficial effects of MUFA and olive oil consumption in diabetes (43,46,47) . In another study, it was found that consumption of olive oil in diabetic patients was correlated with a decrease in fasting blood glucose, TAG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (47) . ...
... Similarly, other studies emphasised the beneficial effects of MUFA and olive oil consumption in diabetes (43,46,47) . In another study, it was found that consumption of olive oil in diabetic patients was correlated with a decrease in fasting blood glucose, TAG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (47) . Thus, consumption of olive oil may have positive effects on blood glucose and lipid profile in patients with type 2 DM. ...
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Recently, it has been remarked that dietary fatty acids and fatty acid receptors might be involved in the aetiology of diabetes. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between dietary fatty acid pattern, fatty food preferences and soluble CD36 (sCD36) and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was carried out with thirty-eight newly diagnosed type 2 DM patients and thirty-seven healthy volunteers, aged 30–65 years. In the study, socio-demographic characteristics, dietary fat type and fatty acid pattern of individuals were recorded. After anthropometric measurements were taken, blood CD36, glucose, TAG and insulin levels were analysed. The results showed that although the type of fatty acid intake did not differ between the groups ( P >0·05), the consumption of olive oil in the type 2 DM group was lower than the control group ( P <0·05). Mean blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, TAG and sCD36 levels were determined to be higher in the type 2 DM group ( P <0·05). However, there was no correlation between sCD36 levels and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value, blood insulin and TAG levels, waist circumference, dietary fatty acid pattern and food preferences in the type 2 DM group ( P >0·05). Crucially, elevated sCD36 levels increased the type 2 DM risk (OR 1·21, P <0·05). In conclusion, sCD36 level may be a possible biomarker, independent from the dietary fatty acid pattern, for type 2 DM owing to its higher levels in these patients. Therefore, the new insights make CD36 attractive as a therapeutic target for diabetes.
... Considering that the main causes of early death are T2Dassociated cardiovascular risk factors, T2D is life threatening. Furthermore, the estimated cost of diabetes in the US in 2012 was approximately $245 billion, and the cost is expected to increase with time [3][4][5][6]. ...
... Therefore, controlling T2D is very important for both the individual and community. Several studies have reported that controlling blood glucose levels through a healthy diet and regular physical activity, as key interventions, is both feasible and cost Regarding a healthy diet, olive oil improves numerous cardiovascular risk factors [4,[8][9][10]. Moreover, patients were more satisfied with their dietary therapy that consisted of changing from a high carbohydrate diet to a diet containing olive oil [4]. ...
... Several studies have reported that controlling blood glucose levels through a healthy diet and regular physical activity, as key interventions, is both feasible and cost Regarding a healthy diet, olive oil improves numerous cardiovascular risk factors [4,[8][9][10]. Moreover, patients were more satisfied with their dietary therapy that consisted of changing from a high carbohydrate diet to a diet containing olive oil [4]. Therefore, olive oil should not be ignored as a component of T2D prevention and management. ...
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Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide issue, and the complications are life-threatening. The main T2D-related causes of early death are cardiovascular risk factors. Although the association between olive oil consumption and T2D has been examined, guidelines for its use in patients with T2D have not been established.
... Furthermore, the amount of daily fat intake is as important as the composition of fatty acids (46) . Current studies suggest that olive oil has positive effects especially on endothelial function, inflammation and oxidative stress owing to the MUFA and phytochemical contents of olive oil (47) . In this study, it was determined that the consumption of olive oil was significantly lower in the group of type 2 DM patients than in the control group. ...
... In this study, it was determined that the consumption of olive oil was significantly lower in the group of type 2 DM patients than in the control group. Similarly, other studies emphasised the beneficial effects of MUFA and olive oil consumption in diabetes (43,46,47) . In another study, it was found that consumption of olive oil in diabetic patients was correlated with a decrease in fasting blood glucose, TAG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (47) . ...
... Similarly, other studies emphasised the beneficial effects of MUFA and olive oil consumption in diabetes (43,46,47) . In another study, it was found that consumption of olive oil in diabetic patients was correlated with a decrease in fasting blood glucose, TAG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (47) . Thus, consumption of olive oil may have positive effects on blood glucose and lipid profile in patients with type 2 DM. ...
Article
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Globally, increase of insulin resistance and diabetes prevalence with rapid change in lifestyle like nutrition results in Type II diabetes mellitus (Type II DM) which has become an epidemic problem. Modification of the diet, which is one of the most important lifestyle interventions, plays a crucial role in preventing and delaying of the type 2 diabetes mellitus, and also preventing or delaying the disease related complications. Recent studies have addressed insulin activity and insulin secretion, among the pathologic factors leading to the development of Type II DM, which alone are insufficient to determine the cause of diabetes. In addition to this, it is known that multifactorial causes of diabetes etiology involve different receptors as well as insulin, which is supported by genetic studies. One of these receptors, CD36 receptor, plays an important role in cardiovascular health and diseases, cancer, insulin resistance, taste and food choice. Studies have indicated that high blood CD36 levels may contribute as a new biomarker in the pathogenesis of type II DM. Furthermore, current literature have shown that the CD36 receptor might have role in different taste and smells in terms of fatty food selection. Thus, in this review, the relationship between the CD36 receptor, insulin resistance and the fatty food selection in the diet was examined.
... A total of 32 studies were eligible and included in this review focusing on the barriers to good glycemic control and adherence to diabetes management plan in adults with T2DM in Jordan. Of these 32 studies, 13 discussed issues related to Type 1 diabetes and T2DM, 8,[14][15][16]31,35,42,43,[53][54][55][56][57]71 while 13 focused on T2DM only. 10,11,17,19,21,25,29,33,34,44,45,48,56 Four of the studies addressed other long-term diseases alongside diabetes, 26,50,51,70 and two studies focused on lifestyle issues and diabetes-risk factors. ...
... Only two studies applied qualitative methods (focus groups and interviews). 56,57 One study applied pre/post randomized trial, 43 and one study was a prospective cohort study. 54 All were empirical studies and no published literature reviews were identified from Jordan about diabetes. ...
... 34 One study conducted a pre/post randomized trial over four weeks to explore the impact of olive oil on blood glucose and lipids levels among a randomly selected sample of 45 subjects with T2DM in Jordan. 43 Study participants were asked to consume 30 mL of olive oil distributed after the three meals, breakfast, lunch and dinner. The study findings identified a significant improvement in fasting blood glucose and lipids levels due to the consumption of olive oil. ...
Article
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Poorly controlled Type-2 diabetes is considered a significant public health problem and associated with adverse outcomes in Jordan. This review focuses on barriers to good glycemic control levels and adherence to diabetes management plan in adults with Type-2 diabetes in Jordan. The aim was to identify the extent of Type-2 diabetes and the influence of knowledge, perceptions and sociocultural factors on adherence to the diabetes management plan. Thirty-two studies were included in the literature review. The high prevalence rate of poorly controlled Type-2 diabetes is associated with many negative consequences among patients in Jordan. Despite the publication of research findings that have shown the importance of adherence to diet, physical activity, medications, monitoring blood glucose and foot care, the level of adherence is still unsatisfactory among patients in Jordan. This review also identified that social, cultural and religious factors influence diabetes management. These factors highlighted the overwhelming influence of socio-cultural factors and lifestyles as determinants of patients’ health and health behaviors. For example, the influence of family, friends and culture on herbal use and food preferences that patients make on a daily basis and during social gatherings. A holistic approach incorporating patient-centered care could usefully be incorporated into educational programs to improve the understanding of patients’ health and information needs. The importance of factors beyond the individual level in terms of social, cultural, organizational and policy influences such as food habits, religious beliefs and lack of continuity of care were identified as key factors which influence adherence to the diabetes management plan. Recognition of multiple determinants of patients’ health among health care professionals may expand the scope of interventions to seek to modify social norms and values and improve patient outcomes.
... A lot of electromagnetic waves are today emitted by radar, communication equipment, mobile phone base stations, high voltage lines, radio and television transmitters, substations, and electrical equipment at home and work, in addition to many electrical systems in the environment [13,14]. The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM, 850-900 MHz) is currently the most extensive system for mobile telecommunications [6]. The widespread use of mobile phones in recent years has raised rapidly, and several researches have approached the effect of mobile phone radiation on different tissues. ...
... Also, the mobile phone frequency exposure together with olive oil showed a decrease in serum glucose as compared to the control. In this respect, Al Jamal protective effect of olive oil, attributed to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties [6]. Olive oil had positive effects on lipid profile and blood glucose level in both asymptomatic participants and type 2 diabetic subjects. ...
