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Abstract

Santalum album L. (Santalaceae) commonly known as Indian Sandalwood is one of the oldest and precious sources of natural fragrance with immense medicinal and commercial significance. S. album has been grown in India for the last 25 centuries and esteemed all over the world for its sweet, long-lasting and medicinally valued fragrant oil. Sandalwood and the essential oil derived from sandal heartwood have been used in various traditional systems of medicine, like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medicine in the treatment and prevention of wide range of ailments. The versatile therapeutic and healthcare importance of sandawood is attributed to the rich source of phytochemicals particularly sesquiterpeness. A thorough bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing worldwide accepted scientific database (Pub Med, SciFinder, Scopus, ACS and Web of Science), recognized books, Indexed as well as non indexed journals. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated a wide range of pharmacological activities ranging from antibacterial to anti-cancer. No significant toxicity has been indicated by sandalwood oil and its individual constituents; however, further study on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed to understand the full phytochemical profile and the complex pharmacological effects of this plant. The increased commercial exploitation of Sandalwood and low productivity of this endangered plant has raised the concern over its conservation and productivity enhancement through modern tools and techniques. The review discusses traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biological activities of sandalwood in order to divulge its medicinal and industrial worth and gaps requiring future research.
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PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF SANTALUM
ALBUM L.: A REVIEW
Rakesh Kumar* Nishat Anjum and Y.C. Tripathi
Chemistry Division, Forest Research Institute, New Forest, Dehradun 248006
(Uttarakhand) India.
ABSTRACT
Santalum album L. (Santalaceae) commonly known as Indian
Sandalwood is one of the oldest and precious sources of natural
fragrance with immense medicinal and commercial significance. S.
album has been grown in India for the last 25 centuries and esteemed
all over the world for its sweet, long-lasting and medicinally valued
fragrant oil. Sandalwood and the essential oil derived from sandal
heartwood have been used in various traditional systems of medicine,
like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medicine in the treatment and
prevention of wide range of ailments. The versatile therapeutic and
healthcare importance of sandawood is attributed to the rich source of
phytochemicals particularly sesquiterpeness. A thorough bibliographic
investigation was carried out by analyzing worldwide accepted
scientific database (Pub Med, SciFinder, Scopus, ACS and Web of Science), recognized
books, Indexed as well as non indexed journals. Modern pharmacological studies have
demonstrated a wide range of pharmacological activities ranging from antibacterial to anti-
cancer. No significant toxicity has been indicated by sandalwood oil and its individual
constituents, however, further study on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in
exhibiting certain biological activities are needed to understand the full phytochemical profile
and the complex pharmacological effects of this plant. The increased commercial exploitation
of Sandalwood and low productivity of this endangered plant has raised the concern over its
conservation and productivity enhancement through modern tools and techniques. The review
discusses traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biological activities of
sandalwood in order to divulge its medicinal and industrial worth and gaps requiring future
research.
World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
SJIF Impact Factor 5.990
Volume 4, Issue 10, 1842-1876. Research Article ISSN 2277 7105
Article Received on
04 Aug 2015,
Revised on 26 Aug 2015,
Accepted on 19 Sep 2015
*Correspondence for
Author
Rakesh Kumar
Chemistry Division,
Forest Research Institute,
New Forest, Dehradun
248006 (Uttarakhand)
India.
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Rakesh et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
KEY WORDS: Santalum album, Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, Biological activity,
Research prospects.
INTRODUCTION
Santalum album L., belonging to the family Santalaceae is one of the most precious trees in
the world.[1] Commonly known as White sandalwood (English), Safed Chandan (Hindi) and
Srigandha (Sanskrit), it is considered to be a revered endowment of the plant kingdom woven
into the culture and heritage of India. Acclaimed as one of the oldest known perfumery
materials having more than 2000 years of incessant history, sandalwood has retained its
eminence as admired perfumery stuff from antiquity down to modern times. Historical review
reveals that sandalwood has been referred in Indian mythology, folklore and ancient
scriptures. Certain cultures place great significance on its fragrant and medicinal qualities. It
is generally accepted that sandal is indigenous to peninsular India as its history of recorded
occurrence dates back to at least 2500 years. Sandal tree grows under different edaphic and
eco-climatic conditions, adapts very well in terms of growth, heartwood and oil content.[2]
The finest wood grows in driest region particularly on red or stony ground while on rocky
ground the tree often remains small but gives the highest yield of oil. The heartwood is
moderately hard, heavy, durable, yellow or brown in appearance, with an oily texture and is
an exquisite material for carving intricate designs. The carved images of gods and
mythological figures have a high demand in the market. A wide variety of articles such as
boxes, cabinet panels, jewel cases, combs, picture frames, hand fans, pen holders, card cases,
letter openers and bookmarks are made from sandalwood. The heartwood constitutes the
central part of the tree and is valued for its fragrance. The bark and outer wood (sapwood) or
other parts of the tree however, have no fragrance. The plant has been mainly exploited for
sandalwood oil obtained by steam distillation of its heartwood. Roots also contain essential
oil.[3] The yield and quality of oil varies depending on the locality, age of the tree and
distillation method. Sandalwood is commercially known as the East Indian sandalwood and
its oil the East Indian sandalwood oil.
PLANT DESCRIPTION
Santalum album is an evergreen tree that grows up to 20 m attaining girth of up to 2.4 m with
slender drooping branchlets. There are two major commercial species of Sandalwood named
Indian Sandalwood (S. album) and Australian Sandalwood (S. spicatum). Australian Sandal
trees are shorter in height. Bark of the tree is tight, dark brown, reddish, dark grey or nearly
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black, smooth in young trees, rough with deep vertical cracks in older trees, red inside. The
sapwood is white and odourless whereas heartwood is yellowish to dark brown and strongly
scented. Leaves thin, usually opposite, ovate or ovate elliptical, 3-8 x 3-5 cm, glabrous and
shining green above, glaucous and slightly paler beneath; tip rounded or pointed; stalk
grooved, 5-15 cm long; venation noticeably reticulate. Flowers purplish-brown, small, straw
coloured, reddish, green or violet, about 4-6 mm long, up to 6 in small terminal or axillary
clusters, unscented in auxiliary or terminal, paniculate cymes. Fruit a globose, fleshy drupe;
red, purple to black when ripe, about 1 cm in diameter, with hard ribbed endocarp and
crowned with a scar, almost stalkless, smooth, single seeded.[4] Flower panicles appear from
March to April in India, and fruits ripen in the cold season. In Australia flowers appear in
December to January and also June to August, and fruits mature during June to September.
The species is spread rapidly through seed dispersal. Viable seed production occurs when the
tree attains age of 5 years. Trees more than 30 years old may have circumference from 18-38
inches.
