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The highest form of intelligence: Sarcasm increases creativity for both expressers and recipients

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Abstract

Sarcasm is ubiquitous in organizations. Despite its prevalence, we know surprisingly little about the cognitive experiences of sarcastic expressers and recipients or their behavioral implications. The current research proposes and tests a novel theoretical model in which both the construction and interpretation of sarcasm lead to greater creativity because they activate abstract thinking. Studies 1 and 2 found that both sarcasm expressers and recipients reported more conflict but also demonstrated enhanced creativity following a simulated sarcastic conversation or after recalling a sarcastic exchange. Study 3 demonstrated that sarcasm’s effect on creativity for both parties was mediated by abstract thinking and generalizes across different forms of sarcasm. Finally, Study 4 found that when participants expressed sarcasm toward or received sarcasm from a trusted other, creativity increased but conflict did not. We discuss sarcasm as a double-edged sword: despite its role in instigating conflict, it can also be a catalyst for creativity.

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... By contrast, a lack of good communication might make the leaders' use of aggressive humor even more annoying for the employees. This reasoning is in line with some recently published empirical studies showing that aggressive humor (Robert et al., 2016), sarcasm (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015), or teasing (Gorman & Jordan, 2015) does not necessarily have negative consequences in already established relationships (but, see also Kim et al., 2016). Therefore, being satisfied with the leaders' communication is expected to buffer the negative effect of aggressive humor. ...
... Perhaps there are even conditions under which aggressive humor has positive effects on follower outcomes. For example, Huang et al. (2015) have reported that sarcasm (one form of aggressive humor) even has positive effects if relational trust between colleagues is already established. Future research may try to show that this is also true for hierarchical leader-follower relationships. ...
... Obviously, the negative effects of aggressive humor cannot be buffered by good communication behavior. This is surprising given the findings by Gorman and Jordan (2015), Huang et al. (2015), and Robert et al. (2016), who have shown that aggressive humor (or similar forms) does not have negative effects in established relationships. However, as wemuch like Kim et al. (2016) did not find such moderation, future research needs to address the effects of aggressive humor in more detail. ...
Article
We investigate the relationship between humor in leadership and turnover intentions and focus on benign and aggressive humor. We propose indirect relationships between both benign and aggressive humor and turnover intentions via cynicism toward the leader. We expect communication satisfaction to moderate these relationships. In our survey study, we found a negative relationship between benign humor and cynicism, while aggressive humor in leadership was positively related to cynicism. We found indirect effects of benign and aggressive humor on turnover intentions mediated via cynicism. The indirect effect of benign humor was moderated by communication satisfaction in a way that benign humor was more strongly related to cynicism and indirectly to turnover intentions if communication satisfaction was low. The indirect effect of aggressive humor on turnover intentions was not moderated by communication satisfaction. Our study underlines the necessity to distinguish between benign and aggressive humor and to further explore its boundary conditions.
... Specialists in human interactions, organizational effectiveness and group dynamics are advising employees to use it as less as possible or even not at all because of the remarks transmitted, which are mean, judgmental, poisonous and full of contempt, according to Gottman and Silver (1999). The effect these remarks may have on organizational settings can be harmful and can lead to poor or misguided communication (Huang et al., 2015). Fredrickson and Losada (2005) tested 60 management teams using sarcasm in communication and concluded that sarcastic remarks affected in a negative way the communication between team members and led to poor performance. ...
... Even though sarcastic remarks can have negative effects, employees are sometimes using them in sensitive interpersonal circumstances (Huang et al., 2015). For example, Boylan and Katz (2013) analyzed the effects of sarcasm and discovered that sarcastic remarks, even sarcastic criticism, have the potential to be more humorous and more memorable than normal feedback or direct communication, and therefore more effective. ...
... Second, they demonstrated that sarcasm increases both the expressers' and the recipients' creativity. Third, they explained how the act of formulating and also understanding sarcasm stimulates abstract thinking, and also how this influences the increase of expressers and recipients' creativity (Huang et al., 2015). All forms of sarcasm increase the production of insights, solutions and original ideas, novel and appropriate for both parties. ...
Article
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The link between creativity and sarcasm is mostly based on common sense logic and the influence of stereotypical thinking patterns rather than sound research. Until now only a couple of studies have managed to demonstrate the coexistence of sarcasm and creativity and have postulated that sarcastic individuals might prove to more creative than their peers. Given nowadays society that praises so much creativity as a feature of preferred employees, the present study outlines itself as an exploratory research into the perception of human resource specialists on the relation between sarcasm and creativity. Its aim is to investigate if human resource specialists from Romania are aware of any relation between the two of them, and if they take advantage of this correlation during the selection process. The study is qualitative in nature, based on semi-structured interviews with four human resource specialists from four different companies. First, the study explores the HR specialists’ opinion regarding the differences between the ability to construct sarcastic remarks and the ability to appreciate or interpret them when made by others. Then, it aims to identify the boundaries between sarcasm as a catalyzer for creativity and sarcasm as a form of disrespect. The findings show that sarcasm is not quite seen as a desirable employee trait by human resource specialists, and point towards new research avenues for the establishment of the value of sarcasm in different types of organizations.
