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Persuasion and its applications aim at positively changing human behavior and they work the best when they are tailored to individuals. Recent studies show that individuals could give different responses to the same persuasion strategies which lead to personalization of persuasion strategies for better effectiveness. This study investigates what persuasion strategies are more effective for whom. More specifically, the relationship between the Big Five Personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness) and six persuasion strategies (authority, reciprocation, scarcity, liking, commitment and consensus) is explored. This study was conducted with 381 university students. A structured questionnaire comprising the Big Five Inventory Personality Trait scale and the Susceptibility to Persuasion Strategies scale was used to collect data. The Bayesian estimation was employed to reveal causal relationships. The results show that there are significant relations between personality traits and influence strategies.
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For citation: Alkış, N., & Temizel, T. T. (2015). The impact of individual differences on influence strategies. Personality and
Individual Differences, 87, 147-152.
The Impact of Individual Differences on Influence Strategies
Persuasion and its applications aim at positively changing human behavior and they work the
best when they are tailored to individuals. Recent studies show that individuals could give different
responses to the same persuasion strategies which leads to personalization of persuasion strategies for
better effectiveness. This study investigates what persuasion strategies are more effective for whom.
More specifically, the relationship between the Big Five Personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism,
agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness) and six persuasion strategies (authority, reciprocation,
scarcity, liking, commitment and consensus) is explored. This study was conducted with 381 university
students. A structured questionnaire comprising the Big Five Inventory Personality Trait scale and the
Susceptibility to Persuasion Strategies scale was used to collect data. The Bayesian estimation was
employed to reveal causal relationships. The results show that there are significant relations between
personality traits and influence strategies.
Keywords: Big Five, Personality Traits, Bayesian SEM, Influence Principles, Persuasion
1. Introduction
Persuasion is a key element in behavior and attitude change and different strategies have been
proposed in the literature; such as Fogg’s 40 strategies (Fogg, 2002) and Rhoads’ principles (Rhoads,
2007). Cialdini (2001) distinguished six persuasion strategies which can be applied to change behavior
of people. These strategies have been used to change human behavior in different contexts; such as in
online commerce, fund-raising, advertisements, and health information systems (Cialdini, 1993, 2001;
Cialdini & Goldstein, 2002; Kaptein, Markopoulos, de Ruyter, & Aarts, 2009).
The effectiveness of these persuasion strategies varies among individuals since each individual can
give different responses to the same influence strategies. The relationship between the susceptibility of
users to persuasion strategies and their compliance to requests was studied by Kaptein et al. (2009).
They conducted an experiment where cued and non-cued persuasive requests were sent to the individuals
to assess their compliance with these requests. They concluded that individuals’ compliance increases
when a persuasive cue is incorporated into a request. Later, Kaptein (2012) proposed a structured scale
to measure the susceptibility of people to Cialdini’s six strategies. It was validated against actual
behavior change and it was shown to measure a distinct trait successfully based on self-reported data.
Although the designed scale had no specific context, it has been particularly utilized in the analysis of
persuasive system designs (Kaptein, Ruyter, Markopoulos & Aarts, 2012). Also Kaptein, Lacroix &
Saini (2010) showed that the responses of people to persuasive messages differ with their persuadability
Foreknowledge of personality is important in implementing effective influence strategies. Hirsh,
Kang, & Bodenhausen (2012) discussed that persuasive messages are more effective when the message
is framed according to the personality traits of people. Halko and Kientz (2010) explored the relationship
between Big Five Personality (BFP) traits and persuasive technologies in the context of health-mobile
applications. Participants of the surveys were asked about their perceptions about storyboards
incorporating authoritative (instruction style), cooperative and competitive (social feedback), extrinsic
and intrinsic (motivation type), positive and negative reinforcement persuasive strategies. Their results
showed that personality traits have different impacts on the effectiveness of the persuasive technology
strategies. They concluded that personality types could be used to adapt persuasive strategies to meet
the needs of users. Kaptein et al. (2015) stated that trait differences affect responses to persuasion
The main contribution of this study is to identify which personality traits are significant in
determining individuals’ susceptibilities to influence strategies of Cialdini (Cialdini, 1993). There are
limited studies that have investigated the relation between persuasion strategies and personality traits
(Halko & Kientz, 2010; Hirsh et al., 2012). However none of them were focused on Cialdini’s principles
and they were designed for a specific application domain. The following hypotheses were formulated
based on the findings obtained from the current literature.
Authority strategy implies the inclination to comply more with a statement or request made by a
legitimate authority. Agreeable people are altruistic, sympathetic, and eager to help others (Costa &
McCrae, 1992). These people have cooperative values and exhibit positive interpersonal relationship
skills (Zhao & Seibert, 2006). A person who are high on agreeableness trait is also bound to fear from
not complying with the laws, policy and procedure defined by the authority as incompliance will result
in prosecution and being punished. Negligence of laws and procedure generally portrays low end of
agreeableness (Karim, Zamzuri, & Nor, 2009). Conscientious people also show responsibility for
themselves and other people. They are organized, disciplined, responsible and achievement-oriented.
