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Aphomia Hübner and Paralipsa Butler species (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Galleriinae) known to occur in the United States and Canada

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Abstract

The current taxonomic status of three species of Aphomia Hübner and one species of Paralipsa Butler that occur in the United States and Canada is clarified and keys to their identification are provided. A lectotype is designated for Paralipsa decorella Hulst, which is transferred to Aphomia (n. comb.) and treated as a junior synonym of A. terrenella Zeller (n. syn.). Preliminary morphological research indicates that Aphomia fuscolimbella Ragonot does not belong in Aphomia as currently defined. Its placement is unknown. Because no specimens other than the type of A. fuscolimbella are known from the Western Hemisphere, the presumed North American origin of this species is considered unlikely. A brief discussion of biological associations is included.
... The connectivity of 3A and 2A also occurs in Galleriinae (e.g. Solis & Metz 2008) in Pyralidae, but not to our knowledge in the Phycitinae, Pyralinae, Epipaschiinae, or in Crambidae. We do not know about its occurrence in other lepidopteran superfamilies. ...
Article
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The identifications of known fossils currently placed in the lepidopteran superfamily Pyraloidea are critically re-examined. Of the eleven fossils examined, only three are confirmed to show morphological characters supporting placement in the superfamily. These fossils include a crambid larva in Baltic Amber, Baltianania yantarnia, Solis gen. n. et sp. n. and the oldest known fossil pyraloid, Eopyralis morsae Simonsen, gen. n. et sp. n. The third fossil, Glendotricha olgae Kusnezov, 1941, displays apomorphic characters for Pyraloidea, but is shown to be an inclusion in copal, not Baltic amber as had been reported. Seven fossil specimens lack reliable characters and cannot be assigned to Pyraloidea with certainty: Pyralites obscurus Heer, 1856; Pyralites preecei Jarzembowski, 1980; Petisca dryellina Martins-Neto, 1998; three fossil larvae tentatively identified as Pyralidae by Zeuner (1931); and Gallerites keleri Kernbach, 1967. A possible fossil pyraloid in Mizunami amber could not be located in museum collections and available literature does not provide details to assess the validity of the identification. We discuss the contribution of the reliably identified fossils towards better understanding the evolutionary history of Pyraloidea.
... The Galleriinae include 259 species worldwide. Some are stored product pests, whereas others, including G. mellonella, feed on combs in wasp and bee nests (Solis & Metz, 2008). ...
Conference Paper
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We present the first detailed molecular estimate of relationships across the subfamilies of Pyraloidea, and assess its concordance with previous morphology-based hypotheses. Maximum likelihood analyses yield trees that differ little among data sets and character treatments and are strongly supported at all levels of divergence. Subfamily relationships within Pyralidae, all very strongly supported, differ only slightly from a previous morphological analysis, and can be summarized as Galleriinae + Chrysauginae (Phycitinae (Pyralinae + Epipaschiinae)). In Crambidae the molecular phylogeny is also strongly supported, but conflicts with most previous hypotheses. Among the newly-proposed groupings is a wet-habitat clade comprising Acentropinae + Schoenobiinae + Midilinae, and a provisional mustard oil clade containing Glaphyriinae, Evergestinae and Noordinae.
... The Galleriinae include 259 species worldwide. Some are stored product pests, whereas others, including G. mellonella, feed on combs in wasp and bee nests (Solis & Metz, 2008). ...