... It has been argued that sarcasm can facilitate creativity through boosting abstract thinking and also enhance interpersonal trust that would help organizations better take advantage of the ideas and cognitive capabilities of their employees. (Huang et al., 2015). Another study has demonstrated that individuals' experience of sarcastic remarks helped them sharpen their ability to get involved in complex thinking and solving of creative problems (Miron-Spektor, Efrat-Treister, Rafaeli, & Schwarz-Cohen, 2011). ...
... Specifically, research has provided some evidence that any sort of sarcastic exchange has important implications for organizational communication (Huang et al., 2015). As indicated earlier, usage of sarcastic remarks could be beneficial or detrimental based on various factors. ...
... Sometimes sarcasm is a sort of uncivil behavior when it lacks regard for others (Lim, Cortina, & Magley, 2008). In this case sarcastic remarks often convey contempt implications that undermine relationships and negatively affect communication among employees (Huang et al., 2015). Negative sarcastic statements are characterized by a relatively higher level of confusion than direct criticism and could be often be misinterpreted. ...
... The results presented in this paper have not been used in any other reports or publications. (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015), and essay writing (Crossley, Muldner, & McNamara, 2016;Skalicky, Berger, Crossley, & McNamara, 2016). However, relatively little is known about the linguistic features of creative language produced during collaborative naturalistic dialogue. ...
... Other research has demonstrated connections between figurative language use and creativity. For instance, Huang et al. (2015) conducted a series of experimental studies where participants created, interpreted, or recalled instances of sarcastic language. Their results indicated that participants exposed to sarcasm performed better on subsequent tests of creativity (both divergent and convergent tasks) as compared to participants not exposed to sarcasm. ...
... Their results indicated that participants exposed to sarcasm performed better on subsequent tests of creativity (both divergent and convergent tasks) as compared to participants not exposed to sarcasm. Huang et al. (2015) argued that exposure to sarcasm increased creative capacity because sarcasm enhanced the ability to think abstractly, which is a marker of creative problem solving. Linguistic features have also been used to predict idea generation and humor in student writing. ...
Article
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Creativity is commonly assessed using divergent thinking tasks, which measure the fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration of participant output on a variety of different tasks. This study assesses the degree to which creativity can be identified based on linguistic features of participants’ language while completing collaborative divergent thinking tasks. To this end, 78 participants’ conversational dialogs (i.e., 39 dyads) within a chat environment were collected while completing three open-ended problem-solving tasks. Expert raters scored the dialogs in terms of fluency, flexibility, elaboration, and originality, as well as three types of creative language (metaphor and simile, humor, and word play). Factor analyses indicated that these scores captured two main constructs (creativity and elaboration). The linguistic features of the participants’ language (captured computationally using natural language processing tools) accounted for significant amounts of variation in both the creativity (R² = .640) and elaboration (R² = .550) scores within linear mixed effect (LME) models. These results highlight specific linguistic features that can be used to explain large amounts of variance in constructs related to creativity.
... Membentuk kalimat sarkas dalam pikiran, tidak sesederhana ketika mengucapkan kalimat biasa, lebih dari itu pelibatan konteks situasi, pencernaan emosi, penyederhanaan bentuk cacian dalam bentuk lain yang lebih padat, namun didalamnya terdapat makna yang lebih luas daripada sebatas kata-kata. Maka tidak heran kiranya, studi yang dilakukan oleh Huang, Gino, & Galinsky (2015) menyebutkan bahwa sarkasme seperti dua mata pedang: disamping berperan memicu konflik, sarkasme juga dapat menjadi katalis dari kreatifitas. Pada kalimat pertama penelitian ini, peneliti menyitir ucapan dari Oscar Wilde, "Sarkasme merupakan bentuk terendah dari kejenakaan, namun bentuk tertinggi dari kecerdasan". ...
... Pada penelitian ini, Huang, Gino, & Galinsky berhipotesis bahwa antara mengekspresikan dan menerima kalimat sarkasme, terlepas dari kontennya, dapat memfasilitasi kreatifitas melalui peningkatan pemikiran abstrak (Huang et al., 2015). Hipotesis peneliti mengenai hubungan antara sarkasme dan kreatifitas, bersandar pada penelitian Miron-Spektor, Efrat-Treister, Rafaeli, & Schwarz-Cohen (2011), yang menginvestigasi pengaruh mengobservasi sarkasme pada kreatifitas dan berpikir kompleks. ...