Sandalwood tolerates a wide range of site conditions and grows naturally in a variety of
localities in tropical areas, but growth is more vigorous in some conditions than others.[5] S.
album thrives on well-drained loamy soil preferably on slopes of hills exposed to the sun. It
requires a minimum of 20-25 inches rainfall per year. It does not tolerate frost or water-
logging, but is drought-hardy and is a light demander in sapling and later stages. Prolonged
drought and fire kill trees. The plant is mainly exploited for fragrant sandalwood oil.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
There are references to sandalwood in Indian mythology, folklore and scripture. It is
mentioned in the Indian literature as old as Milinda Pahna (200 BC), Patanjali Mahabhasaya
(100 BC), Dhamma Pada, Anguttara, Vinaya Pitaka (400-300 BC). Kautilya described a
variety of sandalwood in his Arthasastra (200 BC). Sandalwood is also mentioned in the epic
Ramayana and Mahabharata. It is unlikely that some of the references to sandalwood in the
ancient Indian literature pertain to Pterocarpus santalinus, called the Red sanders or Red
Sandal wood. There is a mass of evidence that S. album has been grown in India for the last
25 centuries. The sandalwood oil is esteemed all over the world and India has been main
exporting country. Known as ‘Bai tan xiang’ in China, ‘Byaku-dan’ in Japan, Sandalwood
has also been known not only in ancient Sanskrit texts and manuscripts but also ancient
Chinese ones. It is also used in many forms of initiation rites to open the disciples mind to
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receive consecration. In the Zoroastrian Temples it burns in there sacred fires to soothe the
troubles of all humanity. It is used by the Jewish, the Buddhist, the Hindus, as well as almost
every other belief system for its vast diversity in attributes.[6-7]
ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION
S. album is indigenous to the tropical belt of the Indian peninsula, eastern Indonesia and
northern Australia. The main distribution is in the drier tropical regions of India and the
Indonesian islands of Timor and Sumba. It is a native of the highlands of southern India
where the principal sandal tracts are most parts of Karnataka and adjoining districts of
Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. The species is mostly found in dry deciduous
and scrub forests in these regions. The vegetation type is a typical monsoon vine thicket
growing on pure sand. It has been recorded on coastal sand dunes immediately above the
normal high water mark and close to the mangroves. It also grows on low lateritic cliffs
above the beach. The tree is actually an obligate hemi parasite plant on various hosts, Cassia
siamea, Pongamia glabra and Lantana acuminata. It is now planted in India, China, Sri
Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Northern Australia.
TRADITIONAL USES
S. album is mainly grown for its timber and fragrant oil. The timber weighing 870 kg/cubic m
is durable and strong. Its close grained heartwood is used for ornamental and carving work.
The wood has been used as a fuel but is generally considered too valuable for this purpose.
Sandalwood oil distilled from the heartwood is a pale yellow to yellow viscous liquid, with
sweet, fragrant, persistent, spicy, warm, woody, animalic, milky and nutty notes.[2] It is
extensively used in perfumery, cosmetics, aromatherapy and pharmaceutical industry. Being
good fixatives, it is highly valued in perfumery and toiletry industry, especially for certain
delicate scents that are extremely rare and fragile. No composition of the heavy or oriental
type of perfume is complete without an ample dose of sandalwood oil. Most Indian attars use
sandal oil as the base because of its inherent capacity to absorb most of the ethereal notes of
other whole herbs or flowers, as it can enhance their perfumery status and stability. The oil is
used as a flavouring substance in food products such as frozen dairy desserts, candy, pan
masala, baked food, gelatine, puddings and also in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. US
Food and Drug Administration, Flavour and Extract Manufacturers Association Council of
Europe and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee has approved sandalwood oil for use as food
additives.[8]
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Its fruits are edible and the seeds contain fatty oil which is suitable for the manufacture of
paint. Powdered heartwood is used to make incense sticks, burnt as perfumes in houses and
temples, or is ground into a paste and used as a cosmetic. The bark contains about 12-14%
tannin and has good potential in the tanning industry. The foliage of S. album is palatable to
grazing animals. Leaves make good green manure thus help soil improvement.
As medicine, sandalwood is regarded as coolant, sedative, astringent, disinfectant in
genitourinary and bronchial tracts, diuretic, expectorant and stimulant. The wood, root, bark
and leaves of the plant used for the treatment of the liver disease like jaundice by the tribal
healers.[9] It is very beneficial for treating gastric irritability, jaundice, dysentery, tension and
confusion and also used as tonic for heart, stomach, liver, anti-poison, fever, memory
improvement and as a blood purifier. Various uses mentioned in Ayurveda system about
sandalwood are in treatment of various other ailments like diarrhoea with bleeding, intrinsic
haemorrhage, bleeding piles, vomiting, poisoning, hiccoughs, initial phase of pox, urticaria,
eye infections and inflammation of umbilicus.[8,10] Sandalwood oil, an active substance of
agreeable odour employed in the treatment of sub-acute and chronic infections of mucous
tissues, particularly gonorrhoea after the active symptoms have been mitigated. Chronic
bronchitis, with fetid expectoration, chronic mucous diarrhoea, chronic inflammation of the
bladder and pyelitis are also said to be benefited by it.
ETHNOLOPHARMACOLOGY
Therapeutically, sandalwood has calming and relaxation effect. It is claimed to reduce stress,
depression, fear, nervous exhaustion, anxiety, discomfort, and insomnia and enhances
meditation. It was believed to promote spiritual practices, peaceful relaxation, openness and
grounding.[6] Sandalwood is used in various traditional systems of medicine, like Ayurveda,
Siddha and Unani medicine to treat a wide range of ailments. In the Indian traditional
medicine system Ayurveda, white sandalwood has largely been used as a demulcent, diuretic,
and mild stimulant.[11] In Ayurveda sandalwood is regarded as antiseptic, antipyretic,
antiscabietic, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant and prescribed for the treatment of bronchitis,
dysuria, urinary infection and gonorrhoea owing to its antibacterial and antifungal
properties.[12] Other therapeutic uses mentioned in Ayurveda include its utilization in the
treatment of several ailments like biliousness, fever, bleeding piles, diarrhoea with internal
bleeding, eye infections, hemorrhage, hiccoughs, inflammation of umbilicus poisoning, initial
phase of pox, urticaria and vomiting.[3,8] The aromatic nature of sandalwood is calming to an
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aggravated nervous system; it balances Vyanavayu and cools Sadhaka pitta, making it useful
for treating depression and mental disturbance.[13] It is applied externally in the form of paste
with water or rose water to skin eruptions, to the temples in headaches, fevers, to skin
diseases to allay itching, inflammation, heat and pruritus.[14] In Unani medicine, Safed Sandal
is used to treat gastric ulcers. Sandalwood is one of the potential anti-ulcer agents used in
Unani system of medicine.[15] Kausar and co-workers reviewed the Unani perspective and
recent studies of S. album.[16] In the Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), sandalwood finds
its mention as treatment of skin diseases, acne, dysentery, gonorrhea, anxiety, cystitis,
fatigue, frigidity, impotence, nervous tension, immune-booster, eczema, stomachache,
vomiting and stress. According to Chinese medicine, sandalwood acts in case of any type of
chest pains, originating either from lungs or heart. The regulating and dispersing action of the
oil is curative of the angina pain. Sandalwood also earns a mention in 'De Materia Medica'
written by Greek physician, Discorides who is considered as the father of pharmacology.
Pharmacological studies have established that sandalwood and its root bark possessed
abortifacient, hepatoprotective, urinary antiseptic, stomachic, anti-viral and anti-herpetic
activities.[17] The hydrolyzed exhausted sandalwood powder (HESP) possesses anti-
remorogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-mitotic, antiviral, anti-cancerous, anti-hypertensive,
anti-pyretic, sedative, ganglionic blocking and insecticidal properties.[18-19] The soothing and
demulcent effects of sandalwood oil have been used to treat respiratory tract infections,
specifically chronic bronchitis involving chronic dry cough.[20-22] Recently, apoptotic,
cytotoxic, antiviral, and anti-Helicobacter pylori properties have been reported.[23] Bioactive
principles having anti-cancer, anti-tumor,[24] anti-viral,[25] anti-Helicobacter pylori[26] and
cytotoxic santalols as well as lignans [27] are obtained from the heartwood.