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Children exposure to radio waves near mobile phone base stations are receiving a great attention in last years. This work is focused on the effects of radiation emitted by the base stations on the children's blood and also on the conjugated effect of olive oil on their blood. Children of 6−12 years residing around base stations for more than five years are divided into three groups. The first one served as a control. The second group is assumed to be exposed only to mobile phone radiation, while the third group is exposed to mobile phone radiation and treated with 2.5 mL/day of olive oil for five weeks. The second and the third groups are living nearby mobile phone base stations (100−150) m, more than 5 years. The biochemical parameters of children blood have been evaluated. It was noticed that the concentrations of serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and albumin are increased but total concentrations of the proteins and globulins were decreased. Signs of improvements in the previous biochemical parameters were noticed during children treatments with olive oil supplementation.
... Consumption of 1g of PUFAs daily /3 months in diabetic patients in this study showed an increase in HDL level and a decrease in LDL. This in accordance with Al Jamal and Ibrahim, (2011) who found that30 ml daily/4 weeks supplementation of olive oil in the diet of diabetic patients increased HDL level by 27% and decreased LDL level by 22% , also Rodríguez-Villar et al ., ( 2004) showed that a diet high in olive oil was a good alternative to high carbohydrate diets for nutrition therapy of type 2 diabetics as it lowered VLDL-cholesterol by 35% and VLDLtriglyceride by 16% and had superior patient acceptance . Lopez-Miranda (2000) pointed out two positive consequences of the consumption of a Mediterranean diet, as it increased HDL-cholesterol plasma levels, and it decreased the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation and lipid peroxidation. ...
... This study shows that 1 g daily /3 months n-3 PUFA supplement (Omacor 1g /day) improved lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients ; manifested by decreasing the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL with an increase in HDL level . Participants also experienced reductions in fasting blood glucose level although the only statistical significant findings was the reduction in the triglyceride level yet the findings were in accordance to Al Jamal and Ibrahim, 2011 who that found the positive effect of daily consumption of 30 ml of olive oil as a source of n-3 PUFAS was much more profound in the diabetic group as levels of FBG, TG, Ch and LDL decreased by 16-32% compared to normal individuals. Caterina et al. (2007) reviewed clinical studies of the effect of (n-3) fatty acids on the treatment of diabetics with type 1 and 2 ; 28 people with T2D in 2 noncontrolled studies and 671 patients in 13 double-blinded studies were provided low-dose (>3 g/d) (n-3) fatty acids for 2–24 wk. ...
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RashaEldeeb Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease associated with dyslipidemia that increase risk of cardiovascular disease to three or four folds compared with normal individual. This study investigates the effect of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on glycemic state, lipid profile of diabetic patients. It is a 3 month observational study of 63 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients of both genders divided in to PUFA group n=31 and Control group n= 32. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were assessed pre and post enrolment in the study. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation lowered fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL levels with an increase in HDL level. The statistical significant lowering of triglyceride level in diabetic patients consuming omega-3 supplementation contributes significantly to the decrease incidence of cardiovascular diseases in diabetic patients.
... Practically none of them inhibited a-glucosidase or a-amylase by 50% due to their lack of solubility in the buffer used for these analyses, and the a-glucosidase inhibitory effect was dose-dependent. Due to the fact that type 2 diabetes is associated with many other metabolic abnormalities which contribute to a high rate of cardiovascular events (Al Jamal & Ibrahim, 2011) and to the fact that PhytoPs can modulate the vascular system in humans Durand et al., 2011), hypoglycemic activity of PhytoPs was expected. Nevertheless, the Phy-toPs did not show any in vitro hypoglycemic activity. ...
... Although FAs did not have a great hypoglycemic effect, oleic acid and palmitic acid showed stronger anti-diabetic activities (Table 4). It has been reported that olive oil affects blood glucose and lipid levels due to the presence of monounsaturated FAs (Al Jamal & Ibrahim, 2011). Su et al. (2015) demonstrated that the potent anti-aglucosidase activity of peony seeds and edible mushrooms Grifola frondosa (Dicks.: Fr.) (maitake) may be due to the presence of oleic acid, linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid, since they are their major active constituents. ...
Article
Despite the wide use of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) to combat several diseases, the antidiabetic and anti-cholinesterase activity of Spanish EVOO have not been assessed. In order to evaluate which compounds are responsible for these activities of five Spanish EVOOs, in addition to flavonoids, we investigated for the first time the effect of the contents of carotenoids, fatty acids (FAs), and phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) on four enzymes: α-glucosidase, α-amylase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase. The extracts of these five Spanish EVOOs were found to contain three flavones, three carotenoids, six FAs, and seven classes of PhytoPs. The samples exhibited no in vitro anti-cholinesterase activity but presented strong antidiabetic activity, in the order: ‘Arbequina’  ‘Picual’  ‘Cuquillo’ > ‘Hojiblanca’ > ‘Cornicabra’. The samples showed a higher in vitro hypoglycemic effect than individual or mixed standards, possibly due to interaction between multiple identified compounds and/or a very complex multivariate interaction between other factors.
... More importantly these anti-hyperglycaemic effects are also observed in human dietary intervention studies in volunteers with pre-existing elevated blood sugar [13,32,37,76]. For example, de Bock et al. demonstrated that supplementation with olive leaf extract for 12 weeks (51.1 mg OL, 9.7 HT per day) was associated with a 15% improvement in insulin sensitivity in overweight middle-aged men (n = 46) [32]. ...
... The major components of dyslipidaemia associated with the metabolic syndrome are raised flux of free fatty acids, increased fasting and postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and increased small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles [93]. Exaggerated postprandial lipaemia links MetS to the progression of atherosclerosis [76]. Olive oil with its high MUFA content is shown to reduce TC and LDL-C levels when substituted into the diet in place of saturated fats [94]. ...
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Here, the effects of consuming polyphenol-rich olive products, including olive leaves, their crude extract, and extra virgin olive oil, on aspects of the metabolic syndrome are reviewed. We have sought to summarize the available scientific evidence from dietary intervention trials demonstrating a role for these phytochemicals in ameliorating aberrant glucose metabolism, high blood pressure and elevated blood lipids, and we discuss the potential mechanisms underpinning these observations. Searches for relevant literature published in English were conducted via PubMed and Science Direct. Based on published dietary intervention studies, there is convincing evidence to show that olive polyphenols, independently of olive lipids, reduce risk factors for metabolic syndrome, in particular by improving blood sugar and blood pressure control, and in reducing low density lipoprotein oxidation. There is more limited evidence to suggest that the consumption of olive polyphenols or related products can reduce body weight and visceral fat or impede weight gain, and similarly there are some limited data suggesting improved lipid profiles. There is some mechanistic data to support observations made in human volunteers, but further work is needed in this area. The consumption of olive polyphenols within the context of a healthy pattern of food intake may, in part, explain the reduced risk of metabolic disease associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet
... These findings also revealed that administration of different vegetable oils significantly decrease the LDL-c levels in comparison with positive control. These results were compatible with data obtained by Abdu Rahim and Jamal, [45] who stated that the consumption of olive oil significantly decrease triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL in the tested groups. Furthermore, Lichtenstein, [46,47] reported that saturated fatty acids elevate LDL levels, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids and PUFA lower LDL levels. ...
... Meat is consumed sporadically and often replaced by fish, while the consumption of fresh (mozzarella) or seasoned (caciocavallo, pecorino, cacioricotta) dairy products is quite widespread. A crucial role is played by extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), which can be considered the pillar fat of MedDiet (Al Jamal and Ibrahim 2011;Camerota and Celletti 2015;Fogliano and Sacchi 2006;Sacchi et al. 2014). EVOO is virtually the only fat condiment used in food preparation; the use of lard has almost disappeared while butter is only used for making sweets. ...
Article
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The Contribution of Wild Edible Plants to the Mediterranean Diet: An Ethnobotanical Case Study Along the Coast of Campania (Southern Italy). Wild edible plants, an essential component of people’s diets in the Mediterranean basin, are consumed because they have a positive influence on health, supplying the body with microelements, vitamins, phenols, flavonoids, antioxidants, and fiber. In this paper we provide a list of wild plants used in the local cuisine along the coast of Campania, highlighting the medicinal properties of the most widely used species. Fieldwork was conducted from April 2017 to September 2019; in all, 69 informants were interviewed. We carried out an extensive literature review searching both national and international journals for ethnobotanical articles concerning the whole of Italy and especially the region of Campania, published from 1963 to 2019. The relative frequency of citation (RFC) index for each species is provided. Based on the interviews, 85 species and subspecies distributed in 29 families are documented as being used as food. Asteraceae was the most cited family (26.5%) followed by Brassicaceae and Lamiaceae (7.2%). The culinary uses of 11 wild species (13.5% of the total) were hitherto unreported in the ethnobotanical literature for Campania. The present study confirms the persistence of traditional plant use in the region of Campania. Ethnobotanical data, as well as the phytochemical and nutritional profiles of the species in question, offer insights into designing new dishes such as food pairing with other ingredients to improve nutritional and/or sensory quality (e.g., bitterness reduction, flavor enhancement, antioxidant bioavailability).