... Penelitian ini yang menjadi sandaran penelitian Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, dimana sarkastik yang mengungkapkan "kalimat positif secara literal untuk mengomunikasikan pesan negatif", dapat meningkatkan kreatifitas baik itu penerima maupun yang mengekspresikannya. Secara spesifik, peneliti mengajukan bahwa sarkasme dapat menstimulasi kreatifitas, membangkitkan ide, wawasan (insight), atau solusi masalah yang baru dan berguna, baik itu yang mengekspresikan sarkasme maupun yang menerimanya (Huang et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Pada percakapan sehari-hari, gaya berbahasa seseorang dalam berkomunikasi begitu unik dan khas. Terutama terkait dengan budaya di Indonesia yang beragam, berbagai bentuk pengungkapan berbahasa yang sangat bervariasi. Saat berkomunikasi, tergantung pada konteks tertentu seseorang dapat menggunakan bahasa sopan, bahasa pergaulan, bahasa slang, bahkan hingga menggunakan bahasa sarkasme. Secara umum, masing-masing individu saat mengungkapkan maksud pembicaraannya, ada yang diungkapkan secara langsung dan jelas agar yang diajak bicara mudah menangkap maknanya, ada juga yang melalui ungkapan-ungkapan tidak langsung atau melalui berbagai perumpamaan agar yang diajak bicara dapat menafsirkan sendiri maknanya dan memahaminya. Pada akhirnya, berkomunikasi tidaklah terbatas pada proses mentransfer bunyi suara dari kata-kata, lebih jauh dari itu terdapat transformasi makna pada suatu bentuk pengertian tertentu. Bahkan secara ekstrem, ada ungkapan words don't mean, people mean, yang menunjukkan bahwa kata-kata hanyalah simbolisasi maksud akan tetapi melalui simbol itulah individu membangun makna dan pengertian. Proses ini, bukan lagi persoalan linguistik semata, lebih jauh merupakan kajian menarik dalam ilmu psikologi. Stimulus kata-kata yang diucapkan lawan bicara, diproses secara mental dan otak mencernanya dengan menyatukan berbagai informasi hingga terbangun makna pemahaman tertentu sebagai bahan untuk merespons stimulus tersebut. Misalnya, saat lawan bicara mengatakan "mobil", otak merespon dengan mencari asosiasi kata tersebut dalam memori tentang sebuah benda dengan bentuk tertentu dan memiliki ciri tertentu. Sehingga, melalui proses itu tergambar maksud pembicaraan lawan bicara dan terbangun pemahaman secara keseluruhan tentang isi pembicaraan. Kata atau kalimat yang memiliki makna yang jelas dan lugas, akan secara langsung direspon otak sesuai dengan makna ucapannya. Otak tidak menerjemahkan kembali maksud diluar dari makna ucapan karena secara jelas merujuk pada informasi tertentu. Bagian otak yang memproses kata-kata, mengolah lebih mudah makna yang terkandung dalam kata yang diungkapkan dan secara langsung terbangun pengertian dari keseluruhan kalimat. Secara konseptual, proses bagaimana otak mencerna kata-kata dan konsepnya disebut sebagai mental lexicon, proses mental mengenai penyimpanan informasi mengenai kata-kata yang mencakup informasi semantik (makna kata), informasi sintaktik (bagaimana kata dikombinasikan menjadi bentuk kalimat), dan bentuk detail dari kata (pengucapan dan pola suaranya) (Gazzaniga, Ivry, & Mangun, 2015).
... The outcomes of the study yielded that a positive teacher-student relation and communication, recognition of student characteristics and needs, motivation of students, setting up definite class rules, and arrangement of classroom environment would diminish students' misbehavior. Huang, Gino, and Galinsky (2015) established sarcasm as a double-edged sword. In other words based on the research they did, it was proved some benefits of sarcasm. ...
... The interview was made to achieve reliable and valid results in order to have triangulation. More clearly, the interview based on Huang's (2015) framework. To the best knowledge of researcher, because this study was almost a new one, there was not found any authentic paper based on this framework on the net. ...
... The results of semi-structured interview with the teachers correlated with the results of teachers' questionnaire. At first, the teachers were asked about Huang's (2015) framework and explained why they agreed or disagreed with them. In relation to the first benefits of using sarcasm, many teachers disagreed with it. ...
Article
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The development of teacher training courses provides opportunities to solve the limitations of the traditional ways of teaching. This study aimed at describing the role of using sarcasm in the class management of Iranian EFL teachers, exploring the differences between male and female teachers in using sarcasm and, finding the attitudes of the participants. A group of 52 male and female Iranian EFL teachers were selected from different English language institutes, and divided into two groups in Isfahan, Iran. Teachers in Group A received the instruction, but Group B did not receive any instruction. This study employed a triangulated descriptive research approach involving questionnaires, observation, and interview. The results showed that most of the teachers had positive attitudes towards the appropriate use of sarcasm. Moreover, there was not a significant difference between male and female participants. The result of this study could be beneficial for teachers who want to find an effective strategy to control the students’ misbehavior or the disorganized class. Keywords: attitude, class management, EFL teachers, sarcasm, strategy
... Differentiating and integrating incongruent experiences or ideas has been suggested as a crucial trigger for creativity (e.g., Cheng & Leung, 2013;Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015;Suedfeld et al., 1992;Tadmor et al., 2009). For example, research on comparison mind-sets examined how individuals compare a target with a standard or pertinent norm when making evaluations (see Mussweiler, 2003 for a review). ...
... Recent research on sarcasm provides another example. Sarcasm often involves contradictory expressions between stated and intended meanings (Huang et al., 2015;Pexman & Olineck, 2002). Possibly through recognizing and reconciling the discrepant notions (Shamay-Tsoory, Tomer, Berger, & Aharon-Peretz, 2003), research showed that exposure to and construction of sarcasm (vs. a sincere or neutral conversation) increased participants' sense of conflict and creativity (Huang et al., 2015;Miron-Spektor, Efrta-Triester, Rafaeli, & Schwatz-Cohen, 2011; see also Murdock & Ganim, 1993;Wicker, 1985). ...
... Sarcasm often involves contradictory expressions between stated and intended meanings (Huang et al., 2015;Pexman & Olineck, 2002). Possibly through recognizing and reconciling the discrepant notions (Shamay-Tsoory, Tomer, Berger, & Aharon-Peretz, 2003), research showed that exposure to and construction of sarcasm (vs. a sincere or neutral conversation) increased participants' sense of conflict and creativity (Huang et al., 2015;Miron-Spektor, Efrta-Triester, Rafaeli, & Schwatz-Cohen, 2011; see also Murdock & Ganim, 1993;Wicker, 1985). ...
