Article

The highest form of intelligence: Sarcasm increases creativity for both expressers and recipients

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Sarcasm is ubiquitous in organizations. Despite its prevalence, we know surprisingly little about the cognitive experiences of sarcastic expressers and recipients or their behavioral implications. The current research proposes and tests a novel theoretical model in which both the construction and interpretation of sarcasm lead to greater creativity because they activate abstract thinking. Studies 1 and 2 found that both sarcasm expressers and recipients reported more conflict but also demonstrated enhanced creativity following a simulated sarcastic conversation or after recalling a sarcastic exchange. Study 3 demonstrated that sarcasm’s effect on creativity for both parties was mediated by abstract thinking and generalizes across different forms of sarcasm. Finally, Study 4 found that when participants expressed sarcasm toward or received sarcasm from a trusted other, creativity increased but conflict did not. We discuss sarcasm as a double-edged sword: despite its role in instigating conflict, it can also be a catalyst for creativity.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Specialists in human interactions, organizational effectiveness and group dynamics are advising employees to use it as less as possible or even not at all because of the remarks transmitted, which are mean, judgmental, poisonous and full of contempt, according to Gottman and Silver (1999). The effect these remarks may have on organizational settings can be harmful and can lead to poor or misguided communication (Huang et al., 2015). Fredrickson and Losada (2005) tested 60 management teams using sarcasm in communication and concluded that sarcastic remarks affected in a negative way the communication between team members and led to poor performance. ...
... Even though sarcastic remarks can have negative effects, employees are sometimes using them in sensitive interpersonal circumstances (Huang et al., 2015). For example, Boylan and Katz (2013) analyzed the effects of sarcasm and discovered that sarcastic remarks, even sarcastic criticism, have the potential to be more humorous and more memorable than normal feedback or direct communication, and therefore more effective. ...
... Second, they demonstrated that sarcasm increases both the expressers' and the recipients' creativity. Third, they explained how the act of formulating and also understanding sarcasm stimulates abstract thinking, and also how this influences the increase of expressers and recipients' creativity (Huang et al., 2015). All forms of sarcasm increase the production of insights, solutions and original ideas, novel and appropriate for both parties. ...
Article
Full-text available
The link between creativity and sarcasm is mostly based on common sense logic and the influence of stereotypical thinking patterns rather than sound research. Until now only a couple of studies have managed to demonstrate the coexistence of sarcasm and creativity and have postulated that sarcastic individuals might prove to more creative than their peers. Given nowadays society that praises so much creativity as a feature of preferred employees, the present study outlines itself as an exploratory research into the perception of human resource specialists on the relation between sarcasm and creativity. Its aim is to investigate if human resource specialists from Romania are aware of any relation between the two of them, and if they take advantage of this correlation during the selection process. The study is qualitative in nature, based on semi-structured interviews with four human resource specialists from four different companies. First, the study explores the HR specialists’ opinion regarding the differences between the ability to construct sarcastic remarks and the ability to appreciate or interpret them when made by others. Then, it aims to identify the boundaries between sarcasm as a catalyzer for creativity and sarcasm as a form of disrespect. The findings show that sarcasm is not quite seen as a desirable employee trait by human resource specialists, and point towards new research avenues for the establishment of the value of sarcasm in different types of organizations.
... It has been argued that sarcasm can facilitate creativity through boosting abstract thinking and also enhance interpersonal trust that would help organizations better take advantage of the ideas and cognitive capabilities of their employees. (Huang et al., 2015). Another study has demonstrated that individuals' experience of sarcastic remarks helped them sharpen their ability to get involved in complex thinking and solving of creative problems (Miron-Spektor, Efrat-Treister, Rafaeli, & Schwarz-Cohen, 2011). ...
... Specifically, research has provided some evidence that any sort of sarcastic exchange has important implications for organizational communication (Huang et al., 2015). As indicated earlier, usage of sarcastic remarks could be beneficial or detrimental based on various factors. ...
... Sometimes sarcasm is a sort of uncivil behavior when it lacks regard for others (Lim, Cortina, & Magley, 2008). In this case sarcastic remarks often convey contempt implications that undermine relationships and negatively affect communication among employees (Huang et al., 2015). Negative sarcastic statements are characterized by a relatively higher level of confusion than direct criticism and could be often be misinterpreted. ...
... Because humor 1 facilitates articulating critical messages (Collinson, 2002;Grugulis, 2002), especially more aggressive, teasing humor-such as sarcasm-which can effectively convey (managerial) resistance (Korczynski, 2011), I proffer follower humor can reduce leaders' self-interested behaviors. That is, to address overpay (i.e., pay in excess of one's objective, performance-based earnings) in lower-and mid-level leaders, I test a cost-free intervention: follower sarcasm (i.e., the construction of or exposure to contradictions between stated and intended meanings directed at a specific person; Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015;Lee & Katz, 1998). I also test if sarcasm is more effective in triggering behavioral change in leaders ☆ This paper has been recommended for acceptance by Dr. Marlone Henderson. ...
... Chiefly relevant here, Yam et al. (2018) showed that aggressive leader sense of humor increases follower deviance. The current research aims to extend this work by testing if follower sarcasm-often framed as a mild form of aggressive humor (see Huang et al., 2015;Yam et al., 2018)-decreases leader deviance. Put simply, while aggressive leader humor signals the acceptability of norm violations, thereby increasing followers' immoral behaviors (Yam et al., 2018), I propose that aggressive follower humor signals accountability, thereby decreasing leaders' immoral behaviors. ...
... Similar examples are regularly used to directly mock supervisors (e.g., "Come on I'm timing you" to imply that a passing supervisor is not moving fast enough; Korczynski, 2011Korczynski, , p. 1434. Aggressive forms of humor such as this convey disapproval and resistance, but in a clever and humorous manner (Huang et al., 2015). In this way, the violation of openly conveying disapproval and resistance towards a superior becomes more acceptable (McGraw & Warren, 2010) and thus, a more effective communication and potential strategy to increase leaders' perceived accountability. ...
Article
Leaders often engage in costly, self-interested behaviors when they have the power and discretion to do so. Because followers are well-positioned to reduce these behaviors, I test how a specific follower communication—sarcasm expression—affects a particularly costly behavior: leader overpay. In three behavioral experiments and a field study (Ns = 240-526), I test the effect of follower sarcasm on leaders’ self-pay. I also test a moderator—leader moral identity—because leaders with low moral identity are more likely to overpay themselves and are more open to social norm violations (including follower sarcasm), as well as a mechanism—leader accountability—because I propose that follower sarcasm decreases leaders’ overpay by increasing leaders’ perceived accountability. As expected, follower sarcasm reduced leader overpay (vs. the control/no humor and vs. non-sarcastic humor), especially for leaders with weak moral identity. Study 3 replicated these results while showing explicit evidence of the accountability mechanism. Study 4 further supported these ideas with correlational data from real leaders recalling a more (vs. less) sarcastic follower, but only when the sarcasm was publicly (vs. privately) enacted. While talk is cheap, these results show that follower sarcasm can also be valuable, because it reduces leaders’ overpay by increasing accountability.
... It can be inferred that sarcastic exchange is expressed to convey a stated meaning that contradicts the intended meaning, yet the recipient notices the difference of the meaning between the stated and intended. Huang, Gino, and Galinsky (2015) argue that sarcasm often induced diverse effects on its hearer. The negative sentiment inserted in it can undermine relationships and harm communication in a relationship (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015). ...
... Huang, Gino, and Galinsky (2015) argue that sarcasm often induced diverse effects on its hearer. The negative sentiment inserted in it can undermine relationships and harm communication in a relationship (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015). On the other hand, they argue, the "nuance" of the sarcasm may invite "humorous situation" if the choice of words and the contexts are relevant and understood by the parties involved. ...
... Sarcasm is closely related to the concept of irony, in terms of expressing the stated meaning but the intended meaning is exactly the opposite (Gibbs, 1986). However, in transferring the metamessage to the hearer, the speaker usually inserts bitter, caustic, and hurtful criticism that is directed to an individual (Kruez & Glucksberg, 1989;Haiman, 1998;Gibbs, 1986;Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015). ...
Article
Sarcasm has been widely studied in various disciplines such as linguistics, psychology, neurology, sociology, and even cross-cultural studies. Its aggravating nature, however, often elicits various responses by the hearer. This study attempts to investigate responses to sarcasm by the characters of three Star Trek “reboot” version movies. It aims to examine responses to sarcasm and to analyze the patterns of responses to sarcastic remarks in relation to the characters’ interpersonal relationship. The data used in this research were taken from the dialogues of the movies, which were categorized into eight classes of responses: laughter, literal, zero response, smile, nonverbal, sarcasm, topic change, and metalinguistic comment. The results show that the most frequent responses conveyed by the characters were literal responses (29.41%), whereas the least frequent responses are laughter (1.96%). There is no pattern in responding to sarcastic remarks in relation to the interpersonal relationship between the interlocutors. However, strangers tend to respond in literal, zero response, and topic change. Meanwhile, close acquaintance tend to give various responses.Keywords: interpersonal relationship; pragmatics; response; sarcasm.
