Article

Grandiose Narcissism Versus Vulnerable Narcissism in Threatening Situations: Emotional Reactions to Achievement Failure and Interpersonal Rejection

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Abstract

This study compared grandiose narcissism and vulnerable narcissism in terms of emotional reactions to threats involving achievement failure and interpersonal rejection. It was hypothesized that grandiose narcissism is associated with vulnerability to achievement setbacks. In contrast, vulnerable narcissism involves sensitivity to shaming interpersonal experiences. A randomized experimental 2-wave design was used with a community sample of 448 participants. Each participant was asked to imagine 1 of 4 randomly assigned hypothetical scenarios intended to evoke the threat of high- (n = 117) or low- (n = 105) level interpersonal rejection; or high- (n = 108) or low- (n = 118) level achievement failure. According to this study,s findings, in the high achievement-threat group, but not in the high interpersonal-threat group, grandiose narcissism significantly predicted greater change in negative outcomes. In contrast, in the face of a high-level interpersonal threat, but not a high-level achievement-threat, high levels of vulnerable narcissism were significantly associated with greater change in negative outcomes. These findings illustrate how different types of threatening situations vary in their relevance to grandiose narcissism as compared to vulnerable narcissism.

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... The image of a grandiose narcissist fits the popular lexicon because this type of narcissism embodies an extroversive and overt expression of superiority and entitlement (Besser & Priel, 2010;. Despite scholars arguing a subclinical presentation , the egomaniacal nature of a grandiose narcissist makes one believe they are entitled to special treatment because they are innately better than others (Besser & Priel, 2010;. ...
... The image of a grandiose narcissist fits the popular lexicon because this type of narcissism embodies an extroversive and overt expression of superiority and entitlement (Besser & Priel, 2010;. Despite scholars arguing a subclinical presentation , the egomaniacal nature of a grandiose narcissist makes one believe they are entitled to special treatment because they are innately better than others (Besser & Priel, 2010;. Unlike the characteristics of narcissism as a single construct having an openness to experience (Paulhus & Williams, 2002;Vernon, 2008), a grandiose narcissist would only be open to an experience if the incident was their idea. ...
... Therefore, our hypothesized relationship on PU would not likely occur if one categorized grandiose narcissism and directly tested for it. Additionally, grandiose narcissism presents low neuroticism (Besser & Priel, 2010;. Studies on BFI and TAM find that neuroticism negatively affects PU and PEOU (Barnett et al., 2015;Punnoose, 2012), and grandiose narcissism is only associated with a mild trait presentation, one would expect conflicting connections with TAM. ...
Conference Paper
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With a dramatic shift in the American workforce in the post-Covid-19 world, workers' emotions present very negatively, causing people to overtly display the dark aspects of their personality while at work. Additionally, organizations must use new technologies to fill the gaps in outcomes and changes in market demand. Sadly, an intense conflict exists between the current environment of workers' negative emotions and the need to implement new technology. Most people would perceive having learned a new technology to do their job as 'one more thing,' thus resulting in adverse work outcomes. We hypothesized that dark personality traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) individually would have a direct relationship with elements in the technology acceptance model. We tested our hypotheses using a sample of general workers from multiple industries. We found that narcissism alone was significant in technology acceptance among the tested variables. We conclude with a summary of our findings' theoretical and practical implications and managerial implications.
... Individuals higher in narcissistic grandiosity tend to be interpersonally dominant or exploitative of others (Roche, Pincus, Conroy, Hyde & Ram, 2013;Wright et al., 2017). Narcissistic vulnerability involves fragile self-esteem, interpersonal hypersensitivity, and antagonism (Besser & Priel, 2010;Lamkin, Clifton, Campbell & Miller, 2014). Individuals higher in narcissistic vulnerability tend to withdraw from social engagement (Besser & Priel, 2010;Sturman, 2000), employ avoidant coping responses (Fernie, Fung & Nik cevi c, 2016), and respond to frustration with shame and rage (Freis, Brown, Carroll & Arkin, 2015;Krizan & Johar, 2015). ...
... Narcissistic vulnerability involves fragile self-esteem, interpersonal hypersensitivity, and antagonism (Besser & Priel, 2010;Lamkin, Clifton, Campbell & Miller, 2014). Individuals higher in narcissistic vulnerability tend to withdraw from social engagement (Besser & Priel, 2010;Sturman, 2000), employ avoidant coping responses (Fernie, Fung & Nik cevi c, 2016), and respond to frustration with shame and rage (Freis, Brown, Carroll & Arkin, 2015;Krizan & Johar, 2015). Exaggerated entitlement and diminished empathic functioning may be characteristic of both grandiose and vulnerable dimensions (Ronningstam, 2016;Wright & Edershile, 2018). ...
... Diminished meaningful relationships may be a reality for individuals higher in narcissistic vulnerability due to their tendencies to avoid situations where rejection may be possible (Besser & Priel, 2010). For example, preoccupied with concerns about shame, they may worry that others are likely to reject them, which leads to social withdrawal. ...
Article
Loneliness is a significant health concern that may be influenced by dispositional features. Pathological narcissism may elevate loneliness through aversive interpersonal behaviors and negative social appraisals. The present study examined two dimensions of pathological narcissism, along with five‐factor personality traits, in relation to loneliness among 120 young adults. Loneliness was also examined as a mediator between pathological narcissism and satisfaction with life. Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability were both significantly associated with loneliness. Multiple regression analysis, including five‐factor traits, revealed narcissistic vulnerability to be uniquely associated with loneliness, along with neuroticism. Mediation analysis also found an indirect effect of narcissistic vulnerability on reduced satisfaction with life, through loneliness as a mediator. These preliminary findings point to future research needs and potential clinical consideration of narcissistic vulnerability as a dispositional risk factor for loneliness.
... Conversely, different measures of vulnerable narcissism showed to be linked to greater affective sensitivity (Besser & Priel, 2010) when experiencing interpersonal negative events, particularly to increasing levels of negative emotions such as shame (Di Sarno et al., 2020;Freis et al., 2015). Moreover, there is evidence of increasing negative internalized emotions in people high in vulnerable narcissism, measured through the Hypersensitive Narcissistic Scale (Hendin & Cheek, 1997), after achievement egothreats (Atlas & Them, 2008). ...
... The only exception is for sadness feelings: individuals high in grandiose pathological narcissism show little to no variations in levels of sadness when experiencing ego-threats. Sadness is an internalized emotion and, according to Besser & Priel (2010), feelings of sadness reflect self-blame processes related to a sense of inferiority. Thus, a possible explanation for our results is that individuals high in grandiose pathological narcissism would contrast defensively self-blame processes originating from ego-threats, by preventing them from experiencing greater sadness. ...
... By doing so, they might clarify whether ego-relevant events have similar or different effects on emotional, behavioral and self-functioning in pathological narcissism. For instance, we found no evidence for intense hostility responses of grandiose narcissists to ego-threatening events, whereas grandiose narcissism was linked to greater negative affective reactions, including hostility, to ego-threatening events in past studies (e.g., Besser & Priel 2010;Besser & Zeigler-Hill, 2010) and to proneness to other-directed aggression (Vize et al., 2019). Inconsistency of findings might depend on methodological differences between our study and previous ones: past studies did not inspect feelings of hostility in a specific way, but rather they used composite scores of negative emotions including hostility along with other negative (e.g., dysphoria, resentfulness) and aggressive emotions (e.g., anger). ...
Article
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Pathological narcissism implies a fragile self-view. The psychological effects of ego-relevant events in people high in pathological narcissism, however, are still uncertain. The study examined the effects of pathological narcissism on psychological reactions to ego-relevant events occurring in private or public settings. Participants (N = 410) completed measures of pathological narcissistic traits, and then they took part in a scenario-based experimental session. They were randomly assigned to four conditions: ego-threatening vs. ego-fostering events in public vs. private settings. Self-esteem and affective states before and after the experimental manipulation were measured. Results showed that vulnerable and grandiose manifestations of pathological narcissism affect differently psychological reactions to ego-relevant events. Vulnerable narcissism made people particularly sensitive to ego-threatening and ego-fostering events, especially when occurring in public settings. Grandiose narcissism was linked to a reduction in emotional responses to ego-relevant events. Findings suggest that self- and affective reactions to ego-relevant events depend on narcissistic prevailing manifestations, and that public exposure has a key role in vulnerable narcissism.
... Self-enhancement is also evident regarding social and emotional capacities in grandiose narcissism (Ames & Kammrath, 2004;Jauk, Freudenthaler, et al., 2016;John & Robins, 1994;Lobbestael et al., 2016;Mota et al., 2019;Zajenkowski et al., 2018), which indicates that individuals high in grandiose narcissism hold pronounced positive illusions about their intra-and interpersonal emotional abilities. In line with their superior and independent self-construal, individuals high in grandiose narcissism report discomfort only in light of achievement failure, but not in the light of social rejection (Besser & Priel, 2010). Taken together, self-descriptions of individuals high in grandiose narcissism render a picture of highly self-assured individuals, which is most likely due to the agentic-extraverted aspects of narcissism (Kaufman et al., 2020). ...
... Contrary to those high in grandiose narcissism, those high in vulnerable narcissism are more sensitive to social rejection than achievement failure (Besser & Priel, 2010). Paradoxically, while individuals high in vulnerable narcissism tend to put great weight Personality Neuroscience on being accepted by others, they also display lowered empathy (Lannin et al., 2014) and compassion (Luchner et al., 2011) for others. ...
... 335)largely overlapping with the salience networkcomprising the dACC, the AI, and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in more narcissistic young men. Interestingly, while previous self-report research showed that individuals high in grandiose narcissism are sensitive to achievement failure but not social exclusion (Besser & Priel, 2010), and narcissism was not related to self-reports of social exclusion in this study, grandiose narcissism correlated with a brain activity pattern previously shown to relate to feelings of social exclusion (Eisenberger, 2003). Activation in the dACC was also related to social exclusion on a meta-analytic basis (Rotge et al., 2015), though a recent meta-analysis observed dACC activation only in a minority of studies (Mwilambwe-Tshilobo & Spreng, 2021), and the amount of dACC involvement might depend on the used task (Mwilambwe-Tshilobo & Spreng, 2021; Rotge et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Narcissism is a Janusian personality construct, associated with both grandiose self-assuredness and dominance, as well as vulnerable insecurity and reactivity. Central questions of intra-and interpersonal functioning in narcissism are still a matter of debate. Neuroscience could help to understand the paradoxical patterns of experience and behavior beyond the limitations of self-reports. We provide a systematic review of 34 neuroscience studies on grandiose, vulnerable, pathological narcissism, and Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), spanning experimental investigations of intra-and interpersonal mechanisms, research on neurophysiological and neuroendocrine aspects of baseline function, and brain structural correlates. While neurosci-ence has scarcely directly studied vulnerable narcissism, grandiose narcissism is associated with heightened vigilance to ego threat and stress responses following ego threat, as well as heightened stress indicators in baseline measures. Such responses are not commonly observed in self-reports, highlighting the potential of neuroscience to augment our understanding of self-regulatory dynamics in narcissism. Interpersonal functioning is characterized by deficits in social-affective processes. Both involve altered activity within the salience network, pointing to a double dissociation regarding the expression of narcissism and self/other oriented situa-tional focus. Findings are summarized in an integrative model providing testable hypotheses for future research along with methodological recommendations.