Sandalwood oil finds frequent mentions in traditional medicinal systems as diaphoretic,
diuretic, carminative, antiseptic, antipyretic, cicatrisant, antiphlogistic, antispasmodic,
antiscabietic, expectorant, stimulant and for the treatment of bronchitis, dysuria, psoriasis,
palpitations, sunstroke, urethritis, vaginitis, acute dermatitis, urinary infection, gonnorheal
recovery as it contains antibacterial and antifungal principles.[28-32] It is used as blood purifier
and tonic for heart, stomach and liver, and also in fever and memory improvement.[33] The oil
along with other plant mixtures has been used to cure stomach illnesses, elephantiasis and
lymphatic filariasis.[34] Venous and lymphatic stasis such as varicose veins and swollen lymph
nodes of the lymphatic system were traditionally treated with sandalwood oil, where the
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therapeutic potential was attributed to santalols having antiinflammatory effect.[35] The E-
monograph by German Commission suggests 1-1.5 g of the sandalwood oil for the supportive
treatment of urinary tract infections, fevers and strengthening the heart.[36]
PHYTOCHEMISTRY
Sandalwood, the major source of costliest wood and essential oil has been extensively
investigated for its chemical constituents. Sandalwood oil is accumulated in the heartwood
only after 30 years of its growth under natural conditions.[37] The yield and compositions of
any essential oil are strongly influenced by the age of the tree, colour of heartwood, organ
maturation, individual tree, location within the tree and the environmental cues and the plants
genetic factors.[38-40] Traditionally, as an age-old practice the steam distillate of the heartwood
is sold as marketable sandalwood essential oil. The essential oil yield from an old matured
tree ranges from 2.5-6% depending on the age of the tree, colour of the heartwood, individual
tree under study, location within the tree and the environment of growth of the tree.[41-42]
Moreover the compositions of oil obtained from young and mature sandal trees varies[43]
while the content and composition of oil varies from heartwood sampled at different levels in
the tree.[44]
Sandalwood oil has been extensively studied for the chemical constituents and their isolation,
synthesis and quantitative estimation.[45-57] Considerable work was done by Shankaranarayana
and co-workers on phytochemical and other related aspects of sandalwood including
separation of - and -santalols by column chromatography,[58] chromatographic separation
of alpha and beta santalenes,[59] simple method for extracting sandal oil in higher yield
through rectification of benzene extract,[60] preparation of sodium santalbate-dimethyl sulfate
inclusion complex,[61] estimation of oil in depot based sapwood of sandal,[62] possibility of
developing fragrant products from less odorous sandalwood oil,[41] estimation of content and
composition of oil from central and transition zones of sandal disc,[63] utilization of
sandalwood extractives,[64] recovery of essential oil from hydrolyzed exhausted sandalwood
powder (HESP)[65-66] and isolation of santalols from sandalwood oil.[67]
Major constituents of commercially available sandalwood oil are sesquiterpene alcohols like
α- and β-santalols (C15H24O), bergamotols and several of their stereoisomers, whereas minor
constituents includes lanceol, nuciferol, bisabolol and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as
α-and β-santalenes (C15H24), bergamotenes, α-, β- and γ-curcumenes, β-bisabolene[68-72] and
phenylpropanoids.[73] Usually, α-santalol is more abundant than β-santalol.[74] Verghese and
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co-workers reported sesquiterpene alcohols, cis--santalol and cis--santalol, -trans-
bergamotol, epi-cis--santalol as major essential oil components.[75] Minor constituents
include trans--santalol and cis-lanceol,[72] hydrocarbon santene (C9H14), -santalene, -
santalene, -bergamotene, epi--santalene, -curcumene, -curcumene, -curcumene, -
bisabolene, -bisabolol[72,76] and heterocyclics.[77] The other constituents reported in the
sandalwood oil includes alcohol, santenol (C9H16O) and teresantalol (C10H16O); the
aldehydes, nor-tricycloekasantalal (C11H16O) and isovaleraldehyde; the ketones, l-santenone
(C9H14O) and santalone (C11H16O) and the acids, teresantalic acid (C10H14O) occurring partly
free and partly in esterified form and α- and β-santalic acids (C15H22O2). Genetic diversity
among Sandal populations of different provenances in India[78] as well as relationship
between girth and heartwood/oil yield in Sandal provenances[2] were studied. Although both
Indian as well as Australian sandalwood oils contain similar components, the concentrations
of these components are different, creating two similar but quite distinctive oils. Main
constituents in Australian Sandalwood oil are sesquiterpenes dominated by the two primary
sesquiterpene alcohols, -santalol and -santalol along with both E, E-farnesol and -
bisabolol.[79]
It is worth mentioning here that content of secondary metabolites depends on the inherent
characteristics of plant material, environmental, and genetic aspects, or by extrinsic aspects
such as extraction methods.[80] It was also mentioned that quantity of santyl acetate and
santalene in a 10 year old tree are slightly more than in a 30 year old tree.[81] Roots of East
Indian Sandalwood tree were also examined for yield and composition of essential oil.
Recovery of oil from roots was recorded to be 10.3% through solvent extraction of
sandalwood. GC and GC/MS analysis of oil led to the detection of fifty-three compounds
representing 99.9% of the total oil, including 30 sesquiterpenols (78.5%), 9 sesquiterpenes
(7.8%), a terpenoic acid (0.4%) and 5 sesquiterpenoid isomers (4.4%).
Santene (Z)-α-Santalol (E)-α-Santalol
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(Z)-β-Santalol epi-(Z)-β-Santalol (E)-β-Santalol
α-Santalene β-Santalene epi- β-Santalene
(Z)-α-Santalal (E)-α-Santalal (E)-β-Santalal
(E)-epi-β-Santalal (Z)-β-Santalal α-Santenol
Spirosantalol (Z)-α-trans-Bergamotol
The major constituents in the essential oils were - and -santalol, accounting for 19.6 and
16.0%, respectively. The content of -santalol was less than a proposed range of 41-55 %;
however, -santalol content was close to the specification of 18 %. The total content of
bisabolenol A, B, C, D and their isomers was also high i.e. 25.0 % of the oil.[82] In another
study, altogether 32 active phytocompounds which were identified in the stem extracts of
Santalum album by GC-MS study.[83] In a further study, thirty five volatile metabolites were
detected by GC-MS analysis from the heartwood of 15 year old tree.[84] Bioassay-guided
fractionation of the heartwood of Santalum album carried out which led to the isolation of
seven -santalol derivatives including (9R,10E)-9-hydroxy--santalal, (10R,11R)-10,11-
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dihydroxy--santalol, (9E)-11,13-dihydroxy--santalol, and (10E)-12-hydroxy--santalic
acid. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis.[85] HPTLC-based
evaluation of sesquiterpenoids from sandalwood oil was developed for profiling of metabolite
such as n-alkanes, sesquiterpene, sesquiterpenoids, fatty acids, alcohols and hydrocarbons of
sandalwood oil.[23] Srivastava and co-workers studied the functional characterization of novel
sesquiterpene syntheses from Indian Sandalwood.[86] Possibility of distinguishing the woods
reliably on the basis of anatomical structure, colour of the hot water extract, chemical
constituents of oil (mainly santalol content) and DNA fingerprinting was investigated.[87]
The structure-activity relations of odorous compounds from sandalwood were investigated.[88-
89] Further, the structure-odour relationship of (Z)-α-santalol, the main constituent of
sandalwood essential oil having unique woody odour and its derivatives was investigated,
focusing on the relationship between the structure of the side chain and the odour of the
compounds. The study revealed that odours of the Z-isomers were similar to those of the
corresponding saturated compounds, but clearly different from the odours of the
corresponding E-isomers (odourless, fresh, or fatty). These results indicated that the relative
configuration of the side chain with respect to the santalane frame plays an important role in
the odour of α-santalol. E-configuration in the side chain eliminates the woody odour
character of α-santalol and its examined derivatives, whereas the Z-configuration or
saturation of the carbon side chain does not.[90]
Studies on seed and seed oil of Sandal tree,[91] partial hydrogenation of sandal seed oil,[92]
removal of unsaponifiables from sandal seed oil, fatty acid composition of seed coat,[93] and
compositional changes in seed oil on storage were also reported.[94] Isolation of betulinic acid
from sandal seed coat and its reduction of beutlin was reported.[95] Utilization of exhausted
sandalwood bark and seeds were explored.[91,96] Arrays of flavonoid constituents vicenin-2,
vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin, chrysin-8-C--D-glucopyranoside, chrysin-6-C--D-
glucopyranoside and isorhamnetin were isolated and characterized from leaves of S.