Individuals high on this trait confirm to rules and regulations (Karim et al., 2009). Halko and Kientz
(2010) found a negative relation between openness and authoritative persuasion type. Openness is
reflected in a higher degree of intellectuality, imagination, and independent-mindedness (John &
Srivastava, 1999; McCrae & Costa, 1987). Thus,
Hypothesis 1a: Individuals who are high on the agreeableness, and conscientiousness traits are inclined
to authority strategy.
Hypothesis 1b: Individuals who are low on the openness trait are inclined to authority persuasion
Reciprocation strategy suggests that people might feel obliged to return a favor. Even they had never
asked for, they can reciprocate to favors (Cialdini, 2003; James & Bolstein, 1990). Gouldner (1960)
defines reciprocity as the universal belief that people should help those who helped them in the past.
Dohmen, Falk, Huffman, & Sunde (2008) investigated the determinants of trust and reciprocal
inclinations (positive and negative) relating survey measures of social preferences to the measures of
BFP using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study. They found that all big five personality
traits have a significant and positive impact in the regressions for the positive reciprocity. So,
Hypothesis 2: Individuals high on the agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, extraversion and
openness traits are all inclined to reciprocation strategy.
Scarcity is related to valuing more of scarce things. For example, some people may feel obliged to
buy last items in an e-shopping web site. Neuroticism trait is characterized by anxiety, fear, frustration
and loneliness (Thompson, 2008). In a study conducted on phishing scam e-mails, the users were sent
e-mails promising a product to the first users to click the link (Scarcity), it was observed that the neurotic
users clicked more than others (Halevi, Lewis, & Memon, 2013). In addition, in e-commerce setting, a
purchasing event created with a time-limited option or discounted offer can result in a form of stress
associated with a desire for the product due to its scarcity (Sundström, Balkow, Florhed, Tjernström, &
Wadenfors, 2013). This fear of losing the limited option may affect neurotic people’s behavior. The
scarcity related questions of STPS scale based on Cialdini’s principles are mainly about giving value to
rare products. Shopping motives are defined as individuals’ motives such as pleasure in bargaining, self-
gratification and sensory stimulation to induce consumers to shop and they were found as significantly
related with big five traits in the literature (Guido, 2006). Researchers found that there is a significant
relationship between extraversion trait and value shopping (Guido, 2006; Karl, Peluchette, & Harland,
2007) which is about the enjoyment for seeking special discounts. Extravert individuals are known as
being outgoing, energetic, and social. Therefore,
Hypothesis 3 Individuals high on the neuroticism and extraversion traits are more inclined to scarcity
strategy than others.
Commitment and consistency denote people’s tendency to align with their earlier clear
commitments. People inclined to this strategy tend to follow through their appointments whenever they
commit to them. Individuals high in conscientiousness trait tend to be more goal oriented (Barrick,
Mount, & Strauss, 1993), organized, hardworking and self-regulated (Jensen-Campbell et al., 2002).
Self-regulated people tend to follow their promises. Consciousness and agreeable individuals were
shown to be related to all aspects of punctuality such that they have the ability and motivation to appear
on time in different situations. (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2006). They stick to mutual agreements.
Hypothesis 4: Individuals high on the conscientiousness and agreeableness personality traits are more
inclined to commitment strategy than others.
Social proof (consensus) is a principle signifying the propensity to follow the lead of similar others
and liking strategy encompasses the propensity to say ‘yes’ to people they like. In consensus strategy,
people observe others while making their decisions. Individuals tend to comply with a persuasive
message if they observe other people have also complied. This strategy is particularly effective in
situations of high uncertainty and ambiguity (Cialdini, 2001). Agreeable people were reported as good
team members (Peeters, Tuijl, Rutte, & Reymen, 2006) and cooperative and it is important for them to
fit in. On the other hand, closed individuals feel more comfortable with familiar and traditional
experiences (McCrae, & Sutin, 2009). These individuals may need the opinions of someone they trust
or like in unfamiliar settings. Liking strategy is about the tendency of being influenced by someone who
is similar or familiar to us. Agreeableness and extraversion traits were linked most consistently to
measures of likeability (Wortman & Wood, 2011). Thus,
Hypothesis 5: Individuals high on agreeableness and extraversion and low on openness traits are more
inclined to consensus and liking strategies than others.
2. Method
2.1. Participants and Procedure
All the participants were Turkish and undergraduate students of a well-known public university in
Turkey. The permissions were obtained from the university’s research center for applied ethics. An
online survey link was sent to the school email addresses of 658 students, 381 of which participated in
the study. 64 entries were eliminated due to incomplete surveys. Of the remaining participants, 186 were
female and 131 were male. The average age was 22.18.