... It is the most typical form of verbal irony and often used to humorously convey thinly veiled disapproval, contempt, and scorn, as in the case of sarcastic criticisms. For instance, a boss catching his assistant surfing the Internet may state, ''Pat, don't work too hard!'' to express disapproval [7]. Sarcasm may generate cognitive and behavioral benefits. ...
... Sarcasm often makes salient contradictory notions. As a result, both constructing and making sense of any type of sarcasm necessitate recognizing and reconciling disparate ideas, making sarcasm a potential facilitator of creativity for both sides of the exchange [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Online Social Networks become largest platform to express people feelings, opinions, views and real time events such as live tweets etc. Example Twitter has 315 million monthly active users, eighty two percent of active users on mobile and millions of tweets are being circulated through twitter every day. Various organizations as well as companies are interested in twitter data for finding the views of various people towards their products or events. Sarcasm refers to expressing negative feelings using positive words. To detect sarcasm among those tweets is comparatively more difficult. This paper discussed various approaches to find sarcasm on twitter. With the help of sarcasm detection, companies could analyze the feelings of user about their products. This is helpful for companies, as the companies could improve their quality of product
... Kehadiran sarkasme hanya dapat diketahui melalui konteksnya dan menjurus kepada gelak tawa saat sekaligus menyodorkan sesuatu yang ironis (Filatova, 2012, p. 393). Sarkasme dapat membawa seseorang kepada kreativitas melalui pemikiran abstrak (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015) tetapi penggunaannya di dalam lingkungan atau ruang tertentu harus diperhatikan (Jeder, 2015;Yam, Christian, Wei, Liao, & Nai, 2018) karena potensial melukai orang lain dan memperuncing konflik (Huang et al., 2015). Di sisi lain, sarkasme di dalam krisis politik berguna sebagai saluran ekspresi atas rasa frustrasi dan kemarahan (Knoblock, 2016, p. 29) atas situasi yang terjadi. ...
... Kehadiran sarkasme hanya dapat diketahui melalui konteksnya dan menjurus kepada gelak tawa saat sekaligus menyodorkan sesuatu yang ironis (Filatova, 2012, p. 393). Sarkasme dapat membawa seseorang kepada kreativitas melalui pemikiran abstrak (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015) tetapi penggunaannya di dalam lingkungan atau ruang tertentu harus diperhatikan (Jeder, 2015;Yam, Christian, Wei, Liao, & Nai, 2018) karena potensial melukai orang lain dan memperuncing konflik (Huang et al., 2015). Di sisi lain, sarkasme di dalam krisis politik berguna sebagai saluran ekspresi atas rasa frustrasi dan kemarahan (Knoblock, 2016, p. 29) atas situasi yang terjadi. ...
Article
Full-text available
Penggunaan cerita pendek di dalam pembelajaran nilai-nilai antikorupsi di Indonesia masih sangat kurang. Selama ini pembelajaran nilai-nilai antikorupsi lebih banyak menggunakan buku berseri atau buku cerita dalam proses pembelajaran. Artikel ini bertujuan menyingkap potensi cerita pendek "The Pinocchio Disease" karya Seno Gumira Ajidarma sebagai bahan pembelajaran sastra yang terkait dengan pendidikan nilai-nilai antikorupsi. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan menggunakan metode analisis hermeneutika. Prosedur yang digunakan dalam pengumpulan data dan analisis meliputi (1) pembacaan teks di dalam mencari bagian tertentu yang relevan dengan fokus kajian; (2) penautan bagian tertentu di dalam teks dengan konteksnya serta relevansinya sebagai cara komunikasi dialogis antara teks dengan konteks; (3) pemberian makna atas interaksi teks dengan konteks. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, cerpen "The Pinocchio Disease" mengandung sarkasme terhadap nilai-nilai antikorupsi seperti (1) kejujuran, (2) kepedulian, (3) kedisiplinan, (4) tanggung-jawab, (5) kerja keras, (6) sederhana, dan (7) keadilan. Ini berarti bahwa cerita pendek ini cocok untuk dipergunakan di dalam pembelajaran nilai-nilai antikorupsi. Selain itu, penelitian ini juga menemukan bahwa cerpen "The Pinocchio Disease" dapat dipergunakan untuk mengembangkan Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) dan sebagai materi bacaan sastra dalam pendidikan karakter siswa.
... Studies have shown that the use of sarcasm or verbal irony, can increase creativity on both the speakers and the addressees (Huang et al., 2015), and can serve different communicative purposes such as evoking humor and diminishing or enhancing critique (Burgers et al., 2012). Thus, developing computational models that generate sarcastic messages could impact many downstream applications, such as better conversational agents and creative or humorous content creation. ...
... Leader humor is defined as a behavior enacted by a leader and directed toward a subordinate that is appraised by the subordinate as funny or causes the subordinate to experience amusement (McGraw and Warren, 2010;Cooper et al., 2018). Research has shown that leader humor has a broad range of consequences for employees, including improved job performance (Arendt, 2009), informal learning (Tremblay and Gibson, 2015), creativity (e.g., Huang et al., 2015), job satisfaction (Vecchio et al., 2009), affective commitment (Hughes and Avey, 2009), work engagement (Yam et al., 2018), leader-member exchange (Robert et al., 2015;Pundt and Venz, 2017;Cooper et al., 2018), and trust in leaders (e.g., Hughes and Avey, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the outcomes of leader humor has mainly focused on attitudinal or in-role behaviors, while proactive change-oriented behaviors have been neglected. Addressing these issues is important for scholars and practitioners to better understand how leader humor enables subordinates to behave proactively. By integrating the resource accumulation perspective and the motivational process of the Job Demands–Resources (JD-R) model, we frame leader humor as a socioemotional resource that can help employees to create other forms of resources, such as job resources (i.e., perceived organizational support). In turn, these job resources relate to employees’ motivations (i.e., work engagement) and behaviors (i.e., job crafting). We predict that leader humor is positively related to seeking resources and challenges and negatively associated with reducing demands through the serial mediating effects of followers’ perceived organizational support and work engagement. We test these hypotheses using an experimental design with a field sample in Study 1. Furthermore, we strengthen our hypotheses by replicating our results through a multiwave field study in Study 2. We consistently find: (1) a positive association between leader humor and followers’ perceived organizational support, (2) a positive link between followers’ perceived organizational support and work engagement, and (3) serial mediating effects of followers’ perceived organizational support and work engagement on the leader humor–job crafting link. The implications of the findings and future directions for research investigating leader humor and job crafting are discussed.
... answers)" (Zhou et al., 2019). Establishing connections between relevant information and integrating relevant information are two key cognitive processes in RAT (Huang et al., 2015). As mentioned before, ignored individuals has the strong motivation to reestablish relationships, which makes them attempt to search and integrate similar information between themselves and others or groups they are eager to belong to. ...
Article
Given inconsistent discoveries about the effects of social exclusion on creativity, this study divided social exclusion into different types – social rejection and social ignoration, and compared respective effects on two creative thinking forms – divergent thinking (explored through an imaging impossible events task and an Alternate Uses Task) and convergent thinking (by means of the Remote Associates Test). The results show that a “being ignored” experience significantly promotes the convergent thinking and fluency in divergent thinking; while a “being rejected” experience only contributes to the fluency in a divergent thinking task. Also, for different individuals with different types of self-construal, the effects of being rejected and being ignored on creative thinking are different. Specifically, being ignored, compared to being rejected, significantly promoted the Remote Associates Test (RAT) scores of individuals with independent self-construal. The effects of being ignored or being rejected on creative thinking (convergent thinking and divergent thinking) for individuals with interdependent self-construal are not significant. Our results suggest that individuals with independent self-construal are more vulnerable to social exclusion and benefit more from the ignored experience than the rejected experience; and individuals with interdependent self-construal seem not to be affected by social rejection or social ignoration.
... Other studies indirectly argued that they share a common cognitive ground as evidenced by the facilitation effects which have been found to occur. Research has indicated that watching comedy films enhances the success rate in insight problem solving (Isen et al., 1987), being primed with humorous texts prompts greater accuracy in solving verbal insight problems as compared to priming with non-humorous texts (Zhou et al., 2021), making or hearing humorous sarcastic remarks (as opposed to sincere remarks) is associated with a higher probability of solving insight problems (Huang et al., 2015) and being humorous specifically improves people's insight problem solving performance (while no effect has been found in relation to other types of problems) (Korovkin & Nikiforova, 2015). ...