... A related line of research points to the conclusion that narcissists view interpersonal relationships in the service of selfesteem regulation, power, and control (Besser & Priel, 2010;. Alarmingly, these relationship-threatening behaviors may reflect, in part, strategic attempts at manipulating and undermining intimate partners to reexert and reestablish a sense of power and control (Filippini, 2005;Määttä, Uusiautti, & Määttä, 2012;Peterson & DeHart, 2014;Tortoriello, Hart, Richardson, & Tullett, 2017). ...
... Similarly, other research has found that vulnerable narcissism has been associated with a possessive love style characterized by dependency and interpersonal fearfulness (Rohmann, Herner, Bierhoff, & Neumann, 2012), whereas grandiose narcissism was associated with attachment avoidance and independent self-construal. Besser and Priel (2010) compared the two subtypes in relation to emotional reactions to threatening scenarios involving achievement failure and interpersonal rejection. Although both forms of narcissism required external validation, vulnerable narcissists were particularly concerned with the approval of others as evidenced by heightened sensitivity toward the interpersonal rejection scenario, whereas grandiose narcissists were particularly vulnerable to threats concerning achievement and competition failure but were less concerned regarding domains requiring the approval of others. ...
... In terms of the overt presentation of the grandiose narcissistic subtype, participants shared experiences of being subjected to hostile outbursts when demands of entitlement, admiration, and perceived authority were not met. These tendencies reflective of the grandiose type are consistent with both theory and research (Besser & Priel, 2010;Dickinson & Pincus, 2003;McNulty & Widman, 2014;Rohmann et al., 2012). The data demonstrated that grandiose narcissists were perceived to show little interpersonal distress, coupled with an inability to endure committed longterm relationships, suggesting that partners serve as narcissistic supply. ...
... Results showed that individuals high in vulnerable but not in grandiose narcissism experienced increased negative affective states, particularly anger, after being ostracized by other players (i.e., participant not receiving the ball from other players). Besser and Priel (2010) also found similar results: Vulnerable narcissism was associated with greater negative emotions after interpersonal rejection, while grandiose narcissism was not. ...
... Finally, we expected grandiose narcissism to be unrelated to trait rejection sensitivity and state experiences of social rejection (Besser & Priel, 2010;Sasso et al., 2021). ...
... and more intense negative emotions in response to them (Poggi et al., 2019). Moreover, these findings are consistent with previous findings suggesting that vulnerable narcissism, but not grandiose narcissism, is associated with greater emotional sensitivity to social rejection (e.g., Besser & Priel, 2010). Vulnerable narcissism, which is characterized by the need for approval/admiration in the context of an antagonistic interpersonal style and a fragile self-esteem (Besser & Priel, 2010;Miller et al., 2017;Ronningstam, 2005), may be the main driver of negative anticipated emotions following rejection. ...
Article
The authors investigate whether and how borderline and pathological narcissistic traits differ in their associations with trait and state rejection sensitivity, and with affective reactions to experiences of social rejection occurring in daily life. Community adults (N = 189) completed baseline measures of rejection sensitivity, borderline personality, and pathological narcissism, and daily measures of perceived social rejection and affective states for 7 days. Vulnerable narcissism was the main driver of negative anticipated emotions for social rejection. Borderline personality made people prone to experiencing social rejection in daily life. Moreover, borderline personality traits predicted greater self-directed aggressive impulses when experiencing social rejection. Grandiose narcissism showed only a negative association with anticipatory anxiety for rejection. These findings highlight that sensitivity to social rejection is crucial in both borderline personality and pathological narcissism.
... Those who are high in pathological narcissism consistently experience behavioral and affective dysregulation in the face of interpersonal difficulties. Thus, the current study sought to examine pathological narcissism in the context of social rejection, a potentially dysregulating interpersonal scenario for narcissistic individuals (Besser & Priel, 2010;Cascio, Konrath, & Falk, 2015;Krizan & Johar, 2015;Twenge & Campbell, 2003). ...
... Research demonstrates that social rejection leads to a range of negative experiences, such as low self-esteem and aggression (Baumeister & Leary, 1995;Leary & Baumeister, 2000;Leary, Twenge, & Quinlivan, 2006). These reactions are hallmarks of theoretical and empirical literature focusing on narcissism, especially in the context of social rejection (Besser & Priel, 2010;Twenge & Campbell, 2003). ...
... In a more recent study, Besser and Priel (2010) utilized both the NPI and the PNI to examine narcissism and social rejection. They split their participants into two groups: One group was faced with an achievement-threat scenario, and the other group was faced with a romantic rejection scenario. ...
Article
Previous research has shown that narcissism is associated with interpersonal difficulties and maladaptive affective responses to social rejection. In the current studies, the authors examined two phenotypes of pathological narcissism, narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, and their impact on individuals' affective responses in two distinctive social rejection paradigms. Participants from Study 1 (N = 239), recruited from a multicultural university and Amazon's Mechanical Turk, completed Cyberball, a computerized social rejection paradigm. Participants from Study 2 (N = 238) were recruited from a multicultural university and participated in an in vivo group rejection paradigm in a laboratory. Results indicated that following the rejection in both studies, narcissistic vulnerability positively predicted explicit negative affect and state anger. In addition, the positive relationship between narcissistic vulnerability and explicit negative affect was moderated by greater implicit negative affect in Study 2. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.
... Grandiose narcissists use other people to regulate their self-esteem, producing a typical dynamic of initial excitement, "seduction," and later disappointment, altogether generating interpersonal turmoil (Campbell & Campbell, 2009;Morf & Rhodewalt, 2001;Paulhus, 1998). They also display substantial emotional volatility in response to agentic failure (e.g., Besser & Priel, 2010;Rhodewalt & Morf, 1998). Yet, some researchers point to few emotion regulation difficulties among grandiose narcissists (Zhang et Narcissism and NPD 22 al., 2015). ...
... Similar to grandiose narcissists, vulnerable narcissists experience high mood variability which is likely due to their contingent self-esteem. When confronted with shameful interpersonal experiences, such as relational rejections, vulnerable narcissists react with a sudden and substantial drop in state self-esteem and rapidly changing emotions (Besser & Priel, 2010;Sommer et al., 2009;Thomaes et al., 2008). ...
... Indeed, interpersonal rejection remains the most painful trigger for vulnerable narcissists (Besser & Priel, 2010), generating shame, depression, anger, and hostility (Dickinson & Pincus, 2003;Krizan & Johar, 2015). Narcissistic vulnerability rather than grandiosity has therefore been identified as a key source of narcissistic rage, as its necessary conditions include a fragile sense of self, an explosive mixture of shame, hostility, and extreme anger (Krizan & Johar, 2015). ...
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The three goals of this chapter are to introduce readers to construct of narcissism, to review the literature on the evolutionary origins of narcissism, and to review the literature on narcissism and emotions. Narcissism will be discussed as both a personality trait that is comprised by grandiose and vulnerable expressions, as well as a personality disorder characterized by extreme levels of narcissistic personality combined with impairment. Some discussion throughout will be devoted to whether grandiose and vulnerable expressions of narcissism should be conceptualized as relatively stable and separable traits versus oscillating narcissistic states. Evolutionary topics discussed will include the heritability of narcissism, the genetic foundations (or lack thereof) of narcissism, evolutionarily grounded strategies, including mating and survival strategies, that may have facilitated sexual and natural selection of narcissistic traits, as well as critiques of existing theory in this literature. The emotion section will focus on the emotional experiences of narcissists, paying particular attention to how these experiences contrast depending on whether narcissism is more grandiose or vulnerable. Attempts will be made throughout the chapter to identify connections between the conceptual, evolutionary, and emotion literatures.
... Previous research on emotional responses to social exclusion and rejection has largely examined in this in relation to unidimensional rather than multidimensional constructions of narcissistic pathology, with some exceptions. Besser and Priel (2010) examined emotional reactions (anger and other negative emotional responses) to hypothetical scenarios of either achievement or interpersonal failure. Results indicated that that individuals higher in vulnerability were hypersensitive to scenarios involving imagined interpersonal rejection and displayed amplified expressions of anger and negative affectivity in response to these scenarios, whilst more grandiose presentations instead displayed amplified negative emotional reactions to imagined achievement setbacks. ...
... For example, Hyatt et al. (2018) found that both grandiosity and vulnerability were associated with anger reactions, but vulnerability this was more broadly related to negative affect, including sadness and shame. Taken together, individuals high in vulnerability are thought to experience greater negativity in their emotions more generally (e.g., Krizan and Johar, 2015;Zhang et al., 2017a), and also appear to experience amplified distress, dysphoria and sadness in response to threatening scenarios, particularly if the situation is interpersonal in nature (Besser and Priel, 2010;Besser and Zeigler-Hill, 2010;Hyatt et al., 2018). ...
... Since some research, including the current study, indicates more blunted (and sometimes even positive) emotionality for these individuals, while others indicates more aggressive responses to ego threat, future research should seek to untangle the conditions under which both positive and negative emotions may emerge. Findings of previous studies (e.g., Besser and Priel, 2010) suggest that grandiose individuals may be less attuned to interpersonal failures and more responsive to public and achievement based failures. Within the current study, participants were presented with an interpersonally themed rejection simulation which was experienced in private. ...
Article
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Background: Aspects of pathological narcissism, such as grandiosity, vulnerability and entitlement, tend be enacted in therapeutic settings, negatively influencing outcome and alliance between the clients and therapist. This research took an experimental approach to understanding the interplay between the emotional reactions of individuals with a pathological narcissistic presentation, and adult attachment style. We predicted that participants reporting narcissistic vulnerability would report greater insecurity in attachment (fearful and preoccupied styles), greater trait emotional reactivity, and also experience more intense and negative responses to simulated rejection Methods: 269 participants (75.84% female, median age = 21) completed baseline and rejection trials of a virtual ball-tossing game, following the assessment of grandiose and vulnerable pathological narcissism, entitlement, adult attachment, trait emotional reactivity (measured prior to the rejection) and in-situ affective response (measured both before and after the rejection). Change in affect from baseline was calculated to capture affective responses to the manipulation. Results: Vulnerable narcissism was positively associated with both fearful and preoccupied attachment, and negatively associated with secure and dismissive attachment, whilst grandiose narcissism was significantly related to preoccupied attachment only. Multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed vulnerable narcissism predicted both (1) more negative trait emotional reactivity and (2) a significant increase in negative affect following the rejection trial. Grandiose narcissism was associated with (1) higher positive trait emotional reactivity, and (2) significant reductions in positive affect following rejection. Conclusion: Results indicated that those high in pathological narcissistic vulnerability reported greater insecurity in attachment, negative trait emotional reactivity and experienced a more negative and intense emotional reaction to rejection. Grandiose narcissism was related to a more deactivated pattern of emotional reactivity, and less positive (rather than more negative) emotional reactions. Findings have important implications for therapy, particularly regarding communication of emotions for individuals high in vulnerable and grandiose narcissism.
