Article

Saberes docentes en el trabajo cotidiano de los maestros

Infancia y Aprendizaje (Impact Factor: 0.4). 04/2014; 14(55). DOI: 10.1080/02103702.1991.10822305
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT

Teaching is conceived in this study as an activity based on knowledge the teachers have acquired and generated in their daily teaching practices. An etnographic analysis of a first grade elementary class is presented. The teacher�s practical knowledge includes: how to organize a group, how to involve the children in certain activities,, how to ensure children�s participation, how to promote and sustain individual activity. The author focuses on the study of teaching knowledge as generated and appropriated by the teachers in their daily teaching practices. This area has received little attention in research on instruction. En el artículo se concibe a la docencia como un trabajo sustentado en los saberes que los maestros se apropian y generan en la resolución cotidiana de la enseñanza. Se presenta un análisis etnográfico de una clase de primer grado de primaria, donde los saberes docentes identificados son: cómo organizar al grupo, cómo involucrar a los niños en la actividad, cómo tomar en cuenta las intervenciones de los niños, cómo promover y cómo sostener la actividad individual. El interés del trabajo es contribuir al estudio de los saberes docentes que los maestros generan y se apropian en el entorno cotidiano de la enseñanza y que han sido escasamente abordados en la investigación sobre la docencia.

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    • "Es muy importante considerar que los saberes docentes no sólo son reproducidos, sino que también son generados e integrados a la práctica durante las experiencias profesionales de los maestros (Rockwell y Mercado, 1990). Mercado (1991 y 2002) da cuenta de diversos saberes que los maestros ponen en juego durante su labor de enseñanza: sobre cómo organizar el trabajo del grupo, cómo involucrar a los niños en la actividad, cómo aceptar sus intervenciones, cómo promover el trabajo individual y sostener su continuidad; cómo trabajar simultáneamente con el grupo y de manera individual y cómo ayudar a los que se retrasan; sobre las posibilidades de los alumnos para realizar tareas específicas y cómo lograr que las desarrollen ; saberes relacionados con la búsqueda, uso y combinación de apoyos pertinentes para la enseñanza tales como los libros de texto y diversos materiales de consulta; sobre la planeación o anticipación de la enseñanza; y saberes sobre la adaptación y ajuste de las propuestas de los libros de texto a las necesidades y posibilidades percibidas en los niños. Los aportes citados sobre los saberes docentes son congruentes con un planteamiento central de las teorías de la actividad situada, que indica que durante la práctica siempre se producen cambios tanto en la actividad misma como en el conocimiento que la sustenta (Lave, 1993). "
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