... Alternatively, one may use lexical features (e.g., capital letters, and excessive usage of exclamatory marks) (Lunando and Purwarianti, 2013) in sarcasm detection. Recently, psychological studies have showed a strong relationship between affect/sentiment features (e.g., sadness, happiness) and sarcasm (Huang et al., 2015;Pickering et al., 2018). However, relying only on affect/sentiment features for sarcasm detection may not be effective, especially when there are no sentiment words in a sentence (Joshi et al., 2016;Riloff et al., 2013). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Automatic sarcasm detection from text is an important classification task that can help identify the actual sentiment in user-generated data, such as reviews or tweets. Despite its usefulness, sarcasm detection remains a challenging task, due to a lack of any vocal intonation or facial gestures in textual data. To date, most of the approaches to addressing the problem have relied on hand-crafted affect features, or pre-trained models of non-contextual word embeddings, such as Word2vec. However, these models inherit limitations that render them inadequate for the task of sarcasm detection. In this paper, we propose two novel deep neural network models for sarcasm detection, namely ACE 1 and ACE 2. Given as input a text passage, the models predict whether it is sarcastic (or not). Our models extend the architecture of BERT by incorporating both affective and contextual features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to directly alter BERT’s architecture and train it from scratch to build a sarcasm classifier. Extensive experiments on different datasets demonstrate that the proposed models outperform state-of-the-art models for sarcasm detection with significant margins.
... By using humor, colleagues create a friendly work environment, increase trust in their teams and further foster their IWB. Our study found a positive relation between negative humor and IWB, which is consistent with Cruthirds et al. (2013) and Huang et al. (2015). People perceive a variety of humor expressions differently (Cann and Matson, 2014), so even sarcasm, teasing or scolding could motivate employees to improve their performance (Cann et al., 2009). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of humor work climate on innovative work behavior of back-office employees in the banking industry in Russia. Design/methodology/approach Data was collected via an online survey that included scales to measure humor climate and innovative work behavior. The survey was distributed electronically among employees of one department of a bank. The sample included 104 back-office employees (response rate 60.4%). Correlation and regression analyses were used. Findings The results indicate that humor climate fosters employee innovative work behavior. Positive humor contributes to innovative work behavior more than remaining humor climate dimensions (i.e. negative humor, outgroup humor and supervisory support). Only position type (managers vs non-managers), and not gender, education and job tenure, was found to have a significant impact on employee perceptions of humor climate and innovative work behavior exhibition. Originality/value This study adds to the limited empirical evidence on the links between humor and innovative work behavior, especially at a group level. This study focused on humor climate as a multidimensional construct, whereas previous research mostly explored positive forms of humor in relation to different social aspects of the organization. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this study is first to use a validated scale to explore connections between innovative work behavior and humor climate.
... Collaborative work would be unthinkable absent people's ability to converse in order to share information and to coordinate and motivate efforts. Conversations influence work, for instance through their effects on productivity and creativity (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015;Wu, Waber, Aral, Brynjolfsson, & Pentland, 2008). At the same time, conversations are also shaped by work processes. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies the conversations behind the operations of a large-scale, online knowledge production community: Wikipedia. We investigate gender differences in the conversational styles (emotionality) and conversational domain choices (controversiality and gender stereotypicality of content) among contributors, and how these differences change as we look up the organizational hierarchy. In the general population of contributors, we expect and find significant gender differences, whereby comments and statements from women are higher-valenced, have more affective content, and are in domains that are less controversial and more female-typed. Importantly, these differences diminish or disappear among people in positions of power: female authorities converge to the behavior of their male counterparts, such that the gender gaps in valence and willingness to converse on controversial content disappear. We find greater sorting into topics according to their gender stereotypicality. We discuss mechanisms and implications for research on gender differences, leadership behavior, and conversational phenomena arising from such large-scale forms of knowledge production.
... Studies have shown that the use of sarcasm or verbal irony, can increase creativity on both the speakers and the addressees (Huang et al., 2015), and can serve different communicative purposes such as evoking humor and diminishing or enhancing critique (Burgers et al., 2012). Thus, developing computational models that generate sarcastic messages could impact many downstream applications, such as better conversational agents and creative or humorous content creation. ...
Preprint
We propose an unsupervised approach for sarcasm generation based on a non-sarcastic input sentence. Our method employs a retrieve-and-edit framework to instantiate two major characteristics of sarcasm: reversal of valence and semantic incongruity with the context which could include shared commonsense or world knowledge between the speaker and the listener. While prior works on sarcasm generation predominantly focus on context incongruity, we show that combining valence reversal and semantic incongruity based on the commonsense knowledge generates sarcasm of higher quality. Human evaluation shows that our system generates sarcasm better than human annotators 34% of the time, and better than a reinforced hybrid baseline 90% of the time.
... Most dyadic processes in the work we reviewed relate to the relational/affective (RA) conflict. For example, Huang, Gino, and Galinsky (2015) found that sarcastic comments, which could be viewed as inflows, increased conflict. The flow could be "enlarged" to identify a broader range of combative behaviors including negativity (Webb et al., 2017), anger (Halevy, 2017), threats (Halevy, Chou, & Galinsky, 2012), and demeaning treatment (Anicich et al., 2016); all of which have been shown to increase conflict. ...
... If this process is successful, the problem is solved; if unsuccessful, a continues search for other possible answers is required. An observation is that establishing links between relevant information and integrating relevant information are two key cognitive processing processes to complete the RAT (Cheng & Leung, 2013;Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015). Additionally, solving IT problems requires establishing connections between the relevant information of a problem situation and integrate information. ...
Article
Full-text available
Zhongyong thinking is a common approach adopted by Chinese people to solve problems encountered in life and work. Based on the four modes of zhongyong thinking proposed by Pang (Social Sciences in China, 1, 1980, 75), this study chooses the “neither A nor B” form, which represents the “mean” (中) char- acteristics of zhongyong thinking, called eclectic thinking, and the “both A and B” form, which reflects the “harmony” (和) feature, called integrated thinking. This study primed eclectic thinking and integrated think- ing, respectively, through self-compiled problem situations, and 150 college students and postgraduates stu- dents were the participants. Experiment 1 explored the role of the priming of zhongyong thinking in three classic creative thinking tasks: a divergent thinking test, remote association test, and insight problem-solving test. Experiment 2 further examined the effect of priming of zhongyong thinking on “market investment problems” with higher ecological validity. The findings show that priming integrated thinking can improve remote associates test performance and promote creative solutions to market investment problems, but there is no significant impact on the scores of divergent thinking test and insight problem-solving; priming eclec- tic thinking has no significant impact on any of the subsequent creative tasks. This study shows that inte- grated thinking primes cognitive processing related to information association and information integration, promoting subsequent creative tasks.
... In this framework, Fredrickson (2004) highlights the potential of positive emotions to expand people's creativity and openness. Because positive attitudes and humor tend to breed more of the same, leaders then can trigger more positive emotions in their employees by using humor (Cooper et al., 2018) while also stimulating their employees' creativity and productivity (Cooper, 2008;Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015). ...
Chapter
It is ever more important for increasingly boundary-less leaders of global businesses to take caution when using humor in mixed cultural company or in an entirely different culture. Although humor is often touted as reliable tool for effective leadership, various cultural forces–three of which we review here–may meaningfully alter employees’ humor appreciation and the effects of leaders’ humor. Overall, we do believe that humor can be an effective tool for a global leader if a leader possesses cultural intelligence and uses humor under the right contexts, with the right followers, and at the right time.
... It is often used to criticize or manipulate others in order to feel better about oneself (Dozois et al., 2013;Erickson and Feldstein, 2007). On the other hand, sarcastic humor can take the form of light-hearted bantering (Huang et al., 2015). Others have distinguished sarcasm from humor when considering intercorrelations among comic styles (e.g., fun, satire, humor, cynicism, sarcasm; Schmidt-Hidding, 1963), as humor and sarcasm did not correlate, while sarcasm and cynicism did (Ruch et al., 2018). ...
Article
Background Humour and sarcasm may be used as potential coping strategies during challenging times and to improve wellbeing. We investigated changes in humor and sarcasm use during the COVID-19 pandemic in participants with varying anxiety and depression symptom severity, and in those with versus without psychiatric disorders. Methods Online data was collected from N=661 Canadian adults during the height of COVID-19-related restrictions. Depression and anxiety symptom severity were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale. Participants were queried on current presence/absence of a psychiatric disorder, and on changes in humour and sarcasm use during compared to before the pandemic. Results Participants with any vs. no depression symptoms reported more sarcasm and humor use during the pandemic. Respondents with mild and severe vs. no anxiety symptoms reported using more sarcasm. However, those with any vs. no anxiety symptoms used less humor during the pandemic. Finally, less humor use was noted in those without vs. with a psychiatric disorder. Limitations The use of self-report measures and a sample that may limit generalizability. Conclusions Adults with depression symptoms used more humor and sarcasm as a potential coping strategy during COVID-19. While individuals with anxiety symptoms used more sarcasm, this was not true of humor, suggesting their decreased reliance on levity during a crisis. Humor use was greater in those with psychiatric disorders, perhaps due to self-preservation mechanisms during times of distress. Our findings have implications for using humor in therapy in individuals with mental health struggles and mood disorders.
... Creat. tests d) Alternate Uses Divergent thinking test [42,51] "[...] think of as many unique and unusual uses for a common object" e) Remote Associates Convergent thinking test [30,44] "find a word that [is] logically linked to the set of three words" Table 1: Examples of creative tasks and creativity tests given to crowd workers on crowdsourcing platforms. ...