... Pathological narcissism can be conceptualized in terms of two key features: grandiosity and vulnerability. Each type is associated with specific intrapersonal, interpersonal, and self-esteem regulation processes (Besser & Priel, 2010). Grandiose narcissism (GN) is characterized by the repression of negative aspects of the self and the distortion of external information that is incongruent with the grandiose self, leading to attitudes of superiority, an overvalued self-image, and grandiose fantasies (Pincus et al., 2009). ...
... Indeed, GN is often described as co-occurring with a desire for power, success, and insatiable admiration (Pincus et al., 2009). The set of negative affects (e.g., shame and powerlessness) linked to VN may inhibit achievement, affiliation, and intimacyseeking behaviors, encouraging social withdrawal behaviors (Besser & Priel, 2010), especially when admiration from the other is not certain or expected (Pincus et al., 2009), and NN has been positively related to interpersonal dominance assertion in past research (Brown & Zeigler-Hill, 2004). ...
Article
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Some studies suggest that narcissism, either grandiose, vulnerable, or normal, is empirically associated with healthy or pathological concern towards others. These relationships remain poorly documented, and existing research only offers theoretical rationales as to the nature of the narcissism–concern association. The present study aims to assess the relationships between the various types of narcissism and concern while including the mediating role of explicit motives. French-speaking adults (n = 213) completed self-report questionnaires measuring these constructs. Results of mediation analyses suggest that specific motives mediate the positive associations observed between vulnerable or grandiose narcissism and pathological concern as well as the negative associations observed between grandiose or normal narcissism and healthy concern. Thus, it seems that pathological concern could be used as a maladaptive self-regulation mechanism by both forms of pathological narcissism. Fear motives mediate both relationships, suggesting avoidance as the main drive behind pathological concern in pathological narcissism. Also, the negative association between normal narcissism and healthy concern is coherent with the antagonistic interpersonal style of this form of narcissism. Results add to the practical knowledge of narcissism through a better understanding of the factors involved in self-regulation mechanisms.
... This has led to questions about the possibility of diverse phenotypes of narcissism, though theory and emerging literature suggests pathological narcissism can exhibit vacillation between grandiose and vulnerable states (Pincus & Lukowitsky, 2010;Wright & Edershile, 2018). Researchers have disagreed on the dimensional structure of narcissism, but recent models describe an essential core of narcissism and two components (Krizan & Herlache, 2018); a grandiose dimension with features of extraversion, dominance, selfassurance, exhibitionism, a manipulative demeanour and inflated view of self, and a vulnerable dimension, reflecting features of neuroticism, introversion, defensiveness, low self-esteem, anxiety, hypersensitivity to criticism (Besser & Priel, 2010;Lamkin et al., 2015;Mouilso & Calhoun, 2016;Ronningstam, 2011). Importantly for the prediction of aggression, the same traits associated with greater risk of aggression and antisocial behaviours are substantially more present in vulnerable narcissism compared to grandiose (Jones et al., 2011;. ...
... Our observation from the multivariate analysis that the vulnerable narcissism phenotype had more and stronger associations with all aggression subtypes compared to the grandiose phenotype could be explained by differences in neuroticism and hypersensitivity to criticism (e.g., Besser & Priel, 2010). The higher neuroticism found in the vulnerable narcissism phenotype is associated with increased feelings of fear, anger, and frustration; while the increased hypersensitivity to criticism seen in the vulnerable narcissism phenotype is associated with a greater susceptibility to emotional reaction and outbursts of anger (Miller et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Theories and research regarding aggression have variously implicated low self-esteem, high self-esteem, and unstable self-esteem as a moderator of aggressive behaviours. Given that narcissism is rooted in self-esteem issues, it is a personality construct relevant to the study of aggression. Two fluctuating, and sometimes vacillating, narcissism phenotypes, grandiosity, and vulnerability, may display differing relationships with aggression and aggressive behaviours. One coping mechanism for self-esteem issues, problematic alcohol use behaviours, shows positive independent associations with both narcissism and aggression and therefore may act as an exacerbating factor. Given this complexity, the current study aimed to model grandiose and vulnerable narcissism phenotypes together and examine their relation to both observable manifestations and cognitive measures of aggression, while simultaneously examining the potential contributing effect of alcohol use behaviours in an online community-based survey; N = 1883, aged between 18 and 77 years (M = 33.33, SD = 13.76). While grandiose narcissism is uniquely associated with verbal aggression, vulnerable narcissism appears to be more critical in understanding a variety of forms of aggression. Alcohol use behaviours, while related to aggression, did not influence these associations. Our findings suggest that vulnerable narcissism is a far more severe concern for predicting several types of aggression than the grandiose dimension. Implications for future research and practice are explored.
... When examined across narcissism subtypes, similar patterns of aggressive interpersonal tendencies have been observed in both grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, with the latter also evincing interpersonal coldness (Dickinson & Pincus, 2003;Miller et al., 2012). Sensitivity to interpersonal threat, such as the threat of rejection, has also been associated with higher pathological narcissism (Besser & Priel, 2010). Further indication of both sensitivity and aggression problems was observed in an ecological momentary assessment study in which perceptions of others' assertiveness led individuals high in pathological narcissism to become more quarrelsome (Wright et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Pathological narcissism is associated with problematic interpersonal behaviours. Because of the high need for external validation in pathological narcissism, the experience of loneliness may exacerbate the relationship between pathological narcissism and interpersonal problems. Moreover, these interpersonal problems may contribute to psychological distress, potentially accounting for the association between pathological narcissism and psychological distress symptoms. The present study was aimed at examining whether loneliness moderated the association between pathological narcissism and interpersonal sensitivity, ambivalence, and aggression problems––and whether these interpersonal problems mediated the narcissism-distress association. Using self-report, cross-sectional data from a sample of 248 Canadian community members (73.5% female; average age 25.8 ± 10.5 years), significant interactions were found between pathological narcissism and loneliness––indicating moderation––in relation to interpersonal sensitivity problems, B = .07, SE = .02, t = 3.21, p = .002, and interpersonal aggression, B = .07, SE = .03, t = 2.66, p = .009. Conditional process modelling indicated significant moderated mediation––moderated by loneliness––of the relationship between pathological narcissism and distress symptoms through interpersonal sensitivity, index = .20, SE = .12, 95% CI[.02, .47], and aggression, index = .21, SE = .11, 95% CI[.02, .46]. The findings suggest that as individuals high in pathological narcissism experience more loneliness, they are more likely to evince greater sensitivity and aggressive interpersonal problems, which may in turn influence severity of distress symptoms.
... Thus, when grandiose narcissists perceive a chance to retaliate, agentic antagonism is visible in the active pursuit of status restoration, which in turn is more focused on behaviors (Back, 2018;Grapsas et al., 2020). In turn, a neurotic antagonistic reaction might not only be triggered by external threats, but also by more nuanced internal stimuli (i.e., a perceived threat; Eysenck, 2000) as they are sensitive to any interpersonal threat which might take the form of being rejected, humiliated or betrayed (Besser & Priel, 2010). When a vulnerable narcissist's selfesteem is exposed to harm, rather than trying to retaliate, they feel angry and ashamed (Krizan & Herlache, 2018;Miller et al., 2017a). ...
Article
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A theoretical model of the vulnerable half of the Narcissism Spectrum Model (NSM) – the Vulnerable Isolation and Enmity Concept (VIEC) is presented in this paper. In five studies (total N = 2,383), we show the personality underpinnings of the VIEC in terms of normal and pathological personality and explore the social relations of liking others and being liked. Isolation explains the role of avoidance and social withdrawal, whereas Enmity explains the role of reactive antagonism in vulnerable narcissism. We suggest that vulnerable narcissism is related to internalizing and grandiose narcissism to externalizing pathology. Through the prism of the Circumplex of Personality Metatraits, we argue that the VIEC together with the narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry concept (NARC) covers the whole NSM.
... In the same study, it was found that narcissistic vulnerability was related more to idealisation of the loved object as well as a tendency towards altruism in the relationship. However, combined with the increased emotional lability (Sandage et al., 2017) often associated with the vulnerable phenotype of narcissism (Ackerman, Donnellan and Wright, 2019) these factors may also contribute to negative outcomes as the overvaluation of the loved object provokes increased anxiety over the possibility of its loss (Besser and Priel, 2010) and may result in the client taking pre-emptive action to prevent a threat to their self-image (Wright et al., 2017) It is likely that at least some of the negatively associated narcissistic traits will transfer to the therapeutic relationship (Tanzilli et al., 2017) which can impact on the ability of the client and therapist to form an effective therapeutic alliance (Zilcha-Mano, 2017). Where a client presents with a narcissistic personality structure, it is also possible that they will endeavour to mislead the therapist (Kernberg, 2004) in order to avoid losing the therapist's positive regard. ...
... 7.Narcissism has also been distinguished in terms of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism (Boldero, Higgins & Hulbert 2015) with the same difference as that between centrifugal and centripetal narcissism (cf. also Besser & Priel 2010). ...
Article
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In many research documents, the current age is called the age of entitlement. Closely associated with some forms of entitlement is narcissism. When the church encounters such widespread phenomena, she should consider possibilities and ways to address those in her pastoral care.The theoretical argument of the article is that the church could pastorally care for a Christian who leads a life of narcissistic entitlement, by guiding him to lead the life of a diakonos of Christ according to the New Testament. The relationship between narcissism and entitlement is described, as well as the characteristics of narcissistically entitled persons, and how problems may develop from a narcissistically entitled attitude. A short description is then given of a pastoral process that might be used. Part of the counselling process is to bring someone in the presence of God (coram Deo) to understand what God’s mercy and his prescriptions mean to him or her in his problematic situation. Contribution: Lastly, different passages in which the diakon-words occur in the New Testament were studied and applied to the pastoral care of a narcissistically entitled person in the coram Deo-phase of pastoral care. Based on the results, it can be concluded that in the coram Deo-phase of the pastoral process, the pastoral care of narcissistically entitled persons may be enhanced by leading them to embrace and practise their identity as diakonos of Christ.
... Grieve et al. (2020) found that authentic self-presentation on Facebook is associated with higher levels of grandiose narcissism, with individuals high in vulnerable narcissism (combined with low self-esteem) less likely to present themselves authentically online. The authors speculated that as vulnerable narcissism is more associated with stress through social rejection than grandiose narcissism (Besser & Priel, 2010), individuals high in vulnerable narcissism may guard their social media privacy by employing inauthentic self-presentation as a protective strategy. Further, individuals high on grandiose narcissism may engage in authentic self-presentation online as they believe their true self is to be admired (see Grieve et al., 2020). ...