2.2. Materials
The survey consisted of three sections to measure the variables of personality, susceptibility to
persuasion principles and demographic profile of the participants. To measure personality traits, Big
Five Inventory (BFI) was chosen, which includes 44 items (John & Srivastava, 1999). The items were
rated on a 5-point Likert scale from 1-Strongly disagree to 5-Strongly agree. The STPS scale was used
to measure the degree of propensity for being influenced by the six strategies (Kaptein, 2012). The items
were rated on a 7-point scale, from 1-completely disagree to 7- completely agree. STPS has been
validated in this study as it is a relatively new scale and its Turkish version has not been verified.
Therefore, its factor structure was validated using PCA with direct oblimin rotation and consequently,
one item from the liking, two items from the commitment and one item from the consensus strategy
were eliminated from the original scale (see Appendix A).
2.3. Data Analysis
Correlation analysis and Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling (BSEM) were used to analyze the
data. BSEM has many advantages over traditional SEM approaches, allowing missing data, nonlinearity,
and the use of numerous observed variable types. BSEM can be performed with a small sample size and
does not have normal distribution assumptions (Hoyle, 2012). As we used weakly informative priors,
the mean coefficient of each personality trait variable was set to a uniform distribution with the lower
and upper bounds of 1 and 5, respectively. The Gelman-Rubin convergence diagnostic statistics
(G.R.D.) was used (Gelman, Carlin, Stern, & Rubin, 2004) where 1.002 indicates model convergence.
BSEM model fit was assessed with the posterior predictive p value where 0.5 gives the best model fit.
BSEM was preferred to test the proposed hypotheses in the study as it can identify the causality
between variables, which cannot be performed by correlation analysis. In addition, multiple regression
analysis has assumptions of suitable specification of the model, linear relationship between variables,
and no multi-collinearity between predictor variables and normality (Alavifar, Karimimalayer, & Anuar,
3. Results
3.1. Preliminary Analysis
To examine the internal consistency of the scales, the Cronbach’s alpha scores were computed for
each subscale in the dataset (Table 1). All subscales of the questionnaire except for agreeableness trait
had a good internal consistency of α>0.7, however this factor was included in the further analysis since
the alpha score was slightly lower than the required value.
Table 1 Reliability Scores
Number of
Openness to Experience
to Persuasion
A composite score was computed for each personality trait and persuasion principle for the analyses.
Table 2 presents the descriptive statistics of the scores for all the variables. Our dataset is highly skewed
towards 7, particularly for reciprocation and commitment strategies. This is expected since those who
are more committed to a goal may be more inclined to attend the study than those who are not.
Table 2 Descriptive Statistics of Scores for Personality Traits and Influence Strategies
Extraversion (EXT)
Agreeableness (AGR)
Conscientiousness (CONC)
Neuroticism (NEU)
Openness (OPN)
Reciprocation (REC)
Scarcity (SCAR)
Authority (AUTH)
Consensus (CONS)
Liking (LIKE)
Commitment (COM)
3.2. Correlation Analysis
In order to examine the interrelatedness of five personality traits and six influence strategies, zero-
order correlation coefficients were computed (see Table 3). Extraversion trait was weakly correlated to
reciprocation, scarcity and commitment strategies. Agreeableness trait was weakly correlated to
reciprocation, authority, liking and commitment strategies. Conscientiousness trait was weakly
correlated to reciprocation and authority strategies while it was moderately correlated to commitment
strategy. Neuroticism was not correlated to any of the strategies significantly. Openness trait was weakly
correlated to reciprocation, consensus and commitment strategies.
Table 3 Correlations between each parameter
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
3.3. Modeling the Relationship between Personality Traits and Influence Strategies with BSEM
Figure 1 shows the models created in AMOS Graphics, where the nodes represent the variables and
the links represent the causal relationships between these variables (only the significant relations are
presented). The final parameters of the best-fitted models are given in Table 4 and 5. The standardized
direct effects are given in Table 6.
Figure 1 AMOS representation of the six models.
Table 4 Model Statistics
Predictive p
Table 5 The results of the Bayesian estimation for the prediction of each influence strategy
Std. Error
95% Confidence Interval
Upper Bound
Authority Openness
Authority Conscientiousness
Authority Agreeableness
Consensus Agreeableness
Consensus Openness
Liking Agreeableness
Liking Openness
Reciprocation Agreeableness
Reciprocation Conscientiousness
Reciprocation Extraversion
Reciprocation Neuroticism
Scarcity Neuroticism
Scarcity Extraversion
Table 6 Standardized direct effects of personality traits over influence strategies
The analyses revealed that agreeableness, and conscientiousness positively contributed to
susceptibility to authority (R2=0.140) and openness negatively contributed (Hypothesis 1a and 1b were
supported). Extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and neuroticism significantly contributed to
susceptibility to the reciprocation strategy (R2=0.11) (Hypothesis 2 was partially supported since
openness trait was not found as significant). Neuroticism's effect is the lowest. Extraversion and
neuroticism significantly contributed to susceptibility to the scarcity strategy (R2= 0.070) (Hypothesis 3
was supported). Openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness contributed to susceptibility to
commitment strategy (R2= 0.180) (Hypothesis 4 was supported but openness was found to be related
which were not hypothesized). Agreeableness, extraversion, and openness significantly contributed to
the liking strategy (R2= 0.110). An un-hypothesized relation was found between conscientiousness and
liking. Agreeableness, and openness contributed to the consensus strategy (R2=0.050) (Hypothesis 5
was partially supported). No relationship between extraversion and the consensus strategy was found.