Preprint
General-purpose crowdsourcing platforms are increasingly being harnessed for creative work. The platforms' potential for creative work is clearly identified, but the workers' perspectives on such work have not been extensively documented. In this paper, we uncover what the workers have to say about creative work on paid crowdsourcing platforms. Through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of a questionnaire launched on two different crowdsourcing platforms, our results revealed clear differences between the workers on the platforms in both preferences and prior experience with creative work. We identify common pitfalls with creative work on crowdsourcing platforms, provide recommendations for requesters of creative work, and discuss the meaning of our findings within the broader scope of creativity-oriented research. To the best of our knowledge, we contribute the first extensive worker-oriented study of creative work on paid crowdsourcing platforms.
... For example, meditation or simply walking at a natural pace could affect individuals' creativity by changing their internal states or external environment respectively (Ding et al., 2014;Kuo & Yeh, 2016;M€ uller, Gerasimova, & Ritter, 2016;Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014). Moreover, the use and interpretation of creative language such as humorous and sarcastic expressions could also foster creativity, because they had similar cognitive process as creativity or could activate abstract thinking (Chang, Chen, Hsu, Chan, & Chang, 2015;Chen, Chen, & Roberts, 2019;Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015;Lu, Martin, Usova, & Galinsky, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Internet language is a creative product of the rapid development of computer-mediated communication. The present study was to investigate whether the use of Internet language enhances creative problem solving. In Study 1, sixty-two selected participants were equally divided into two groups according to their use experience of Chinese Internet language, and then both more and less experienced groups were asked to complete Chinese remote associates test and Chinese chengyu riddles. Results showed that the more experienced group performed significantly better in both the creative tasks. In Study 2, forty-six participants were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was asked to learn Chinese Internet Language, while the control group was asked to learn scientific terminology. Two groups completed the aforementioned creative tasks in pretest and post-test. Results showed that the interaction between the group and test order was significant in Chinese chengyu riddle solving, in which the experimental group had a significantly higher average score in post-test than pretest. And there was no difference for the control group. These findings supported that Internet language use benefited creative problem solving, and it might be a convenient way in the practice of promoting creativity.
... Certain kinds of humour (e.g. sarcasm) would require individuals to integrate remote ideas, which is related to creativity (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015). James et al. (1999) suggested that MC might be the outcome of the interaction of negative target, negative emotion, and concept generation (also see . ...
Article
Three studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between motivation and malevolent creativity (MC). In Study 1, participants completed motivation scales and a measure of MC in online formats. Results showed that approach motivation accurately predicted MC, whereas avoidance motivation was negatively related to MC. In Study 2, participants solved MC problems in either approach or avoidance motivation conditions. Analyses revealed higher MC in the approach than in the avoidance motivation condition. In Study 3, participants were further asked to solve MC problems in one of the following conditions: approach-success/approach-failure/avoidance-success/avoidance-failure. The beneficial effects of approach motivation over avoidance motivation were again observed. Moreover, the experience of 'no closure' (failure in doing something) enhanced individual MC performance and counteracted the negative impact of avoidance motivation on MC. These findings indicate that individual MC performance might be enhanced by approach motivation and the experience of 'no closure'.
... Eventually, they could develop a paradoxical cognitive framework across the organization Putnam et al., 2016). For instance, when managers communicate with subordinates using paradoxical characteristic language, such as irony, they enhance their subordinates' abstract and complex thinking skills and enable their subordinates' ability to integrate their superiors' paradoxical requirements (Huang et al., 2015;Ma and Tsui, 2015). In the long-term, members within the entire organization would learn how to cope with the paradoxical requirements by adopting the paradoxical cognitive model, rather than choosing one of the paradoxical elements or evading contradictions; this shared paradox cognitive model belongs to the shared mental model at the collective level. ...
Article
Purpose In the face of external paradoxical requirements, the cognitive framework of managers and employees use to perceive, interpret and reconstruct information is important to ease anxiety and improve job performance. The Yin-Yang balancing of eastern philosophical thought is particularly good at explaining and predicting changes and conflict environments. For this reason, this study aims to propose the eastern construction of the paradoxical cognitive framework based on the Yin-Yang balancing theory and its antecedent framework. Design/methodology/approach This paper contrasts the similarity and differences between Chinese and Western philosophy’s thoughts on paradoxes. On this basis, the eastern construction of the paradoxical cognitive framework is proposed. Then, the paper puts forward the antecedent framework of managers’ cognitive framework and employees’ paradoxical cognitive framework. Findings This paper proposes the eastern construction of the paradoxical cognitive framework includes the following three dimensions: the unity-in-diversity of paradoxical elements, the asymmetric balance of paradoxical elements and mutual transformation of paradoxical elements. In addition, this paper proposes an antecedent framework of the eastern construction of the paradoxical cognitive framework – the paradoxical requirement of organizational environment exerts a direct impact on managers’ and employees’ paradoxical cognitive framework; managers’ paradoxical cognitive framework has a positive impact on paradoxical leadership; paradoxical leadership exerts an indirect impact on employees’ paradoxical cognitive framework through the collective paradoxical cognitive framework; paradoxical leadership directly affects employees’ paradoxical cognitive framework. Research limitations/implications This paper focuses on comparing the similarities and differences of the individual paradoxical cognitive framework in Chinese and Western cultures and proposes the eastern construction of the paradoxical cognitive framework and its antecedent framework. Future research needs to further verify the theoretical framework proposed in this paper. Originality/value This paper makes a detailed comparison of the paradox views in Chinese and Western philosophy. It is the first to propose the eastern construction of the paradoxical cognitive framework and its antecedent framework, laying a theoretical foundation for future empirical research.
... This work advances the broader literature on the positive functions of intrapersonal contradictory experiences. It goes beyond the existing work by demonstrating that not only do contradictions within the mind (e.g., pursuing conflicting goals) or between the mind and verbal expressions (e.g., being sarcastic through contradictory statements) trigger adaptive actions (e.g., Gino & Wiltermuth, 2014;Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015;Kleiman & Hassin, 2013;Tadmor, Galinsky, & Maddux, 2012), contradictions between the mind and body can serve similar functions, that is, helping individuals survive and flourish in atypical situations through creativity. In addition, a mechanism examined or indicated in much of the work on intrapersonal contradiction is the inclination to consider alternative, unusual, or even opposing ideas and to embrace the ambiguity and multifacetedness of creativity-related problems. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mind–body dissonance (MBD) is the psychological experience of one’s bodily expressions contradicting one’s mental states. Across four experiments (total N = 887), the current research proposes and demonstrates that MBD can enhance creativity by facilitating an atypicality mind-set. First, two different instantiations of MBD (i.e., assuming a high-power/low-power role while adopting a constricted/expansive posture, or recalling a happy/sad memory while frowning/smiling) increased performance on creative association, insight, and generation tasks (Experiments 1 and 2). A third study showed that an atypicality mind-set was an underlying mechanism for the creativity effect (Experiment 3). Finally, the frequency of past MBD experiences was found to reduce MBD’s creativity effect (Experiment 4). The present research offers evidence for the positive functions of bodily expressions that contradict mental states and highlights the significance of understanding the interactive effects of psychological states and their physical analogues in studying creativity.
... While the majority of studies focus on sentiments such as positive and negative remarks, the role of persuasive communication facets such as sarcasm is largely overlooked in current text mining. Given that sarcasm is regarded as a trait which attracts a high level of attention (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015), it is imperative to understand how this alluring nature of sarcasm can contribute to virality in social media during a crisis event. Even though there are computational models to detect and classify sarcastic expressions, studies related to more in-depth exploration of their impact and virality are limited. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sarcasm in verbal and nonverbal communication is known to attract higher attention and create deeper influence than other negative responses. Many people are adept at including sarcasm in written communication thus sarcastic comments have the potential to stimulate the virality of social media content. Although diverse computational approaches have been used to detect sarcasm in social media, the use of text mining to explore the influential role of sarcasm in spreading negative content is limited. Using tweets during a service disruption of a leading Australian organization as a case study, we explore this phenomenon using a text mining framework with a combination of statistical modeling and natural language processing (NLP) techniques. Our work targets two main outcomes: the quantification of the influence of sarcasm and the exploration of the change in topical relationships in the conversations over time. We found that sarcastic expressions during the service disruption are higher than on regular days and negative sarcastic tweets attract significantly higher social media responses when compared to literal negative expressions. The content analysis showed that consumers initially complaining sarcastically about the outage tended to eventually widen the negative sarcasm in a cascading effect towards the organization's internal issues and strategies. Organizations could utilize such insights to enable proactive decision‐making during crisis situations. Moreover, detailed exploration of these impacts would elevate the current text mining applications, to better understand the impact of sarcasm by stakeholders expressed in a social media environment, which can significantly affect the reputation and goodwill of an organization. This article is categorized under: Technologies > Data Preprocessing Ensemble Methods > Text Mining Application Areas > Industry Specific Applications Fundamental Concepts of Data and Knowledge > Big Data Mining
... In other contexts such mischievous identity performances may turn the familiar upside down. Indeed, as these forms of humour often involve a complex shifting between two different framings (the expected framing of social reality and an alternative), they can create new meanings (Ritchie, 2005) and increase creativity (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015). Again this hints at the serious side to humour and the significance of Orwell's (1945) observation that "every joke is a tiny revolution". ...
