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Customers' expectations and experiences within chosen aspects of logistic customer service quality

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The article presents chosen aspects of logistic customer service quality. In the first part of the paper, the authors describe theoretical issues of logistics service quality and Servqual method. The reference of chosen theoretical aspects of logistic service quality in relation to Servqual method and their presentation and analysis afterwards on practical example is the main aim of the article. Customers' expectations and experiences towards the logistics customer serivce were examined as two fundamental areas which allow for recognizing the quality aspects of the customer service in commercial cargo motor transport enterprises. Evaluation of the level of customers' expectations and perception toward particular elements of logistic customer service offered to 294 customers by 147 Polish commercial cargo motor transport enterprises was realized.
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International Journal for Quality Research 9(2) 265278
ISSN 1800-6450
265
Marta Kadłubek 1
Janusz Grabara
Article info:
Received 12.11.2014
Accepted 15.03.2015
UDC 332.05
CUSTOMERS' EXPECTATIONS AND
EXPERIENCES WITHIN CHOSEN ASPECTS
OF LOGISTIC CUSTOMER SERVICE
QUALITY
Abstract: The article presents chosen aspects of logistic
customer service quality. In the first part of the paper, the
authors describe theoretical issues of logistics service quality
and Servqual method. The reference of chosen theoretical
aspects of logistic service quality in relation to Servqual
method and their presentation and analysis afterwards on
practical example is the main aim of the article. Customers'
expectations and experiences towards the logistics customer
serivce were examined as two fundamental areas which allow
for recognizing the quality aspects of the customer service in
commercial cargo motor transport enterprises. Evaluation of
the level of customers' expectations and perception toward
particular elements of logistic customer service offered to 294
customers by 147 Polish commercial cargo motor transport
enterprises was realized.
Keywords: logistics customer service quality, customers’
expectations, customers’ experiences, Servqual method
1. Introduction
1
The quality of customer service has grow to
be a decisive aspect in facilitating enterprises
to achieve a differential advantage over their
competitive companies and consequently
makes a considerable contribution to
effectiveness and prosperity of the
enterprises. Definitely customer service
quality has developed into a fundamental
area in a competitive business strategy.
The area of customer service quality can be
understood as proposed by J.M. Juran (Juran,
1980), as the feature which results in
customer satisfaction, or independence from
insufficiency which avoids customer
1
Corresponding author: Marta Kadłubek
email: martakadlubek@wp.pl
dissatisfaction (Bednar and Modrak, 2014).
In other investigations it was precised that
the customer service quality approach is an
effort to recognize customer satisfaction
from the viewpoint of the diversity between
customer perceptions and actual service on a
range of determinants (Cavana and Corbett,
2007; Gronross, 1991; Lehtinen and
Lehtinen, 1991; Perez et al., 2007).
The conception of customer service quality
is compound, disperse, intangible
principally appropriate to the characteristic
attributes of customers’ perceptions and
customer’s experiences, as well as the
specific area of the service. If customer
service quality is considered from a
consumer perception, it is often associated
with the levels of customer satisfaction. In
this regard Parasuraman, Zeithaml, Berry
(Parasuraman et al., 1988; Lee and Kim,
266 M. Kadłubek, J. Grabara
2014; Witkowski and Wolfinbarger, 2002)
defined perceived customer service quality
as a universal verdict or approach
comparative to the level of excellence or
superiority of customer service.
Such an understating of the idea of customer
service quality is related to spheres of
expectation. Lewis and Booms (Lewis and
Booms, 1993) identified customer service
quality as a calculation of how satisfactorily
the service delivered is equivalent to
customers’ expectations. Conceptions of
expectation are directly associated with
approach, and quality has also been
deliberated from the standpoint of attitude.