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People vary in the extent to which they present themselves authentically online. This study applied Uses and Gratifications Theory to investigate the utility of grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, primary psychopathy, secondary psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in predicting authentic self-presentation on Instagram. Participants (N = 542; 62.9% women; 60.1% Australian) with a currently active Instagram account were recruited via social media advertisements and completed an online questionnaire assessing personality and authenticity. Instagram authenticity was operationalised as Euclidean distances between the true self and the Instagram self. Results partially supported hypotheses, with higher levels of trait vulnerable narcissism and Machiavellianism predicting less congruence between the true self and the Instagram self (i.e., inauthenticity). Grandiose narcissism, primary psychopathy, and secondary psychopathy were not significant predictors of authentic self-presentation on Instagram. Findings of the current study extend previous research exploring authentic self-presentation on social media and are interpreted in line with uses and gratifications. We recommend further exploration of variation in authentic self-presentation on Instagram, from normative forms to outright deception.
... This indicates that one possible consequence of depression in people with high covert narcissism might be the automatic use of shame-focused coping strategies, such as self-criticism or withdrawal. As covert narcissists are especially prone to rejection sensitivity (Besser & Priel, 2010) and are more likely than are nonnarcissists to experience shame in social situations (Lewis, 1987;Morrison, 1989), they may use strong shame-related defense mechanisms, including self-criticism or withdrawal, to protect themselves from damage to their self-esteem or the pain of failure (Nathanson, 1992;Park, 2011). ...
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We investigated how covert narcissism influences depression through shame-focused coping strategies, and tested the moderating effect of self-compassion in this mediating link. Participants were 316 Chinese international students living in South Korea who completed a battery of measures, including the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, the Compass of Shame Scale, the depression items of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, and the Chinese Self-Compassion Scale. We found an association between covert narcissism and depression, and this link was mediated by the shame-focused coping strategies of attack self and withdrawal. Further, self-compassion had a significant moderating effect in the relationship between covert narcissism and the coping strategies of attack self or withdrawal. These findings support a moderated mediation model in which self-compassion buffered the relationship between covert narcissism and depression by mediating the link between covert narcissism and the attack self and withdrawal coping strategies. Our findings may be useful for understanding and helping individuals who have a high level of covert narcissism.
... Narcissism comprises two distinct but related factors: grandiose and vulnerable narcissism (Besser & Priel, 2010;Grijalva et al., 2015;Krizan & Herlache, 2018;Miller et al., 2011;Rohmann et al., 2012;Wink, 1991). Though grandiose and vulnerable narcissism share several core characteristics such as an aggressive interpersonal style, self-importance, entitlement, and hypersensitivity to criticism (Dickinson & Pincus, 2003;Krizan & Herlache, 2018;Rauthmann & Kolar, 2012;Weiss et al., 2019), the diversity between these traits is evident in the manifestation of these characteristics (Krizan & Herlache, 2017;Miller et al., 2018). ...
Article
The study of emotional intelligence (EI) and its relationship with the dark triad has emerged as a popular research area. However, the complex nature of the dark triad and EI, including multiple measures for assessment, has led to inconsistent findings. A systematic review was conducted to focus on the multifaceted nature of the dark triad traits. Included studies must have been conducted with adult samples using standardized EI and dark triad measures. Forty-eight studies were identified; all bar one reported overall negative associations between the dark triad and EI. These associations were more complicated than expected. Further examination found these relationships significantly differed when examined at the facet level. Our results highlight that future research requires more than a one-size-fits-all approach.
... According to Morf and Rhodewalt (2001), the continuous search for admiration, approval and gratification can be a precise indicator of the inability to autonomously regulate one's internal states. Taking into account the relationship between narcissism and emotion dysregulation, Besser and Priel (2010) compared grandiose narcissism and vulnerable narcissism in terms of emotional reactions in response to threats related to failure in achieving results and to interpersonal refusals, pointing out that both types of narcissism have shown associations with negative emotional reactivity related to specific threatening situations (Besser & Priel, 2010). Furthermore, research conducted by Zhang, Wanga Youa L€ ua and Luo (2015) has highlighted that grandiose narcissism showed significant negative correlations with the emotion regulation dimensions of awareness and emotional clarity. ...
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Suicide behaviors are peculiar aspects of several cluster B disorders, including Narcissistic Personality Disorder. To date, it is still unclear which facet of narcissism is more related to the desire to die and which other factors are involved in this relationship. This study aims to offer preliminary empirical evidences concerning the relationship between narcissism, emotion dysregulation and suicide ideation. We administered the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), PID-5-BF (Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Short Form) and Beck Scale for Suicide ideation (BSI) to a sample of individuals with suicide ideation (n = 70) and a sample of community participants (n = 154). Controlling for age, gender and Negative Affectivity, we found that BSI scores correlated significantly with the vulnerable dimension of narcissism, but not with the grandiose one, and with all DERS dimension, apart from Awareness. Nevertheless, emotion dysregulation moderates the relationship between vulnerable narcissism and suicide ideation. Suicide ideation seems to be deeply connected with the vulnerable dimension of pathological narcissism and the relationship between the constructs is totally mediated by emotion dysregulation. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed.
... In short, research demonstrates clear connections between adolescent narcissism and adjustment with those relations being most consistent for aggression and anxiety. The mechanisms by which narcissism is associated with aggression and anxiety may point to maladaptive or impaired regulatory processes, particularly in the face of threatening social situations (Besser & Priel, 2010). Factors such as emotion regulation and distress tolerance may provide further context for understanding these relations, particularly insofar as each is connected to a host of behavioral and emotional impairments in late adolescence and early adulthood (Van Eck, Warren, & Flory, 2017). ...
Article
This study investigated the relations of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism with emotion dysregulation and distress tolerance in a sample of at-risk adolescents. Data were collected from 329 participants (ages 16–19), who were attending a residential military-style intervention program. Vulnerable narcissism showed a negative correlation with distress tolerance and was positively correlated with emotion dysregulation. In contrast, grandiose narcissism was negatively related to emotion dysregulation and was not associated with distress tolerance. Furthermore, emotion dysregulation heightened the relation between grandiose narcissism and aggression. These findings indicate that the theorized difficulty with self-regulation applies particularly to vulnerable, rather than grandiose, narcissism in adolescents. The findings are discussed in the context of potential regulatory processes in adolescent narcissism.
... However, few studies have used experimental methodology to examine both constructs of narcissism, particularly following feedback. Besser and Priel (2010) showed that levels of anger and negative affect were affected by romantic rejection for VN, but not for GN, and by achievement failure for GN, but not for VN. Besser and Zeigler-Hill (2010) found that differences between GN and VN were more related to context (public vs. private) than to type of rejection (achievement vs. romantic). ...
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Background Grandiose and vulnerable narcissism (GN/VN) are theorized to form two opposite coping strategies aimed at regulating self-esteem in face of a threat, especially negative feedback in social context. To test this, we examined the relationships of GN and VN with self-appraisals in social context, and hypothesized that GN would predict positive explicit self-appraisals, and less positive implicit self-appraisals, whereas VN would predict negative explicit self-appraisals, and less negative implicit self-appraisals. We also hypothesized that social rejection would increase the negativity of all predictions except for a more positive GN-explicit self-appraisals relationship.Methods Israeli undergraduates (N = 117) were randomly allocated to social rejection (n = 58) or control (n = 59) conditions. Social rejection was induced via the Cyberball.ResultsUnder control and rejection conditions, Higher VN predicted negative explicit self-appraisals, whereas higher GN predicted positive explicit self-appraisals. However, only following rejection, higher VN predicted negative implicit self-appraisals and higher GN predicted positive implicit self-appraisals, though to a lesser extent than they predicted explicit self-appraisals.Conclusions We concluded that narcissistic explicit strategies are stable and unaffected by social situations. However, rejection may affect automatic processes congruent with the narcissistic strategy.
... This mixture of negativity, avoidance, and disagreeableness (Miller et al., 2018;Thomas et al., 2012) may evoke difficult feelings in others (Day et al., 2020), potentially fuelling social disconnection. Due to their fragile self-image, individuals high in narcissistic vulnerability tend to be overly perceptive of and sensitive to signs of rejection or humiliation (Besser & Priel, 2010;Hansen-Brown & Freis, 2019). However, interpersonal functioning, including concern about social inclusion, may vary among individuals with narcissistic difficulties--ranging from requirements for others' admiration to solipsistic retreat and outright devaluation of others (Ogrodniczuk & Kealy, 2013;Sturman, 2000). ...
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Narcissistic vulnerability has been proposed as a dispositional feature that confers susceptibility to depression from earlier maladaptive parent-child relations. Limited research has examined narcissistic vulnerability as a mediator between perceived parental responsiveness and depressive symptoms, particularly with consideration of interpersonal motives such as needs for acceptance and belonging. A sample of 334 college undergraduates completed self-report measures of perceived parental responsiveness, narcissistic vulnerability, the need to belong, and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses using bootstrapped 99% confidence intervals tested a hypothesized moderated mediation model predicting depressive symptoms from parental responsiveness through narcissistic vulnerability as a mediator, moderated by the need to belong. Narcissistic vulnerability was found to significantly mediate the association between perceived parental responsiveness and depressive symptoms, with significant moderation by the need to belong. The mediating effect of narcissistic vulnerability was stronger as the need to belong increased. The findings indicate that narcissistic vulnerability may be an important mechanism in the link between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms, particularly when needs for acceptance from and inclusion with others are prominent.
... Covert narcissism, while still characterized by entitlement and the need for admiration, is often manifested in terms of helplessness, shame, emptiness, low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression (Pincus & Roche, 2011;Rose, 2002;Wink, 1991). Furthermore, covert narcissists tend to rely heavily on the feedback of others to manage their self-esteem and have a strong avoidance motivation (Besser & Priel, 2010). ...
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There has been an abundance of research on narcissism in the workplace. However, most research has focused on the overt (grandiosity) form of narcissism, as well as the effect of narcissism on uncivil behaviors of employees; research focusing directly on the effect of covert (vulnerability) narcissism on the employees’ experience of workplace incivility is lacking. The present research examined whether the personality trait (covert narcissism) of employees affects their experience of incivility considering two potential explanatory variables: self-esteem and perceived norms for respect. A total of 150 participants completed an online questionnaire, which consisted of four well-known measures: the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale, the Perceived Norms for Respect, and the Workplace Incivility Scale. The results showed that employees with higher levels of covert narcissism are likely to have greater experiences of workplace incivility through the mediating role of perceived norms for respect. Although the relationship was not explained through the mediating role of self-esteem, it was instead observed that self-esteem and perceived norms for respect jointly affect employees’ experience of incivility at work. These findings broaden our understanding of workplace incivility by simultaneously considering the influences of personality traits, self-esteem, and workplace norms.
... In contrast to grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism is linked to higher neuroticism, which is reflected in lower positive and higher negative affect (Miller et al., 2011(Miller et al., , 2018, as well as high rates of anxiety and depression (Euler et al., 2018;Kaufman et al., 2020;Miller et al., 2011Miller et al., , 2018. Vulnerable narcissism is characterized by a high sensitivity towards social rejection (Besser and Priel, 2010) but also lower empathy (Lannin et al., 2014) and compassion for others (Luchner et al., 2011) as well as lower self-reported perspective-taking (Honeycutt et al., 2014) and emotion understanding (Vonk et al., 2015). ...