... Treatment with olive leaves or oil significantly reduced serum glucose level. Jamal and Ibrahim (58) found that four weeks of consumption of olive oil significantly lowered the levels of fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoproteins in diabetic patients. Also, Eidi et al. (59) mentioned that in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, olive leaf extract decreased serum concentration of glucose implying that olive leaf extract is more effective than glibenclamide and may be of use as an antidiabetic agent. ...
Article
Background: Olive leaves and oil's beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of polyphenolics. Objectives: The present study was aimed to assess the effects of olive leaves and oil treatments on high sucrose induced oxidative damage in rabbits. Methods: Forty male rabbits were allocated into four groups; control group was kept on normal basal ration, sucrose fed group was received 30% sucrose containing ration, sucrose plus olive leaves group was administered olive leaves 5% in ration beside sucrose 30% and sucrose plus olive oil group was received olive oil 5% in basal ration together with sucrose 30% for 60 days. Results: Feeding high sucrose diet significantly increased total lipid, triacylglycerol, cholesterol and LDL-c levels while decreased HDL-c level with hyperglycemia. High sucrose induced hepatic damage assessed by increasing liver marker enzymes. Increased testosterone, copper levels with decreased serum zinc level were also observed. Furthermore, high sucrose diet caused an induction in oxidative stress biomarkers with subsequent depletion in antioxidant enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and catalase) and reduced glutathione level in liver, heart and kidneys. On the other hand, treatment with olive leaves or oil improved serum lipid profile, liver functions, glucose, zinc and copper levels but decreased testosterone level. Moreover, olive leaves or oil attenuated lipid peroxidation with increase in the antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: We concluded that olive leaves as well as oil had improved the biochemical alterations induced by feeding high sucrose diet for long time.
... Endothelial function, inflammation and oxidative stress are also positively modulated. Some of these effects are attributed beside the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to the minor components of virgin olive oil (Al Jamal and Ibrahim, 2011). Attempt is, therefore, made in this study to supplement yoghurt with combination of honey and olive oil for production of synbiotic yoghurt and examine the effect of this supplementation on bifidobacteria activity. ...
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The effect of fortification with both honey and olive oil on yoghurt quality was investigated. Control yoghurt was made using classic yoghurt culture and whole milk. Other four yoghurt treatments were made by ABT culture and whole milk fortified with 0+0, 2+1, 4+2, and 6+4% of honey and virgin olive oil respectively. The sixth treatment was prepared using ABT culture and skim milk contained 6% honey + 4% virgin olive oil. Changes in rheological, chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of yoghurt were monitored during refrigerated storage (4°C) for 15 days. Mixing of yoghurt milk with honey and olive oil to milk showed a slight decrease in rates of acidity development. Fortification of milk with honey and olive oil had no clear effect on coagulation time whereas increased curd tension and decreased curd syneresis values. Addition of honey and olive oil increased acidity, TS, fat, ash and TVFA contents of the produced yoghurt while there were no differences in TN and WSN values. Yoghurt contained honey and olive oil had lower TVBC, moulds and yeasts numbers as compared with control. Adding of honey and olive oil stimulated the growth and viability of bifidobacteria which helped in maintenance their counts above the recommended levels (10 6 cfu.g-1) for a probiotic effect. Finally, supplementation of yoghurt with honey and olive oil greatly improved the sensory evaluation scores.
... Adherences to some diet components included in MedDietScore were weakly correlated with serum levels of glucose and uric acid. While Jamal and Ibrahim (2011) reported that the consumption of olive oil significantly lowered the levels of fasting blood glucose in control and diabetic patients with dyslipidemia groups, our results demonstrated that high adherence to olive oil or to vegetables was positively correlated with glucose levels in serum, although still in the normal range. These inconsistent findings may be due in part to that single-nutrient approach which is limited by colinearity among nutrients and by an inability to detect small effects from single nutrients as noted by Newby et al. (2003). ...
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In Syria, a Mediterranean country, health risk data on young women are limited. The aim of study: is to evaluate lifestyle factors, along with biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk factors in a group of university female students. Healthy female students (n = 206, 18–25 years old) participated in the study. Participant anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure were measured; alcohol drinking, smoking, and physical activity were assessed; the Mediterranean dietary pattern was evaluated; biomarkers such as glucose, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were determined. Results: Among participants, 22.34% were overweight and obese; 10.2% were considered to be at high risk for type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases associated to waist circumference (>88 cm); 47.58% have abdominal obesity; 94.17% were non-alcoholic beverage consumers; 70.87% were non-smokers; and 63% practice sport daily. T...
... The results of research conducted by Al Jamal AR and Ibrahim A, 2011 showed that olive oil can reduce fasting blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes after four weeks of consuming olive oil. Olive oil contains PUFA omega 3, PUFA omega 6, and MUFA which play a role in increasing the secretion of hepatic enzymes catalase, superoxidase dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase which are high in antioxidants, antiinflammatory and hypolipidemic in nature so they can prevent decreased insulin sensitivity in target cells and obesity [35][36][37][38]. ...
... Some of these effects are attributed beside the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to the minor components of virgin olive oil (Pérez-Jiménez et al., 2005) Hydrocarbons, polyphenols, tocopherols , sterols, triterpenoids and other components, despite their low concentration, non-fatty acid constituents may be of importance because studies comparing monounsaturated dietary oils have reported different effects on cardiovascular disease. Most of these compounds have demonstrated antioxidant (Al Jamal & Ibrahim, 2011). The present work is aimed to study of some biochemical studies such as liver functions, kidney functions parameters and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were assumed on children after exposure to mobile phone base station radiation and the therapeutic action of olive oil. ...
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This study aims to investigate the effects of non- ionizing radiation emitted from the base station on the children blood and possible protective role of Olive oil supplementation, a total of 120 children (6-12 years) were divided to three groups. The first group served as control group. The second group exposed to electromagnetic field (E.M.F) alone, the third group exposed to E.M.F of and given 2.5 ml/day olive oil supplementation for 5 weeks. The second and the third groups lived nearby mobile phone base station (100- 150 m), more than 5 years. The liver parameters [ALT], [AST]), [ALP] and Bilirubin, as well as the kidney parameters (Urea, Uric Acid, Creatinine and TSH, was assumed. EMF exposure caused increased the concentrations of Urea, Uric Acid and Creatinine but TSH decreased. Activities of serum (AST), (ALT), (ALP) and Bilirubin were increased. Also, signs of improvements in the previous biochemical parameters and TSH were noticed after treatments with olive oil supplementation.
... They showed that a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (22% of total energy intake), from olive oil, had a beneficial effect on glucose metabolism and blood pressure compared with a diet rich in saturated fatty acids or carbohydrate. Similarly, Al Jamal and Ibrahim [38] reported that four weeks of consumption of olive oil significantly lowered the levels of fasting blood glucose, TG, TC, and LDL. The reduction was more profound in diabetics than in healthy control individuals. ...
Article
Background and Objective Yoghurt, especially bio-yoghurt has long been recognized as a product with many health benefits for consumers. Also, honey and olive oil have considerable nutritional and health effects. So, the effect of administration of yoghurt made using ABT culture and fortified with honey (2 and 6%), olive oil (1 and 4%) or honey + olive oil (2+1 and 6+4% respectively) on some biological and hematological properties of rats was investigated. Methods The body weight gain, serum lipid level, blood glucose level, serum creatinine level, Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) activity, Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT) activity, leukocytes and lymphocytes counts of rats were evaluated. Results Blending of bio-yoghurt with rats' diet improved body weight gain. Concentrations of Total plasma Cholesterol (TC), High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), Low-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), Very Low-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) and Triglycerides (TG) significantly lowered in plasma of rats fed bio-yoghurt. Levels of TC, LDL, VLDL, and TG also decreased in rat groups feed bio-yoghurt supplemented with honey and olive oil. LDL concentrations were reduced by 10.32, 18.51, 34.17, 22.48, 43.30% in plasma of rats fed classic starter yoghurt, ABT yoghurt, ABT yoghurt contained 6% honey, ABT yoghurt contained 4% olive oil and ABT yoghurt contained 6% honey + 4% olive oil respectively. The blood glucose, serum creatinine, GOT and GPT values of rats decreased while white blood cells and lymphocytes counts increased by feeding bioyoghurt contained honey and olive oil. Conclusion The findings enhanced the multiple therapeutic effects of bio-yoghurt supplemented with honey and olive oil.
... The obtained results presented in table (2) revealed that, Hyperlipidemia and diabetes caused significant increase in serum total cholesterol, Triacylglycerols, LDL-cholesterol, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, high sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and endothelin-1 can confirm as compared with normal control group. Meanwhile, Oral administration of olive oil cause significant reduction in all of parameters as compared to that of positive control group. ...