In accordance to above mentioned views is
logistic customer service quality (Huiskonen
and Pirttila, 1998; Lambert and Stock, 1993;
Rafele, 2004), regarding as the aspects of
perceived customer service quality in
logistics, as the aspects of experiences of the
customers in accordance to the areas of
logistics (Florez-Lopez and Ramon-
Jeronimo, 2012; Kisperska-Moron, 2005;
Panayides, 2007). Also the features of
customer expectations and experiences in
perspectives of a prioritization of the
decisive factors are the basis for the Servqual
method. The connection of both aspects of
logistics customer service quality and
Servqual method, their theoretical
background and relation are presented in the
article. The designation of chosen theoretical
aspects of logistic service quality in relation
to Servqual method and their presentation
and analysis afterwards on practical example
is the main aim of the article. Customers'
expectations and experiences towards the
logistics serivce were examined as two
fundamental areas which allow for
recognizing the quality aspects of the
customer service in commercial cargo motor
transport enterprises.
2. Theoretical aspects of logistics
customer service quality in
relation to Servqual method
The quality of customer service in logistics
(Byrne and Markham, 1991; Fawcett and
Cooper, 1998; Hazen et al., 2014; Kisperska-
Moron, 2005; Lambert and Stock, 1993) is
viewed as a certain number of components,
which are: the service obtained by the
purchaser, the manner in which this service
is obtained, and the purchaser's original
expectations. According to J. Twarog
(Twarog, 2005) this quality is expressed by
the formula below:

     

The customer’s view of the service quite
often is different than the customer’s
expectations. The concrete information about
the customer’s experiences and customer’s
expectations allow to recognize the
difference, determined in various attributes,
and place them on explicit level. In the
interpretation of S. Abt and H. Wozniak (Abt
and Wozniak, 1993), the customer service
level as the aim of functioning of a logistic
system applies as a „quality scale for
distribution services rendered by an
organization”. An analogous explanation of
this conception is proposed by J. Długosz
(Dlugosz, 2000) by defining the logistic
customer service level by the quality of the
logistic customer service.
In order to determine the difference between
the customer’s experiences and customer’s
expectations towards the customer serivce,
both the customer's expectations for the
service level, and their fulfilment by a
specific organization need to be examined at
the same time (Nasim and Janjua, 2014;
Pakdil and Aydin, 2007; Tseng and Hung,
2013). Identification of the customer’s
267
expectations for the service level, and their
fulfilment by a company, are two crucial
steps which allow for recognizing the quality
aspects of the customer service (Meybodi,
2012). Identification of these two areas is
also the essence of the Servqual method for
measuring customer service quality.
The Servqual method relies on assessing the
differences that are recognized between the
quality, as perceived by a customer, and the
quality demanded by that customer from a
specific service. As a result of numerous
research works, the authors of the Servqual
method have identified five gaps (Brown and
Swartz, 1989; Chen et al., 2009; Large and
Konig, 2009) that may constitute the major
causes of offering low quality services
(Figure 1) (Karaszewski, 2001; Parasuraman
et al., 1995, 1988):
Gap 1: the difference between the
customer's expectations and the
perception of these expectations by
the organization's management;
Gap 2: the difference between the
perception of the customer's
expectations by the managing staff
and the physical features of the
service (standardization);
Gap 3: the difference between the
specification of service quality and
the quality of service provision;
Gap 4: the difference between the
quality of providing a service and
the information on that service
provided to the customer;
Gap 5: the difference between the
level of fulfilment of the customer's
expectations and the customer's
view of the service.
Figure 1. A conceptual model of service quality (Parasuraman et al., 1985)
268 M. Kadłubek, J. Grabara
All gaps, in which a loss of quality occurs,
can be measured; however, the most
common practice is to measure Gap 5, that is
considered the most important (Urban,
2007). For the purposes of measuring Gap 5,
in a research process, the authors of the
Servqual method have distinguished five
attributes (dimensions) of quality
(Grapentine, 1999):
material dimension (tangibles) the
material framework of the service:
the organization's equipment,
machinery, and means of
communication;
reliability the capability to fulfil
the orders in accordance to the
customer's requirements;
response to the customer's
expectations (responsiveness)
willingness to help the customer,
the promptness of actions, and
responding to the demands posed
by the recipients of the services;
professionalism (assurance)
assurance and reliability: the
expertise of the staff and the ability
to gain customers' confidence;
empathy identifying with the
customer's needs, an individualized
attitude, communicative skills,
availability.