Article
Prejudice and discrimination are not funny. Yet ‘jokes' denigrating minority groups abound and are socially consequential. We contribute to the literature on intergroup humour through considering how minority group members may themselves use humour in their encounters with majority group members. Below, we consider minority group members' experiences of prejudicial intergroup encounters and their interaction management strategies. We then consider research on intergroup humour before reporting interview data originating from a minority group subject to much everyday discrimination and disparagement: Hungarian Roma. In particular, we explore how minority group members report using humour so as to allow themselves a degree of control over their interactions with majority group members. In so doing, we contribute to the literature on minority group members' interaction management strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... An environment in which opposing viewpoints challenge one another might lead to "creative abrasion," which in turn could foster innovation (Hill, Brandeau, Truelove, & Lineback, 2014;Hirschberg, 1999). For example, Connolly and colleagues (1990) found that groups with a critical confederate (i.e., a "devil's advocate") generated more ideas than groups with a supportive confederate (see also De Dreu & West, 2001;Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015;Janis, 1972;Nemeth, Brown, & Rogers, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Long-standing wisdom holds that criticism is antithetical to effective brainstorming because it incites intragroup conflict. However, a number of recent studies have challenged this assumption, suggesting that criticism might actually enhance creativity in brainstorming by fostering divergent thinking. Our paper reconciles these perspectives with new theory and a multimethod investigation to explain when and why criticism promotes creativity in brainstorming. We propose that a cooperative social context allows criticism to be construed positively, spurring creativity without inciting intragroup conflict, whereas a competitive social context makes criticism more divisive, leading to intragroup conflict and a corresponding reduction in creativity. We found support for this theory from a field experiment involving 100 group brainstorming sessions with actual stakeholders in a controversial urban planning project. In a cooperative context, instructions encouraging criticism yielded more ideas and more creative ideas, whereas in a competitive context, encouraging criticism yielded fewer ideas and less creative ideas. We replicated this finding in a lab study involving brainstorming in the context of a union-management negotiation scenario, which allowed us to hold constant the nature of the criticism. Taken together, our findings suggest that the optimal context for creativity in brainstorming is a cooperative one in which criticism occurs, but is interpreted constructively because the brainstorming parties perceive their goals as aligned.
Article
We tested sarcasm production and identification across original communicators in a spontaneously produced conversational setting, including testing the role of synchronous movement on sarcasm production and identification. Before communicating, stranger dyads participated in either a synchronous or nonsynchronous movement task. They then completed a task designed to elicit sarcasm, although no instruction to produce sarcastic content was provided. After communicating, participants immediately reviewed their conversations and identified their own and their addressees’ sarcastic utterances. No definition of sarcasm was provided. We found that participants who had moved synchronously identified more sarcasm in their own productions. They did not identify more sarcasm in their partner’s productions however. We also discovered that most identifications of sarcasm did not align across conversational participants, and neither did those of outside observers. People reported sarcasm in their addressees commensurate with the sarcasm they produced, rather than the sarcasm that their addressees self-reported. There were numerous cases of sarchasm, where producers’ intended sarcasm was not identified by addressees.
Article
Given its capacity to cultivate a range of positive outcomes in the workplace, humor has been recognized as a valuable tool for leadership purposes. However, the theoretical understanding of leader humor remains relatively limited and the mechanism through which it influences follower outcomes has not been clearly identified. Drawing on signaling theory, we developed and empirically tested a model which delineates the relationship between leader humor and a specific follower behavior – proactive feedback seeking. We collected data from 304 employees and their respective leaders working in a large Canadian retail organization. Results of our analyses indicate that leader humor can impact subordinate feedback-seeking behavior via its influence on subordinates’ affect-based and cognition-based trust in the leader.
Article
Brands are increasingly embracing social activism and adopting positions on controversial issues, prompting some consumers to react by making uncivil comments on social media. How should brands reply to such incivility while maintaining their positions and protecting their reputations? Two common types of reply include either a sarcastic or an assertive tone, but the effects of these types of communication on consumers’ attitudes toward brands remain largely unexplored. Results from a series of five studies exploring different causes (LGBT+ phobia, sexism, and racial equity) show that consumers evaluate brands that reply using an assertive tone more favorably than those using a sarcastic tone, which can be partially explained by the perceived aggressiveness of sarcasm. Additionally, support for a brand's stance acts as a boundary condition on the effect the type of reply adopted by the brand has on consumer attitudes toward the brand. So, the more someone supports a brand's stance, the less their perception of aggressiveness will negatively influence their attitude to that brand. We discuss the implications of these findings for marketing theory and practice.
Article
Most research of figurative language production examines naturalistic discourse. However, laboratory studies of elicited figurative language production are useful because they provide insight into whether specific individual differences are associated with differences in figurative language production ability. In this sense, elicited figurative language production studies mirror the approach many studies of figurative language processing and comprehension take. Accordingly, this study is an investigation into perceptions of novelty and mirth associated with figurative language production. Data in this study come from elicited figurative language production tasks for metaphorical comparisons and sarcastic replies, which were rated based on perceptions of novelty and mirth as well as conceptual distance (metaphors) and incongruity (sarcastic replies). Two individual differences, Need for Cognition and Abstract Thinking, along with other differences such as prompt type and production time were used to predict the novelty and mirth ratings. The results demonstrate a significant effect of Need for Cognition on metaphors but not for sarcastic replies, whereas no significant effects were observed for Abstract Thinking. Moreover, longer production times were associated with higher ratings for both metaphors and sarcastic replies. Finally, the results highlighted the manner in which prompt characteristics influenced participants’ responses, especially so for sarcastic replies.
Article
Although humor significantly shapes interpersonal perception and behavior, it historically has been surprisingly absent from much of the psychology literature. However, there have been recent advances in humor research which have provided us with two key insights. First, humor is intricately linked with power. Individuals who use humor well can elevate, maintain, and solidify their position in the social hierarchy. Second, attempting to use humor is risky. Individuals whose humor attempts are perceived as offensive and inappropriate can lose status and their ability to influence others effectively. This review provides theoretical and practical insights on how humor shapes the social hierarchy, while outlining important areas for future research.
Article
Este artículo de reflexión procura un acercamiento a aquellos factores que pueden detonar el paso del humor/ironía a la ofensa en contextos educativos. Se basa en dos investigaciones de corte histórico-hermenéutico que indagan por el lugar de la ironía y el humor del docente, al igual que sus efectos perlocutivos en los estudiantes, a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas. En el marco de una perspectiva pragmalingüística que concibe a la ironía como dispositivo retórico, sociodiscursivo, carnavalizante y pedagógico-didáctico, y al humor como un tipo de comunicación non bona fide apoyada en la incongruencia, este texto explora seis escenarios de discusión que podrían explicar esa borrosa línea entre la risa y la ofensa, a saber: la construcción de una comunidad discursiva empática, la vigilancia de una informatividad desatada, la lectura de horizontes de expectativas, el respeto por una memoria sacralizada, la cautela por preservar lo privado y la intuición de una urgencia vital superada. Tales factores confluyen en la necesidad de una actitud de tacto y prudencia por parte del docente que cultive la conciencia del lenguaje y el principio del Kayrós ante la condición non bona fide de estos fenómenos sociodiscursivos. En suma, la reflexión apuesta por una diferencia entre el reír con (humor/ ironía que consigue efectos pedagógico-didácticos en el aula) y el reír de (fenómeno fallido proclive a la ofensa y el irrespeto).
Article
Este artículo se deriva de un proyecto de investigación que indaga por las funciones y los efectos perlocutivos de la ironía verbal en el aula, a partir del diálogo directo con 104 profesores de Educación Básica Secundaria y Media Vocacional en colegios oficiales del departamento del Quindío. A partir de un diseño metodológico fundamentalmente cualitativo, de corte histórico-hermenéutico, e iluminado por una perspectiva pragmático-socio-discursiva de la ironía verbal, se analizan las principales funciones de la ironía y los efectos perlocutivos de la ironía en el aula de educación básica y media vocacional. Se proyectan algunas implicaciones pedagógico-didácticas sobre la función y los efectos de la ironía en el aula, en diálogo con una definición de ironía como estrategia retórica, socio-discursiva, carnavalizante y pedagógico-didáctica para el diálogo constructivo con las nuevas generaciones.
Article
emotive language, learning, interaction, virtual
Article
The meaning of success in conversation depends on people’s goals. Often, individuals pursue multiple goals simultaneously, such as establishing shared understanding, making a favorable impression, and persuading a conversation partner. In this article, we introduce a novel theoretical framework, the Conversational Circumplex, to classify conversational motives along two key dimensions: 1) Informational: the extent to which a speaker’s motive focuses on giving and/or receiving accurate information and 2) Relational: the extent to which a speaker’s motive focuses on building the relationship. We use the conversational circumplex to underscore the multiplicity of conversational goals that people hold, and highlight the potential for individuals to have conflicting conversational goals (both intrapersonally and interpersonally) that make successful conversation a difficult challenge.