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Positive emotion regulation, that is, upregulating, maintaining, and savoring positive emotions, also bears the potential to counteract and thus mitigate negative affect. In this narrative review, we report on the social emotion of compassion as a particularly efficient form of positive emotion regulation. Compassion emerges as an affiliative response to the suffering of others. It is characterized by feelings of warmth and kindness and an initiation of prosocial caring behavior towards others. The inherent positivity of compassion is also in line with the related neural correlates. Compassion is associated with activity in the ventral striatum, the (subgenual) anterior cingulate cortex, and the orbitofrontal cortex, brain regions related to strong positive emotions, such as romantic and maternal love. In addition to its long tradition in Eastern philosophy, the practice of compassion has in recent years found its way into interventions in Western psychology, for example, within compassion-focused therapy. Recent findings confirm that affect-related mental training promoting compassion is also linked to functional and structural changes in neural networks associated with positive emotions and emotion regulation. This compassion-related plasticity in the neural systems of positive emotion regulation suggests that incorporating compassion into psychological interventions could prove to be a particularly effective way to support positive emotion regulation.
... In contrast, although vulnerable narcissism (VN) is also associated with a pursuit of superiority, this need for superiority is thought to be motivated by insecurity and low, or fragile, self-esteem (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2008). Therefore, individuals with high VN need validation about themselves and are highly sensitive to others' appraisals (Besser & Priel, 2010). As a result, if others do not provide validation about their value, they may behave aggressively as a way to restore damaged self-esteem. ...
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This study examined the moderating role of social intelligence (SI) in the associations of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism (VN) with peer‐reported overt and relational aggression (RA). The sample consisted of 286 adolescents aged 15 to 19 recruited from a residential program for youth who have dropped out of school. Results showed that whereas grandiose narcissism (GN) was related to both forms of aggression, VN was related to neither overt nor RA. However, SI moderated the relation between VN and both forms of aggression such that SI works as either a risk or protective factor for adolescents with higher levels of narcissism depending on the subdimensions of SI and aggression. The findings indicate that SI may play a role in how adolescent peers perceive the behavior of relatively narcissistic individuals.
... Our findings revealed that females scored higher than males on narcissism, aligning with previous studies that reported higher scores in females on vulnerable narcissism (Green et al., 2020;Pincus et al., 2009;Wright et al., 2010). However, others reported no gender difference for narcissism (Besser & Priel, 2010;Bizumic & Duckitt, 2008;Bleske-Rechek et al., 2008;Miller et al., 2010) and others found higher levels in males than in females (Grijalva et al., 2015;Tschanz et al., 1998). Given the inconsistencies, further research is needed, especially in collectivistic societies. ...
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Objective: Few studies have investigated the Dark Triad and its impact on behaviour in Saudi Arabia, mostly due to the lack of validated instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen, in the context of Saudi Arabia. Method: A sample of 1,329 respondents (59.8% female, mean age = 26.79, SD = 8.47) completed a survey containing the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (DD), the Corruption Propensity Scale and the Propensity to Morally Disengage scale, as well as a demographics questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis, measurement invariance across gender, internal consistency reliability analysis, test–retest reliability analysis, and concurrent and convergent validity analyses were performed to validate the DD. Results: The CFA supported a three-factor model with adequate factor loadings ranging between 0.29 and 0.83 and sufficient fit indices. The scale was gender invariant. The internal consistency reliability and test–retest reliability were adequate (0.70–0.86 and 0.58–0.75, respectively). Moderate-to-high Pearson correlations supported the convergent and concurrent validity of the scale. Conclusion: The Dark Triad Dirty Dozen is a reliable and valid measure that can be used in Saudi Arabia.
... Empirical literature supports the idea of two predominant manifestations of narcissism: grandiose (GN) and vulnerable (VN) (Gabbard, 2009;Levy, 2012;Miller et al., 2011;Pincus et al., 2014), which share some core features like grandiosity (either overt or covert; Pincus, 2013) and entitlement (Wright, 2016). However, these two manifestations differ in their self-presentation and coping strategies, especially in face of potential assessment or criticism (Besser & Priel, 2010;Besser & Zeigler-Hill, 2010). Grandiose narcissism (GN) is associated with an arrogant and aggressive presentation and is related to coping with negative feedback by self-enhancing or devaluing the source of criticism (Ronningstam, 2014). ...
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Although vulnerable narcissism (VN) and avoidant personality (AP) share many characteristics, almost no research has been done to examine their differences. In this study, we examined the notion of VN and AP having similar overt presentations that stem from different underlying mechanisms. VN’s and AP’s relationships with explicit and implicit self-appraisals (i.e., interpretation biases, IB) were examined, under control/social acceptance conditions. Under the control condition, higher AP predicted negative explicit IB and no implicit IB, and higher VN showed the same trend. Following social acceptance, higher AP predicted negative explicit IB and positive implicit IB, whereas higher VN did not predict explicit IB, but predicted negative implicit IB. Results partly supported the hypotheses, and suggested that under neutral conditions, individuals tending towards AP or VN may present similarly. However, they differ in their response to positive social feedback, with AP benefiting from it, and VN having an increased negative implicit view of oneself. These results suggest that VN is a pathology of a more deeply disordered, unstable self-esteem, that may negatively respond to help efforts of positive affirmations made by others.
Article
Purpose Guided by Hobfoll’s (1989) conservation of resources theory, we examined how psychological entitlement moderates the negative relationship between work-family conflict (WFC) and job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach Using a sample of 119 accountants from the Midwestern United States, we tested our hypotheses with hierarchical regression analysis. Findings Results indicate a strong, negative relationship between WFC and job satisfaction for employees low in psychological entitlement, but an insignificant relationship for entitled employees. Practical implications The results suggest that some entitlement may be beneficial to employees when coping with WFC. However, organizations should limit WFC in order to foster their least entitled employees’ job satisfaction. Originality/value This is the first study that investigates how psychological entitlement affects employees' reactions to WFC. Not only does it contribute to the growing body of research that examines how this individual difference affects workplace functioning, but it suggests there may be some benefits to entitlement, which largely has been disparaged.
Article
This study tests the relationships between grandiose narcissism and affective, calculative, social-normative motivation to lead (MTL), avoidance to lead, and between vulnerable narcissism and affective MTL and avoidance to lead. Further, we assess the moderating effect of narcissistic organizational identification (NOI). As expected, grandiose narcissism correlated positively with three dimensions of MTL, though the relationship with social-normative MTL disappeared when controlling for NOI and the interaction. Vulnerable narcissism was positively related to avoidance to lead, but not too affective MTL. Subsequent regression analysis revealed that vulnerable narcissism related negatively to affective MTL for individuals with low or moderate (but not high) NOI. Our study contributes to the integration of narcissism and leadership research by examining a differentiated conceptualization of narcissism, explaining why some individuals may actively approach while others actively avoid leadership, and one of the boundary conditions which may facilitate narcissists’ MTL.
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How do leaders matter? What do leaders want? Grandiose narcissism provides a pathway to understanding how personality can impact a leader’s preference formation and foreign policy behavior. More narcissistic leaders will focus their efforts on maintaining their inflated self-image by selecting how they will fight on the world stage and who they will fight against. While most leaders will divert attention to easier won battles, more narcissistic leaders will prefer to fight against high-status states by themselves. This article introduces a new measure of US’ presidential narcissism, and finds support for the argument that more narcissistic US presidents prefer unilaterally initiating Great Power disputes using data from 1897–2008. A brief review of Theodore Roosevelt’s handling of the Venezuela Crisis of 1902–1903 is used as a plausibility probe of the theory’s causal mechanisms.
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Can an individual impact a phenomenon as overwhelming and complex as war? Do leaders impact interstate war dynamics? Leaders high in grandiose narcissism focus their efforts on maintaining their inflated self-image during war by striving desperately for victory. While most leaders sacrifice their historical image for state interests, more narcissistic leaders only exit wars if they “win”, or overcome threats to their self-image. Narcissists essentially ignore revealed information and create deadlock to avoid looking like losers. In other words, narcissistic leaders encourage us to look beyond traditional rationalist models of wartime dynamics. This paper analyzes United States’ interstate war duration from 1897 to 2007 and finds support for the argument that more narcissistic United States presidents extend war duration. This paper also compares Eisenhower’s handling of the Korean War and Nixon’s handling of the Vietnam War as an illustrative probe of causal mechanisms.
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We examined how the perception of past events might contribute to the understanding of vulnerable narcissism. Across seven samples (NGrand = 1271), we investigated the association between vulnerable narcissism and individual differences in negative view of the past as well as how both were associated with basic personality traits, intrapersonal (i.e., affect, life satisfaction, and self-esteem) and interpersonal (i.e., anger, and hostility) outcomes, and memory biases of immediate life events and early life traumas. We found that vulnerable narcissism was reliably correlated with a negative view of the past. Additionally, both variables showed similar personality profiles (e.g., high neuroticism) and overlapped in explaining various outcomes, including self-esteem, anger, hostility, recalled traumas, and a negative memory bias.
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We experimentally investigate how narcissism affects individuals’ responses to multidimensional performance evaluation systems (PES). Because these systems are characterized by cognitive conflict, which inhibits performance, prior research has explored how exogenous control systems, such as the provision of feedback, can enhance task performance. Our experimental evidence shows that narcissism moderates the performance implications of conflict and of the tone with which feedback is provided under multidimensional PES. In Experiment 1, we find that task performance among participants with a low (high) level of narcissism is (not) significantly worse under PES associated with higher conflict. In Experiment 2, we find that, while task performance of all participants is better (worse) when feedback is provided with encouraging (discouraging) tone, the effects are stronger among participants with a high level of narcissism. Collectively, our findings suggest that under multidimensional PES, task performance among narcissists is less susceptible to conflict consistent with their analytic cognitive-perceptual style and abnormal need for self-enhancement, and more susceptible to feedback tone, consistent with their grandiose self-image. Hence, we inform both research and practice on the effectiveness of multidimensional PES by examining the role of personality.
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PurposeMarital violence and violence by non-marital partners are serious problems in Japan, and an increased incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) using information and communication technology has been observed. Narcissism is a risk factor for IPV and is correlated with aggressive behavior in ego-threatening situations. Narcissism appears in two main types, namely, grandiose and vulnerable, which differ in the expression of aggressive behavior. This study examined anxious ego threat regarding the possible failure of a dating relationship and investigated whether the two types of narcissism lead to cyber dating abuse (CDA) in this type of ego-threat situation.Method We conducted an internet questionnaire survey of 603 unmarried Japanese people (71% female, 29% male) aged 15 to 29 who had a dating partner.ResultsIn men, when relationship anxiety was high, grandiose narcissism predicted CDA, such as direct aggression to annoy or hurt the partner and intrusive behaviors, such as persistent messaging to track the partner. Grandiose narcissism was not associated with aggressive behavior toward a dating partner in the absence of anxiety concerning the dating relationship. Vulnerable narcissism was not associated with aggressive behavior toward a dating partner, regardless of the presence or absence of anxiety concerning the dating relationship. In women, no association was found between CDA and narcissism.Conclusion In considering narcissism as a risk factor for CDA, it is insufficient to examine the relationship between narcissism and CDA. Both types of narcissism and threat to self-evaluation must be examined.