To estimate the service quality level within
each of the aforementioned dimensions,
three questionnaire forms were devised. Two
questionnaires consist of z 22 items: the first
one illustrates the service recipients'
expectations towards a specific service,
while the second contains questions
concerning the assessment of the service of a
given service provider. Using the seven-
point Likert scale, the customers assign
weights to respective statements: 1 means
that the respondent totally disagree with a
given statement, while 7 means that he/she
totally agrees with it. The third
questionnaire, on the other hand, is
constructed in the form of statements aimed
at identifying the importance of five leading
service attributes to the customers, by
dividing 100 scores among determinants at
their own discretion.
The determination of the perceived quality
of services involves the calculation of the
difference between the perception of the
service and the ideal (desired, expected)
service level, which, at the same time, makes
it possible to capture the gap that occurs
between the expectations and the perception
of services (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Peception of service quality (Parasuraman et al., 1985)
269
Reference of above theoretical aspects of the
chosen issues of logistic service quality in
relation to Servqual method is presented
below on practical example. Customers'
expectations and experiences towards the
logistics customer serivce were examined as
two fundamental areas which allow for
recognizing the quality aspects of the
customer service in Poland in the Silesian
Province's (Nowicka-Skowron et al., 2014)
commercial cargo motor transport
enterprises.
3. Research methodology
Evaluation of the level of customers'
expectations and perception toward
particular elements of logistic service offered
by the Polish Silesian Province's commercial
cargo motor transport enterprises was
realized in the article. The determination of
the average level of discrepancy of the
customers’ expectations and experiences
within particular aspects of logistic service
quality allows then to asess the quality
assessment of distinguished categories of
logistic service and those of its attributes, in
which a quality loss occurs. Thus, the levels
of expectation fulfilment and the customers’
perception of the service were examined as
the first steps before defining the fifth gap of
the Servqual method.
The survey questionnaire used in the study
was constructed based on 22 logistic
customer service determinants. The
questionnaire form was composed of two
sections: the first section illustrated the
expectations of service recipients toward the
logistic service, while the second section
included items intended for the scoring of
services rendered by a given service
provider. Using the seven-point Likert scale,
customers were asked to assign weights to
respective statements: 1 meant that the
respondent totally disagreed with a given
item, while 7 that he or she totally agreed
with it.
Questionnaire forms were filled by 294
customers of 147 Silesian Province’s
(Poland) commercial cargo motor transport
enterprises examined, i.e. two customers of
each enterprise. Questionnaire forms were
handed over directly to 38 respondents
indicated as the customers of 19 enterprises,
while with the remaining customers of 128
entities examined, telephone surveys were
carried out.
Underlying the generalizations based on
empirical data are chiefly partial results,
because collecting this data from the general
population (the full test), whose size in the
test period amounted to 14 500 commercial
cargo motor transport enterprises in the
Silesian Province area in Poland, most
probably would have been impossible. So, a
partial test was carried out, while the test
sample, i.e. a section of the general
population, was selected intentionally. This
means that the selection of tests entities was
decided upon by the researcher himself,
based on the „substantive knowledge of the
research subject matter” (Zelias et al., 2002).
Within the greater part of instances, survey
forms were distributed to the respondents by
traditional mail, which was 650 forms, 19
forms were provided to the respondents in
person, whereas 330 forms were delivered
by electronic mail. As about the results of
return rate, very little number of filled
questionnaire forms was achieved for the
final stand for of delivery. The group of 34
represetatives of the enterprises sent away
filled forms by electronic mail, of which,
winning preface viewing, 7 forms were
abandoned appropriate to the rawness or
unpredictability of given data - the level of
return rate of the questionnaire form return
rate was of 8.18%. Through traditional mail,
136 forms were given back, and of which,
winning preface selection for the rawness or
untrustworthiness of indicated data, 31 forms
were redundant - here the level of return rate
of the questionnaire forms was of 16.15 %.