4. Conclusion and Discussion
The current study investigated the relationship between personality and susceptibility to persuasion
strategies, identifying which personality traits are affected by which persuasion strategies for the first
time in the literature. The results indicate that personality is important in the influence strategy selection
process. Agreeableness is the most susceptible personality trait compared to the other traits. They are
significantly affected by the opinions of their peers and authority. Agreeable people are reported to have
negative feelings towards being penalized when they do not comply with the rules, authority and
regulations (Karim et al., 2009). These feelings may make them listen to the authority figures and obey
directions from their supervisors. Highly agreeable individuals are also cooperative and are reported to
have a higher level of empathy for others. Since agreeable people show empathy for others and care for
others’ feelings, they are inclined to be affected by their peers, hence they are more susceptible to the
liking strategy than others.
Conscientious people are inclined to authority principle but not consensus or liking principles. A
conscientious person is characterized as being organized, self-disciplined and following rules, and
therefore is more likely to follow authority, regulations and rules (Karim et al., 2009). These individuals
tend to appraise the ideas of authority rather than the ideas of their social circle. On the other hand,
extravert people are not inclined to consensus and authority strategies which can be attributed to their
caresome and dominant character. While their high level of social engagement make them liked by their
peers, their appreciation of the ideas of their social circle is poor.
Openness is described as the extent to which a person is independent and imaginative (Costa & McCrae,
1992). On the other hand, people strongly influenced by authority persuasion principle tend to cite
authoritative sources to support their ideas. A study (McCrae & Sutin, 2009) concluded that while
closed individuals follow authority without questioning, open individuals are reluctant to follow
opposing ideas and represents these to their social interactions and family life. In addition, closed
individuals have a high opinion of their friends and peers whereas open people tend to believe in the
superiority of their ideas and imaginations over other people. Closed people are those who need opinions
of others in an unfamiliar situation.
Except openness trait, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism traits were found
to be affected by reciprocation strategy. The reason of the findings can be attributed to altruism. Barrick
and Mount (1991) stated that people high in conscientiousness trait are aware of the constant back and
forth exchange of favors and plan for the next time they may need help. These people tend to be driven
by doing the “right thing” and in the context of social exchange, these people return favors not for
obligation but for feeling of indebted. Agreeable individuals are inherently altruistic and tend to be
sensitive to the needs and well-beings of other people. Extraversion and the agreeableness traits were
shown as significantly contributing to altruism (Oda et al., 2014). They stated that reciprocal altruism is
maintained in a prosocial environment and extravert individuals may prefer a social environment where
they engage in reciprocal helping behaviors. Neuroticism is weakly associated with reciprocation inline
with the study of Dohmen et al. (2008).
Extraversion and neuroticism were found to have positive relations with scarcity. Neurotic people may
worry or fear about missing the opportunities, thus may be affected by this strategy. Extravert people
seek out opportunities and excitement so they may find scarce items attractive to buy. Searching for
discounts give them excitement and they feel very special when they buy the last item.
Conscientiousness trait was found to be the most significant feature in the commitment strategy.
Conscientious and agreeable people are self-regulated and therefore they are more likely to follow their
promises in order to be consistent with their previous behaviour (Jensen-Campbell et al., 2002). Besides,
agreeable people prefer to commit to their promises in order to keep their interpersonal relationships
healthy. Commitment is an important strategy to be influential in a social enviroment. Breaking promises
or inconsistent behaviour and statements may depict a person as untrustable and individual’s social
status may be impaired. We speculate that individuals who are open to experiences prefer to be inline
with their previous statements that were made to their peers or friends to retain their relationships
Persuasive requests should tailored to the individuals to increase compliance of individuals. The results
of our study can be useful for persuasive system designers to create effective personalized persuasive
systems. For example, a customized persuasion system including a platform where the social circle of
an individual is integrated, increases the compliance of agreeable people. Social circle plays a significant
role in positive reinforcement. People may make positive comments on individual’s progress on a task
and individuals receiving these comments are more likely to pursue their target behavior. We also note
that personality traits can also be successfully inferred based on individuals’ digital footprints left on the
web or their mobile phones (such as call data) (Butt& Phillips ,2008) even in a short period of time
and these data can be used to link personality traits and effective influence strategies we identified in
this study. To measure someone’s propensity to an influence strategy correctly, a persuasive system
designer needs to collect many cues by controlled experiments and the experiments should be carried
out without being noticed by the user. Because in a persuasive system, participants should not be aware
of the system or messages attempting to persuade themselves as otherwise the system may not be
effective at all. In addition, propensity to some of the strategies is hard to detect such as liking by tracking
individuals behavior online. However, the effective strategies identified based on personality traits will
ease this procedure without affecting the system’s overall credibility.