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Previous research has shown that narcissists demonstrate hypervigilance to self-threatening words. This research experimentally investigated whether a self-affirmation intervention, designed to reduce the psychological impact of self-threat, moderated this hypervigilance in grandiose or vulnerable narcissists. Participants (N = 188) were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group and asked to complete an implicit self-affirmation procedure, a computer-based lexical decision task, and measures of narcissism and of self-esteem. Results showed self-affirmation (1) caused a delay in the onset of hypervigilance to self-threatening words in participants with grandiose narcissism, and (2) revealed a novel finding: hypovigilance (i.e., reduced sensitivity/reactivity) to self-threatening words among participants with vulnerable narcissism. Self-affirmation (3) strengthened positive associations between self-esteem and grandiose narcissism and (4) reduced negative associations between self-esteem and vulnerable narcissism. The results show that self-affirmation moderates hypervigilance to self-threat in both grandiose and vulnerable narcissists, but in different ways.
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There are numerous controversies in research exploring personality dynamics and intrapsychic processes, e.g. insufficient insight provided by available measures such as self-report questionnaires. As a consequence, new methods are developed. Some of the recent theories indicate that self-esteem is not a stable personality trait, but a dynamic construct fluctuating as a result of (mostly) social interactions. I present a semi-structured interview protocol as a method of data collection which can provide rich verbal and non-verbal material referring to self-esteem regulation. Analysis system is not included as there can be many different approaches to use collected data, e.g. qualitative content analysis or narrative inquiry methods. In this paper, I present exemplary statements of participants corresponding to every part of the interview. The examples are explained considering theoretical background. Finally, the strengths and limitations of presented method are discussed, as well as possible research areas to explore with it.
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Relying on the trait activation theory and socioanalytic theory, this study investigate conditions that activate or restrain a manager's dark triad, which can predict exploitative leadership. First, we examine the interacting effect of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy with deceptive situation cues at work. Then, we investigated the effect of a manager's political skill - into the emergence of exploitative leadership. A multisource data were collected across two studies administered first to employees then to their corresponding managers (N = 150). Structural equation modeling were used to test hypothesis. The study's findings show that the interaction of deceptive conditions with the dark triad is the most predictive of exploitative leadership, while managers' political skill was found to have a neutralize effect. The present study provides an effort to identify a potential cause and a solution to manager's exploitative behavior at work. Implications for the dark triad literature, theories underlying it, and exploitative leadership are discussed.
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The Dark Triad of socially aversive personality traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) may be linked with emotional deficits, including the use of less effective emotion regulation processes. In this meta-analysis, we identify 20 sources (n = 23 samples, k = 83 effect sizes, NTotal = 4,487) examining the association of the Dark Triad domains and facets with emotion regulation processes of reappraisal (thought to be effective) and expressive suppression (thought to be ineffective). In line with our hypotheses, we found that both primary and secondary psychopathy were significantly associated with lower use of reappraisal (ρ = -.18 and -.29 respectively, k = 3 to 4), and higher use of expressive suppression (ρ = .23 and .19 respectively, k = 9 to 10). There were no significant associations of either regulation process with Machiavellianism, total narcissism, or grandiose narcissism. However, vulnerable narcissism was significantly associated with higher use of expressive suppression (ρ = .37, k = 2), as hypothesized. Results are discussed in relation to how they may inform our understanding of the emotional deficits of the dark triad, and we emphasize the importance of considering dark personality at the facet rather than the domain level.
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Narcissist personalities tend to be more authoritative and desire to be powerful. The present study was conducted to find out the mediating role of superiority competitiveness between the Supervisor's Narcissism and abusiveness. Data was collected from four organizations and the total sample size was N=185. Data collection was done with supervisors and their subordinates, who perceive their abusiveness. Abusive Supervision scale (Tepper, 2000) was used measure the perceived abused supervision. Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Ames, Daniel, Rose & Anderson, 2006) was used to measure uni-dimensional grandiose narcissism. Furthermore, superiority competitiveness was assessed through the Hyper competitiveness Attitude Scale (HAS; Ryckman et al., 1990). Results indicate the partial mediating role of superiority competitiveness between supervisor's narcissism and abusiveness. The present study has its implication for improving the hiring and selection criteria of supervisors and their subordinates which ultimately help the organization for better output.
Article
Objective Three studies tested a novel model of the narcissism-paranoia link, whereby narcissism (primarily its socially maladaptive facets) is associated with paranoia via over-use of defensive self-protection and/or under-use of self-affirmation. Methods In Study 1, 245 online volunteers (87% female; MAGE=20.92; 44% White-British) completed trait measures of narcissism, self-enhancement/protection strategies and paranoia. In Study 2, 116 students (82% female; MAGE=20.23; 70% White-British) completed baseline measures, then reported state reactions and paranoia following two difficult and two pleasant interpersonal events after 3-10 days. In Study 3, 517 online volunteers (64% female; MAGE=22.76; 77% White/Caucasian) completed baseline measures, experienced a standardised social exclusion (vs. neutral) manipulation (Cyberball), then reported state reactions and paranoia. Results In Study 1, narcissism was associated with higher paranoia via defensiveness. In Study 2, this was replicated in difficult but not pleasant events, and was driven by the Entitlement/Exploitativeness facet of narcissism. In Study 3, narcissistic rivalry and vulnerable narcissism, but not admiration, were associated with Cyberball-related paranoia via general defensiveness and denigration of others. Conclusions Individuals high in narcissism—especially its socially maladaptive facets—who over-rely on defensive self-protection strategies in response to threat, are particularly vulnerable to paranoia. Findings help to understand individual differences in paranoia.
Chapter
How can we get the most out of our close relationships? Research in the area of personal relationships continues to grow, but most prior work has emphasized how to overcome negative aspects. This volume demonstrates that a good relationship is more than simply the absence of a bad relationship, and that establishing and maintaining optimal relationships entails enacting a set of processes that are distinct from merely avoiding negative or harmful behaviors. Drawing on recent relationship science to explore issues such as intimacy, attachment, passion, sacrifice, and compassionate goals, the essays in this volume emphasize the positive features that allow relationships to flourish. In doing so, they integrate several theoretical perspectives, concepts, and mechanisms that produce optimal relationships. The volume also includes a section on intensive and abbreviated interventions that have been empirically validated to be effective in promoting the positive features of close relationships.
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This research investigates the effect of narcissism on consumers’ affective reaction to advertising. Narcissists are burdened with the duality of the overinflated self-view and the vulnerability of the unrealistic ego. They tend to be paranoid of the mere introspection of self-image, because such introspection can expose the vulnerability they have been diligent to avoid. Therefore, ads that are closely relevant to the viewer’s self-image can lead to a negative affective response. Several experiments show support for this hypothesis and illustrate implications for advertising practice. Taking into consideration reports that narcissism is on the rise within the population, promotional ads that expect to encounter narcissistic consumers should consider the appeal relevant to self-image with caution, while preventive ads, such as those based on fear appeal, can benefit from enhanced relevance to this audience.
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Both grandiose and vulnerable narcissistic individuals perceive a threat to the self when they face real or imaginary rejection. The sensitivity to rejection may affect them differently. Thus, this research examines the role of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism in the retrieval of self-threatening memories. The study aims to test the mediating role of autobiographical memory (AM) in the relationship between rejection sensitivity (RS) and two dimensions of narcissism. A total of 369 university students (ages between 18 and 32) participated in the study. The Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire was applied to the participants, triggering the memory of positive and negative autobiographical rejection. Then, the Autobiographical Memory Characteristics Questionnaire and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory were applied. The results showed that the autobiographical memory characteristics differ depending on the dimension of narcissism when they face rejection. This changes depending on having positive or negative content as well as recalling the sensory details especially emotional characteristics of the AM. The use of AM as a mediator in the relationship between narcissism and rejection sensitivity has provided a viewpoint beyond experimental and relational studies. The results have shed light on the role of narcissism and RS in the processing of autobiographical memories.
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A new measure of hypersensitive narcissism was derived by correlating the items of H. A. Murray's (1938) Narcism Scale with an MMPI-based composite measure of covert narcissism. In three samples of college students (total N 403), 10 items formed a reliable measure: the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS). The new HSNS and the MMPI-based composite showed similar patterns of correlations with the Big Five Inventory, and both measures correlated near zero with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, which assesses overt narcissism. Results support P. Wink's (1991) distinction between covert and overt narcissistic tendencies in the normal range of individual differences and suggest that it would be beneficial for personality researchers to measure both types of narcissism in future studies. (Hendin, H.M., & Cheek, J.M. (1997). Assessing Hypersensitive Narcissism: A Reexamination of Murray's Narcism Scale. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 588-599.)
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The links among narcissism, explicit (deliberate, controllable) self-esteem, and implicit (automatic, uncontrollable) self-esteem are unclear despite numerous attempts to illuminate these links. Some investigations suggest that narcissism reflects high explicit self-esteem that masks low implicit self-esteem, but other investigations fail to replicate this pattern. Here, we place the ‘mask’ model of narcissism in historical context and review the existing empirical evidence for this model. We then discuss three possible issues that might shed light on the inconsistent findings that have emerged from tests of the mask model. These issues include the unreliability of implicit attitude measures, narcissism's different associations with agentic versus communal self-views, and distinctions between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism subtypes. We also summarize several alternatives to the mask model of narcissism. Throughout, we offer suggestions for improving the study of narcissism and self-esteem and point to directions for future research on this topic.
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The current series of four studies assesses the relationship between trait anxiety and the way people categorize natural objects. Study 1 examines the relationship between trait anxiety and the rejection of nonprototype members of categories. Study 2 examines whether trait anxiety is related to the narrowing of the breadth of categories. Studies 3 and 4 assess the relationship between trait anxiety and the perceived relatedness of members of a same and different categories. Results show that as trait anxiety increases, more nonprototype members are rejected from membership in a category, the width of mental categories is narrowed, and the perceived relatedness of members of a same and different categories is reduced. Results were discussed in terms of the cognitive effects of anxiety.
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The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal narcissism and (b) insufficient scope of existing narcissism measures. Four studies are presented documenting the initial derivation and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI). The PNI is a 52-item self-report measure assessing 7 dimensions of pathological narcissism spanning problems with narcissistic grandiosity (Entitlement Rage, Exploitativeness, Grandiose Fantasy, Self-sacrificing Self-enhancement) and narcissistic vulnerability (Contingent Self-esteem, Hiding the Self, Devaluing). The PNI structure was validated via confirmatory factor analysis. The PNI correlated negatively with self-esteem and empathy, and positively with shame, interpersonal distress, aggression, and borderline personality organization. Grandiose PNI scales were associated with vindictive, domineering, intrusive, and overly-nurturant interpersonal problems, and vulnerable PNI scales were associated with cold, socially avoidant, and exploitable interpersonal problems. In a small clinical sample, PNI scales exhibited significant associations with parasuicidal behavior, suicide attempts, homicidal ideation, and several aspects of psychotherapy utilization.