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This study was performed to investigate the effect of oral supplementation of olive oil on lipid profile, nitric oxide, adiponectin, endothelin-1, blood glucose and some inflammatory markers in normal, diabetic and hyperlipidemic rats supplementing high fat and cholesterol-enriched diet. Forty female adult albino rats were divided into four equal groups of 10 rats each. Group (1): negative control received normal diet only, group (2): rats fed on normal diet and receive olive oil (0.5 ml/100g b.w.) orally, group (3): positive control received hyperlipidemic diet, group (4): rats fed on hyperlipidemic diet and received olive oil orally. The obtained results revealed that, olive oil supplementations to hyperlipidemic rats showed a significant increase in serum HDL-cholesterol, nitric oxide, adiponectin and Endothelin-1 concentrations and significantly decrease in serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, LDL-cholesterol, Fasting blood glucose, Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1C), high sensitive C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6 levels. These results suggest that, olive oil supplementations may have some benefits in patients suffering from dyslipidemia and diabetes.
... E.M.F exposure pulse Olive oil showed a decrease in serum glucose toward control level. In this respect, (Al Jamal & Ibrahim, 2011) studied the protective influence of Olive oil which was attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties, on blood and lipid profile glucose level Olive oil had positive effects in both type2 diabetic and asymptomatic participants. This shows that Olive oil improves the principle functions of the liver which are related to the blood glucose homeostasis and regulation of carbohydrate metabolism (Fatma et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
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Several recent studies have indicated that global system mobile communications (GSM) radiation have an adverse health effect on cells of human beings. As there is a significant increasing growth in the use of mobile telecommunications services in the Gaza Strip, which leads to increase in the number of base station locations. The purpose of this thesis is to study the effect of microwave frequency emitted from mobile phones base stations antennas on children blood. We studied the effect of the radiation emitted on the blood, liver, kidney and thyroid stimulated tissue by simulation electromagnetic waves using Finite-difference time domain method (FDTD) by MATLAB software program. Electric and magnetic fields, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and power density have been drawn with respect to time steps and evaluate experimentally the biochemical parameters and the blood picture in these tissues of the chlidren and therapeutic role of Olive oil. Total of 120 children (6-12 years) were divided to three groups. The first group served as control group. The second group exposed to electromagnetic field (E.M.F), the third group exposed to E.M.F of and given 2.5 ml/day Olive oil supplementation for 5 weeks. The second and the third groups lived nearby mobile phone base station (100-150 m). Electromagnetic field exposure increased the concentrations of serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, albumin, urea, uric acid and creatinine but total protein, globulin and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) were decreased. Activities of serum aspartate a minotransferase (AST), alanine a minotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin were increased. Concerning hematological parameters, the more obvious changes were observed in the increment of WBC, lymphocyte, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and decrease in hematocrit, Hb, RBC, and PLT count in response to the exposure to E.M.F. Improvement after supplementation suggests that Olive oil can ameliorate hazards of such radiation on hematological and biochemical indices.
... Also, it has been recognized that a decrease in LDL concentration and increase in HDL concentration can lead to an increase in the movement of cholesterol from environmental tissues to the liver and thus facilitate catabolism and its excretion (14). The olive is abundantly used in the Mediterranean diet, it improves the risk factors for heart disease such as lipid profile, blood pressure and glucose metabolism (15). Several studies have reported that oleuropein is an antioxidant that prevents lipid oxidation and removes free radicals in vitro (16). ...
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Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by a disorder in the metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. The liver as a non-insulin dependent organ plays an important role in the regulation of blood fat and glucose. Most blood glucose lowering drugs that are introduced for treatment have side effects in long-term consumption. Therefore, to control diabetes and its complications, the use of herbal drugs is widely considered nowadays. The present study investigates the biochemical effects of oleuropein in diabetic male rats. In this study, 30 adult male Wistar rats with a weight range of 190±30 gr were equally divided into 3 groups randomly: 1) control group or intact animals, 2) diabetic animals, and 3) treatment group, which received 60 mg/kg oleuropein for 30 days by gastric gavage. Diabetes was induced in diabetic and treatment groups by injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. At the end of the treatment, the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, VLDL, blood glucose, HbA1C, and activity of AST and ALT were determined. The results showed that the serum lipid profile and blood glucose increased significantly in the diabetic group compared with the control group (p<0.05). Also, HbA1C and atherogenic index decreased significantly in the treatment group compared with the diabetic group (p<0.05). This study showed that oral administration of oleuropein has hypoglycemic effects, which can reduce the serum levels of the lipids profile and the atherogenic index in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats.
... Virgin olive oil is an essential ingredient of the Mediterranean diet and is appreciated worldwide because of its nutritional benefits in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. It augment the key risk factors for cardiovascular disease, for instance the blood pressure, the glucose metabolism, the lipoprotein and antithrombotic profiles (4,5). Clinical studies provided evidence that consumption of olive oil might lower the risk of heart disease as lowered blood cholesterol levels and reduced LDL cholesterol oxidation (6). ...
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Background: Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for the development and progression of many diseases causing biochemical , histopathological and ultrastructural changes on the pancreas . The ameliorative effects of virgin olive oil and Nigella sativa seeds on the hyperlipidemic pancreas were studied in this article .
... Certaines de ces plantes recensées ont fait l'objet de plusieurs études sur l'effet antihyperglycémiant de leurs extraits bruts aqueux ou même préparés dans différents solvants (éthanol, chloroforme, acétate d'éthyle, éther de pétrole, …) ; par décoction, infusion ou macération administrés par voie orale, intra péritonéale, intraveineuse ou autre mode d'administration, directement sur des patients diabétiques ou sur des espèces animales (rats, souris, lapins,…) rendus diabétiques par des agents diabétogènes (Streptozotocine, alloxane,…). , Zygophyllum gaetulum [Jaouhari et al., 1999 ;Skim et al., 1999], Berberis vulgaris [Leng et al., 2004;Meliani et al., 2011], Zingiber officinale [Akhani et al., 2004;Ojewole, 2006], Camellia sinensis [Gornes et al., 1995;Sabu et al., 2002], Aloe vera [Yongchaiyudha et al., 1996;Okyar et al., 2001], Retama raetam [Maghrani et al., 2005], Lepidium sativum [Eddouks et al., 2005a], Atriplex halimus [Shani et al., 1972], Olea europaea [Al Jamal et Ibrahim, 2011], Urtica dioica [Bnouham et al., 2003]. ...
Thesis
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In this study, the medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus were inventoried. The ethnopharmacological information was obtained from 470 patients suffering from diabetes mellitus in different areas in the West Algeria. The results indicated that only 28,30% of patients interviewed used medicinal plants as treatment of diabetes. 60 medicinal plants were cited. Two of them, Dried figs (Ficus carica) and seeds of colocynth or handal (Citrullus colocynthis L. Shard), were selected for phytochemical analysis and pharmaco-toxicological analysis in the different models of Wistar rats. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, triterpenes and especially reducing sugars in the extracts of figs (Ficus carica) and alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and tannins in the different extracts of the seeds of Citrullus colocynthis. Analysis of antidiabetic effect of extracts of figs (Ficus carica) showed an increase in blood sugar one hour after intraperitoneally administration of 0,95g/kg b.w aqueous crude extract or intra gastric administration of 10g/kg pc fruit juice for normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. This hyperglycemia is rapidly corrected term cost for 3 hours and reached normal values in the medium period for two weeks. The acute toxicity study of three extracts from the seeds of colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis) reported an LD50 of 698mg/kg b.w for total alkaloids and an LD50 of 166 and 113 mg/kg b.w for ethanolic and chloroformic glycosides cucurbitacins extract, respectively. With a remarkable disorder liver plasma biochemical parameters (GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase) and renal plasma parameters (creatinine). In addition, intraperitoneal injection of 60mg/kg b.w of total alkaloids or 20mg/kg b.w of glycosides cucurbitacins for normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats showed antihyperglycemic effect. They hyperglycemia decreased 42% and 32%, respectively, after 3 hours. This decrease persists one week in diabetic rats treated with the alkaloids and 2 weeks in diabetic rats treated with ethanolic glycosides. Also, both extracts showed the ability to correct hyperglycemia induced by oral administration of glucose (OGTT: oral glucose tolerance test) in normal rats. However, higher doses (> 100mg/kg b.w) of cucurbitacins glycosides extracted from the seeds of colocynth cause a risk of severe hypoglycemia. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, ethnopharmacology, antidiabetic plants, Citrullus colocynthis, Ficus carica, phytochemistry, acute toxicity, Streptozotocin.