Article
Employing benign violation theory as a lens, this study (N = 148) explored full-time employees’ perceptions of supervisors’ likelihood to use sarcasm and engagement in self-disparaging and vulgar language based humor and verbal aggression (VA) in the workplace. In part, findings revealed that employees’ perceptions of supervisors’ VA positively related to perceptions of supervisors’ likelihood to use sarcasm and inappropriate humor engagement.
Article
Human creativity refers to the cognitive capacity to produce new and valuable information. Over a long period of time, many people have been fascinated by the question of how creativity emerges in our brain and how it can be enhanced. Recently, a growing number of studies have revealed that some types of environmental stimuli can enhance human creativity. Further, specific temporal dynamics of cognitive processes are crucial for generating creative ideas. However, how the temporal dynamics of creativity are influenced by the environment remains unclear. Through a literature review of neural and psychological research, this study aimed to elucidate the environmental settings that enhance cognitive performance. We found that each stage of the temporal dynamics of creativity may be differently correlated with neural function. Further, environmental factors may have various, and sometimes contrasting, effects on the temporal dynamics of creativity. We propose a hypothesis that the optimal environmental condition varies depending on the stages of temporal dynamics since each stage requires different cognitive processes. However, there is a need for future studies to elucidate how creativity is modulated by social conditions and the physical environment as well as whether there are differences in the ideal environment for individual and group creativity. Nonetheless, this is the first study to clarify the influence of environmental settings on the temporal dynamics of creativity from the perspective of neuroscience and psychology.
Article
This work investigates self-promotion partitioning, a strategy used in group conversations by self-promoters trying to overcome the self-promotion dilemma – a desire to share self-enhancing information without appearing to be overtly bragging. Self-promotion partitioning occurs when individuals partition their audience by addressing one or more specific recipients, deliberately turning unaddressed recipients into “bystanders.” Across a series of experiments and the analysis of secondary data, we show people disproportionally favor partitioning their audience when they face the self-promotion dilemma, both in face-to-face conversations and on social media platforms. They do so because they expect bystanders to believe they were not intended recipients, and in turn be less likely to see the self-promoter as overtly bragging, resulting in a more favorable impression. We also identify an important boundary condition, audience size; when partitioning creates a single bystander, the self-promoter worries partitioning would make the lone bystander feel excluded and ultimately hurt impressions.
Article
Although the consequences of leader humor have been well documented, limited research attention has been devoted to its antecedents. The current research addresses this important issue by exploring whether and when an individual characteristic (i.e., traditionality) influences leader humor behavior. Based on the relational process model of humor and data from one multiwave, multisource field study, we find that leaders scoring low on traditionality are more likely to express humor with their followers, which in turn affects followers’ job performance. Moreover, the mediating effect of leader humor behavior on the link between leader traditionality and employee job performance is stronger when the genders of the leader and subordinates differ. We discuss the implications of the findings and future directions for research concerning the antecedents of leader humor.
Book
Este libro presenta la trayectoria investigativa del Doctorado en Ciencias de la Educación en las universidades del Quindío, Tecnológica de Pereira y Tolima, a través de territorios textuales, culturales, lingüísticos, historiográficos y políticos. Es también un llamado a la reflexión sobre la educación y sobre la función interpretativa que deben cumplir los intelectuales en este campo, respecto al cúmulo de representaciones que configuran el discurso educativo. Así, estos textos se convierten en una postura teórica y crítica, que invita al lector a dejarse conducir por los variados artículos investigativos que dan cuenta de los imaginarios regionales educativos. En síntesis, este libro está pensado para un lector activo, crítico, capaz de descubrir los múltiples registros que pueden darse en el diálogo de las Ciencias de la Educación.
Article
Long-standing wisdom holds that criticism is antithetical to effective brainstorming because it incites intragroup conflict. However, a number of recent studies have challenged this assumption, suggesting that criticism might actually enhance creativity in brainstorming by fostering divergent thinking. Our paper reconciles these perspectives with new theory and a multimethod investigation to explain when and why criticism promotes creativity in brainstorming. We propose that a cooperative social context allows criticism to be construed positively, spurring creativity without inciting intragroup conflict, whereas a competitive social context makes criticism more divisive, leading to intragroup conflict and a corresponding reduction in creativity. We found support for this theory from a field experiment involving 100 group brainstorming sessions with actual stakeholders in a controversial urban planning project. In a cooperative context, instructions encouraging criticism yielded more ideas and more creative ideas, whereas in a competitive context, encouraging criticism yielded fewer ideas and less creative ideas. We replicated this finding in a laboratory study involving brainstorming in the context of a union-management negotiation scenario, which allowed us to hold constant the nature of the criticism. Taken together, our findings suggest that the optimal context for creativity in brainstorming is a cooperative one in which criticism occurs but is interpreted constructively because the brainstorming parties perceive their goals as aligned.
Article
Prior studies on humor have primarily focused on the effects of either leader or subordinate humor styles and thus have neglected the influence of (dis)similarity in humor styles between supervisor and subordinate. We draw on the similarity-attraction perspective to suggest that (dis)similarity in supervisor’s and subordinate’s affiliative and aggressive humor influences workplace energy via the leader-member exchange (LMX). Results show that LMX is higher when leader and subordinate both display high-affiliative and low-aggressive humor behaviors. Furthermore, LMX is higher when a low-affiliative humor subordinate is paired with a high-affiliative humor leader and when a high-aggressive humor subordinate is paired with a low-aggressive humor leader. Our findings reveal that LMX mediated the relationship between (dis)similarity in humor styles and employee energy. Taken together, our results contribute to the understanding of the effects of similarity and dissimilarity in humor behaviors in energic relational processes.
Article
Full-text available
As individuals are given wider latitude to openly practice and express their faith at work, it is likely that believers will spend at least part of their working life actively thinking about God. Yet, despite the central role that belief in God plays in people’s lives, research has given little attention to the impact of actively thinking of God on task performance. The current research investigates the relationship between monotheistic believers’ thinking about God and creativity. We conducted six studies using different populations, mixed methods and complementary measures of creativity. Our results, as well as meta-analyses of our experimental data, provide converging evidence that believers are less creative than non-believers and this effect is strengthened when they are actively thinking about God. Thinking about God activates the mindset of passive followership which inhibits the creativity of believers. We discuss potential implications for future research on religiosity, creativity and followership.
Article
Although the consequences of leader humor on subordinates have been well documented, the important issues of how and when leader humor affects employees’ attitudes or behaviors beyond the workplace have received limited attention. We integrate the humor literature with spillover-crossover theory to address the gap regarding the implications of leader humor in the nonwork domain. By performing an experiment and two field studies involving employee-spouse dyads, we consistently find 1) a positive association between leader humor and followers’ job satisfaction, 2) a spillover effect of followers’ job satisfaction on subordinates’ work-to-family enrichment (WFE) and a crossover effect of subordinates’ WFE on their spouses’ marital satisfaction, 3) serial mediating effects of followers’ job satisfaction and WFE on the leader humor-spouses’ marital satisfaction link, and 4) a stronger positive indirect effect of leader humor on spouse’ marital satisfaction via followers’ job satisfaction and WFE when followers’ perceived organizational interpersonal harmony is low. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and suggest practical implications for developing leader humor to enhance employee well-being.
Article
Despite the continuous increase in empirical research on leader humor, the important issue of how and when leader humor affects employees’ interpersonal, proactive behaviors in the form of upward voice has largely been overlooked. Drawing on relational process model of humor and data from one multiwave, multisource field study and one experimental field study, we find that the positive effects of leader humor on upward voice behavior can be accounted for by both supervisor–subordinate nonwork ties (i.e., supervisor–subordinate guanxi) and supervisor–subordinate work ties (i.e., leader–member exchange). The indirect effects of both supervisor–subordinate guanxi and leader–member exchange on the relationship between leader humor and upward voice behavior are stronger when employees score low on traditionality. These results shed light on the role of leader humor in promoting the bottom–up flow of potentially critical information in organizations through high-quality relationships with followers and provide insights into who will benefit more from humor in leadership.