The maximum return rate of filled
questionnaire forms was achieved for their
delivery attained for personal service: 17
representatives of enterprises properly filled
270 M. Kadłubek, J. Grabara
their forms and the level of return rate was of
89.47 %. In total, of the entire 999 delivered
questionnaire forms, 149 full forms
appropriate for following assessment were
accepted, which built a whole questionnaire
form return rate of 14.91%.
With an eye to the precision of conclusions
for the entire population based on its section
tested, the filled questionnaire forms were
selected in respect of the number of people
employed in entities and the amount of
turnover for at least one of the last two
turnover years, being the criteria
distinguishing commercial cargo motor
transport enterprises in terms of their size.
Taking into account the structure of
commercial cargo motor transport
enterprises, as estimated based on the data
from Central Statistical Office and the
Ministry of the Infrastructure according to
the size category (micro-entities accounted
for approx. 76%; small-size enterprises,
approx. 16.5 %; medium-size enterprise,
approx. 5.5 %; and large entities, approx. 2
% of the whole population), a test sample
with a similar distribution of the
aforementioned attribute was constructed.
After rejecting 2 randomly chosen
questionnaire forms from the group of
business entities employing 10 to 49 people
and attaining an annual net turnover not
exceeding the equivalent of 10 million euro,
but larger than 2 million euro, a sample of
147 enterprises of the following structure
was obtained: 76% of the whole population,
that is 112 micro-entities; 16.5% of the
whole population, that is 24 small-size
entities; 5.5% the whole population, that is 8
medium-size entities; and 2% of the whole
population, that is 3 large entities.
In order to determine the minimum test
sample size, n, the following data were taken
into the consideration:
with the presumption that the
overall population has a size of N =
14 500,
with the assumed significance level
of
= 5 %,
with the statistic value, as red out
from the normal distribution tables,
of
u
= 1.96,
with the desired estimation
accuracy of d = 10 % = 0.1,
the subsequent formula was used:
,
)1(4 2
2
2
dNu
Nu
n
where:
n minimum test sample size,
N general population size,
d estimation accuracy,
- significance level,
u
- statistic value, as red out from the
normal distribution tables.
4. Research results
4.1. Customers’ expectations for the level
of the elements of logistic customer service
The results of the measurement of the
customers' desired level of logistic service
offered to the customers are illustrated in
Figure 3.
The diagram shown in Figure 3 represents
the average level of customer expectations
towards all of the 22 logistic service
determinants, as broken down into
expectations reported by the customers of
micro-, small-size, medium-size and large
enterprises. Using the seven-point scale for
assessing the desired level of individual
attributes of ideal logistic service, the polled
customers assessed their expectations in total
at 5.62 points.
The highest expectations towards the logistic
service offered by transport enterprises were
revealed by the customers of large business
entities, assessing them at a level of 6.63
points. The highest requirements of the
customers of large transport enterprises,
expressed by the level of 7, were related to
all attributes of logistic advisory quality, six
attributes of the quality of services offered
271
by the entities, and one quality attribute,
each of infrastructure, fleet, and the post-sale
service of enterprises, i.e. modern
infrastructural equipment, technologically
advanced fleet, and admitting complaints
and claims. The lowest expectations by this
group of service recipients were related to
the infrastructure meeting the environmental
requirements, and round-the-clock service.
Figure 3. Customers’ expectations for the level of the elements of logistic customer service
offered by the Polish Silesian Province's commercial cargo motor transport enterprises
272 M. Kadłubek, J. Grabara
Not much lower than the logistic service
requirements assessed above, as being
placed at a level of 6.12 points, were shown
by the customers of medium-size
commercial cargo motor transport
enterprises. The customers of this group had
the highest expectations towards five
attributes of service quality, two attributes of
logistic advisory, and one attribute of post-
sale service, i.e. recognizing customer
complaints and claims by the business
entities. At the same time, the service
recipients expressed the lowest requirements
for the infrastructure meeting the
environmental requirements, round-the-clock
service, and service monitoring.