Article
Pyraloidea, one of the largest superfamilies of Lepidoptera, comprise more than 15 684 described species worldwide, including important pests, biological control agents and experimental models. Understanding of pyraloid phylogeny, the basis for a predictive classification, is currently provisional. We present the most detailed molecular estimate of relationships to date across the subfamilies of Pyraloidea, and assess its concordance with previous morphology‐based hypotheses. We sequenced up to five nuclear genes, totalling 6633 bp, in each of 42 pyraloids spanning both families and 18 of the 21 subfamilies, plus up to 14 additional genes, for a total of 14 826 bp, in 21 of those pyraloids plus all 24 outgroups. Maximum likelihood analyses yield trees that, within Pyraloidea, differ little among datasets and character treatments and are strongly supported at all levels of divergence (83% of nodes with bootstrap ≥80%). Subfamily relationships within Pyralidae, all very strongly supported (>90% bootstrap), differ only slightly from a previous morphological analysis, and can be summarized as Galleriinae + Chrysauginae (Phycitinae (Pyralinae + Epipaschiinae)). The main remaining uncertainty involves Chrysauginae, of which the poorly studied Australian genera may constitute the basal elements of Galleriinae + Chrysauginae or even of Pyralidae. In Crambidae the molecular phylogeny is also strongly supported, but conflicts with most previous hypotheses. Among the newly proposed groupings are a ‘wet‐habitat clade’ comprising Acentropinae + Schoenobiinae + Midilinae, and a provisional ‘mustard oil clade’ containing Glaphyriinae, Evergestinae and Noordinae, in which the majority of described larvae feed on Brassicales. Within this clade a previous synonymy of Dichogaminae with the Glaphyriinae is supported. Evergestinae syn. n. and Noordinae syn. n. are here newly synonymized with Glaphyriinae, which appear to be paraphyletic with respect to both. Pyraustinae and Spilomelinae as sampled here are each monophyletic but form a sister group pair. Wurthiinae n. syn., comprising the single genus Niphopyralis Hampson, which lives in ant nests, are closely related to, apparently subordinate within, and here newly synonymized with, Spilomelinae syn. n.
Thesis
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Family Pyralidae includes Pyralid moths, snout moths or grass moths.These belong to order Lepidoptera. The members of this family are polyphagous in nature. The labial palpi of snout moth projected forward. Pyralid consider as one of the diverse family of insect pest which cause huge losses to important Agricultural crops worldwide. The snout moths are important and establish worldwide in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. It is adiverse group with 5000 species belong to five major subfamilies namely Pyralinae, Phycitinae, Epipaschiinae, Galleriinaeand Chrysauginae worldwide. The 30 species of 25 genera of family Pyralidae are collected from Pakistan. In the present study snout moths were collected from different locations of Faisalabad from infected weeds, trees, plants and shrubs etc. Collection of snout moth will be done with the help of Ariel net and other suitable equipment’s. The specimenswerecollected and preserved in wooden boxes by using suitable pins. Later, these were shifted in insectarium, Department of Entomology University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Identification of specimens were done by using different taxonomic keys and available relevant literature.
Book
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A definitive species list is the foundation of biodiversity and conservation work. As we deal with massive climatic changes in the Anthropocene, knowing which species make up our diverse ecosystems will be critically important if we wish to protect and restore them. The Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies, are the fourth-largest insect order in terms of global diversity, with approximately 158,000 described species. Here we report the distributions of 5431 species that occur in Canada and Alaska, as well as 53 species that have been reported from the region but not yet verified. Additionally, 19 species are listed as interceptions or unsuccessful introductions, and 52 species are listed as probably occurring in the region. The list is based on records from taxonomic papers, historical regional checklists, and specimen data from collections and online databases. All valid species and their synonyms, and all Nearctic subspecies and synonyms are included, except for butterfly subspecies (and their synonyms) that have never been reported from the region. The list is presented in taxonomic order, with the author, date of description, and original genus provided for each name.
Article
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An annotated check list of Pyraloidea of North America north of Mexico is presented, including 861 Crambidae and 681 Pyralidae with 1542 total species. It includes all new species described, tropical species with new records in the United States, and species introduced from Europe and Asia since 1983. The Notes section provides the seminal citations, data and/or commentary to all changes since 1983 for easy and future reference. In addition, this list proposes seven new generic combinations, the transfer of a phycitine species, Salebria nigricans (Hulst), to Epipaschiinae and its syn. n. with Pococera fuscolotella (Ragonot), and three new records for the United States. Purposefully, no new taxa are described here, but we found a gradual increase of 10% in the number of species described since 1983. Finally, we also include a list of thirteen species not included or removed from the MONA list. Many higher-level changes have occurred since 1983 and the classification is updated to reflect research over the last 30 years, including exclusion of Thyrididae and Hyblaeidae from the superfamily and recognition of Crambidae and Pyralidae as separate families. The list includes multiple changes to subfamilies based on morphology such as the synonymization of the Dichogamini with the Glaphyriinae, but also incorporating recent molecular phylogenetic results such as the synonymization of the Evergestinae with the Glaphyriinae.