One of the limitations of this study is the limited age range of the participants. Future studies could use
a wider or different range of age groups. Although the correlation results reasonably overlap with the
BSEM results, there is a significant difference in liking strategy as there is no direct linear relationship
between liking and traits including conscientiousness, openness and extraversion but a nonlinear
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Appendix A - STPS Scale
When a family member does me a favor, I am very inclined to return this
I always pay back a favor.
If someone does something for me, I try to do something of similar value
to repay the favor.
When I receive a gift, I feel obliged to return a gift.
When someone helps me with my work, I try to pay them back.
I believe rare products (scarce) are more valuable than mass products
When my favorite shop is about to close, I would visit it since it is my last
I would feel good if I was the last person to be able to buy something.
When my favorite shampoo is almost out of stock I buy two bottles
Products that are hard to get represent a special value.
The opinions of friends are more important than the opinions of others.
If I am unsure, I will usually side with someone I like.
I accept advice from my social network.
When I like someone, I am more inclined to believe him or her.
Whenever I commit to an appointment I always follow through.
I try to do everything I have promised to do.
If I miss an appointment, I always make it up.
When I am in a new situation I look at others to see what I should do.
I often rely on other people to know what I should do.
It is important to me to fit in.
I will do something as long as I know there are others doing it too.
I always follow advice from my general practitioner
I am very inclined to listen to authority figures.
I always obey directions from my superiors
I am more inclined to listen to an authority figure than a peer.
When a professor tells me something I tend to believe it is true.
... In addition, we go a step further by also taking the similarity of people into account. The reason is that previous work has shown that characteristics such as the stage of behavior change [20] and personality [20,[32][33][34][35][36][37][38] affect the effectiveness of different persuasion types. The result is a personalized RL algorithm for choosing persuasive messages. ...
... For example, the impact of message types on self-efficacy depends on a person's need for cognition [29]. Other variables that may affect the success of different messages include the stage of behavior change [20], personality [20,[32][33][34][35][36][37][38], age and gender [34,45], cultural background [46], how people approach pleasure and pain [47,48], self-construal or the perceived relationship between the self and others [49], and in the context of quitting smoking the experience with previous quit attempts [29]. Thus, we suppose that people who are more similar concerning such characteristics are more likely to respond similarly to persuasive attempts. ...
... The virtual coach computed the similarity based on people's Big-Five Personality [66] and Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-stage [67] for becoming physically active. We chose these variables due to extensive previous work showing their impact on the success of different forms of persuasion [20,[32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. We did not consider the TTM-stage for quitting smoking, as participants had to be in one of two specific stages (i.e., contemplation or preparation) to be eligible for the study. ...
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Behavior change applications often assign their users activities such as tracking the number of smoked cigarettes or planning a running route. To help a user complete these activities, an application can persuade them in many ways. For example, it may help the user create a plan or mention the experience of peers. Intuitively, the application should thereby pick the message that is most likely to be motivating. In the simplest case, this could be the message that has been most effective in the past. However, one could consider several other elements in an algorithm to choose a message. Possible elements include the user’s current state (e.g., self-efficacy), the user’s future state after reading a message, and the user’s similarity to the users on which data has been gathered. To test the added value of subsequently incorporating these elements into an algorithm that selects persuasive messages, we conducted an experiment in which more than 500 people in four conditions interacted with a text-based virtual coach. The experiment consisted of five sessions, in each of which participants were suggested a preparatory activity for quitting smoking or increasing physical activity together with a persuasive message. Our findings suggest that adding more elements to the algorithm is effective, especially in later sessions and for people who thought the activities were useful. Moreover, while we found some support for transferring knowledge between the two activity types, there was rather low agreement between the optimal policies computed separately for the two activity types. This suggests limited policy generalizability between activities for quitting smoking and those for increasing physical activity. We see our results as supporting the idea of constructing more complex persuasion algorithms. Our dataset on 2,366 persuasive messages sent to 671 people is published together with this article for researchers to build on our algorithm.
... Business studies textbook meets learner's preference if tasks and experiences resonate with learner interest and personality trait. Alkis & Temizel, (2015) affirm that appropriate methods determine learner motivation to learn in business studies. Motivated learner participates in class activities, is inquisitive and willing to take up tasks that would promote construction knowledge. ...
... Validity of research tools were verified by Appropriate teaching methods addresses individual learning styles in class, contributing to learner self confidence in knowledge construction and participation rate in class. As denoted by Alkis & Temizel (2015) Business studies textbook meets individual preference if tasks and experiences resonate with learner interest and personality trait. Business teachers were asked to respond to extent to which content presents various materials for learning, methods incorporate community service learning, texts are elaborate and easy to follow and teaching methods incorporate graphic. ...