A considerable difference, amounting to
nearly 1 point, occurred between the
customers of medium-size and small-size
enterprises in the assessment of expectations
regarding the ideal logistic service. The
recipients of the services of small-size
transport enterprises reported a desired
logistic service level of 5.19 points. The
lowered expectation threshold compared to
the customer groups discussed above
manifested itself in a small number of the
highest scores awarded to the requirements
for individual logistic service elements: 7
points were only related to the timeliness,
correctness and completeness of services
rendered by small-size enterprises. Service
monitoring, round-the-clock service, the
fleet and infrastructure meeting the
environmental requirements were the logistic
service attributes, towards which small-size
enterprises' customers expressed the lowest
expectations.
The lowest expectations towards the logistic
service offered by transport enterprises were
shown by the customers of micro-entities,
assessing them at a level of 4.53 points. The
highest requirements of transport micro-
enterprises' customers, as expressed by the
level of 7, were only related to the
correctness of deliveries. The lowest
expectations of this group of service
recipients were related to the wide
geographic range of services, the
infrastructure and fleet meeting the
environmental requirements, service
monitoring, and round-the-clock service.
4.2. Customers’ experiences for the level
of the elements of logistic customer service
The data obtained from the customers of the
examined Silesian Province's commercial
cargo motor transport enterprises through the
analysis of the second section of filled
questionnaire forms reflected the customers'
expectations with respect to the elements of
logistic service offered them by the business
entities under examination. The results of the
measurement of the customers' perception of
the level of logistic service offered to the
customers are presented in Figure 4.
The diagram shown in Figure 4 shows the
average level of customer experiences
related to all of the 22 logistic service
determinants, broken down by their
perception, as reported by the customers of
micro-, small-size, medium-size and large
enterprises. Using the seven-point scale for
assessing the perceived level of individual
attributes of ideal logistic service, the polled
customers assessed their experiences in total
at 5.11 points.
The best experiences with the logistic
service offered by transport enterprises were
revealed by the customers of large business
entities, assessing them at a level of 6.34
points. The attributes best perceived by the
customers of large transport enterprises,
expressed by the level of 7, related to the
availability of services, the
comprehensiveness of services, modern
infrastructural equipment, and credible
logistic advisory. The most poorly assessed
experiences of this group of service
recipients related to the completeness of
services and the promptness of their
provision, and the convenient location of the
enterprise's infrastructure.
273
Figure 4. Customers’ experiences relating to the level of the elements of logistic customer
service offered by the Polish Silesian Province's commercial cargo motor transport enterprises
274 M. Kadłubek, J. Grabara
No much lower than the logistic service
experience assessments mentioned above, as
being placed at a level of 5.87 points, were
shown by the customers of medium-size
commercial cargo motor transport
enterprises. The customers of this group
highest perceived only the credible logistic
advisory. At the same time, the service
recipients lowest assessed their experiences
with the fleet age, round-the-clock service
and service monitoring.
A large difference, amounting to 1.35 points,
occurred between the customers of medium-
size and small-size enterprises in the
assessment of their experiences with the
logistic service encountered. The recipients
of small-size transport enterprises' services
reported a perceived logistic service level of
4.52 points. The lowered experience
threshold compared to the customer groups
discussed above manifested itself in a small
number of the highest scores awarded to the
perception of individual logistic service
elements: 7 points were not related to any
service attribute, and the highest scores
remained 6.1 points awarded to the
correctness of services provided by small-
size enterprises, and 6 points awarded to the
credibility of logistic advisory. Service
monitoring, the fleet meeting the
environmental requirements, the
informatization of infrastructure and modern
infrastructural equipment were the logistic
service attributes with which small-size
enterprises' customers had poorest assessed
experiences.
The lowest perception of the logistic service
offered by transport enterprises were shown
by the customers of micro-entities, assessing
them at a level of 3.71 points. The best
experiences of transport micro-enterprises'
customers were assessed at a level of 4.7
points, and related to the convenient location
of the enterprises. The poorest experiences
of the service recipients of this group were
associated with the geographical range of
offered services, the informatization of
infrastructure and service monitoring.