Article
Full-text available
Explored how psychological distance influences moral judgment and found that more extreme moral appraisals were given to distal behaviors rather than proximal behaviors. Contrary to Eyal et al., the current paper presents converging evidence showing that moral judgments become more extreme at lowerlevel construals compared to higher-level construals. In four experiments using two different priming techniques, we manipulated construal levels and assessed their effects on moral judgment. High-level consturals elicited less moral outrage toward transgressions and less positive ratings of virtuous behaviors than low-level construals. A replication study was also conducted to reconcile the inconsistencies between the current results and those of Eyal et al. Possible explanations for the different results between two studies are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The leader-member exchange (LMX) literature is reviewed using meta-analysis. Relationships between LMX and its correlates are examined, as are issues related to the LMX construct, including measurement and leader-member agreement. Results suggest significant relationships between LMX and job performance, satisfaction with supervision, overall satisfaction, commitment, role conflict, role clarity, member competence, and turnover intentions. The relationship between LMX and actual turnover was not significant. Leader and member LMX perceptions were only moderately related. Partial support was found for measurement instrument and perspective (i.e., leader vs. member) as moderators of the relationships between LMX and its correlates. Meta-analysis showed that the LMX7 (7-item LMX) measure has the soundest psychometric properties of all instruments and that LMX is congruent with numerous empirical relationships associated with transformational leadership.
Article
Full-text available
In the context of texts that depicted either a minimally confrontational conversation (study 1) or a more confrontational argument (study 2) with a close friend, the use of ironic criticism was rated as being more humorous, polite, and positive, yet also as more sarcastic and mocking than direct criticism. Although our results were consistent with those reported previously, the results of both studies did not support two theoretical explanations of the function ironic criticism. We were unable to demonstrate that participant interpretation of ironic criticism was significantly influenced by the magnitude of the contrast created between criticism and the context in which the criticism is embedded, or by the focus of attention to either speaker's intent or the impression. Two novel findings emerged. First, ironic expression (but not direct expression) caused failed expectations targeted by criticism to appear less negative. Second, we found greater concordance between ratings of speaker intention and social impression for ratings of ironic expression than for directly expressed criticism.
Article
Full-text available
The present research suggests that people adjust their mental response scales to an object's distance and construal level. People make use of wider response categories when they judge distant and abstract as compared with close and concrete stimuli. Across five experiments, participants worked on visual and verbal estimation problems (e.g., length or quantity judgments). Answers were provided in interval format, and differences between minimal and maximal estimates served as a measure of response category width. When target objects were framed as spatially distant rather than close (Studies 1 and 3), as unlikely rather than likely (Study 2), and as abstract rather than concrete (Study 4), category widths increased. Similarly, priming a high-level rather than a low-level mindset yielded wider interval estimates (Study 5). The general discussion highlights the usefulness of category width as a basic measure of construal level and as a theoretical link between various branches of construal-level theory.
Article
Full-text available
The ability of humans to display bodily expressions that contradict mental states is an important developmental adaptation. The authors propose that mind–body dissonance, which occurs when bodily displayed expressions contradict mentally experienced states, signals that the environment is unusual and that boundaries of cognitive categories should be expanded to embrace atypical exemplars. Four experiments found that mind–body dissonance increases a sense of incoherence and leads to category expansion. Recalling a happy memory while frowning or a sad event while smiling, listening to sad music while smiling or happy music while frowning, and assuming an expansive posture while being in a low-power role or a constricted posture while being in a high-power role all led to higher category inclusiveness compared to when the body and mind were coherent. The ability to display bodily expressions that contradict mental states may be an important foundation for the capacity of humans to embrace atypical ideas.
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports data on the reliability and ex ternal validity of the Construct Role Repertory Test (Rep Test). Results show that test scores were moderately internally consistent; scores exhibited significant correlations with other forms of cogni tive functioning, including American College Test ing scores in science and mathematics. Based on these results, suggestions for future users of the in strument are presented in the context of test modi fication. Use within physical processing environ ments, in addition to the usual social environments, is also advocated.
Article
Full-text available
In a longitudinal study, we found that higher group performance was associated with a particular pattern of conflict. Teams performing well were characterized by low but increasing levels of process conflict, low levels of relationship conflict, with a rise near project deadlines, and moderate levels of task conflict at the midpoint of group interaction. The members of teams with this ideal conflict profile had similar pre-established value systems, high levels of trust and respect, and open discussion norms around conflict during the middle stages of their interaction.
Article
Full-text available
Although research on trust in an organizational context has advanced considerably in recent years, the literature has yet to produce a set of generalizable propositions that inform our understanding of the organization and coordination of work. We propose that conceptualizing trust as an organizing principle is a powerful way of integrating the diverse trust literature and distilling generalizable implications for how trust affects organizing. We develop the notion of trust as an organizing principle by specifying structuring and mobilizing as two sets of causal pathways through which trust influences several important properties of organizations. We further describe specific mechanisms within structuring and mobilizing that influence interaction patterns and organizational processes. The principal aim of the framework is to advance the literature by connecting the psychological and sociological micro-foundations of trust with the macro-bases of organizing. The paper concludes by demonstrating how the framework can be applied to yield novel insights into traditional views of organizations and to stimulate original and innovative avenues of organizational research that consider both the benefits and downsides of trust.
Article
Full-text available
Construal level theory posits a bidirectional relationship between physical (geographical) distance and levels of mental representation, whereby larger magnitudes of distance trigger higher levels of mental representation and higher levels of mental representation increase perceptions of distance. In the current article, we review research that supports a construal level theory approach to physical distance. After briefly describing the basic tenets of construal level theory, we review factors that influence perceptions of distance in physical space as well as effects of physical distance on mental representation, judgment, and behavior that are consistent with this framework. We close by discussing future directions to be explored.
Article
Full-text available
A theoretical framework for understanding creativity in a complex social setting, such as an organization, is developed. Organizational creativity is defined as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The starting point for the theoretical development is provided by the interactionist model of creative behavior developed by Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1989). This model and supporting literature on creative behavior and organizational innovation are used to develop an interactional framework for organizational creativity. The theoretical framework is summarized by 3 propositions that can effectively guide the development of testable hypotheses.
Article
This study adopted an interactional approach to understanding how 2 of the Five-Factor traits, openness to experience and conscientiousness, are related to creative behavior in the workplace. Openness to experience is theorized to result in high levels of creative behavior and conscientiousness is theorized to result in low levels of creative behavior when the situation allows for the manifestation of the trait influences. More specifically, the authors hypothesized that openness to experience would result in high levels of creative behavior if feedback valence were positive and job holders were presented with a heuristic task that allowed them to be creative. The authors also hypothesized that conscientiousness would result in low levels of creative behavior if supervisors engaged in close monitoring and coworkers were unsupportive. The authors tested their hypotheses in a sample of office workers, and 5 out of the 6 hypotheses were supported.
Chapter
From a psychological perspective, humor is essentially a positive emotion called mirth, which is typically elicited in social contexts by a cognitive appraisal process involving the perception of playful, nonserious incongruity, and which is expressed by the facial and vocal behavior of laughter. In social interactions, humor takes on many different forms, including canned jokes, spontaneous witticisms, and unintentionally funny utterances and actions. Psychological functions of humor include the cognitive and social benefits of the positive emotion of mirth, and its uses as a mode of social communication and influence, and as a way of relieving tension, regulating emotions, and coping with stress. Popular conceptions of laughter have changed dramatically over the past two or three centuries, from being viewed as essentially aggressive and somewhat socially inappropriate to being seen as positive, psychologically, and physically healthy, and socially desirable. The meaning of the word humor has also evolved from a narrow focus on benign and sympathetic sources of mirth distinguished from more aggressive types of wit, to its use as a broad umbrella term to refer to all sources of laughter. Although humor has important psychological functions and touches on all branches of psychology, and there is a sizable and growing research literature on the topic, mainstream psychology has paid relatively little attention to it until now.
Book
Research on humor is carried out in a number of areas in psychology, including the cognitive (What makes something funny?), developmental (when do we develop a sense of humor?), and social (how is humor used in social interactions?) Although there is enough interest in the area to have spawned several societies, the literature is dispersed in a number of primary journals, with little in the way of integration of the material into a book. Dr. Martin is one of the best known researchers in the area, and his research goes across subdisciplines in psychology to be of wide appeal. This is a singly authored monograph that provides in one source, a summary of information researchers might wish to know about research into the psychology of humor. The material is scholarly, but the presentation of the material is suitable for people unfamiliar with the subject-making the book suitable for use for advanced undergraduate and graduate level courses on the psychology of humor-which have not had a textbook source.
Article
Emotional ambivalence, or the simultaneous experience of positive and negative emotions, is an underexplored emotional state in organizations. The results from two laboratory experiments demonstrate that individuals experiencing emotional ambivalence are better at recognizing unusual relationships between concepts, therefore showing an ability believed to be important to organizational creativity. Informational theories of emotion suggest that individuals interpret emotional ambivalence, which is perceived to be an unusual emotional experience, as signaling they are in an unusual environment, which in turn increases sensitivity to unusual associations. These results yield important implications regarding how to influence creative performance at work.
Article
Three benefits of humor in the workplace are explored: its promotion of health, mental flexibility, and smooth social relations.
Article
In this article we develop a theoretical framework for understanding creativity in complex social settings. We define organizational creativity as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The starting point for our theoretical development is provided by the interactionist model of creative behavior developed by Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1989). This model and supporting literature on creative behavior and organizational innovation are used to develop an interactional framework for organizational creativity. The theoretical framework is summarized by three propositions that can effectively guide the development of testable hypotheses.