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Well-structured business studies textbook provides enjoyable episodes of knowledge creation which promotes achievement learning outcome for sustained academic results. Business textbook represents potentially implemented curriculum as its vehicle through which intended curriculum is availed to learner encouraging achievement of learning objectives. However, adopting methodology that does not facilitate achievement of specific objectives may limit knowledge construction degrading learner’s mean score. The study adopted is exploratory research design. Data collected were both quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data were analyzed through counts, percentages, means, standard deviations and Chi square tests while Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Cross tabulation results further indicated that teaching methods significantly influence quality of textbook implying that appropriate teaching methods supports achievement of learning. It was also found that presentation, visuals and differentiated instruction influence quality of instruction content encouraging learning. Therefore, it is recommended that teaching method selected should be learner centered to accelerate learning.
... This evaluation can help develop a new strategy, such as emphasizing certain BCT components by similar patient groups or deploying motivators to enhance their use. Compliance with persuasion for DTx may vary depending on the patient's personality traits, such as extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience [186]. The data collected can be used to create a "persuasion profile" to predict how many different types of persuasion principles (e.g., authority, consensus, commitment, or scarcity) would affect patients with different personalities [187]. ...
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With the advent of Digital Therapeutics (DTx), the development of software as a medical device (SaMD) for mobile and wearable devices has gained significant attention in recent years. Existing DTx evaluations, such as randomized clinical trials, mostly focus on verifying the effectiveness of DTx products. To acquire a deeper understanding of DTx engagement and behavioral adherence, beyond efficacy, a large amount of contextual and interaction data from mobile and wearable devices during field deployment would be required for analysis. In this work, the overall flow of the data-driven DTx analytics is reviewed to help researchers and practitioners to explore DTx datasets, to investigate contextual patterns associated with DTx usage, and to establish the (causal) relationship of DTx engagement and behavioral adherence. This review of the key components of data-driven analytics provides novel research directions in the analysis of mobile sensor and interaction datasets, which helps to iteratively improve the receptivity of existing DTx.
... Mainly, it showed that females are more responsive to most of the influence strategies than males. Alkis and Temizel [27] studied the relationship between personality traits and the effectiveness of Cialdini strategies and showed significant differences. For example, people with high agreeableness (as one of the Big Five personality traits model [31]) are more likely to be affected by the opinions of others whether peer, i.e. social proof, or authority (two of Cialdini strategies [30]). ...
Conference Paper
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p>Technology-assisted behaviour awareness and change is on the rise. Examples include apps and sites for fitness, healthy eating, mental health and smoking cessation. These information systems recreated principles of influence and persuasion in a digital form allowing real-time observation, interactivity and intervention. Peer support groups are one of the behavioural influence techniques which showed various benefits, including hope installation and relapse prevention. However, unmoderated groups may become a vehicle for comparisons and unmanaged interactions leading to digression, normalising the negative behaviour and lowering self-esteem. A typical requirement of such groups is to be of a social and supportive nature whereas moderation, through humans or artificial agents, may face a risk of being seen as centralised and overly managed governance approach. In this paper, we explore the requirements and different preferences about moderators as seen by members. We follow a mixed-method approach consisting of a qualitative phase that included two focus groups and 16 interviews, followed by a quantitative phase, including a survey with 215 participants who declared having well-being issues. We report on the qualitative phase findings achieved through thematic analysis. We also report and discuss the survey results studying the role of gender, self-control, personality traits, culture, the perception of usefulness and willingness to join the group as predictors of the members’ expectations from moderators, resulted from the qualitative phase.</p
... Of all these models, the FFM is the most popular and widely accepted personality model and has been predominantly used in HCI and persuasive technology research. It has been shown that personality factors affect many aspects of HCI including the area of persuasive technology [90] [4], games [101], gamified systems [38], and how people interact with Graphical User Interfaces [104]. For example, Orji et al. [90] investigated how different personality types respond to various persuasive systems used in a persuasive game for alcohol cessation using the FFM. ...
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Persuasive gamified systems for health are interventions that promote behaviour change using various persuasive strategies. While research has shown that these strategies are effective at motivating behaviour change, there is little knowledge on whether and how the effectiveness of these strategies vary across multiple domains for people of distinct personality traits. To bridge this gap, we conducted a quantitative study with 568 participants to investigate (a) whether the effectiveness of the persuasive strategies implemented vary within each domain (b) whether the effectiveness of various strategies vary across two distinct domains, (c) how people belonging to different personality traits respond to these strategies, and (d) if people high in a personality trait would be influenced by a persuasive strategy within one domain and not in the other. Our results show that there are significant differences in the effectiveness of various strategies across domains and that people's personality plays a significant role in the perceived persuasiveness of different strategies both within and across distinct domains. The Reward strategy (which involves incentivizing users for achieving specific milestones towards the desired behaviour) and the Competition strategy (which involves allowing users to compete with each other to perform the desired behaviour) were effective for promoting healthy eating but not for smoking cessation for people high in Conscientiousness. We provide design suggestions for developing persuasive gamified interventions for health targeting distinct domains and tailored to individuals depending on their personalities.