5. Conclusions and direction for
future research
After determination of above data, the next
step in the procedure of Servqual method
should be measuring the differences existing
between the quality of individual elements of
logistic service as perceived by the
customers of the Polish Silesian Province's
commercial cargo motor transport
enterprises examined, and the quality
expected by the customers from the service.
The discrepancy which occurs between the
expected and the perceived logistic customer
service is pointed in the Gap 5 of the
Servqual method. The content of this gap is
assembled from the collective deficits
established in each of the previous four
enterprise gaps. Identification the intensity
of this discrepancy is more than just
calculation the metrics of Gap 1 throughout
4, as in many instances the cumulative result
on customer perceptions of logistic customer
service are larger than the sum of the
components.
The benefits of achieving the measurements
as used in the research are:
Recognizing customers’
expectations towards logistic
customer service quality. It may be
helpful for the enterprise’s
executives to discover the deficit
areas, which are necessary to be
recovered and to check the
dynamics of logistic customer
service quality over time. The
enterprise’s executives can find out
the expectations for each imperative
field, as well the perceptions of
present state, and build up strategies
to increase customer satisfaction by
lowering their expectation;
The possibilities for exaggerated
evaluation in measurement of
different, separated determinants of
logistic customer service, which
may possibly associate with
mistaken conclusions, is much
275
inferior than in measuring not
separated determinants but only one
field;
The response inaccuracy is rather
low.
Measures instructiving the gaps which exist
between the level of perceived and actual
logistic customer service performance are
decisive in orienting the logistic customer
service strategy of the enterprises. Once the
gaps have been measured, company’s
executives can initiate the procedures of
focusing resources to satisfy intended
improvements in processes and operational
performance of logistics area. Due to the
directions, the continuation of the research is
planned for the future in the another article.
The determination of the perceived quality
of services involves the calculation of the
difference between the perception of the
service and the ideal (desired, expected)
service level, which, at the same time, makes
it possible to capture the gap that occurs
between the expectations and the perception
of services (Rudawska and Kiecko, 2000).
By defining:
OJU customer expectation,
PJU service perception,
we obtain (Witkowska, 2007):
when
OJU = PJU the customer expectations
are satisfied, and the quality is
satisfactory;
OJU < PJU the customer expectations
have been exceeded, and the quality is
astonishing;
OJU > PJU the customer expectations
have not been met, and the quality is
unsatisfactory.
The authors of the Servqual method pointed
out that enterprises providing services should
themselves assess its suitability and possibly
verify the set of statements being analyzed.
They emphasised, at the same time, that
Servqual might also prove to be a useful
means of acquiring the knowledge of the
market (Mazur, 2001). In particular, the
following applications of the method were
suggested (Parasuraman et al., 1990):
determining the average level of
discrepancy between the purchasers'
expectations and experiences in
particular aspects of service quality;
determining the enterprise's service
quality level relating to each of the
features;
setting the weighted service quality
level by considering both gaps
between the expectations and
experiences, and the importance of
individual features to the customers;
identifying any changes in
expectations and experiences in
time, concerning both individual
features and the cumulative
assessment.
Individual researchers often perceive a
number of basic criteria used by purchasers
for assessing services, which is different than
assumed by the Servqual method. This
difference is primarily due to the features of
the business under study and the specific
service provider. In the conditions of a
considerable difference existing between
detailed expectations and experiences,
researchers tend to distinguish relatively
many assessment criteria. Whereas, in a
situation, where the gap between
expectations and experiences within
numerous issues is small, as a rule, the
number of features regarded as the basic
selection criteria is reduced. So, the Servqual
method appears to be rather a general
construction that requires modification to be
adapted to a new type of tasks, considering
the local conditions and the nature of given
services.