album.[97-98]
The analysis, synthetic substitutes, industrial and therapeutic uses of sandalwood oil was
amassed by Ranade.[99] Further, Makoto presented an account of research on natural and
synthetic aroma of sandalwood.[100] Synthesis of sandalwood odour derivatives from
campholenic aldehyde was reported.[101] A process for synthesis of perfume having alike
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flavour was patented that involve oxidation of santalol with MnO2 in hexane to get Z--
santalal and its isomerization with 0.5-2% glacial acetic acid to generate the product E--
santalal.[102] Safety assessment of oil in food products were investigated.[103] Comparative
account of the chemical constituents of fragrant sandalwood species, including S. album, S.
spicatum and S. austrocaledonicum was studied.[104] Application of a number of essential oil
including sandalwood oil in aromatherapy was described by Setzer.[105] Gleason discussed the
potential and perspective of using Indian sandalwood oil as raw materials for fine fragrance
perfumes.[106] Methods for identification and detection of adulteration were developed.[107-108]
PHARMACOLOGY
Apart from perfumery and cosmetics relevance, sandalwood and its oil have demonstrated a
wide range of pharmacological activities. S. album has been extensively studied for validation
of its traditional therapeutic claims and for revealing further biological efficacies. A number
of pharmacological investigations on sandalwood and its oil have reported various biological
effects ranging from antibacterial to anticancer. The reported pharmacological activities of
sandalwood as well as its oil are summarized hereunder.
Hepatoprotective activity
Hydro-alcoholic extract of the leaves of S. album showed significant hepatoprotective activity
against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing the activities of serum
marker enzymes, bilirubin and lipid peroxidation and significant increase in the levels of
glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and protein in a dose dependent manner, which
was further confirmed by the decrease in the total weight of the liver and histopathological
examinations.[109]
CNS Effects
Santalum album L. is found to possess memory enhancement potency.[110-111] Studies on
sedative effect have shown that inhalation of East Indian sandalwood oil decreased the
motility of mice to an extent of 40-78% compared with 0% control.[112] Sedative effect of
sandalwood oil and aqueous extract has already been proved.[113-114] Sandalwood oil is
reported to have a relaxing effect on the nerves and used for hot or agitated emotional states
leading to headaches, insomnia and nervous tensions.[32] Bioactive constituent, Santalols are
reported to have central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects hence demonstrate
implication in patients having sleep disorders.[115] In a first of its kind study, olfactory
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receptor neurons were identified that were specifically stimulated by four synthetic
sandalwood compounds and oil.[116] Furthermore, solvent extracts of heartwood were shown
to have neuroleptic property in mice. Alpha- and -santalols significantly increased the levels
of homovanillic acid, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and/or 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in
the brain of mice upon intra-gastric and intra-cerebro-ventricular routes of administration.[113]
Alpha-santalol was shown to be a strong antagonist of dopamine D2 and serotonine 5 HT2A
receptor binding. In addition, the effect of alpha-santalol, was the same as that of
chlorpromazine as an antipsychotic agent.[117] Alpha-santalol caused significant physiological
changes such as relaxing and sedative effects, whereas sandalwood oil provoked
physiological deactivation but behavioural activation after transdermal absorption.[118]
Recently, TLC254 bioautographic assays indicated that alpha-santalol, the major constituent of
the oil, is a strong inhibitor of both tyrosinase and cholinesterase in vitro, and hence there is a
great potential of the essential oil for use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease as well as in
skin-care.[119]
Anti-ulcer Activity
Oral treatment of S. album stem hydroalcoholic extract has been reported to demonstrate
good level of gastric protection in rats by effectively inhibiting physically (stress) and
chemically (both Local Irritant and Drug-NSAID) induced gastric ulceration.[120]
Antibacterial activity
Several studies have focused on the antimicrobial properties of East Indian sandalwood
oil[121] while many other studies focused on the Australian sandalwood oil.[122] A comparative
study conducted with 26 essential oils screened for antibacterial activities against axilla
bacteria demonstrated strongest activities for sandalwood oil and their synthetic
analogues.[123] Sandalwood oil is an effective antibacterial agent against Methicillin resistant
Staphylococcus aureus and antimycotic resistant Candida species.[124] Crude extract as well
as α- and β-santalol compounds of sandalwood oil exhibit antibacterial activity against
Helicobacter pylori a Gram-negative bacterium which is strongly linked to the development
of duodenal, gastric and stomach ulcers.[26] Sandal wood oil also shows activity against
Herpes simplex virus Type 1[125] and -santalol has anti-influenza activity against H3N2
virus. In another study, maximum inhibitory actions of sandalwood oil were recorded against
Bacillus mycoides and Escherichia coli.[126] Methanol extract of S. album reported to be
effective against Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa and highly active against Candida albicans.[127] Sandal wood oil
showed anti-dermatophytic activity against Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and
Trichophyton mentagrophytes.[128]
Besides, the sandalwood oil constituents, -and -santalol were active against Salmonella
typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus whereas epi--santalene was found to be active
against S. typhimurium.[128] Santalbic acid (trans-11-octa-decen-9-ynoic acid), a major
constituent of the seed, was found to inhibit gram positive bacteria and several pathogenic
fungi.[129] Santalols in high and/or medium concentrations found to be active against yeast,
gram positive and negative bacteria, showing better antimicrobial efficacy even in low
concentrations.[121] Further, immature tree shoots were also shown to be antibacterial against
13 bacterial strains.[130]
Antifungal Activity
Sandalwood oil is reported to possess anti-fungal activity against Microsporum canis,
Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum.[131] Sandalwood oil was found to be effective
against human pathogenic fungal strains Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes
and T. rubrum but was ineffective against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and A.
fumigates.[132]
Antiviral Activity
The anti-viral activity of sandalwood has also been established through biological studies.