With the advent of digital therapeutics (DTx), the development of software as a medical device (SaMD) for mobile and wearable devices has gained significant attention in recent years. Existing DTx evaluations, such as randomized clinical trials, mostly focus on verifying the effectiveness of DTx products. To acquire a deeper understanding of DTx engagement and behavioral adherence, beyond efficacy, a large amount of contextual and interaction data from mobile and wearable devices during field deployment would be required for analysis. In this work, the overall flow of the data-driven DTx analytics is reviewed to help researchers and practitioners to explore DTx datasets, to investigate contextual patterns associated with DTx usage, and to establish the (causal) relationship between DTx engagement and behavioral adherence. This review of the key components of data-driven analytics provides novel research directions in the analysis of mobile sensor and interaction datasets, which helps to iteratively improve the receptivity of existing DTx.
Background Mobile health apps have the potential to motivate people to adopt healthier behavior, but many fail to maintain this behavior over time. However, it has been suggested that long-term adherence can be improved by personalizing the proposed interventions. Based on the literature, we created a conceptual framework for selecting appropriate functionalities according to the user's profile. Objective This cross-sectional study aims to investigate if the relationships linking functionalities and profiles proposed in our conceptual framework are confirmed by user preferences. Methods A web-based questionnaire comprising several sections was developed to determine the mobile app functionalities most likely to promote healthier behavior. First, participants completed questionnaires to define the user profile (Big Five Inventory-10, Hexad Scale, and perception of the social norm using dimensions of the Theory of Planned Behavior). Second, participants were asked to select the 5 functionalities they considered to be the most relevant to motivate healthier behavior and to evaluate them on a score ranging from 0 to 100. We will perform logistic regressions with the selected functionalities as dependent variables and with the 3 profile scales as predictors to allow us to understand the effect of the participants’ scores on each of the 3 profile scales on the 5 selected functionalities. In addition, we will perform logistic ordinal regressions with the motivation score of the functionalities chosen as dependent variables and with scores of the 3 profile scales as predictors to determine whether the scores on the different profile scales predict the functionality score. Results Data collection was conducted between July and December 2021. Analysis of responses began in January 2022, with the publication of results expected by the end of 2022. Conclusions This study will allow us to validate our conceptual model by defining the preferred functionalities according to user profiles. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) RR1-10.2196/38603
The rapid increase in the use of mobile technology and online communication has facilitated more opportunities for social interactions as well as for online fraud. Warnings are one of the last lines of defense in transaction security. Many warnings used in anti-fraud processes are often ineffective due to habituation and the trial-and-error method used in their design. Following psychological theories of persuasion and warning design principles, in this paper, we design fourteen warnings and examine their effectiveness in an eye-tracker experiment (Study 1) and in an online A/B test on the Alipay platform (Study 2). Based on the communication-human information processing (C-HIP) model, Study 1 found that pictorial signal icons and persuasion strategies significantly improved the effectiveness of warnings. Specifically, pictorial signal icons attracted users’ attention better than the conventional signal icons, and warnings with authority, social influence, diversion, questioning, and multiple strategies performed better than those without a persuasion strategy. Study 2 showed that our warnings performed better than the original Alipay warnings. The overall case rate was reduced by 33.2%, avoiding at least 30 million yuan in economic losses. Our work contributes to the field of security warning design with both theoretical and practical value and provides an important reference for future research.
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Existing research shows that it is effective for the persuader to personalize persuasion based on the persuadee’s personality. However, prior studies overlooked the interactions of multiple personality traits, which undermines the effectiveness of personalization. In this paper, we investigated the utility of personality types for predicting behavioral intention and personalizing persuasion. The personality types are constructed by categorizing subjects based on the interactions of their Big Five personality traits. Using these personality types as predictors, we then examined how they improved model fitting and prediction accuracy compared to personality traits. Specifically, we used the online survey data of 3,116 Japanese participants to build nine prediction models and confirmed that (1) personality type is a significant factor in personalizing strategies and predicting behavioral intention, and (2) personality types should be appropriately applied according to the prediction model’s complexity when personalizing persuasive strategies.
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Apesar da persuasão estar presente de forma natural na comunicação humana, o seu uso adequado parece estar ausente nas campanhas de conscientização na saúde, como é evidenciado pela disparidade entre a frequência de certas campanhas e a diminuição dos comportamentos associados a ela. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do estudo foi realizar uma revisão de literatura acerca dos tipos de persuasão empregados na saúde, sua eficácia, e contextos de aplicação mais adequados. Foram considerados trabalhos em português ou inglês, publicados nos últimos cinco anos nas plataformas BVS, PubMed e Scielo, sendo selecionado o total de 38 artigos que foram divididos por estratégia de persuasão ou o tipo de questão abordada (alimentação, doenças, drogas, exercício, vacinação e outros). Os resultados indicaram que no geral, as estratégias persuasivas obtiveram eficácia em alcançar seus objetivos, sendo o maior desafio a adequação na escolha das estratégias ao tipo de questão abordada pela campanha. Portanto, é concluído que pensar na forma de persuadir o público-alvo é um tema pertinente para otimizar as campanhas de saúde, devendo ser um aspecto considerado no futuro.