... It has been reported that essential oils may be effective against type 2 diabetes mellitus. The daily consumption of olive oil had positive effect on fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles of healthy controls [19]. ...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a pandemic disease and causes significant contribution to human mortality across the globe. Since, natural products have been proved to be safe and effective remedies in human healthcare practice; therefore, the present study has investigated the anti-diabetic potential of coconut water against the diabetic rabbits. Rabbits were intoxicated with streptozotocin (80 mg/kg body weight) and diabetes mellitus was induced. To counteract initial hypoglycemia, 10% of glucose was administrated in drinking water for 24 hours. One group was kept as negative control, another was diabetic and un-medicated control, two groups were fed with coconut water dose 2.2g/kg and 4.1g/kg, and last group was medicated with Metformin. Several analyses such as body weight, physical activities, urination, and different biochemical properties and characterization of blood samples were performed. The intoxicated rabbits were characterized by weight loss, frequent urination, sluggish physical activities, low level of high-density lipoprotein, and elevated levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride. Upon administration of coconut water at a dose rate of 2.2 g/kg and 4.1 g/kg for two weeks, all the parameters became normal and/or near to normal when compared to positive control. Therefore, we recommend that coconut water can be developed as a nutraceutical or functional food for the management of diabetes and its associated complications.
... In contrast to palmitic acid, oleic acid found in olive oil could control the blood glucose level by optimizing insulin production in pancreas and improving body glucose uptake and use, resulted in lowering of blood glucose levels (Keita et al., 2013). A report indicated that olive oil inclusion in diet significantly reduced the fasting plasma glucose due to the presence of a beneficial compound in olive oil named Oleuropein (Al Jamal & Ibrahim, 2011). It is known that unsaturated fatty acids may affect phospholipids membranes and modulate the insulin sensitivity in these membranes (Abbott, Else, Atkins, & Hulbert, 2012). ...
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The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of unsaturated and saturated oils on the performance, hormonal levels and hsp gene expression in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. 300 one-day male broiler chicks were assigned to 4 treatments (Diets containing palm, corn, linseed or olive oils) with 5 replicates. At day 28 of age, 2 chickens were removed from each replicate, then blood samples and liver tissue samples were collected for analyses. Feeding linseed and olive oil reduced feed conversion ratio compared to corn and palm oils. The lowest level of insulin was for chickens fed linseed oil and corn oil. The highest level of corticosterone was found in chickens fed palm oil and the lowest level was for those received linseed oil. Chickens received linseed and corn oils had the highest levels of T3 and T4 and those fed palm and olive oils had the lowest levels. The highest HSP 70 gene expression was for chickens fed diet containing olive and linseed oils and the lowest one was for those fed corn and palm oils. It was concluded that olive oil and linseed oil could improve performance and heat tolerance of chickens under heat stress.
... Endothelial function, inflammation and oxidative stress are also positively modulated. Some of these effects are attributed beside the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to the minor components of virgin olive oil (Al Jamal and Ibrahim, 2011). Attempt is, therefore, made in this study to supplement yoghurt with combination of honey and olive oil for production of synbiotic yoghurt and examine the effect of this supplementation on bifidobacteria activity. ...
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The effect of fortification with both honey and olive oil on yoghurt quality was investigated. Control yoghurt was made using classic yoghurt culture and whole milk. Fou other yoghurt treatments were made by ABT culture and whole milk fortified with 0+0, 2+1, 4+2, and 6+4% of honey and virgin olive oil respectively. The sixth treatment was prepared using ABT culture and skim milk contained 6% honey + 4% virgin olive oil. Changes in rheological, chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of yoghurt were monitored during refrigerated storage (4°C) for 15 days. Mixing of yoghurt milk with honey and olive oil to milk showed a slight decrease in the rate of acidity development. Fortification of milk with honey and olive oil had no clear effect on coagulation time, but increased curd tension and decreased curd syneresis values. Addition of honey and olive oil increased acidity, TS, fat, ash and TVFA contents of the examined yoghurt while there were no differences in TN and WSN values. Yoghurt made with honey and olive oil had lower TVBC, moulds and yeasts numbers as compared with control. Adding of honey and olive oil stimulated the growth and viability of bifidobacteria which helped in maintenance their counts above the recommended levels (10 6 cfu.g-1) for a probiotic effect. Finally, supplementation of yoghurt with honey and olive oil greatly improved the sensory evaluation scores.
... They showed that a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (22% of total energy intake), from olive oil, had a beneficial effect on glucose metabolism and blood pressure compared with a diet rich in saturated fatty acids or carbohydrate. Similarly, Al Jamal and Ibrahim [38] reported that four weeks of consumption of olive oil significantly lowered the levels of fasting blood glucose, TG, TC, and LDL. The reduction was more profound in diabetics than in healthy control individuals. ...
... They showed that a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (22% of total energy intake), from olive oil, had a beneficial effect on glucose metabolism and blood pressure compared with a diet rich in saturated fatty acids or carbohydrate. Similarly, Al Jamal and Ibrahim [38] reported that four weeks of consumption of olive oil significantly lowered the levels of fasting blood glucose, TG, TC, and LDL. The reduction was more profound in diabetics than in healthy control individuals. ...
Preprint
Background and Objective: Yoghurt, especially bio-yoghurt has long been recognized as a product with many health benefits for consumers. Also, honey and olive oil have considerable nutritional and health effects. So, the effect of administration of yoghurt made using ABT culture and fortified with honey (2 and 6%), olive oil (1 and 4%) or honey + olive oil (2+1 and 6+4% respectively) on some biological and hematological properties of rats was investigated. Methods: The body weight gain, serum lipid level, blood glucose level, serum creatinine level, Glu-tamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) activity, Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT) activity, leu-kocytes and lymphocytes counts of rats were evaluated. Results: Blending of bio-yoghurt with rats' diet improved body weight gain. Concentrations of total plasma cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) and triglycerides (TG) significantly lowered in plasma of rats fed bio-yoghurt. Levels of TC, LDL, VLDL, and TG also decreased in rat groups feed bio-yoghurt supplemented with honey and olive oil. LDL concentrations were reduced by 10.32, 18.51, 34.17, 22.48, 43.30% in plasma of rats fed classic starter yoghurt, ABT yoghurt, ABT yoghurt contained 6% honey, ABT yoghurt contained 4% olive oil and ABT yoghurt contained 6% honey + 4% olive oil respectively. The blood glucose, serum creatinine, GOT and GPT values of rats decreased while white blood cells and lymphocytes counts increased by feeding bio-yoghurt contained honey and olive oil. Conclusion: The findings enhanced the multiple therapeutic effects of bio-yoghurt supplemented with honey and olive oil.
... They showed that a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (22% of total energy intake), from olive oil, had a beneficial effect on glucose metabolism and blood pressure compared with a diet rich in saturated fatty acids or carbohydrate. Similarly, Al Jamal and Ibrahim [38] reported that four weeks of consumption of olive oil significantly lowered the levels of fasting blood glucose, TG, TC, and LDL. The reduction was more profound in diabetics than in healthy control individuals. ...
Research
Background and Objective: Yoghurt, especially bio-yoghurt has long been recognized as a product with many health benefits for consumers. Also, honey and olive oil have considerable nutritional and health effects. So, the effect of administration of yoghurt made using ABT culture and fortified with honey (2 and 6%), olive oil (1 and 4%) or honey + olive oil (2+1 and 6+4% respectively) on some biological and hematological properties of rats was investigated. Methods: The body weight gain, serum lipid level, blood glucose level, serum creatinine level, Glu-tamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) activity, Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT) activity, leu-kocytes and lymphocytes counts of rats were evaluated. Results: Blending of bio-yoghurt with rats' diet improved body weight gain. Concentrations of total plasma cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) and triglycerides (TG) significantly lowered in plasma of rats fed bio-yoghurt. Levels of TC, LDL, VLDL, and TG also decreased in rat groups feed bio-yoghurt supplemented with honey and olive oil. LDL concentrations were reduced by 10.32, 18.51, 34.17, 22.48, 43.30% in plasma of rats fed classic starter yoghurt, ABT yoghurt, ABT yoghurt contained 6% honey, ABT yoghurt contained 4% olive oil and ABT yoghurt contained 6% honey + 4% olive oil respectively. The blood glucose, serum creatinine, GOT and GPT values of rats decreased while white blood cells and lymphocytes counts increased by feeding bio-yoghurt contained honey and olive oil. Conclusion: The findings enhanced the multiple therapeutic effects of bio-yoghurt supplemented with honey and olive oil.
... They showed that a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (22% of total energy intake), from olive oil, had a beneficial effect on glucose metabolism and blood pressure compared with a diet rich in saturated fatty acids or carbohydrate. Similarly, Al Jamal and Ibrahim [38] reported that four weeks of consumption of olive oil significantly lowered the levels of fasting blood glucose, TG, TC, and LDL. The reduction was more profound in diabetics than in healthy control individuals. ...
... They showed that a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (22% of total energy intake), from olive oil, had a beneficial effect on glucose metabolism and blood pressure compared with a diet rich in saturated fatty acids or carbohydrate. Similarly, Al Jamal and Ibrahim [38] reported that four weeks of consumption of olive oil significantly lowered the levels of fasting blood glucose, TG, TC, and LDL. The reduction was more profound in diabetics than in healthy control individuals. ...