Sandalwood oil has been shown to be used in prevention and treatment of warts, skin
blemishes and other viral induced tumours on skin.[133-134] Traditional medicine system
including Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine also mention about the antiviral potency
sandalwood oil.[135] In an in vitro study, sandalwood oil demonstrated antiviral activity
against Herpes simplex viruses (HSV)-1 & 2 in a dose-dependent manner through inhibition
of viral replication. It was further assumed that sandalwood oil helped protect the cells by
modulating liver’s gluthatione, S-transferase and levels of acid-soluble sulfhydryl.[136]
Sandalwood oil showed in vitro inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)
on RC-37 cells. Interestingly, sandalwood oil only affected the virus before adsorption into
the cells by some non-specific inhibition of interaction between the virus and host cells.[25]
Sandalwood oil constituents, - and -santalols, their mixtures and derivatives have been
implicated in treatment of warts in human, especially HPV and DNA pox virus that causes
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Molluscum contagiosum and speculated to be a cure against HIV and other RNA viruses, as
well as dryness, flakiness and dryness associated with seborrheaic dermatitis, psoriasis and
allergic or eczematous rashes of the skin as well as in the treatment of acne lesions of the face
and the body and in the eradication of pustular acne lesions caused by staphylococcal acne
and streptococcal bacterial infections. Additionally, sandalwood oil and santalol derivatives
claimed for use in treating cold sores and herpes.[137] Recently, single cell and somatic
embryo suspension cultures of Indian sandalwood tree is demonstrated as the alternative and
renewable resource of shikimic acid, the precursor for industrial-scale synthesis of Tamiflu,
the sole commercially available neuraminidase inhibitor drug against Influenza A virus.[138]
Antioxidant efficacy
The phytochemical and pharmacological investigations proved the presence of antioxidant
principles that justify their traditional medicinal values.[139] S. album and other Indian
medicinal plants were tested in-vitro for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO)
levels using sodium nitroprusside as NO donor. Most of the plant extracts demonstrated
significant direct dose dependant scavenging activity on NO.[140] It has been reported to have
nitrous oxide scavenging activity and DPPH antioxidant activity.[140,141] Santalum album can
protect cardiac tissue from oxidative stress induced cell injury and lipid peroxidation and also
interferes with DOX-induced inflammatory and apoptotic induction in cardiac tissue.[142]
Recently, an anthocyanic pigment cyanidin-3-glucoside from S. album was shown to be
antioxidant and nutritionally important.[143] Additionally, in a comparative study it was shown
that in vitro grown callus cells demonstrated comparable antioxidant activities with
sandalwood oil, using nine in vitro antioxidant tests.[144] Sandalwood oil increased
glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and acid soluble sulfhydryl (SH) levels in the liver of
adult male Swiss albino mice.[145] Enhanced GST activity and acid-soluble SH levels were
suggestive of a possible chemopreventive action of sandalwood oil on carcinogenesis through
a blocking mechanism. Similarly, methanolic extracts of sandalwood demonstrated acetyl
cholinesterase inhibitory and DPPH and super oxide free radical scavenging activities in
albino mice, there by indicating potential to tackle dementia and memory loss, associated
with Alzheimer's disease. Recently, anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of
sandalwood oil and its major constituent -santalol in alloxan- and D-galactose mediated
oxidative stress induced diabetic male Swiss albino mice models has been demonstrated in an
in vivo study.[146]
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Haemolytic activity
Haemolytic activity of any compounds is an indicator of general cytotoxicity towards normal
healthy cells.[147] In a study, it was found that leaf extract of the plant produced the lyses of
RBC. However, this haemolytic activity only takes place with parenteral administration. The
study revealed that the leaves of the plant contained saponins responsible for haemolytic
activities against blood.[148]
Anticancer activity
Investigations have shown the chemo-preventive effects and molecular mechanisms of -
santalol on skin cancer development in both animal models and skin cancer cell lines.[149]
Anticancer effects of oil has been reported in chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis in CD-
1 and SENCAR mice, ultraviolet-B-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice and in vitro
models of melanoma, non-melanoma, breast and prostate cancer and its ability to induce cell-
cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells has also been demonstrated.[150] Sandalwood oil
constituent, -santalol delayed the papilloma development in both strains of mice.[151] Alpha-
santalol at a concentration of 25-75 μM has been found to induce apoptotic death of human
epidermal carcinoma A431 cells via caspase activation together with loss of mitochondrial
potential and cytochrome release.[152] In a similar study, in female hairless mice strain SKH-1,
topical application of -santalol demonstrated chemopreventive effects as observed from
reduced ornithine decarboxylase activity, tumour incidence, and multiplicity.[153] Moreover,
-santalol was shown to delay skin tumour development, reduced tumour multiplicity,
inhibited in vitro lipid peroxidation in skin and liver microsomes and hence prevented UVB-
induced skin tumour development possibly by acting as an antiperoxidant.[154] Alpha-santalol
reported to increase significantly apoptosis related proteins, caspases 3 and 8 levels and
tumour suppressor protein p53, via an extrinsic pathway in UV B induced skin tumour
development model in SKH-1 mice.[155] In human prostate cancer cells, -santalol induced
apoptosis by causing caspases-3 activation.[156] About six novel sesquiterpenoids, two
aromatic glycosides and several neolignans were identified from sandalwood heartwood
chips, which were evaluated for in vitro Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA)
activation in Raji cells, for assessing antitumor promoting activity. Further, in vivo two-stage
carcinogenesis assays demonstrated its potent inhibitory effect on EBV-EA activation strong
suppressive effect on two-stage carcinogenesis on mouse skin.[157] Moreover, derivatives of
-santalol demonstrated tumour-selective cytotoxicity in HL-60 human promyelocytic
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leukemia cells and TIG-3 normal human diploid fibroblasts.[158] Two lignans obtained from
the heartwood samples, demonstrated apoptosis induced tumour cell cytotoxicity against HL-
60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.[27] α-
Santalol, an active component of sandalwood essential oil has been studied for skin cancer
preventive efficacy in murine models of skin carcinogenesis.[159]
Antipyretic activity
The sandalwood oil at a dose of 200 mg/kg showed highly significant antipyretic effect
against yeast induced pyrexia in albino rats.[8]
Antiinflammatory activity
Santalols have been reported to possess a significant anti-inflammatory property, in several
experimental models.[33] Santalum album possessed anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities
as evidenced by its significant inhibition in the carrageenan induced paw edema, cotton pellet
induced granuloma, as well as pylorus ligation induced ulcer. These findings could
substantiate the inclusion of this plant in the effective management of inflammatory disorders
like ulcer in traditional system of medicine. The in vitro antioxidant (and in vivo analgesic
and antiinflammatory activities in mice were established for methanolic extracts of
heartwood.[160]
Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect
Studies on antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of long-term oral administration
of petroleum ether fraction of sandalwood in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed
reduction in blood glucose level. Metformin treated group also showed a decrease in blood
glucose as against an increase in diabetic control group. Further, total cholesterol (TC), low
density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels were decreased in treated diabetic rats
whereas, cardioprotective, high density lipoprotein (HDL) were increased. Significant
improvement in atherogenic index was observed that led to the conclusion that S. album has
potential antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities.[161]
Cardioprotective activity
Aqueous extract of sandalwood reported to inhibit significantly the cardiac tissue damage by
reducing lipid peroxidation on doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rat model[162] and
significant protective effect against ISO induced myocardial infarction in albino Wistar rats
in dose dependant manner.
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Physiological effects
Sandalwood oil and its major constituent, -santalol are found to affect several physiological
functions and sensory stimulation. The oil reported to elevate pulse rate, skin conductance
level and systolic blood pressure whereas -santalol elicited higher ratings of attentiveness
and mood than the oil.[163] Inhalation of sandalwood oil reported to improve audibility.[164]
Recently, sandalwood tea was demonstrated to increase significantly the myocardial
contractility and heart rate of the isolated and failed frog heart, while it showed good effect as
anti-fatigue in contracting the smooth muscle of isolated rabbit aortic strips.[165] Sandalwood
oil did not demonstrate any phototoxic effects though occasional cases of irritation or
sensitization reactions in humans are reported.[166]
Metabolic effects
Sandalwood oil reported to demonstrate changes in neonatal hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing
enzymes in suckling mouse pups on trans-mammary exposure. It is further observed that
sandalwood oil and its constituents passed through milk and modified the hepatic xenobiotic
metabolizing enzymes such as increased hepatic glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione
reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities, with concomitant increase in hepatic
cytochrome b5 and acid soluble sulfhydryl contents and lowering of hepatic cytochrome P
450 content.[167]
Genotoxicity effects
The DNA damaging activity of sandalwood oil in Bacillus subtilis was studied and was found
to be non-genotoxic.[168] Similarly, sandalwood oil-induced inhibition of B. subtilis showed it
to be non-genotoxic.[169]
Genitourinary system effects
Genitourinary tract infections such as cystitis and gonorrhea have been treated by sandalwood
oil for years owing to the astringent properties of the oil and its effect on the mucus
membranes of genitourinary tract; helps remove mucous congestion, restore mucous
membrane and minimize the risk of infections such as herpes virus.[170] These traditional uses
make sandalwood oil suitable for anti-ageing skin care, for toning effects and to prevent skin
from ugly scars in modern cosmeceutical applications.