276 M. Kadłubek, J. Grabara
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278 M. Kadłubek, J. Grabara
Marta Kadłubek
Czestochowa University
of Technology
Faculty of Management
ul. Armii Krajowej 19 B
42-200 Czestochowa
Poland
martakadlubek@wp.pl
Janusz Grabara
Czestochowa University
of Technology
Faculty of Management
ul. Armii Krajowej 19 B
42-200 Czestochowa
Poland
... Müşteri hizmetlerinin kalitesi, işletmelerin rekabetçi dünyada göre bir avantaj elde etmelerini kolaylaştırmada belirleyici bir unsur haline gelerek işletmelerin etkinliğine ve refahına önemli bir katkı sağlamaktadır. Müşteri hizmetleri kalitesi, rekabetçi bir iş stratejisinde temel bir alan haline gelmiştir (Kadłubek & Grabara, 2015). Hizmet kalitesi, genel olarak müşteri hizmetleri deneyimine ilişkin algıların toplamı olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Johns, 1992). ...
... The gap analysis involving SERVQUAL is critically essential to address from managerial perspectives. Some advantages of gap analysis through SERVQUAL are: understanding customer expectations for service delivery, limiting the possibility of inflated evaluation, and the answer error being relatively low [39]. The mapping gap study reveals that a lowperformance value for a characteristic does not imply that the attribute is relevant in the eyes of the customer. ...
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Delivery services are going through a transition phase globally due to changes in the market dynamics and growing e-commerce industries. As the delivery services of public logistics organizations have a lasting impact on customer behavior, logistics organizations are using innovative, customer-centric, and cost-effective strategies to offer customers convenient, attractive, and effective service solutions. The current study has been undertaken to analyze the effectiveness of each element of quality services of delivery services. Qualitative and quantitative research approaches were implemented based on a hundred respondents in identifying the critical issues based on the SERVQUAL method, heterogeneous customer satisfaction index (HCSI), and mapping out prioritizing the most critical problem. The study results reveal that customers are susceptible to the responsive, assurance, and empathy dimensions. These three of five dimensions are adversely influencing the satisfaction of customers.
... Evaluation of the level of functionality of customer/market could be performed in many different ways. Authors used a comprehensive approach (Kadlubek & Grabara, 2015), which covers the following items: (1) level of methods for determining existing requirements and expectations of customers, (2) level of methods for determining future requirements and expectations of customers, (3) level of methods for identifying customer groups and market segments, (4) level of relationship practices including complaint management, (5) level of improvements of CRM practices, (6) level of determination of contact requirements and deliver to the customers, (7) level of management of customer satisfaction, (8) level of benchmarking, (9) level of integration in clusters, value chains etc., and (10) level of position on the market, including branding, close with customer etc. ...
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... Evaluation of the level of functionality of customer/market could be performed in many different ways. Authors used a comprehensive approach (Kadlubek & Grabara, 2015), which covers the following items: (1) level of methods for determining existing requirements and expectations of customers, (2) level of methods for determining future requirements and expectations of customers, (3) level of methods for identifying customer groups and market segments, (4) level of relationship practices including complaint management, (5) level of improvements of CRM practices, (6) level of determination of contact requirements and deliver to the customers, (7) level of management of customer satisfaction, (8) level of benchmarking, (9) level of integration in clusters, value chains etc., and (10) level of position on the market, including branding, close with customer etc. ...
... Low-quality products result in the need for additional operations aimed at repairing or scrapping the poor product [20]. It is also related to the low satisfaction of customers, who decide which products to use and from which enterprise [21,22]. High customer satisfaction is directly proportional to the enterprise's profits, and thus, determines its existence on the market. ...
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... Importantly, customers who have used the services of a given company should participate in the process of determining the level of service quality. They have certain expectations to the ordered service, they choose the options for this service themselves, take part in the process of its provision, hence the need for their presence also when assessing its quality (Klimecka-Tatar and Ingaldi, 2020;Kadłubek and Grabara, 2015;Pilarz and Kot, 2019, Ulewicz, 2016, Wolniak, 2021. Service providers may provide their services directly in line with the requirements of service users or create services with a level of quality higher than expected by them, which will result in high customer satisfaction (Suriya and Ratana, 2020). ...
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