Article
The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of plant oils pellet containing of black seed (10%), cinnamon oil (10%), olive oil (10%) and ginger oil (10%) on some oxidant – antioxidant parameters of male rats, these parameters included glucose, malondialdehyde, iron, transferrin, ceruloplasmin and albumin. Eighteen male rats divided into three groups, the first group was control intraperitoneally received 0.5 ml saline solution, fed ad libitum on normal commercial chow and had free access to water, the second group was diabetes rats fed with the same diet given in group (1) and the third group was diabetes animals fed with plant oils pellet containing black seed oil 10%, cinnamon oil, 10% olive oil 10%, ginger oil 10% respectively, daily for 5 weeks. The results indicated that alloxan and normal diet caused a significant increase in serum glucose, malondialdehyde, iron and ceruloplasmin, while the level of transferrin and albumin was a significant decreased in diabetic animal group compared with control group. The male rats were fed with plant oils pellet show a significant decrease in the level of serum glucose, malondialdehyde, iron, ceruloplasmin, while a significant increase in the level of serum transferrin and albumin in comparison to diabetic animal group.
Chapter
Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is a holistic approach to medicine, and treatment of various diseases originates from humoral medicine. The base of TPM is prevention from illness. Therefore several remedies have been recommended for staying healthy. Olive is a highly used medicinal plant in TPM. In this setting, olive and olive-derived products were prescribed for the treatment of several diseases, including neurological disorders, oral cavity problems, gastrointestinal diseases, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory system disorders, skin diseases, urinary system disorders, obstetrics, and gynecology conditions. Many recent studies support the traditional medicinal use of olives. In this chapter, the authors try to describe the medicinal use of olives in TPM and to allude to evidence-based studies on this subject in conventional medicine.
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Alteration of nutritional habits play an essential role on the risk of developing Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Several epidemiological studies have shown that assuming diets rich of foods included in the Mediterranean diet (MetDiet) pattern like, such as olive oil, nuts, fruit, fiber, vegetables, wine and grain cereals has protective effects on the different risk factors characterizing the MetS. The beneficial effects of the MetDiet in the MetS are mainly due to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the most abundant phytochemical components of such foods as polyphenols like resveratrol and oleuropein, allyl sulfides, ellagic acid, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA), tocopherols and flavonoids like quercetin, which have shown positive results in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), with related risk factors, like hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and obesity. In this review, we highlighted the multi-target activities of the bioactive components contained in some foods typical of the Mediterranean area like olive oil, onion, liquorice, rosemary, oregano, hazelnut, pistachio, “Melannurca” apple, red wine, hot pepper, Citrus sp. fruits, saffron and garlic, with particular focus on their impact on health outcomes in relation to MetS main key factors, such as insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), endothelial dysfunctions, inflammatory response, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemic and hypercholesterolemic effects.
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Objective: To evaluate the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and some liver enzymes activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: About 120 mg/kg body weight alloxan monohydrate was injected intraperitoneally into 18 adult male albino rats weighing 180-200 g, which has been acclimatized in our laboratory for two weeks. Approximately 72 h after the alloxan injection, the rat became hyperglycaemic with blood glucose above 200 mg/dL. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into three diabetic and one control groups of six rats each: normal control, diabetic treated with 1 000 mg/kg body weight of emulsified seed oil; diabetic control, diabetic treated with 150 mg/kg body weight of metformin hydrochloride. Both controls received weight-checked solution of 4.8% v/v Tween-80 in distilled water. All injections in all groups were done intraperitoneally once daily for 28 d. The blood glucose estimation was done every week, with one touch glucometer as well as the weight checked with animal weighing balance. Lipid profiles and some liver enzymes activities (AST, ALT and ALP) were analysed using test kits and spectrophotometer. Data obtained were analyzed using One way ANOVA and post hoc test done using graph pad prism-version 6. Results: The results of this study indicated that Citrus sinensis seed oil was able to reduce blood glucose significantly (P
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Olive oil is a key component of the Mediterranean Diet (MD), being the main source of vegetable fat, especially monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). As Mediterranean unique food stuff, olive oil has become a legendary culinary oil with very difficult-to-match health benefits. Anyone coming from the Mediterranean region of the world would tell you about the health benefits, as well as the wonderful flavor, of a good dose of olive oil on salads, pasta, fish and almost anything else. Fortunately, it is available throughout the year to satisfy taste buds and promote good health. In the last decade, many epidemiological studies confirmed the protective role of olive oil against several chronic diseases. Polyphenols and monounsaturated fatty acids may play a mysterious role in olive oil benefits and curability. They possess high potential anti-inflammatory effects, enhance cardiorespiratory health, can promote a healthy digestive system and healthy bone remodeling, maintain a good glycemic response, may prevent cancer, and can enhance beauty
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Background Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies and metabolic disorders in women during their reproductive years and is often associated with dyslipidaemia and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary intervention with canola and olive oils in comparison with sunflower oil on lipid profile and fatty liver severity among women with PCOS.Method This study was a 10 weeks intervention including 72 women with PCOS. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups to receive 25 g/day canola, olive, or sunflower oils for 10 weeks. The primary outcome was any changes in the lipid profile and the secondary outcome was a change in fatty liver severity.ResultAt the end of the study, 72 patients with a mean age of 29.31 were analyzed. Canola oil consumption led to a significant reduction in serum levels of triglycerides and TC/HDL (p = 0.021), LDL/HDL (p = 0.047), and TG/HDL (p = 0.001) ratios, but there was no significant reduction in lipid profile following olive oil consumption. Moreover, both the canola (p < 0.001) and olive oils (p = 0.005) could significantly reduce the fatty liver grade.Conclusion Overall, compared to the olive and sunflower oils, significant improvements in lipid profile and liver function were observed following consumption of canola oil in women with PCOS.Trial registrationIR.MUI.RESEARCH.REC.1397.315. Registered 30 JUNE 2019 - Retrospectively registered, https://www.irct.ir/trial/38684
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We aimed to define changes in membrane fatty acids and signaling proteins induced by virgin olive oil (VOO) consumption in elderly persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 16) compared to a control group (n = 28). The fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography and G-protein subunits and protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) by immunoblotting. VOO consumption increased the monounsaturated fatty acid content in phospholipids and cholesterol esters in both groups. In contrast, saturated fatty acids were decreased only in phospholipids. The levels of Galphao, Gbeta, and PKCalpha were significantly lower in diabetics than in controls. However, whereas VOO consumption reduced Galphas, Gbeta, and PKCalpha in both groups, reduction in Galphai was observed only in diabetics. These results indicate that long-term VOO consumption modifies the fatty acid composition of plasma membrane, which influences the association of G proteins and PKCalpha with the lipid bilayer. These combined effects probably account for the positive effects of VOO on glycemic homeostasis.
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Although various studies have examined the short-term effects of a ketogenic diet in reducing weight in obese patients, its long-term effects on various physical and biochemical parameters are not known. To determine the effects of a 24-week ketogenic diet (consisting of 30 g carbohydrate, 1 g/kg body weight protein, 20% saturated fat, and 80% polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat) in obese patients. In the present study, 83 obese patients (39 men and 44 women) with a body mass index greater than 35 kg/m(2), and high glucose and cholesterol levels were selected. The body weight, body mass index, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar, urea and creatinine levels were determined before and after the administration of the ketogenic diet. Changes in these parameters were monitored after eight, 16 and 24 weeks of treatment. The weight and body mass index of the patients decreased significantly (P<0.0001). The level of total cholesterol decreased from week 1 to week 24. HDL cholesterol levels significantly increased, whereas LDL cholesterol levels significantly decreased after treatment. The level of triglycerides decreased significantly following 24 weeks of treatment. The level of blood glucose significantly decreased. The changes in the level of urea and creatinine were not statistically significant. The present study shows the beneficial effects of a long-term ketogenic diet. It significantly reduced the body weight and body mass index of the patients. Furthermore, it decreased the level of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and blood glucose, and increased the level of HDL cholesterol. Administering a ketogenic diet for a relatively longer period of time did not produce any significant side effects in the patients. Therefore, the present study confirms that it is safe to use a ketogenic diet for a longer period of time than previously demonstrated.
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Olive oil, the principal fat of Mediterranean Diet, is known to improve several cardiovascular risk factors at relatively high doses together with intensive modifications of dietary habits. Since this is hard to obtain in the long term, an intervention with encapsulated oil supplements might be more feasible. Aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effects of the supplementation of a moderate amount of encapsulated extra virgin olive oil vs a lower dose in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, as part of their established diet, on blood lipid profile. A prospective randomized study was performed. Thirty-four mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects [age, mean+/-SD: 46+/-7 yr; total cholesterol (TC): 235+/-28 mg/dl] were randomly assigned to receive 2 g (group A) or 4 g (group B) per os of extra-virgin olive oil for 3 months. TC, triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-AI), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the study. In group B, but not in group A, a significant reduction of Apo-B values (7%) was observed; TG concentrations showed a trend towards reduction and Apo-A1 values a trend towards increase (9%). A significant decrease in Apo-B/Apo-A1 ratio (p<0.01) was also observed in group B. Extra virgin olive oil supplementation significantly decreased AIP from baseline in group B (p<0.05). The results of the present study seem to suggest that the daily supplementation, on top of the normal diet, of at least 4 g of extra virgin olive oil, in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, is associated to favorable modifications of the plasmatic lipid profile.