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Insecticidal activities
Sandalwood oil acts as a repellent against Varroa jacobsoni [171] in honey bee colonies thus
used as an acaricide. A modest activity against Lycoriella mali (the mushroom fly) is also
reported.[172] The oil was also found to be impenetrable to termites.[173] Owing to its acaricidal
and oviposition deterring effects, santalol is found to be active against spider mites
Tetranychus urticae.[174-176]
Dietary aspects
Sandalwood oil is considered safe as a flavouring ingredient with a daily consumption 0.0074
mg/kg and has a long history of oral use as dietary supplements without any reported adverse
effects.[166] Sandalwood oil was shown to have inhibitory action on hyperactive small
intestine movement in mice, thereby showing antagonistic action on intestinal spasm caused
by acetylcholine, histamine and barium chloride.[177] Furthermore, it was recently shown that
leaf extracts of sandalwood tree demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic
effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.[161]
Aromatherapy
Sandalwood oil is relaxing, soothing, cooling, sensual and valued for its own sweet, warm,
rich balsamic aroma. It is an excellent addition to massage and facial oils, bath oils,
aftershaves, lotions and creams. It blends especially well with floral or other oils dominated
by their top or middle notes, but works with almost any oil providing or enhancing the base
note and lending its fixative ability. It is suited for both feminine and masculine formulas. It
is suitable for all skin types and is especially useful for chapped, dry, sensitive or inflamed
skin. It promotes restful sleep and helps to ease an anxious mind. It is grounding in times of
emotional distraction and helps bring peace and acceptance in times of loss. Sandalwood oil
can be used in modern aromatherapy for treating several conditions. Due to its emollient
properties, Sandalwood is very much used for skin care. The oil has a relaxing effect on the
nerves and may be used for hot, agitated emotional states leading to conditions such as
headaches, insomnia and nervous tension. It can be used in cases of respiratory tract
infections, chronic bronchitis involving a chronic dry cough, especially when its soothing,
demulcent effects are required.[20-22,35] Sandalwood is an astringent and helps to resolve
mucous congestion. Sandalwood oil helps to restore the mucous membrane and minimise the
risk of infection.[32] Has been used for years for genitourinary tract infections e.g. Cystitis and
gonorrhoea. When applied to the skin, sandalwood oil is soothing, cooling and moisturising
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and primarily used for dry skin conditions caused by loss of moisture and skin inflammations.
It may be used to relieve eczema and psoriasis and for the treatment of oily skin and acne.
There are two major modes of administer including topical application (e.g. massage,
compress, bath, sitz bath, douche, ointment, skin care, etc) and inhalation (e.g. direct
inhalation, diffuser, oil, vaporiser and steam inhalation.[32]
RESEARCH PROSPECTS
Phytochemical research has led to the isolation and characterization of an impressive number
of biologically active chemical constituents from sandalwood and its oil.[178] Yet, possibilities
are there for finding novel chemical entities. Pharmacological investigation have not only
validated the traditional medicinal practices but also discovered several new therapeutic
potential of sandalwood and its constituents.[179] S. album oil has been used in preparation of
Chinese medicine for treating coronary heart disease,[180] depression and bone fracture,[181]
poliosis,[182] schizophrenia,[183] alcoholic hepatitis,[184] controlling blood sugar without risk of
hypoglycaemia[185] and development of various cosmetic products.[186]
Recent pharmacological and clinical studies have found sandalwood constituents to
demonstrate mammalian DNA polymerase-inhibitory, cancer cell growth inhibitory,
antiallergic, and anti--hexosaminidase release activity and antioxidant activity.[187] Most of
the biological activities have been attributed to the sesquiterpenoids constituents including -
and -santalenes and santalols. Now it has been made possible to clone and characterize a
number of genes and encoded enzymes responsible for santalene biosynthesis.[188] This
accomplishment has directed towards the possibility for better understanding of the
biosynthetic routes, phytochemical diversity of bioactive santalols through genetic approach.
Also, the microbial metabolic engineering approaches paved the path to obtain diversity of
sandalwood sesquiterpenoids in desirable quantities for flavour and fragrance industry.[189]
With escalating global demands, biotechnological means may facilitate productivity
enhancement of Sandalwood resource and bioactive constituents. Furthermore,
bioinformatics approaches and softwares have been developed for prediction and detection of
natural products from genomic sequences to facilitate industrial high-throughput screening in
drug discovery.[190] Recent improved analytical tools and techniques including precision
chromatography systems (like MDGC, GC-MS)[191] and spectroscopic techniques for quality
control[192-193] have facilitated addressing the complex research and analytical needs.
Furthermore, it has been recently stressed that Ayurvedic wisdom, traditional documented
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use, tribal non-documented use and exhaustive literature search should be applied to
synergize efforts in drug discovery from plant sources and identification of appropriate
candidate plants.[194] With global upsurge in interest for plant derived products owing to
adverse side effects of their synthetic counterparts, researchers are striving hard to develop
new efficacious pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmeceuticals of plant origin deriving
clues from the treasure of traditional and ehthnobotanical knowledge Research endeavours
are not confine only to isolation and characterization of new molecular entities but also
scientific validation of traditional herbal formulations with strong scientific evidence. A
number age old therapeutic applications of sandalwood and its essential oil are yet to be
scientifically validated, which provides opportunity for chemo-biological research and
clinical studies.
Global sandalwood resources are diminishing and the demand is increasing.[195] The natural
population of Sandalwood tree is alarmingly threatened by mycoplasmal spike disease, illegal
poaching and over exploitation to meet the rising global demands that have resulted in the
tree being inducted into International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of
Threatened Species as vulnerable.[196] Hence, in vitro micropropagation in the form of
callusing, somatic embryogenesis, regeneration protocols, somatic embryo production[197]
possessing greater accumulation of sandalwood oil constituents198] may provided immense
scopes for biotechnological means of conservation of the species.
CONCLUSION
Santalum album is one of the most famous and widely used plants in perfumery and
cosmetics. Apart from perfumery and cosmetics uses, sandalwood also has a wide range of
pharmacological activities and the plant can be considered as one of the important medicinal
plants. Since last two decades, this plant has been studied extensively but still there is lot of
scope to exploit full potential of uses of sandalwood for mankind. Researchers across the
globe have been focussing on the study of interesting chemical constituents especially
sesquiterpenoids of sandalwood for more than a century with regard to their structure, ,
synthesis and pharmacological effectiveness. With recent upsurge in research endeavours to
verify the traditional healthcare uses of essential oil and their constituents by modern
experimental approaches that have provided momentum to in depth pharmacological and
mechanistic investigations. Various studies have established the versatile pharmacological
effectiveness of sandalwood and its oil ranging from antibacterial to anticancer. It also shows
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prominent activity in various skin diseases. There are few toxicological studies on
sandalwood. It is necessary to summaries all activities reported about this plant. This review
consolidates different reported activities of sandalwood plant as well as its oil.
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... Chief ingredients of sandalwood oil are αsantalol (60 %), ß-santalol (30%) and αand ß -santalene. The world renowned East Indian sandalwood oil is extracted from the sturdily scented heartwood [4] of this tree. Sandalwood oil is used mainly in perfumery due to its outstanding fixative possessions. ...
... Extensive effort has been conducted in sandalwood by several investigators all over the world employing different explants for instance embryo [12,13], hypocotyls [3,13], shoot tip [14,15], nodal segment [5,[16][17][18][19][20][21], leaf disc [6,22,23], seedling [24], endosperm [4], cotyledons [13], protoplast [25,26,27] and cell suspension cultures [28,29,30] with varying notch of accomplishment. Somatic embryogenesis in higher frequencies have been conveyed by Herawan et al. [31], Ilah et al. [32] and Isah [33]. ...