Article
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Thriving in increasingly complex and ambiguous environments requires creativity and the capability to reconcile conflicting demands. Recent evidence with Western samples suggested that paradoxical frames, or mental templates that encourage individuals to recognize and embrace contradictions, could produce creative benefits. We extended the timely, but understudied, topic by studying the nuances of for whom and why creative advantages of paradoxical frames emerge. We suggest that people endorsing a middle ground approach are less likely to scrutinize conflict and reconcile with integrative solutions, thus receiving less creative benefits of paradoxical frames. Five studies that examined individual and cultural differences in middle ground endorsement support our theory. Study 1 found that paradoxical frames increased creativity, but failed to replicate that experienced conflict mediated the relationship in a Taiwanese sample. In both within- and between-culture analysis, we showed that the creative advantages of thinking paradoxically and experiencing conflict emerged among individuals who endorse lower (vs. higher) levels of middle ground (Study 2) and among Israelis whose culture predominantly endorses middle ground strategy less, but not among Singaporeans whose culture endorses middle ground more (Study 3). Study 4 further demonstrated the causal role of middle ground in the paradox—conflict—creativity link. To answer "why", Study 5 situationally induced integrative complex thinking that sets distinctions and forms syntheses among contradictory elements, and found that low endorsers of middle ground performed more creatively when they engaged integrative complex thinking to cope with paradoxes. This program of studies offers important insights on harnessing paradoxical experiences to catalyze creativity.
... To produce or interpret sarcasm, both the expressers and recipients of sarcasm must surmount the conflict (i.e. psychological distance) between the literal and actual meanings of the sarcastic expressions (Huang et al., 2015). If the decoding of sarcasm is difficult for expressers and recipients, it is even more difficult for computers to detect because it does not function in the same way that literal language does. ...
... Human coders evaluated these eight comments and found that they are negatively oriented because of their understanding of the contextual meanings. They were able to perform the cognitive elaboration and interpretation needed using clues in the context to decode the meanings, thus overcoming the psychological distance between literal and actual meanings (Huang et al., 2015;Burgers et al., 2011;Joshi, Bhattacharyya, and James, 2012). Sarcasm is often embedded into statements in response to circumstances that involve negative emotions such as frustration, failed expectation or negative tension . ...
Article
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Purpose: Sarcasm is often used in everyday speech and writing and is prevalent in online contexts. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the analogy between sarcasm comments from sentiment tools and the human coder. Design/methodology/approach: Using the Verbal Irony Procedure, eight human coders were engaged to analyse comments collected from an online commercial page, and a dissimilarity analysis was conducted with sentiment tools. Three constants were tested, namely, polarity from sentiment tools, polarity rating by human coders; and sarcasm-level ratings by human coders. Findings: Results found an inconsistent ratio between these three constants. Sentiment tools used did not have the capability or reliability to detect the subtle, contextualized meanings of sarcasm statements that human coders could detect. Further research is required to refine the sentiment tools to enhance their sensitivity and capability. Practical implications: With these findings, it is recommended that further research and commercialization efforts be directed at improving current sentiment tools – for example, to incorporate sophisticated human sarcasm texts in their analytical systems. Sarcasm exists frequently in media, politics and human forms of communications in society. Therefore, more highly sophisticated sentiment tools with the abilities to detect human sarcasm would be vital in research and industry. Social implications: The findings suggest that presently, of the sentiment tools investigated, most are still unable to pick up subtle contexts within the text which can reverse or change the message that the writer intends to send to his/her receiver. Hence, the use of the relevant hashtags (e.g. #sarcasm; #irony) are of fundamental importance in detection tools. This would aid the evaluation of product reviews online for commercial usage. Originality/value: The value of this study lies in its original, empirical findings on the inconsistencies between sentiment tools and human coders in sarcasm detection. The current study proves these inconsistencies are detected between human and sentiment tools in social media texts and points to the inadequacies of current sentiment tools. With these findings, it is recommended that further research and commercialization efforts be directed at improving current sentiment tools – to incorporate sophisticated human sarcasm texts in their analytical systems. The system can then be used as a reference for psychologists, media analysts, researchers and speech writers to detect cues in the inconsistencies in behaviour and language.
... You're rehired'.'' Did Jobs use sarcasm to increase creativity for both expresser and recipients (Huang et al. 2015)? Was Jobs' provocative episode (Isaacson 2012) a real example of abusive supervision (Tepper 2000)? ...
... Supervisors provide a nudge by sending a negative message to certain employees at the bottom of their performance level. The aim is to challenge these employees, keep them on their toes, move them upward, and increase their creativity (Huang et al. 2015;Tang 1990). ...