Article
This essay describes differences between papers that contain some theory rather than no theory. There is little agreement about what constitutes strong versus weak theory in the social sciences, but there is more consensus that references, data, variables, diagrams, and hypotheses are not theory. Despite this consensus, however, authors routinely use these five elements in lieu of theory. We explain how each of these five elements can be confused with theory and how to avoid such confusion. By making this consensus explicit, we hope to help authors avoid some of the most common and easily averted problems that lead readers to view papers as having inadequate theory. We then discuss how journals might facilitate the publication of stronger theory. We suggest that if the field is serious about producing stronger theory, journals need to reconsider their empirical requirements. We argue that journals ought to be more receptive to papers that test part rather than all of a theory and use illustrative rather than definitive data.
Article
What is the nature of the extremely negative attitudes expressed by so many employees toward their organizations? To respond to this question, we introduce the concept of organizational cynicism. We review the literature from several disciplines on this concept and suggest that organizational cynicism is an attitude composed of beliefs, affect, and behavioral tendencies toward an organization. Following our review and conceptualization, we derive implications of this concept and propose a research agenda for organizational cynicism.
Article
This study examines how trust, connectivity and thriving drive employees' innovative behaviors in the workplace. Using a sample of one hundred and seventy two employees across a variety of jobs and industries, we investigated the relationship between trust, connectivity (both measured at Time 1), thriving and innovative work behaviors (both measured at Time 2). Trust and connectivity were hypothesized to create a nurturing environment that enables people to thrive and be innovative in their work. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) indicate a sequential mediation model in which connectivity mediates the relationship between trust and thriving, and thriving mediates the relationship between connectivity and innovative behaviors. The theoretical and practical implications for employee thriving and innovative behaviors at work are discussed.
Article
Abstract In recent years, an increasingly large body of research has examined the common situation in which one thing is said in order to express another. Although research has examined the understanding of figurative language such as metaphor in some depth, sarcasm has been less studied. Understanding sarcasm requires considering social and cultural factors, which are often ignored in models of language. We report diverse experiments that point to the same conclusions: Sarcastic interpretation occurs early in processing, with gender and social-cultural factors associated with class playing an important role. These data support interactive models of nonliteral language processing, in which social and cultural factors serve as early-acting constraints on interpretation.
Article
We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).
Article
In this article, we examine the discourse goals that are accomplished by the use of eight forms of figurative language: hyperbole, idiom, indirect request, irony, understatement, metaphor, rhetorical question, and simile. Subjects were asked to provide reasons why they would use a particular figure of speech. Based on their responses, a discourse goal taxonomy that includes each of the eight figures was developed. The goal taxonomy indicates that each figure of speech is used to accomplish a unique constellation of communicative goals. The degree of goal overlap between the eight forms was also calculated, and the results provide support for theoretical claims about the relatedness of certain figures. Taken together, the goal taxonomy and overlap scores broaden our understanding of functional and theoretical differences between the various kinds of figurative language.
Article
We analyze the intertwinings of jocular and sarcastic transactions with solidary and authority relationships to demonstrate both how those transactions are contextualized by extant relationships and how they modify and affirm relationships. Jocularity is most commonly contextualized by solidary relationships and in turn invites or affirms solidary relationships. Sarcasm may be contextualized by either a solidary or authority relationship. Sarcastic transactions are commonly produced to comment on actions regarded as violations of extant relationships. We conclude that jocularity and sarcasm are significant forms of social action that are routinely used by people with robust relationships to affirm and modify social relationships.
Article
In three experiments, we investigated the social payoffs of speaking ironically. In Experiment 1, participants rated videotaped ironic remarks (criticisms and compliments) as funnier than literal remarks, but no more or less status enhancing. In Experiment 2, participants listened to audiotaped ironic criticisms and compliments. Ironic compliments were rated as more insulting than literal compliments, but ironic criticisms were found to be less insulting than literal criticisms. In Experiment 3, participants read literal or ironic criticisms. Ironic comments were rated as more amusing than literal ones. When irony was directed at the addressee's poor performance, it served to protect the addressee's face by softening the criticism. When irony was directed at the addressee's offensive behavior, it served to protect the speaker's face by showing the speaker as less angry and more in control. In addition, irony damaged the speaker—addressee relationship less than did literal criticism. Taken together, these studies suggest that speakers choose irony over literal language in order to be funny, to soften the edge of an insult, to show themselves to be in control of their emotions, and to avoid damaging their relationship with the addressee.
Article
Recent investigations of the pragmatic functions of ironic criticism (e.g., saying “Nice shot” to condemn a fellow player for missing a free throw and losing a basketball game) have argued that ironic criticism is used to dilute condemnation. Dews and Winner (1995) and Dews, Kaplan, and Winner (1995) showed that, relative to literal criticism (e.g., Terrible shot”), ironic criticism expresses less condemnation. This article reports the results of four experiments to show that ironic criticism in many cases is used for just the opposite reason—to enhance rather than to dilute condemnation. These findings have significant implications for both pragmatic and processing theories of verbal irony.
Article
We report the findings of 3 studies looking at people's emotional reactions to different kinds of ironic language (e.g., irony, sarcasm, overstatement, understatement, satire, rhetorical questions, and nonironic statements). The first experiment instructed the participants to rate their own emotional reaction, the second to rate the emotional state of the speaker, and the third to rate how the participants thought the speaker wished them to feel. The choice of a statement predictably affected addressees' emotions, especially when participants read irony, rhetorical questions, understatement, and nonironic statements. With sarcasm and satire, speakers may reveal their own emotions with little intention to affect addressees' emotions, and overstatements had a negative effect that speakers did not intend. Finally, detailed patterns show how, when, and which emotions are influenced by the various types of irony.
Article
Many White people simultaneously hold both sympathetic and antagonistic attitudes toward Blacks. The present research found that activation of these conflicted racial attitudes gives rise to psychological tension and discomfort, as evidenced by negative mood change, and that the amount of discomfort depends on individual differences in measured ambivalence. The salience of Mite subjects' racial attitudes was manipulated by exposing half the subjects to controversial statements about a recent local incident of racial violence; the other half read neutral material Before and after this manipulation, subjects took a mood test disguised as a subliminal perception task. Subjects in the high-salience condition showed significantly more negative mood change. This effect was carried by high-salience subjects who were also relatively high on dispositional racial ambivalence, as measured by a questionnaire. Ambivalence was unrelated to mood in the control condition. A second study showed that merely completing the questionnaire was not sufficient to produce negative mood change.
Article
This article reports the findings of a single study examining irony in talk among friends. Sixty-two 10-min conversations between college students and their friends were recorded and analyzed. Five main types of irony were found: jocularity, sarcasm, hyperbole, rhetorical questions, and understatements. These different forms of ironic language were part of 8% of all conversational turns. Analysis of these utterances revealed varying linguistic and social patterns and suggested several constraints on how and why people achieve ironic meaning. The implications of this conclusion for psychological theories of irony are discussed.
Article
According to the tinge hypothesis, the evaluative tone of the literal meaning of ironic utterances automatically colors the hearer's perception of the intended meaning. In Experiment 1, participants read short stories that end with either a literal or an ironic insult. Ironic insults are rated as less critical than literal insults, and the ironic speaker is rated as less annoyed than the literal speaker. In addition, the speaker-target relationship is affected less negatively when the insult is delivered ironically rather than literally. These results are obtained regardless of whether the addressee or a third person is the target of the remark and regardless of whether the story characters know one another or have just met. In Experiment 2, participants read similar short stories that end with either a literal or ironic compliment. Results mirror those of Experiment 1. Ironic compliments are rated as less praising than literal compliments, and the ironic speaker is rated as less pleased than the literal speaker. The speaker-target relationship is affected less positively when the compliment is ironic than when it is literal. As in Experiment 1, these results are obtained regardless of addressee or familiarity of the story characters. The results from these two experiments support the tinge hypothesis by demonstrating that irony mutes the criticism or praise conveyed by literal language.
Article
Two experiments investigated (a) subjects' intuitions about the communicative functions of irony and (b) how communicative functions affect recall. Previous research (Long, Kreuz, & Church, 1989) suggested that ironic statements allow speakers to fulfill communication goals that are difficult to convey literally. The present research extends these findings by identifying which communication goals (and other factors) influence recall. In Experiment 1, subjects read scenarios that concluded with ironic or literal statements and selected goals fulfilled by the statements from a checklist. The results indicated that ironic statements fulfill more communication goals than literal statements. In Experiment 2, subjects recalled these scenarios after a 24-hr delay. Presence of irony and fulfillment of pragmatically salient goals predicted recall in a series of multiple regression analyses.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Integrating creativity and social network theories, I explore the direct and interactive effects of relationship strength, network position, and external ties on individual creative contributions. Results from a study of research scientists suggest that weaker ties are generally beneficial for creativity, whereas stronger ties have neutral effects. I also found that centrality is more positively associated with creativity when individuals have few ties outside of their organization and that the combination of centrality and many outside ties is not optimal. I discuss the implications of these findings for creativity and social network research.