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Study Objectives: An effort has been made to compute the optimal quantity of plant growth regulators to be added in culture medium and other physical factors exhibiting higher in vitro morphogenesis with 'elite' lines of sandalwood by culturing nodal segment. Results: Higher percentage of direct somatic embryogenesis, number(s) of somatic embryo per explant and plantlet regeneration via direct organogenesis were evidenced on MS medium augmented with a moderate concentration of TDZ (1.0 mgl-1) in combination with comparatively a lower concentration of NAA (0.5 mgl-1). A comparative higher concentration of BAP (1.0-2.0 mgl-1) in amalgamation with a lower concentration of NAA (0.5 mgl-1) encouraged frequency of indirect somatic embryogenesis. From culture media fortified with a greater concentration of BA at 4.0 mgl-1 in combination with a lower concentration of NAA, the proportion of organ development directly from the surface of cultured explants was recovered (0.5 mgl-1). Maximum plantlets regenerated via somatic embryogenesis (direct and/or indirect) on regeneration medium fortified with 2.0 mgl-1 TDZ in combination with 1.0 mg l-1 GA 3 , while plantlets in higher frequencies via indirect organogenesis was achieved with regeneration medium modified with relatively lower concentration of TDZ (1.0 mg l-1) in amalgamation with 0.5 mgl-1 GA 3 and 0.5 mg l-1 NAA. The plantlets were transferred to pots and hardened in Environmental Growth Cabinet and Net House during initial weaning period and shifted to field magnificently. Morphologically usual plants were obtained.
... They can be obtained from different parts of the plant, such as seeds, roots, buds, leaves, flowers, peels, and fruits, by the methods of steam distillation or (cold) pression (Bakkali et al., 2008). (Kirakosyan, 2006;Kumar et al., 2015). ...
... Sedative activities are known as properties of derivatives from sandalwood [106][107][108]. Sandalwood oil is reported to produce a relaxing effect on the nerves and is used for headaches, insomnia and nervous tensions. ...
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Santalum genus belongs to the family of Santalaceae, widespread in India, Australia, Hawaii, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia, and valued as traditional medicine, rituals and modern bioactivities. Sandalwood is reported to possess a plethora of bioactive compounds such as essential oil and its components (α-santalol and β-santalol), phenolic compounds and fatty acids. These bioactives play important role in contributing towards biological activities and health-promoting effects in humans. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown the role of sandalwood extract as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, neuroleptic, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and anticancer activities. Safety studies on sandalwood essential oil (EO) and its extracts have proven them as a safe ingredient to be utilized in health promotion. Phytoconstituents, bioactivities and traditional uses established sandalwood as one of the innovative materials for application in the pharma, food, and biomedical industry.
... 36 Vinegar, camphor, sandalwood, and rose water are used in the form of spray. 42,47,59,61 Rosewater contains citronellol, geraniol, kaempferol, and nerol, which have antibacterial, antimicrobial, and insecticidal properties. 24,28,32,42 Camphor contains camphor oil, linalool, and safrole, all of which have antimicrobial properties. ...
... This plant, an evergreen tree, is commonly known as white sandalwood or Indian sandalwood, and is an evergreen tree usually growing up to 20 m reaching with a thickness of 2.4 m with slender wilting twigs. The plant is well distributed in India, China, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Northern Australia [109]. ...
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Viral diseases are extremely widespread infections caused by viruses. Amongst numerous other illnesses, viral infections have challenged human existence severely. Over the history of mankind, new viruses have emerged and presented us with new tests. The range of viral infections varies from familiar infectious diseases such as the common cold, flu, and warts to severe ailments such as AIDS, Ebola, and COVID-19. The world has been racing to find an effective cure for the newly evolving viruses. Toxic effects, non-selectivity, drug resistance, and high price are the most common complications of conventional treatment procedures. Nature is a marvelous source of phytoconstituents with incredible varieties of biological activities. By tradition, medicinal plants have been utilized for the treatment of countless infectious diseases worldwide, some of which contain a broad spectrum of activities. Modern drug discovery and development techniques offer highly efficient separation techniques, inauguration of vector-based schemes where the original infectious virus is cloned to the non-infectious one for antiviral screening targets. The objective of the review was to gather available data on 20 both cultivated and native plants of Asia giving antiviral activities and provide comprehensive information on the phytochemical analysis of the plants and potential antiviral compounds isolated from these plants.
... This unique species occurs mainly in monsoon dry mixed tropical forest (Page et al. 2018). Among all existing sandalwood species, S. album is recognised as the most valuable due to its unique fragrance (Kumar et al. 2015;. For this reason, the species has been of great interest for scientific research and development (Subasinghe 2013). ...
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These proceedings contain the research papers and abstracts of work presented at the Sandalwood Regional Forum in Vanuatu, in 2019. The forum was the ninth sandalwood focused conference since 1990 and the proceedings bring together the latest knowledge and insight into sandalwood production and trade for smallholder farmers across the Asia-Pacific region. These proceedings explore resource conservation and planting, propagation and domestication, heartwood biology and oil chemistry, species resource assessments and smallholder woodlots, product grading and standards, and value chains and marketing. While the publication is targeted at practitioners, extension agents, researchers, policy makers and industry representatives across the Asia–Pacific region, the knowledge and lessons gained from the forum contribute to improved management of the sandalwood resource at farm, community and policy levels.
... This unique species occurs mainly in monsoon dry mixed tropical forest (Page et al. 2018). Among all existing sandalwood species, S. album is recognised as the most valuable due to its unique fragrance (Kumar et al. 2015;. For this reason, the species has been of great interest for scientific research and development (Subasinghe 2013). ...
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Northern sandalwood (Santalum lanceolatum R.Br.) was harvested to near extinction in the Cape York Peninsula (CYP) and the species has not recovered. Some of the remnant trees have desirable oil profiles (high α-santalol and β-santalol). Hence, a breeding program has been initiated to develop the species to allow it to be planted back into the wild and also to provide improved germplasm that can be used to establish plantations on Indigenous land in the CYP. Microsatellite markers indicated that the populations of S. lanceolatum in the Northern Peninsula Area of the CYP had low levels of genetic diversity and were highly clonal (over 50% of trees sampled were clones). This may explain the low levels of fruit set in the wild. This molecular study supported the tree improvement program’s focus of capturing only a few trees from each remnant stand across the region. Grafted clonal sandalwood seed orchards have abundant flowering and produce ample seed, allowing the establishment of two progeny trials in the northern CYP. Two-year survival in these trials was excellent (96%) in an irrigated trial and moderate in an unirrigated trial (78%). Growth in the irrigated trial was also better with sandalwood trees averaging 2.01 m height and 2.4 cm diameter at breast height over bark (DBHOB). The fastest growing family in this trial averaged 2.61 m height and 3.3 cm DBHOB at this measure. In contrast, the unirrigated trial averaged 1.75 m height and 0.9 cm DBHOB, with the fastest growing family in this trial averaging 2.25 m height and 1.3 cm DBHOB. The four ‘best growth’ families in each trial, at this young age, were not the same, suggesting that selection strategies for these contrasting environments should focus on different families.
... Chandana-Enhanced GST activity and acidsoluble SH levels were suggestive of possible chemopreventive action of sandalwood oil on carcinogenesis through a blocking mechanism. topical application of -santalol demonstrated chemopreventive effects as observed from reduced ornithine decarboxylase activity, tumour incidence, and multiplicity 11,12 Yoni Pichu helps in penetration of these drugs into the tissue and helps in absorption of these drugs due to its Sukshma, Vyavaayi guna and lipophilic property, thus helping in nourishing the pelvic tissues. here Yoni Pichu is removed into amutra Kala (until the next urge of micturition). ...