Article
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This study explores the dark side of leadership, treats creative self-efficacy as a mediator, and frames supervisor bullying and employee creativity in the context of social cognition and social comparison. We theorize that with a high social comparison orientation, the combination of high supervisory abuse toward themselves (own abusive supervision) and low supervisory abuse toward other team members (peer abusive supervision) leads to a double whammy effect: When employees are “singled out” for abuse, these victims suffer from not only low creative self-efficacy due to supervisory abuse but also low supervisory creativity ratings. Results based on our two-wave data collected from multiple sources—253 employees and their 77 immediate supervisors—support our theory. The significant three-way interaction effect reveals that when social comparison orientation is high and peer abusive supervision is low (Time 1), own abusive supervision (Time 1) creates the strongest negative impact on creative self-efficacy (Time 2), which is significantly related to supervisory low creativity rating (Time 2). Our discoveries of egregious bullying offer provocative theoretical, empirical, and practical implications to the fields of leadership, abusive supervision, creativity, and business ethics.
... Humor has also been linked with performance and creativity (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015;Lehmann-Willenbrock & Allen, 2014;Martin, 2007). Lehmann-Willenbrock and Allen (2014) found that group performance was positively associated with the use of humor. ...
... 2 BITTERLY, BROOKS, AND SCHWEITZER (2015) found that individuals who express sarcasm perform better on creativity tasks. Sarcasm is a form of humor in which an individual communicates a message using words that mean the opposite of the literal statement (Gibbs, 1986;Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015;Pexman & Olineck, 2002). We postulate that the association between humor and competence is pervasive and familiar, and that people will make the inference that those who effectively use humor are competent. ...
Article
Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller’s status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups.
... It is the most typical form of verbal irony and often used to humorously convey thinly veiled disapproval, contempt, and scorn, as in the case of sarcastic criticisms. For instance, a boss catching his assistant surfing the Internet may state, ''Pat, don't work too hard!'' to express disapproval [7]. Sarcasm may generate cognitive and behavioral benefits. ...
... Sarcasm often makes salient contradictory notions. As a result, both constructing and making sense of any type of sarcasm necessitate recognizing and reconciling disparate ideas, making sarcasm a potential facilitator of creativity for both sides of the exchange [7]. ...
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Online Social Networks become largest platform to express people feelings, opinions, views and real time events such as live tweets etc. Example Twitter has 315 million monthly active users, eighty two percent of active users on mobile and millions of tweets are being circulated through twitter every day. Various organizations as well as companies are interested in twitter data for finding the views of various people towards their products or events. Sarcasm refers to expressing negative feelings using positive words. To detect sarcasm among those tweets is comparatively more difficult. This paper discussed various approaches to find sarcasm on twitter. With the help of sarcasm detection, companies could analyze the feelings of user about their products. This is helpful for companies, as the companies could improve their quality of product
... Theoretically, compared to other forms of humor, Martin et al. (2003) categorized aggressive humor as a form of hostile behavior. For example, sarcasm, a form of aggressive humor, is often associated with increased interpersonal conflict in a work group because it conveys disapproval, contempt, and scorn humorously (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015;Zhang & Liao, 2015). Given its hostile interpersonal nature, we expect that the malign norm violation, signaled by aggressive humor, builds on the benign violation of the nature of a leader's sense of humor, exacerbating the perception of the severity of acceptability of violations of norms. ...
... Research suggests that well-meaning remarks delivered in an aggressive form (e.g., saying "your work ethic is obviously poor" sarcastically to someone who clearly worked optimally) is often less well received compared to the same intent, but delivered with more sincere content (e.g., "your work ethic is obviously excellent"; Pexman & Olineck, 2002). More generally, aggressive humor is perceived as more contemptuous (Dews & Winner, 1995) and is more likely to instigate conflict (Huang et al., 2015) than other forms of humor. As a result, the effects of leader sense of humor on LMX will be attenuated when a leader uses aggressive humor. ...
Article
Workplace humor is ubiquitous, yet scholars know little about how it affects employees' behaviors in organizations. We draw on an emerging psychological theory of humor—benign violation theory—to suggest that a leader's sense of humor often conveys counter-normative social information in organizations. We integrate this theory with social information processing theory to develop hypotheses about the effects of a leader's sense of humor on follower behavior. We suggest that although a leader's sense of humor is positively associated with leader member exchange and ultimately work engagement, it can also signal to followers the acceptability of norm violation at work. These perceptions in turn are positively associated with followers' deviance. Furthermore, we propose that these indirect effects are moderated by leader aggressive humor. Data from two three-wave field studies in China and the United States provide support for our hypotheses. Taken together, our results suggest that a leader's sense of humor can be a mixed blessing and elicit unforeseen negative behaviors from their followers.
... In a similar vein, a humor attempt is funny only if it is perceived as appropriate (or benign; Warren & McGraw, 2015, 2016. Humor involves violations of communication, logic, or social norms, occurring in multifarious forms such as paradoxes (Lynch, 2002), illogicalities (Berlyne, 1972), surprises (Morreall, 1982), and sarcasm (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015). Such violations, however, are humorous only if they are appropriate. ...
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The current analysis deconstructs creativity and humor from a cul- tural perspective. We first identify two key commonalities between crea- tivity and humor: Both (a) involve appropriate violations of norms and (b) require cognitive flexibility. Because norms and cognitive styles dif- fer across cultures, we systematically analyze how Eastern and Western cultures differ in both creativity and humor, and how cultural differ- ences in creativity often mirror cultural differences in humor. We then review the burgeoning literature on how cross-cultural experiences increase individuals’ creativity, and explore how these experiences can also increase individuals’ humor comprehension, humor usage, and humor production. Our analysis demonstrates that Aha truly meets Haha across the globe.