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This article attempted to demonstrate that the perfectionism construct is multidimensional, comprising both personal and social components, and that these components contribute to severe levels of psychopathology. We describe three dimensions of perfectionism: self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism. Four studies confirm the multidimensionality of the construct and show that these dimensions can be assessed in a reliable and valid manner. Finally, a study with 77 psychiatric patients shows that self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism relate differentially to indices of personality disorders and other psychological maladjustment. A multidimensional approach to the study of perfectionism is warranted, particularly in terms of the association between perfectionism and maladjustment.
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This article examines the validity of grandiose and vulnerable subtypes of narcissistic character styles through an analysis of personality disorder criteria, interpersonal problems, and adult attachment styles in a nonclinical population. The grandiose personalities in this sample were rated high in the dramatic traits associated with narcissistic, antisocial, and histrionic personality disorders based on a diagnostic interview, and they reported domineering and vindictive interpersonal problems. However, despite the observation of narcissistic personality pathology, they denied interpersonal distress related to their interpersonal problems and the majority reported adult attachment styles reflective of positive self-representations (Secure, Dismissive). Vulnerable narcissistic individuals were represented by high ratings on avoidant personality disorder based on a diagnostic interview. They reported high interpersonal distress and greater domineering, vindictive, cold, and socially avoidant interpersonal problems. The majority reported adult attachment styles reflective of negative self-representations (Fearful, Preoccupied). The validity of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism based upon the results of this study was discussed in terms of clinical theory and with reference to the implications of two subtypes of narcissism for diagnosis and treatment.
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Researchers have recently questioned the benefits associated with having high self-esteem. The authors propose that the importance of self-esteem lies more in how people strive for it rather than whether it is high or low. They argue that in domains in which their self-worth is invested, people adopt the goal to validate their abilities and qualities, and hence their self-worth. When people have self-validation goals, they react to threats in these domains in ways that undermine learning; relatedness; autonomy and self-regulation; and over time, mental and physical health. The short-term emotional benefits of pursuing self-esteem are often outweighed by long-term costs. Previous research on self-esteem is reinterpreted in terms of self-esteem striving. Cultural roots of the pursuit of self-esteem are considered. Finally, the alternatives to pursuing self-esteem, and ways of avoiding its costs, are discussed.
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Within Rothstein's ego-psychological framework, the pursuit of perfection is central to self-esteem regulation along a narcissistic spectrum of self-functioning [1]. In a test of this perspective, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), and other measures of narcissism were administered to 400 undergraduates. Self- and Other-Oriented Perfectionism predicted greater self-esteem, but this effect was mediated by the apparently more adaptive NPI factors. Self-functioning variables displayed systematic linkages with perfectionism; and a rough “spectrum” of functioning was evident in the effects of partial correlations controlling for healthy self-esteem, for more adaptive narcissism, or for more maladaptive narcissism. These data supported a previously articulated hypothesis that at least some conscious representations of the self may vary along a continuum of self-esteem regulation.
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Five studies tested hypotheses derived from the sociometer model of self-esteem according to which the self-esteem system monitors others' reactions and alerts the individual to the possibility of social exclusion. Study 1 showed that the effects of events on participants' state self-esteem paralleled their assumptions about whether such events would lead others to accept or reject them. In Study 2, participants' ratings of how included they felt in a real social situation correlated highly with their self-esteem feelings. In Studies 3 and 4, social exclusion caused decreases in self-esteem when respondents were excluded from a group for personal reasons, but not when exclusion was random, but this effect was not mediated by self-presentation. Study 5 showed that trait self-esteem correlated highly with the degree to which respondents generally felt included versus excluded by other people. Overall, results provided converging evidence for the sociometer model.
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Self-esteem and empathy were correlated with measures of narcissism. As in previous research, narcissism constructs defined both 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' self-functioning; and the apparent influence of one kind of operationalization became more obvious when partial correlations controlled for its covariance with the other. Specifically, 'adaptive' narcissism predicted higher levels of self-esteem and more adjusted forms of interpersonal sensitivity whereas 'maladaptive' narcissism displayed an opposite pattern. The existence of 'healthy' forms of narcissism, the effects of partialling, and linkages of indices of the narcissistic personality disorder with grandiosity were among the effects conforming with Kohut's psychoanalytic psychology of the self.
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This article is a summary of some of the more recent research on the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial, histrionic, borderline, and narcissistic). Research on psychological, psychosocial, and biological perspectives of these disorders is presented. Individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and other forms of multiperson therapies are also discussed. Finally, perspectives on issues of countertransference when treating these personality-disordered patients are addressed.
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This study examined effects of threat to the sef on efforts to maintain a positive self-evaluation in individuals with varying levels of narcissism. Male students (N= 216) with varying levels of narcissism, as measured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, were given feedback that they had been either slightly or substantially outperformed on an ego-relevant task. Subjects completed personality ratings of the better-performing other believing that the other would or would not see the evaluation. According to Tesser's self-evaluation maintenance model, one way to reduce threat from a better-performing other is to derogate the other More narcissistic individuals reacted to such a threat to self by rating the other more negatively than less narcissistic individuals. However, in contrast to prediction, narcissists were somewhat less negative in public than in private. Discussion centers on the utility of translating a psychoanalytic construct into social cognitive processes.
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In a sample of 596 undergraduates, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and its factors were correlated with self-esteem, assertiveness, and hypercompetitiveness. In zero-order data, assertiveness, narcissism, and hypercompetitiveness all displayed direct intercorrelations. Partial correlations controlling for self-esteem and for the NPI factors uncovered more specific linkages of assertiveness with self-esteem and healthier narcissism and of hypercompetitiveness with maladjusted narcissism. These outcomes conformed with recent suggestions that conscious representations of the self can be arranged along a continuum defined by healthy self-esteem at one extreme and by maladjusted narcissism at the other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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ABSTRACT Two patients, one with an overt and the other with a covert narcis-sistic disorder, are followed through five years of psychoanalytic psychotherapy. A number of important turning points in the therapies are closely evaluated in order to discover possible mutative elements. Special attention is paid to the patients’ self-sufficiency. The attachment process to the therapist and the patients’ gradual acceptance of healthy dependency are described. The theoretical framework is selfpsychological.
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This study investigated the effects of narcissists' chronic preoccupation with satisfying ego concerns on intrinsic motivation. Extending Harackiewicz and Sansone's (1991)“goal-matching” model, we hypothesized that intrinsic motivation depends on the congruence between the goals supported by the environment and the chronic goals the individual brings to the situation. High and low narcissistic students were randomly assigned feedback emphasizing either ego goals (competence is assessed relative to others) or mastery goals (competence is self-referential). Consistent with prediction, male narcissists experienced the most enjoyment, most positive affect, and least apprehension in the ego-goal conditions, whereas low narcissists showed the highest intrinsic motivation with mastery-focused goals. Potential gender differences in narcissism are considered to explain the absence of this pattern for females. The findings extend current understanding of the phenomenology of narcissism, as well as supporting the “goal-matching” model. Discussion revolves around the processing dynamics of male narcissists and possible negative consequences of their continual struggle to demonstrate competence relative to others.
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The relationship of narcissism to naturalistic social comparison was examined in a daily diary study. Of the participants, 98 reported the social comparisons that they encountered and noticed in their everyday lives over a 3-day period. Participants reported experiencing positive affect from downward comparisons and negative affect from upward comparisons. These relationships were moderated by narcissistic personality traits, such that individuals high in narcissistic traits tended to experience more extreme affective responses to social comparison than did individuals low in narcissistic personality traits. Individuals with higher narcissism scores on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1979) experienced increased positive affect from downward comparison and increased hostility from upward comparison; individuals with higher scores on the exploitiveness or entitlement subscale of the NPI experienced bolstered positive affect and self-esteem from downward comparison. These findings suggest that narcissists' extreme mood variability and reactivity, which have been observed in previous research, can be partially accounted for by their sensitivity to social comparison information.
Article
We propose a dynamic self-regulatory processing model of narcissism and review supporting evidence. The model casts narcissism in terms of motivated self-construction, in that the narcissist's self is shaped by the dynamic interaction of cognitive and affective intrapersonal processes and interpersonal self-regulatory strategies that are played out in the social arena. A grandiose yet vulnerable self-concept appears to underlie the chronic goal of obtaining continuous external self-affirmation. Because narcissists are insensitive to others' concerns and social constraints and view others as inferior, their self-regulatory efforts often are counterproductive and ultimately prevent the positive feedback that they seek-thus undermining the self they are trying to create and maintain. We draw connections between this model and other processing models in personality and employ these models to further elucidate the construct of narcissism. Reconceptualizing narcissism as a self-regulatory processing system promises to resolve many of its apparent paradoxes, because by understanding how narcissistic cognition, affect, and motivation interrelate, their internal subjective logic and coherence come into focus.
Article
We argue that the importance of self-esteem lies in what people believe they need to be or do to have worth as a person. These contingencies of self-worth are both sources of motivation and areas of psychological vulnerability. In domains of contingent self-worth, people pursue self-esteem by attempting to validate their abilities and qualities. This pursuit of self-esteem, we argue, has costs to learning, relationships, autonomy, self-regulation, and mental and physical health. We suggest alternatives to this costly pursuit of self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
Article
We investigated the role of narcissism in reactions to interpersonal feedback. Participants first completed the Narcissism Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988). They then participated in a laboratory session in which they received either positive or negative feedback. A variety of reactions to the feedback were then assessed. The results indicated that following positive feedback, narcissism was related to perceiving the evaluation technique as more diagnostic and the evaluator as more competent. Conversely, following negative feedback, narcissism was associated with perceiving the evaluation technique as less diagnostic and the evaluator as less competent and likeable. However, narcissism did not moderate the impact of feedback on emotional reactions. Additional analyses revealed some, but not complete, overlap with effects found for level of self-esteem. Theoretical implications are discussed.
Article
Inverse correlations of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) with shame theoretically reflect a defensive self-esteem or a healthier form of narcissism that helps define a continuum of self-functioning. In the present study, the NPI correlated directly with self-esteem; and inverse associations with shame were reduced or eliminated when self-esteem was entered into multiple regressions before the NPI. The defensive self-esteem hypothesis predicts that the NPI and self-esteem should interact in predicting shame, but this did not occur. Other measures of narcissism like the O'Brien (1987) Multiphasic Narcissism Inventory and the Pseudoautonomy Scale were associated with lower self-esteem and greater shame. Overall, these data supported the hypothesis that self-report measures of narcissism help define a continuum of unhealthy to healthy self-functioning.
Article
Several theorists have argued in favor of a distinction between overt and covert narcissism, and factor analytic studies have supported this distinction. In this paper I demonstrate that overt narcissists report higher self-esteem and higher satisfaction with life, whereas covert narcissists report lower self-esteem and lower satisfaction with life. I also present mediational models to explain why overt narcissists are relatively happy and covert narcissists are relatively unhappy. In analyses using both partial correlations and structural equation modeling, self-esteem consistently mediated the associations between both types of narcissism and happiness, whereas self-deception did not. These results further demonstrate some of the self-centered benefits associated with overt narcissism and some of the strong psychological costs associated with covert narcissism.