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Introduction-Cervical cancer is the 2 nd most leading prevalent cancer in India. There are an estimated 123,000 new cases of cervical cancer in India every year with 67,000 deaths in women alone. Cervical cancer in Recent studies shows that screening of cervical cancer reduces the disease incidence and disease mortality by 50%. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) is a common abnormal result on a Pap smear cervical test. It's also known as mild dysplasia. Methodology-Here is a case report of a patient aged 26yrs with complaints of white discharge per vagina with severe itching, on routine cervical screening investigations found to have Low grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasms. She was treated with Ayurvedic sthanika chikitsa (Local therapies) such as Yoni prakshalana (Vaginal douching), and Yoni pichu (Vaginal tamponing) for 7 days along with shaman chikitsa. Later PAP smear was repeated after 1 month of follow up and found to have negative for intraepithelial neoplasia. And there was relief in the symptoms following treatment. Results-In this case, there was a relief of symptoms and on follow up when Pap smear was repeated, there was negative for intraepithelial neoplasia. Ayurvedic treatment modalities such as Sthanika chikitsa which includes yoni prakshalana and Yoni Pichu are the line of treatment for various gynecological problems and help in reducing mortality and morbidity caused due to cervical cancer in India.
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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic complication that affects people of all ages. The increased prevalence of diabetes worldwide has led to the development of several synthetic drugs to tackle this health problem. Such drugs, although effective as antihyperglycemic agents, are accompanied by various side effects, costly, and inaccessible to the majority of people living in underdeveloped countries. Medicinal plants have been used traditionally throughout the ages to treat various ailments due to their availability and safe nature. Medicinal plants are a rich source of phytochemicals that possess several health benefits. As diabetes continues to become prevalent, health care practitioners are considering plant-based medicines as a potential source of antidiabetic drugs due to their high potency and fewer side effects. To better understand the mechanism of action of medicinal plants, their active phytoconstituents are being isolated and investigated thoroughly. In this review article, we have focused on pharmacologically active phytomolecules isolated from medicinal plants presenting antidiabetic activity and the role they play in the treatment and management of diabetes. These natural compounds may represent as good candidates for a novel therapeutic approach and/or effective and alternative therapies for diabetes.
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Patoladi Gana mentioned in Ashtang Hridya is a formulation which is a combination of Patol, Kutaki, Chandan, Murva, Guduchi and Patha.This formulation has caught the attention because of its therapeutic potential. In Ayurveda, this Gana has various therapeutic indications. The contents of this Gana are enriched with several phytochemical constituents having tremendous pharmacological properties. In general, phytoconstituents play a vital role in the treatment of various diseases and for the improvement of human health. This Patoladi Gana is known to be having antioxidant, anti-inammatory, immunomodulator, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and many more therapeutic applications. To grab all the benets of this formulation, its phytoconstituents and pharmacotherapeutic aspect have to be thoroughly studied. This review can be very useful for researchers in medical eld to nd out solutions for many modern diseases. The current review is focused on phytochemical constituents of Patoladi Gana along with its pharmacological activities and its therapeutic use. It also sheds light on the action of this drug as per Ayurveda. The review will pave a path for researchers to study this formulation further for therapeutic benets.
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Peptic ulcer is the erosion in lining of stomach or duodenum. The word ‘Peptic’ refers to pepsin, a stomach enzyme that break downs proteins. Peptic ulcer located in the stomach is called gastric ulcer. Normally the linings of the stomach and small intestine have protection against the irritating acid produced in stomach. For a variety of reasons, the protective mechanism may become faulty, leading to a breakdown of the lining. The result is inflammation (gastritis) or an ulcer. It is believed that adults in high stress jobs are mostly affected by gastric ulcer, but people of any age even children are found affected by this problem. Ulcer is curable with the combination of different kind of antibiotics, an acid reducer and H2 receptor blockers, proton pump inhibitors, etc., which are expensive to a common man and have prolong side effects also. In Unani system of medicine plants, animals as well as mineral origin drugs are being used clinically for the treatment of this disease without any side effect. These are time tested, centuries old, safe for use and cost effective. However, there is a need to maintain their purity, quality and safety by subjecting to scientific validation. Experimentally studied as well as potential medicinal plants used for gastric ulcer in Unani system of medicine are being discussed in this paper. © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
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The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris > Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis > Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex negundo (alcoholic) > T cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cord folia (methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cord folia (aqueous extract) > V. negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa > A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts evaluated exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 mug/mL, as compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite.
Article
Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is one of the most famous and widely used plants in perfumery and cosmetics. Apart from perfumery and cosmetics uses, sandalwood also has a wide range of pharmacological activities and the plant can be considered as one of the important medicinal plants. Since last two decades, this plant has been studied extensively but still there is lot of scope to exploit full potential of uses of sandalwood for mankind. Various studies report that of effects sandalwood oil is responsible for various effects ranging from antibacterial to anticancer. It also shows prominent activity in various skin diseases. There are few toxicological studies on sandalwood. It is necessary to summaries all activities reported about this plant. This review consolidates different reported activities of sandalwood plant as well as its oil.
Article
Effects of various essential oil components such as borneol, cinnamic alcohol and aldehyde, citral, citronellal, citronellol, geraniol, limonen, linalool, menthol, and terpineol, against pathogenic fungi and various bacteria were tested. In general, they were effective against fungi, fairly good against tubercle bacilli, but ineffective against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus dysenteriae. As to the structural relationship, aldehydes were generally more powerful than corresponding alcohols, especially in α, β-unsaturated compounds. Terpenes were the same either in chain or cyclic forms. Hydrocarbons had the weakest action, and the most powerful was cinnamic aldehyde which was effective against Epidermophyton in 1:128, 000 dilution.
Article
Sandalwood oil, the essential oil of Santalum album L., was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2. It was found that the replication of these viruses was inhibited in the presence of the oil. This effect was dose-dependent and more pronounced against HSV-1. A slight diminution of the effect was observed at higher multiplicity of infections. The oil was not virucidal and showed no cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested.
Article
It is known that certain fragrance materials and other chemical compounds induce delayed allergic contact dermatitis in humans and experimental animals. Studies were carried out to determine whether Bacillus subtilis spore rec-assay can be used as a simple screening test taking the place of animal methods for detection of the allergenicity; in this assay, spores of the strains H17 (rec+) and M45 (rec-) which have been found efficient in detecting chemical mutagens were used. Specific activity (SA) in spore rec-assay was determined from the size-ratio of the inhibition zone (mm) on the plates of these bacterial strains. A total of 234 substances were tested and tentatively classified according to SA values into allergic (SA ≥ 1.0) and non-allergic (SA < 1.0) substances. The results of approximately 79% of the 234 substances by the tentative classification corresponded well to the results of human maximization test (HMXT) and human patch test (HPAT) cited from the literature. Out of 170 substances classified as non-allergic by SA value (< 1.0) in spore rec-assay, 17 (10%) were positive either in HMXT or in HPAT according to the literature. Thus, in the classification by SA values in spore rec-assay, 10% were false-negative: this should not be overlooked. In maximization test of 38 randomly selected chemical compounds on guinea pigs, all of 17 substances having SA ≥ 1.0 caused skin reaction; however, 11 (52%) out of 21 substances having 0 ≤ SA < 1.0 also caused skin reactions. Two (18%) out of the 11 substances having caused skin reaction in guinea pigs caused skin reactions in the HMXT. The discrepancy among SA values, maximization tests in guinea pigs and HMXT should not be neglected. In fact, Bacillus subtilis spore rec-assay gave false-negative results in 18% of the chemical compounds inducing delayed allergic contact dermatitis. These results suggest that the spore rec-assay may be useful as a simple screening test in determining whether chemical compounds produce delayed allergic contact dermatitis. It remains for further study to improve the spore rec-assay to reduce the discrepancies of the positive and negative results among this assay, whole animal methods and human tests (HMXT and HPAT).