... The total amount of justifications was related to the average perceived acceptability of dishonest behavior. No Huang et al. 2015 Creativity was individually assessed through the well-known RAT, the Duncker's candle problem, and the Olive in a Glass problem. ...
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The relationship between creativity and morality is not only a key theme in creative psychology and moral psychology but also a central issue regarding individual differences in creativity. Based on our well-described definitions of morality and creativity, the current work systemically assesses three main viewpoints on this issue, namely that there is a positive correlation between the two constructs, that there is no correlation between the two constructs, and that there is a negative correlation between the two constructs, through reviewing studies scattered across multiple disciplines. We then draw an evidence-based conclusion that a positive association exists between creativity and morality by critically examining and integrating relevant empirical studies. We also discuss the potential implications of these findings for integrative training and for the fostering of creativity and morality in conjunction with several future research directions.
... The research by Huang et al. [33] tested a theoretical model in which both the building and interpretation of caustic remark cause greater creativity for both recipients and expressers because they power up abstract thinking. ...
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In the more competitive new economy, recognizing and designing criteria and parameters to strengthen idea generating is vital so that these ideas will be used for the development of industries and the whole country. This paper designs a model for integrated management of creative ideation. Accordingly, we examine target population of 22 professors and entrepreneurs to determine priority of parameters that we define, and encourage them to propose new parameters to be added into the model, and these parameters improve ideation process. Therefore, we conduct an online survey, which employs snowball sampling method. After gathering data and determining weights of parameters based on fuzzy Delphi analytical hierarchy process, we rank each criterion’s parameters based on the opinions of the panelists and finally we design the model. This research suggests that an organization establishes to work on the principles based on the criteria and prioritized parameters that this paper specifies in its model. In addition, it proposes designing a web-based system within the organization, in which the system provides a database of creative ideas and manages processes in different levels (idea creation, idea training, and practical) to motivate intellectuals to generate new ideas, and facilitate the connection between creative thinkers and industry.
... The research by Huang et al. [33] tested a theoretical model in which both the building and interpretation of caustic remark cause greater creativity for both recipients and expressers because they power up abstract thinking. ...
Thesis
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In the more competitive new economy, recognizing and designing criteria and parameters to strengthen idea generating is vital so that these ideas will be used for the development of industries and the whole country. This paper designs a model for integrated management of creative ideation. Accordingly, we examine target population of 22 professors and entrepreneurs to determine priority of parameters that we define, and encourage them to propose new parameters to be added into the model, and these parameters improve ideation process. Therefore, we conduct an online survey, which employs snowball sampling method. After gathering data and determining weights of parameters based on fuzzy Delphi analytical hierarchy process, we rank each criterion’s parameters based on the opinions of the panelists and finally we design the model. This research suggests that an organization establishes to work on the principles based on the criteria and prioritized parameters that this paper specifies in its model. In addition, it proposes designing a web-based system within the organization, in which the system provides a database of creative ideas and manages processes in different levels (idea creation, idea training, and practical) to motivate intellectuals to generate new ideas, and facilitate the connection between creative thinkers and industry.
... For example, individual employees exhibit more creativity when their supervisor induces moderate workplace stress , maintains high attendance (Tang et al. 1989), develops a climate of psychological empowerment and high quality LMX (Alge et al. 2006;Khazanchi and Masterson 2011), and promotes abstract thinking (Huang et al. 2015). ...
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In this study, we built and tested a theoretical model to determine how ethical leadership affects team creativity among teams composed of different characteristics. Following social learning theory and an antecedent–benefit–cost framework, we conducted analyses of multisource data from 50 team supervisors and 186 employees, which revealed an inverted U-shaped relationship between ethical leadership and team creativity. The teams exhibited more creativity when there was a moderate level of ethical leadership than when there were very low or very high levels. Moreover, from an interactional perspective, we found that team faultlines significantly moderated the curvilinear relationship between ethical leadership and team creativity such that the inverted U-shaped relationship was more significant among teams with weak team faultlines. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
... For example, meditation or simply walking at a natural pace could affect individuals' creativity by changing their internal states or external environment respectively (Ding et al., 2014;Kuo & Yeh, 2016;M€ uller, Gerasimova, & Ritter, 2016;Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014). Moreover, the use and interpretation of creative language such as humorous and sarcastic expressions could also foster creativity, because they had similar cognitive process as creativity or could activate abstract thinking (Chang, Chen, Hsu, Chan, & Chang, 2015;Chen, Chen, & Roberts, 2019;Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015;Lu, Martin, Usova, & Galinsky, 2019). ...
... According to Huang et al. [131], a large body of research suggests that an abstract cognitive processing style produces greater creativity. ...
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Guided by constructivism, which posits that students assimilate new knowledge into what has made sense to them previously, we researched student conceptualizations of proof. We used the qualitative research methods of thematic analysis and phenomenography to learn and categorize student conceptualizations of proof, and of mathematization more generally. Our published work exhibited an explanatory connection between publications of others in the mathematics education community and the computer science education community. The connection we found is lack of understanding of proof by mathematic induction as an argument, as occurs among students of mathematics and of computer science, explains lack of understanding of how re- cursive algorithms work. We used these phenomenographic categories to intuit ideas whose emphasis might be helpful for students development of deeper understanding of proof.