Book
Five studies tested hypotheses derived from the sociometer model of self-esteem according to which the self-esteem system monitors others' reactions and alerts the individual to the possibility of social exclusion. Study 1 showed that the effects of events on participants' state self-esteem paralleled their assumptions about whether such events would lead others to accept or reject them. In Study 2, participants' ratings of how included they felt in a real social situation correlated highly with their self-esteem feelings. In Studies 3 and 4, social exclusion caused decreases in self-esteem when respondents were excluded from a group for personal reasons, but not when exclusion was random, but this effect was not mediated by self-presentation. Study 5 showed that trait self-esteem correlated highly with the degree to which respondents generally felt included versus excluded by other people. Overall, results provided converging evidence for the sociometer model.
Article
These studies tested the associations between responses to an induced imaginary romantic rejection and individual differences on dimensions of attachment and covert narcissism. In Study 1 (N=125), we examined the associations between attachment dimensions and emotional responses to a vignette depicting a scenario of romantic rejection, as measured by self-reported negative mood states, expressions of anger, somatic symptoms, and self-evaluation. Higher scores on attachment anxiety, but not on attachment avoidance, were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, decreased self-evaluation scores (self-esteem and pride) were found to mediate these associations. In Study 2 (N=88), the relative contributions of covert narcissism and attachment anxiety to the emotional responses to romantic rejection were explored. Higher scores on covert narcissism were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, covert narcissism seemed to constitute a specific aspect of attachment anxiety.
Article
The present study examines the lack of strong correlations among existing self-report measures of narcissism. A principal-components analysis of 6 MMPI narcissism scales resulted in 2 orthogonal factors, 1 implying Vulnerability-Sensitivity and the other Grandiosity-Exhibitionism. Although unrelated to each other, these 2 factors were associated with such core features of narcissism as conceit, self-indulgence, and disregard of others. Despite this common core, however, Vulnerability-Sensitivity was associated with introversion, defensiveness, anxiety, and vulnerability to life's traumas, whereas Grandiosity-Exhibitionism was related to extraversion, self-assurance, exhibitionism, and aggression. Three alternative interpretations of these results are considered, and an argument for the distinction between covert and overt narcissism is made.
Article
The spectrum of narcissistic disturbances described in the psychoanalytic literature is not reflected in the rather narrow criteria of the third revised edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R, American Psychiatric Association, 1987). Narcissistic personality disorder can be conceptualized as occurring on a continuum between two extremes. At one end of the continuum is the oblivious subtype, and on the other end is the hypervigilant subtype. These two entities may be distinguished by characteristic transference and countertransference patterns.
Article
This study aims at testing for the effectivity of Velten MIP and Musical MIP and comparing both in a direct way both at a group level and individually using (substantial) mood changes. Moreover, effects of mood changes on changes in thought association judgements are tested (accessibility of cognitions). One-hundred-and-eighty-four students of two departments of a College for Higher Vocational Education, at random assigned to two experiments (Velten MIP and Musical MIP, n = 92 for each experiment) participated in the study, held at the college. In each experiment four mood induction condition groups were employed: anxious, depressive, elated or neutral. In each condition mood induction (the independent variable) was preceded and followed by a thought association task, i.e. reactions of Ss in addition to allegedly neutral stimulus words of two word lists: List A and List B. Of each condition, approximately half of the Ss (11 or 12) received the word lists in the order A-B, the other half receiving the word lists in reverse order. Thought association tasks and MIP were interspersed by mood ratings, using Visual Analogue Scales (VASs: anxious, depressive, elated and hostile). At the end of the experiment, Ss judged their thought associations for feeling tone (anxious, depressive, elated and hostile) using VAS-like rating scales. The difference between feeling tone judgements of the second and first thought association tasks operated as the dependent variable. As for the effectivity of mood manipulation, results partially supported the hypothesized superiority of Musical MIP as against the Velten MIP, i.e. the former—both at the group and at an individual level—presenting stronger results; however, a direct comparison between two MIPs failed to substantiate this. Sex was shown to play a major role in inducing mood, namely more women than men were susceptible to mood influences. Impact of personality characteristics on mood changes, on the other hand, was generally absent. Personality factors were also shown hardly to have influenced changes of judgement of feeling tones in addition to thought associations. In this context presentation of word lists (A-B or B-A) were shown to be the pertinent factor, due to stimulus words' characteristics. Thus, contrary to what was presumed, mood changes filled a negligible part. Discussion of results leads one to conclude that one needs different stimulus words, i.e. words that lack fixed connotations that preclude any mood influence surviving. Suggestions are made for developing future research designed to shed some more light on the emotion-cognition issue, which topic is believed to be of outstanding relevance for grounding scientifically intervention procedures which are in use in clinical practice.
Article
We examined the internal and external validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). Study 1 explored the internal structure of the NPI responses of 1,018 subjects. Using principal-components analysis, we analyzed the tetrachoric correlations among the NPI item responses and found evidence for a general construct of narcissism as well as seven first-order components, identified as Authority, Exhibitionism, Superiority, Vanity, Exploitativeness, Entitlement, and Self-Sufficiency. Study 2 explored the NPI's construct validity with respect to a variety of indexes derived from observational and self-report data in a sample of 57 subjects. Study 3 investigated the NPI's construct validity with respect to 128 subject's self and ideal self-descriptions, and their congruency, on the Leary Interpersonal Check List. The results from Studies 2 and 3 tend to support the construct validity of the full-scale NPI and its component scales.
Article
Lack of a suitable measuring device hampered the empirical study of narcissism until Raskin and Hall (1979) developed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). The NPI possesses desirable psychometric properties, and in this article I used the scale in a variety of studies. Factor analysis of the scale replicated the four-factor solution found by Emmons (1984): Leadership/Authority, Self-Absorption/Self-Admiration, Superiority/Arrogance, and Exploitiveness/Entitlement. The Exploitiveness/Entitlement subscale was found to correlate with measures of pathological narcissism and affective intensity and variability. The relevance of Linville's (1982) theory of self-complexity-affect intensity for understanding aspects of narcissism is outlined. Implications of the study of narcissism for attribution theory and research are discussed.
Article
The authors trace the evolution of narcissistic personality disorder as a nosological entity in a critical survey of the literature, considering and comparing differing theoretical viewpoints regarding the genesis of this disorder. They review its various descriptions, including the one in DSM-III, and develop a composite picture of the syndrome. The disorder consists of characteristic deficits in six broad areas of functioning: 1) self-concept, 2) interpersonal relationships, 3) social adaptation, 4) ethics, standards, and ideals, 5) love and sexuality, and 6) cognitive style. The authors identify guidelines for distinguishing the narcissistic personality from other personality disorders as well as areas needing continued research.
Article
This article is a summary of some of the more recent research on the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial, histrionic, borderline, and narcissistic). Research on psychological, psychosocial, and biological perspectives of these disorders is presented. Individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and other forms of multi-person therapies are also discussed. Finally, perspectives on issues of countertransference when treating these personality-disordered patients are addressed.
Article
Three studies are reported which provide evidence for the validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). Factor analysis of the NPI in Study 1 revealed four factors which were labelled: Exploitativeness/Entitlement, Leadership/Authority, Superiority/Arrogance, and Self-absorption/Self-admiration. In Study 2, scores on the NPI were correlated with basic dimensions of personality, and with relevant self-variables. Narcissism scores were positively related to dominance, exhibitionism, extraversion, self-esteem, and self-monitoring, among others; and negatively related to abasement, deference, and social anxiety, among others. Correlations between the NPI factors and personality variables are also examined. In Study 3, peer ratings of narcissism were obtained and it was found that these were strongly related to scores on the NPI. Taken together, the three studies provide considerable evidence for the construct validity of the NPI, and avenues for future research are suggested.
Article
The aim of this study was twofold: (a)to measure the alternate form reliability of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and (b)to determine its construct validity by correlating it with the four scales of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The alternate form reliability was .72. The Extraversion and Psychoticism scales of the EPQ were positively and significantly correlated with the narcissism measure, and the Lie scale showed a significant negative correlation. The Neuroticism scale showed a nonsignificant relationship with narcissism. In addition, the combined Extraversion and Psychoticism scales produced[ a Multiple R with the narcissism measure that accounted for significantly more of the variance in narcissism than did either measure alone.
Article
This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds two broad factors representing Grandiosity-Exhibitionism and Vulnerability-Sensitivity-Depletion respectively. However, the majority of psychiatric criteria for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) emphasize expressions of grandiosity. By placing most of the diagnostic emphasis on overt grandiosity, DSM NPD has been limited by poor discriminant validity, modest levels of temporal stability, and the lowest prevalence rate on Axis II. Despite converging support for two phenotypic themes associated with pathological narcissism, psychiatric diagnosis and social/personality psychology research often focus only on grandiosity in the assessment of narcissism. In contrast, clinical theory struggles with a proliferation of labels describing these broad phenotypic variations. We conclude that the construct of pathological narcissism is at a crossroads and provide recommendations for diagnostic assessment, clinical conceptualization, and future research that could lead to a more integrated understanding of narcissistic personality and narcissistic personality pathology.
Article
There is a lack of consensus surrounding the conceptualization of narcissism. The present study compared two measures of narcissism-one used in clinical settings (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, PDQ-4+; Hyler, 1994) and one used in social-personality research (Narcissistic Personality Inventory, NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988)-across two samples. Sample 1 (N=271) was composed of undergraduates, whereas Sample 2 (N=211) was composed of parents of the Sample 1 participants. The scales were significantly interrelated but manifested divergent relations with general personality traits, personality disorders (including expert prototypal ratings of narcissism), recollections of parenting received, and psychological distress and self-esteem. PDQ-4 narcissism captured an emotionally unstable, negative-affect-laden, and introverted variant of narcissism; NPI narcissism captured an emotionally resilient, extraverted form. The clinical and social-personality conceptualizations of narcissism primarily share a tendency to use an antagonistic interpersonal style. Implications for the DSM-V are discussed.
Article
It has been suggested that there are two forms of narcissism: a grandiose subtype and a vulnerable subtype. Although these forms of narcissism share certain similarities, it is believed that these subtypes may differ in the domains upon which their self-esteem is based. To explore this possibility, the present study examined the associations between these narcissistic subtypes and domain-specific contingencies of self-worth. The results show that vulnerable narcissism was positively associated with contingencies of self-worth across a variety of domains. In contrast, the associations between grandiose narcissism and domain-specific contingencies of self-worth were more complex and included both positive and negative relationships. These results provide additional support for the distinction between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism by showing that the domains of contingent self-esteem associated with grandiose narcissism may be more limited in scope than those associated with vulnerable narcissism.
Suicide: The personal construct point of view
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Overvalued and ashamed: Considering the roles of self-esteem and self-conscious emotions in covert narcissism
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