Article
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A key to frequently intercepted lepidopterous larvae, designed for U. S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA, APHIS) identifiers at U.S. ports, was last revised in 1986. Since then many changes have occurred in the classification, nomenclature, and the nature of commodities being imported into the U.S. In this revision of the section on Pyraloidea, species recently intercepted are included, the most recent generic combinations are used, and families and subfamilies are now included in the key. Distributions are updated, stating if the species occurs in Hawaii or restricted areas of the continental United States. A "Note" section explains changes and additions, and gives references to further information. Two tables are provided, one to the classification of Pyraloidea with reference to placement in the key and another to the hosts and/or commodities.
Research
LepIndex is essentially a computerised and updated version of the Natural History Museum's (NHM) card index archive to the scientific names of the living and fossil butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) of the world. With about 137,441 species known so far, the Lepidoptera represent approximately 10% of the 1,413,000 or so known species of living organisms on this planet (Wilson, 1992). Although attempts have been made to catalogue all published Lepidoptera names (eg the Lepidopterorum Catalogus published in parts between 1911 and 1939), none of the catalogues begun in the last 100 years has been completed. When LepIndex is fully operational it will be the only comprehensive global catalogue of this ecologically and economically important group of insects available. LepIndex will enable anyone with access to the Internet to quickly find information such as who named a butterfly or moth species and where the original description was published.
Article
This moth was first reported on this continent as a pest in a consignment of peanuts, received in California from China (de Ong, 1919). Mr. Hahn W. Capps, of the United States Department of Agriculture, informs me, in litt. , that 6 adults from that infestation, together with 2 from “near prunes” in 1930, and 8 from a prune warehouse in 1931, at San José, are in the U.S. National Museum.
Article
The present study was suggested by the observation of damages caused by Aphomia sociella L. in bumble-bee nests. Aphomia breeding developed in the laboratory enabled us to study the duration of embryonary, larval and pupal development under controlled conditions. Adequate numbers of imagos, for experimental requirements, were obtained by taking off caterpillars in destroyed bumble-bee nests. The duration of Aphomia life cycle, particularly a growth break at the last larval stage, was taken into account. Egg development averages 8.0 days at 20°C, 6.2 days at 25°C and 5.0 days at 30°C. The number of larval instars may be 8 or 9, irrespective of sex. Larval behaviour was studied from hatching to cocoon spinning before prepupal rest. The average larval development varies with: 1) the stage: from 4.5-5.0 days at the first stage to about 9-10 days at the stage before growth break; 2) the sex: female larval development is slower than the male one; 3) the number of instars: in caterpillars performing 8 instars the duration of development during each instar is slightly longer than in 9-instar larvae. Head capsules are wider in 8-instar larvae than in 9-instar larvae. The duration of development in larvae subjected to 3 different temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C) decreases in a fairly regular manner as temperature rises.
Biology of Apliomia socjel/c, a parasite of bumblebees' nests
  • V S Grebennikov
Grebennikov, V. S. 1977. Biology of Apliomia socjel/c,, a parasite of bumblebees' nests. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 56(7): 1118--1120.
Uberraschung im Nistkasten
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Brenner, U. 1988. Uberraschung im Nistkasten. Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo 8(3-4): 97-100.
Appunti sulla morfologia di Aphoniia .naiella (Linnaeus) e Paralipse gulari.c (Zcller)( Lepidopiera Gallcriidac)
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Trematerra, P. 1985. Appunti sulla morfologia di Aphoniia.naiella (Linnaeus) e Paralipse gulari.c (Zcller)( Lepidopiera Gallcriidac).
Mass invasion of pyralids in a bumblebee nest in a bird's nest
  • M Jelinski
Jelinski, M. 1988. Mass invasion of pyralids in a bumblebee nest in a bird's nest. Wszechswiat 89(12): 289.