... Twelve different drawn cartoons were adapted or created to serve as sarcasm production prompts. Four of these items were black and white cartoons used by Huang et al. (2015) to prompt sarcastic responses, each taken from the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study, originally designed to assess patient responses to frustrating situations in order to diagnose aggression (Rosenzweig 1945). Each of the black and white cartoons is a single-panel cartoon which depicts a frustrating situation with more than one speaker (e.g., one person's car breaks down and thus two people missed their train). ...
... Del análisis expuesto, podríamos colegir que el ejercicio de rastrear una arquitectura textual -desde las condiciones del interaccionismo sociodiscursivo-en las columnas de Daniel Samper Ospina propicia nuevas posibilidades de abordar la comprensión de los textos argumentativos irónicos, en medio de los distintos rumbos que marca la investigación sobre la ironía verbal, más allá de las atomizadas formas de una simple condición antifrástica o de simple figura de ornato. Así, a la ironía como eco (Sperber & Wilson, 1981), como argumento (Sopeña-Balordi, 1997), como superestrategia (Alba-Juez, 2002), como categoría prototípica (Kalbermatten, 2006), como implicatura conversacional particularizada (Rodríguez-Rosique, 2009), como polifonía (Bruzos-Moro, 2009) y como detonadora de creatividad (Huang, Gino & Galinsky, 2015), quisiéramos añadir la ironía como dispositivo textual carnavalizante. Tal condición genera una arquitectura textual sui generis en la que afloran las mixturas y las hibridaciones: desde el carnaval de las formas de argumentar (con exordios ponzoñosos, narratios evaluativas, argumentatios caricaturescas y peroratios rizomáticas) hasta el travestimiento con otras formas del decir (relatar, narrar, describir y exponer). ...
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Este artículo de reflexión, derivado de una tesis sobre la enseñanza de la comprensión de textos argumentativos irónicos, aborda, a la luz del interaccionismo sociodiscursivo, la posible arquitectura textual carnavalizada que se desprende de un corpus de 117 columnas de opinión de Daniel Samper Ospina publicadas entre 2014 y 2016 en la Revista Semana (Colombia). Desde un interés hermenéutico y perspectivas pragmalingüísticas para el estudio de la ironía verbal, se identifican rasgos de carnaval bajtiniano en los tres niveles de la infraestructura textual (gracias al juego con la dispositio argumentativa tradicional y al travestimiento de géneros), la textualización (mediante inversiones a los principios neogriceanos de Levinson, según el Grupo de la Ironía, Alicante, Lengua Española, Griale) y la responsabilidad enunciativa (como fruto de la inserción de enunciadores absurdos que enmascaran la función locutor). Esto refuerza la concepción de la ironía como dispositivo textual carnavalizante del decir, sus modos, sus voces y sus estructuras.
... Studies have shown that the use of sarcasm or verbal irony, can increase creativity on both the speakers and the addressees (Huang et al., 2015), and can serve different communicative purposes such as evoking humor and diminishing or enhancing critique (Burgers et al., 2012). Thus, developing computational models that generate sarcastic messages could impact many downstream applications, such as better conversational agents and creative or humorous content creation. ...
... An environment in which opposing viewpoints challenge one another might lead to "creative abrasion," which in turn could foster innovation (Hill, Brandeau, Truelove, & Lineback, 2014;Hirschberg, 1999). For example, Connolly and colleagues (1990) found that groups with a critical confederate (i.e., a "devil's advocate") generated more ideas than groups with a supportive confederate (see also De Dreu & West, 2001;Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015;Janis, 1972;Nemeth, Brown, & Rogers, 2001). ...
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Long-standing wisdom holds that criticism is antithetical to effective brainstorming because it incites intragroup conflict. However, a number of recent studies have challenged this assumption, suggesting that criticism might actually enhance creativity in brainstorming by fostering divergent thinking. Our paper reconciles these perspectives with new theory and a multimethod investigation to explain when and why criticism promotes creativity in brainstorming. We propose that a cooperative social context allows criticism to be construed positively, spurring creativity without inciting intragroup conflict, whereas a competitive social context makes criticism more divisive, leading to intragroup conflict and a corresponding reduction in creativity. We found support for this theory from a field experiment involving 100 group brainstorming sessions with actual stakeholders in a controversial urban planning project. In a cooperative context, instructions encouraging criticism yielded more ideas and more creative ideas, whereas in a competitive context, encouraging criticism yielded fewer ideas and less creative ideas. We replicated this finding in a lab study involving brainstorming in the context of a union-management negotiation scenario, which allowed us to hold constant the nature of the criticism. Taken together, our findings suggest that the optimal context for creativity in brainstorming is a cooperative one in which criticism occurs, but is interpreted constructively because the brainstorming parties perceive their goals as aligned.
... To date, researchers have revealed that personal characteristics play central roles in determining employee creativity. Such personal characteristics include, but are not limited to, personal traits (Raja and Johns 2010;Yang and Wang 2010), cognitive style (Chen et al. 2015;Sagiv et al. 2010), intelligence (Ahmetoglu et al. 2016;Huang et al. 2015), knowledge (Gilson et al. 2013), and motivation (Gerhart and Fang 2015;Hon 2012). Among the aforementioned individual characteristics, personal traits are probably most important, because such traits exhibit better endogeneity and stability than factors such as motivation, cognitive styles, etc. (Batey and Furnham 2006;Perry-Smith and Mannucci 2017). ...