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To determine the frequency and patterns of dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and to estimate the effects of sociodemographic and clinical variables on dyslipidemia. The setting took place in The National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG) at the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. The NCDEG is the only referral center in the country; therefore, the patients represent the population in different parts of the country. A cross-sectional design was used. A total of 702 patients with DM from the NCDEG aged > or =20 years were consecutively enrolled between June 2005 and July 2006. Medical record abstraction of sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory data was performed. The frequency of hypercholesterolemia was 77.2%, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was 83.9%, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was 91.5%, and hypertriglyceridemia was 83.1%. Females had greater abnormalities in lipid profiles. High LDL-cholesterol was the most common dyslipidemia in combination (91.5%) and in isolation (12.8%). Gender and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) predicted high total cholesterol; age and hypothyroidism predicted low HDL-cholesterol, gender predicted high LDL-cholesterol; and use of beta-blockers predicted high triglycerides. Over 90% of patients with type 2 DM had one or more types of dyslipidemia. The most common dyslipidemia in our study was high LDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides as reported in the literature. We recommend aggressive drug management, education, counseling, and behavioral interventions.
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We investigated the association of remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C), with vasospastic angina (VSA). We selected 66 subjects with nearly normal coronary artery as a control group, and 74 VSA with nearly normal coronary artery, of whom 19 had prior myocardial infarction (MI). Coronary risk factors, triglyceride, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins were evaluated using stepwise discriminant analysis, smoking was the only discriminator of the control group from VSA and RLP-C was the only discriminator of VSA with MI from VSA without MI. In comparison between VSA with and without MI, using stepwise logistic regression analysis, the only significant variable was RLP-C, and odds ratio of RLP-C for MI was 1.59. Thus, RLP-C is a major discriminator of VSA with MI and appears to be a major risk factor for MI in VSA.
Article
Type II diabetes is a common disorder whose prevalence is increasing in the United States and throughout the world. Type II diabetes is also associated with several other metabolic abnormalities such as central obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, which contributes to the very high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The main pathologic defects in diabetes consist of excessive hepatic glucose production, peripheral insulin resistance, and defective beta-cell secretory function. The duration and severity of the hyperglycemia dictate the microvascular complications, no matter what the etiology of the glucose intolerance, and the goals of therapy should be similar to those of insulin-dependent type I diabetic patients. Initiation of nonpharmacologic therapy should be started as soon as the diagnosis is made. Pharmacologic agents should be initiated if the glycemic goals are not met with a 3-month trial of diet and exercise. The cornerstone of therapy consists of a regular exercise routine along with a diet consisting of 40% to 50% complex carbohydrates, 10% to 20% protein, and monounsaturated fats such as canola oil and olive oil. If nonpharmacologic therapy does not achieve adequate glycemic control, initiation of an oral antidiabetic agent is warranted. In addition to the sulfonylureas, which work by stimulating insulin secretion, we now have metformin, which inhibits excessive hepatic glucose production; acarbose, which delays the absorption of carbohydrates in the gut; and troglitazone, which reduces insulin, resistance primarily in skeletal muscle. The selection of an initial oral antidiabetic agent depends on patient characteristics such as the presence of obesity and dyslipidemia, the duration of diabetes, and other concomitant conditions. Combination therapy with two or three of the different classes of oral antidiabetic agents is effective and has been used throughout the world. When maximum doses of oral antidiabetic agents do not adequately control glycemia, insulin therapy is necessary. In selected patients, combination therapy consisting of bedtime intermediate-acting insulin in addition to daytime oral antidiabetic agent(s) can be an effective method to normalize glucose control without the need for rigorous insulin regimens. When combination therapy fails, a split-mixed regimen using premixed 70/30 insulin prebreakfast and predinner can be very effective in obese subjects. In thin insulin-requiring subjects with type II diabetes, more intensive regimens may be required. In general, the risk of severe hypoglycemia is quite low in patients with type II diabetes, and the main adverse effect of insulin therapy is weight gain. Prevention and aggressive treatment of glucose intolerance and the other adverse metabolic conditions associated with type II diabetes will not only have a positive effect on the quality of life but also provide long-term cost savings.
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term effects of a high-complex-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat diet and exercise on 69 NIDDM patients. During the initial 26-day program, fasting glucose was reduced from 179.5 +/- 10.6 to 133.5 +/- 4.0 mg/dl. This decrease in fasting glucose was achieved along with the discontinuation of oral hypoglycemic agents in 24 of 31 patients and of insulin in 13 of 18 patients; one patient was placed on insulin. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced by 25% and 27%, respectively. At 2-3 yr of follow-up, fasting glucose was not significantly different from the value observed at the end of the 26-day program. Compared with the end of the 26-day program, seven more patients were taking oral agents and four more were on insulin. Exercise and diet inventories obtained at follow-up indicated good compliance to the program and also indicated that the main difference between those patients who went back on medication at follow-up compared with those remaining off medication was the percent of calories derived from fat.
Article
The intestine is a major site of cholesterol synthesis and produces apolipoprotein B-48, which is critical for intestinal cholesterol absorption and secretion. The purpose of this study was to examine postprandial changes in apolipoprotein B-48 in diabetes. Six non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients and six non-diabetic control subjects were given a high-fat meal (1300 kcal) and blood samples were taken pre- and postprandially, from which the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction was isolated by ultracentrifugation (density < 1.006 g/ml). Apolipoprotein B-48 was separated on 4-15% gradient gels and quantified as a percentage of the fasting concentration by densitometric scanning. Total protein, triglyceride and cholesterol in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction, blood glucose, and serum insulin were also measured. Diabetic patients exhibited a postprandial triglyceride-rich apolipoprotein B-48 profile significantly different from that of control subjects (p < 0.05). The triglyceride and total protein concentration in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction mirrored the post-prandial profile and apolipoprotein B-48 in both groups. Significantly different patterns for triglyceride (p < 0.02) and total protein (p < 0.05) following the fat-rich meal were observed in the two groups. Fasting and postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol and total apolipoprotein B were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (p < 0.05). Since apolipoprotein B-48 is the structural protein of intestinally-derived lipoprotein particles, these studies suggest an abnormality in intestinal lipoprotein metabolism in diabetes.
Article
Chronic high-fat feeding in rats induces profound whole-body insulin resistance, mainly due to effects in oxidative skeletal muscle. The mechanisms of this reaction remain unclear, but local lipid availability has been implicated. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of three short-term physiological manipulations intended to lower muscle lipid availability on insulin sensitivity in high-fat-fed rats. Adult male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet for 3 weeks were divided into four groups the day before the study: one group was fed the normal daily high-fat meal (FM); another group was fed an isocaloric low-fat high-glucose meal (GM); a third group was fasted overnight (NM); and a fourth group underwent a single bout of exercise (2-h swim), then were fed the normal high-fat meal (EX). In vivo insulin action was assessed using the hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (plasma insulin 745 pmol/l, glucose 7.2 mmol/l). Prior exercise, a single low-fat meal, or fasting all significantly increased insulin-stimulated glucose utilization, estimated at either the whole-body level (P < 0.01 vs. FM) or in red quadriceps muscle (EX 18.2, GM 28.1, and NM 19.3 vs. FM 12.6 +/- 1.1 micromol x 100 g(-1) x min(-1); P < 0.05), as well as increased insulin suppressibility of muscle total long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LC-CoA), the metabolically available form of fatty acid (EX 24.0, GM 15.5, and NM 30.6 vs. FM 45.4 nmol/g; P < 0.05). There was a strong inverse correlation between glucose uptake and LC-CoA in red quadriceps during the clamp (r = -0.7, P = 0.001). Muscle triglyceride was significantly reduced by short-term dietary lipid withdrawal (GM -22 and NM -24% vs. FM; P < 0.01), but not prior exercise. We concluded that muscle insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding is readily ameliorated by three independent, short-term physiological manipulations. The data suggest that insulin resistance is an important factor in the elevated muscle lipid availability induced by chronic high-fat feeding.