Conference Paper
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This paper presents an in-depth study of young Swedish consumers and their impulsive online buying behaviour for clothing. The aim of the study is to develop the understanding of what factors affect impulse buying of clothing online and what feelings emerge when buying online. The study carried out was exploratory in nature, aiming to develop an understanding of impulse buying behaviour online before, under and after the actual purchase. The empirical data was collected through personal interviews. In the study, a pattern of the consumers recurrent feelings are identified through the impulse buying process; escapism, pleasure, reward, scarcity, security and anticipation. The escapism is particularly occurring since the study revealed that the consumers often carried out impulse purchases when they initially were bored, as opposed to previous studies.
From business owners to busboys, the ability to harness the power of persuasion is often an essential component of success in the hospitality industry.
Based on the historical data, a forecast modeling method for structural equation model was discussed, where the future relationship between the system factors was described without future sample. By applying spectra of matrix, the covariance matrix was decomposed of eigenvectors and eigenvalues. Typical linear regression method was adopted to predict eigenvalues, and predictive method of orthonomal matrix based on rotations of principal axes was adopted to predict eigenvector matrix, so it structured a forecast method of covariance matrix. The maximum likelihood method was applied to estimate the parameters of future structural equation model. The experimental simulation illustrated main computational procedures of the predictive model. The results show a high precise of the predictive values. The agreement of the final computation results with the experimental data indicates this method could be used to analyze and forecast structural equation model.
The authors used 91 sales representatives to test a process model that assessed the relationship of conscientiousness to job performance through mediating motivational (goal-setting) variables. Linear structural equation modeling showed that sales representatives high in conscientiousness are more likely to set goals and are more likely to be committed to goals, which in turn is associated with greater sales volume and higher supervisory ratings of job performance. Results also showed that conscientiousness is directly related to supervisory ratings. Consistent with previous research, results showed that ability was also related to supervisory ratings of job performance and, to a lesser extent, sales volume. Contrary to expectations, 1 other personality construct, extraversion, was not related to sales volume or to supervisory ratings of job performance. Implications and future research needs are discussed.
Personality may be among the factors contributing to individual differences in altruism. Given that explanations of altruistic behavior differ according to the relationship between actors and recipients, the personality traits contributing to altruist behavior may differ according to the relationship between the parties involved. However, few studies on the effect of personality on altruism have examined the relationship between donor and recipient, and no study has addressed altruistic behavior in daily life. We employed the Self-Report Altruism Scale Distinguished by the Recipient, which was newly developed to evaluate altruism among Japanese undergraduates, to investigate the relationship between the Big-Five personality traits and the frequency of altruistic behaviors toward various recipients (family members, friends or acquaintances, and strangers) in daily life. With the exception of extraversion, which commonly contributed to altruistic behavior toward all three types of recipients, the particular traits that contributed to altruism differed according to recipient. Conscientiousness contributed to altruism only toward family members, agreeableness contributed to altruism only toward friends/acquaintances, and openness contributed to altruism only toward strangers.
Do people shop simply to make purchases? Are some shopping trips motivated by considerations that are unrelated to an actual purchase? The results of an exploratory study of shopper motivation suggest that a person may shop for many reasons other than his or her need for products or services.
This paper discusses how persuasive technologies can be made adaptive to users. We present persuasion profiling as a method to personalize the persuasive messages used by a system to influence its users. This type of personalization can be based on explicit measures of users׳ tendencies to comply to distinct persuasive strategies: measures based on standardized questionnaire scores of users. However, persuasion profiling can also be implemented using implicit, behavioral measures of user traits. We present three case studies involving the design, implementation, and field deployment of personalized persuasive technologies, and we detail four design requirements. In each case study we show how these design requirements are implemented. In the discussion we highlight avenues for future research in the field of adaptive persuasive technologies.
The manner in which the concept of reciprocity is implicated in functional theory is explored, enabling a reanalysis of the concepts of "survival" and "exploitation." The need to distinguish between the concepts of complementarity and reciprocity is stressed. Distinctions are also drawn between (1) reciprocity as a pattern of mutually contingent exchange of gratifications, (2) the existential or folk belief in reciprocity, and (3) the generalized moral norm of reciprocity. Reciprocity as a moral norm is analyzed; it is hypothesized that it is one of the universal "principal components" of moral codes. As Westermarck states, "To requite a benefit, or to be grateful to him who bestows it, is probably everywhere, at least under certain circumstances, regarded as a duty. This is a subject which in the present connection calls for special consideration." Ways in which the norm of reciprocity is implicated in the maintenance of stable social systems are examined.