Article
The presence or absence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients has been related to the level of circulating plasma lipoproteins. This study examines whether there is a relationship between the actual severity of CAD and the plasma concentration of major classes of plasma lipoproteins (HDL, LDL, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), and their Sf 12 to 60 and Sf 60 to 400 subfractions), particularly the numbers of lipoprotein particles, in men and women with type 2 diabetes. 174 diabetic patients (136 men, 38 women) who underwent angiography were studied. Nine specific coronary segments were scored. The population was divided into tertiles according to the angiographic severity of their coronary disease: mild CAD: coronary score 1 to 10; moderate CAD: coronary score 11 to 13; or severe CAD: coronary score 14 to 22. The main findings were that the numbers of particles (as reflected by the apoB levels) of the TRL were greater in those with moderate and severe disease than in those with mild disease (P = .001). There was a significant correlation between the coronary score and the apoB in TRL (P = .006). There were parallel but nonsignificant changes in triglyceride levels. ApoA-I was lower in patients with moderate and severe disease (P = .01). These differences were more striking in women than they were in men. There were no differences in plasma, LDL, or HDL cholesterol or in LDL apoB or Lp(a). Multiple linear regression analysis, when adjusted for sex, age, and BMI, showed that three lipid variables (TRL apoB, LDL cholesterol, and plasma apoA-I) significantly and independently predicted the coronary score. This study demonstrates that in type 2 diabetes, the severity of angiographically evaluated CAD is positively related to the numbers of TRL particles in the plasma. This relationship is stronger in women than in men, and it is independent of HDL and LDL.
Article
Unlabelled: Most experts, specially from Anglo-Saxon countries, recommend a low fat diet in order to prevent cardiovascular diseases. However, mortality rate by ischemic cardiopathy is low in Mediterranean countries, probably because of the consumption of a Mediterranean diet, with a high level of monounsaturated fats provided by the olive oil. We have conducted this study in order to investigate the possible influence of this kind of diet on the oxidation of LDL in vitro, the key element for the development of atherosclerosis. Patients and methods: 41 healthy male subjects were submitted to three consecutive 4-week diets. The first was a saturated fat-rich diet (SAT diet, 38% fat, 20% saturated). This was followed by a low fat diet (NCEP-I, 28% fat, 10% saturated) and after that a Mediterranean diet (38% fat, 22% monounsaturated fat). Plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A-I and B, -tocopherol, and the in vitro susceptibility to oxidation of LDL particles. Both hypolipidemic diets produced a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and apo-B plasma levels. However, it was only the NCEP-I diet that revealed a decrease in the HDL-c. The shift from a saturated fat-rich diet, or a diet rich in carbohydrates, to a Mediterranean diet increased the resistance of LDL particles to oxidation increasing the lag time period (p < 0.038), and decreasing (p < 0.001) the progression rate of the curve of oxidation of LDL. Our results point out two positive consequences of the consumption of a Mediterranean diet by healthy young males, compared with the low fat diet recommended by most Anglo-Saxon experts. On the one hand, the Mediterranean diet increases HDL-c plasma levels, and on the other hand, it decreases the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation. This is why the Mediterranean diet must be recommended in order to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
Article
To evaluate which dietary fat elicits the best response in terms of plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and oxidative processes. After a 4-week run-in period, 14 mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were fed two balanced diets for 6-week periods. During the first intervention period, patients received a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-enriched diet (olive oil diet). During the second period this diet was supplemented by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (n-3 diet). After the olive oil diet, a significant decrease in total serum cholesterol (-8.54%, P<0.01), and in apolipoprotein B (Apo B) (-10.0%, P<0.01) was observed. With the addition of n-3 fatty acids no further significant changes in serum lipid concentrations were found. However, the n-3 diet was followed by an increase in lipoperoxides in isolated native low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (67.23%, P<0.01). A beneficial effect on the serum lipid pattern was observed with the olive oil-enriched diet. The lack of further beneficial modifications on blood lipids and lipoproteins and the increase in the oxidative susceptibility of LDL observed after the addition of n-3 PUFA to the olive oil diet does not favor the use of this diet in hypercholesterolemic patients if it is not associated with a high intake of antioxidants.
Article
To determine the lipid profile and to identify and stratify risk factors in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with proven coronary artery disease at King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan. One hundred and ninety-two patients who were admitted to Queen Alia Heart Institute, Amman, Jordan, proving to have coronary artery disease (CAD) by angiogram, with a mean age of 54 +/- 22 years were studied. Seventy-seven patients were diabetics and 115 non-diabetics. Their lipid profiles (T-Cholesterol, high density lipoprotein level (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein level (LDL-C), triglyceride, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin) and thyroid function test were compared to a control group of 162 individuals with no cardiac events or diabetes, mean age 48.9 +/- 18 years. Prevalence of hyperlipidemia was calculated. Patients with high thyroid stimulating hormone were excluded. The mean (+/- standard deviation) plasma cholesterol for the group with CAD is 231.43 +/- 57.99 mg/dl versus 202.8 +/- 36.58 in the control group (p<0.0003). High density lipoprotein 35.98 +/- 9.37 versus 44.43 +/- 8.34 (p=0.00011). Low density lipoprotein 146.75 +/- 50.93 versus 118.97 +/- 45.9 (p=0.003). Triglyceride level 246.95 +/- 142.1 versus 164 mg/l +/- 93.78 (p=0.0002). Thyroid stimulating hormone level was 1.55 +/- 0.9 versus 1.51 +/- 0.89 ng/l in control group (p=0.35 NS), HbA1c in diabetic group 7 +/- 2.3%. The prevalence of high plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), LDL-C and low HDL-C was 60.9%, 68.3%, 63.5% and 48.4%. Inter-group comparison of patients with CAD (diabetics versus non-diabetics) revealed higher TG level in the diabetic group and statistically significant difference of the HDL and LDL levels between the 2 groups in favor of diabetic group explained by higher percentage of patients on anti-hyperlipidemic drugs than non-diabetics. More females with CAD were found in the diabetic group versus non-diabetic group (16.9% versus 6.1%. z=2.4027 p=0.00820). Jordanian patients with CAD have higher cholesterol, LDL-C, Triglyceride and lower HDL-C levels than the control group which comes in accordance of other studies. Hyperlipidemia remains the strongest risk factor for CAD. Diabetic females are at higher risk for CAD versus non-diabetics with the same lipid profile. Aggressive treatment of hyperlipidemia is of paramount importance to reduce the morbidity and mortality of cardiac events in diabetic and non-diabetic patients.
Article
Little is known about the relationship between dietary patterns and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Our aim was to estimate the association between nutrient intake and diagnosis of PAD. We assessed the nutrient intake of 1251 home-dwelling subjects enrolled in the InCHIANTI study, mean age 68 years (S.D.: 15). We explored the relationship between nutrient intake, obtained through the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) questionnaire, and PAD, defined as an ankle-brachial index (ABI)<0.90. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found a reduction of the risk of having an ABI<0.90 associated with vegetable lipid intake>or=34.4 g/day (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16-0.97), Vitamin E intake>or=7.726 mg/day (OR: 0.37; 95% CI 0.16-0.84) and higher serum HDL cholesterol concentration (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63-0.92 for 10mg/dl increase). Age (OR: 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.14 for 1 year increase), smoking (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04 for 10 packs/year increase) and pulse pressure (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.19 for 5 mmHg increase) were associated with an increased risk of PAD. A higher intake of vegetable lipids, Vitamin E and higher concentrations of serum HDL cholesterol characterize subjects free from PAD. Prospective studies are needed to verify whether this dietary pattern and/or interventions aimed at increasing HDL cholesterol exert some protective effect against PAD.
Article
Olive oil consumption increases HDL-cholesterol levels, while decreasing LDL-cholesterol levels, LDL susceptibility to oxidation and lipid peroxidation. The reduction of cellular oxidative stress, thrombogenicity and the formation of atheroma plague can explain the preventive effects of olive oil on atherosclerosis development. In addition to reducing risk factors for coronary heart disease, olive oil might also help prevent certain types of cancers, and beneficially modify immune and inflammatory responses.
Article
To compare the effects of a high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet and a high-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) diet on LDL oxidative resistance in free-living individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twenty-two men and women out-patients with Type 2 diabetes, with mean age 61 years and in fair metabolic control (HbA1c<8.0%), were enrolled at a university hospital lipid clinic in a randomized, crossover feeding trial comparing two isocaloric diets for 6 weeks each: CHO (fat, 28% energy) and MUFA (fat, 40% energy) based on virgin olive oil. Outcome measurements were changes in LDL susceptibility to oxidation, body weight, glycaemic control, and lipoprotein profiles. Planned and observed diets were well matched. Participants preferred the MUFA diet over the CHO diet. The lag time of conjugated diene formation during Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation was similar after the CHO and MUFA diets (36.4 +/- 12.2 min and 36.0 +/- 13.7 min, respectively). Body weight, glycaemic control, total triglycerides, and total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels also were similar after the two diets. Compared with the CHO diet, the MUFA diet lowered VLDL-cholesterol by 35% (P=0.023) and VLDL triglyceride by 16% (P=0.016). Natural food-based high-CHO and high-MUFA diets have similar effects on LDL oxidative resistance and metabolic control in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. A MUFA diet is a good alternative to high-CHO diets for nutrition therapy of diabetes because it also has a beneficial effect on the lipid profile and superior patient acceptance.