Article
We adopt the approach/avoidance framework to examine the effects of core self-evaluation (CSE) on employee creativity. We argue that CSE affects all three components of individual intellectual capital (IIC), namely individual human capital (IHC), individual structural capital (ISC) and individual relational capital (IRC), which subsequently affect employee creativity. We also maintain that CSE exerts more direct influences on incremental creativity than on radical creativity. We surveyed 498 employees and their direct supervisors from various firms in China. Our results fully support the hypotheses. Our study offers new insight into personality, creativity and knowledge research.
... While the majority of studies focus on sentiments such as positive and negative remarks, the role of persuasive communication facets such as sarcasm is largely overlooked in current text mining. Given that sarcasm is regarded as a trait which attracts a high level of attention (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015), it is imperative to understand how this alluring nature of sarcasm can contribute to virality in social media during a crisis event. Even though there are computational models to detect and classify sarcastic expressions, studies related to more in-depth exploration of their impact and virality are limited. ...
Article
Sarcasm in verbal and nonverbal communication is known to attract higher attention and create deeper influence than other negative responses. Many people are adept at including sarcasm in written communication thus sarcastic comments have the potential to stimulate the virality of social media content. Although diverse computational approaches have been used to detect sarcasm in social media, the use of text mining to explore the influential role of sarcasm in spreading negative content is limited. Using tweets during a service disruption of a leading Australian organization as a case study, we explore this phenomenon using a text mining framework with a combination of statistical modeling and natural language processing (NLP) techniques. Our work targets two main outcomes: the quantification of the influence of sarcasm and the exploration of the change in topical relationships in the conversations over time. We found that sarcastic expressions during the service disruption are higher than on regular days and negative sarcastic tweets attract significantly higher social media responses when compared to literal negative expressions. The content analysis showed that consumers initially complaining sarcastically about the outage tended to eventually widen the negative sarcasm in a cascading effect towards the organization's internal issues and strategies. Organizations could utilize such insights to enable proactive decision‐making during crisis situations. Moreover, detailed exploration of these impacts would elevate the current text mining applications, to better understand the impact of sarcasm by stakeholders expressed in a social media environment, which can significantly affect the reputation and goodwill of an organization. This article is categorized under: Technologies > Data Preprocessing Ensemble Methods > Text Mining Application Areas > Industry Specific Applications Fundamental Concepts of Data and Knowledge > Big Data Mining Discovering the influence of sarcasm in social media responses.
... answers)" (Zhou et al., 2019). Establishing connections between relevant information and integrating relevant information are two key cognitive processes in RAT (Huang et al., 2015). As mentioned before, ignored individuals has the strong motivation to reestablish relationships, which makes them attempt to search and integrate similar information between themselves and others or groups they are eager to belong to. ...
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Given inconsistent discoveries about the effects of social exclusion on creativity, this study divided social exclusion into different types – social rejection and social ignoration, and compared respective effects on two creative thinking forms – divergent thinking (explored through an imaging impossible events task and an Alternate Uses Task) and convergent thinking (by means of the Remote Associates Test). The results show that a “being ignored” experience significantly promotes the convergent thinking and fluency in divergent thinking; while a “being rejected” experience only contributes to the fluency in a divergent thinking task. Also, for different individuals with different types of self-construal, the effects of being rejected and being ignored on creative thinking are different. Specifically, being ignored, compared to being rejected, significantly promoted the Remote Associates Test (RAT) scores of individuals with independent self-construal. The effects of being ignored or being rejected on creative thinking (convergent thinking and divergent thinking) for individuals with interdependent self-construal are not significant. Our results suggest that individuals with independent self-construal are more vulnerable to social exclusion and benefit more from the ignored experience than the rejected experience; and individuals with interdependent self-construal seem not to be affected by social rejection or social ignoration.
... Collaborative work would be unthinkable absent people's ability to converse in order to share information and to coordinate and motivate efforts. Conversations influence work, for instance through their effects on productivity and creativity (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015;Wu, Waber, Aral, Brynjolfsson, & Pentland, 2008). At the same time, conversations are also shaped by work processes. ...
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This paper studies the conversations behind the operations of a large-scale, online knowledge production community: Wikipedia. We investigate gender differences in the conversational styles (emotionality) and conversational domain choices (controversiality and gender stereotypicality of content) among contributors, and how these differences change as we look up the organizational hierarchy. In the general population of contributors, we expect and find significant gender differences, whereby comments and statements from women are higher-valenced, have more affective content, and are in domains that are less controversial and more female-typed. Importantly, these differences diminish or disappear among people in positions of power: female authorities converge to the behavior of their male counterparts, such that the gender gaps in valence and willingness to converse on controversial content disappear. We find greater sorting into topics according to their gender stereotypicality. We discuss mechanisms and implications for research on gender differences, leadership behavior, and conversational phenomena arising from such large-scale forms of knowledge production.
... Studies have shown that the use of sarcasm or verbal irony, can increase creativity on both the speakers and the addressees (Huang et al., 2015), and can serve different communicative purposes such as evoking humor and diminishing or enhancing critique (Burgers et al., 2012). Thus, developing computational models that generate sarcastic messages could impact many downstream applications, such as better conversational agents and creative or humorous content creation. ...
Preprint
We propose an unsupervised approach for sarcasm generation based on a non-sarcastic input sentence. Our method employs a retrieve-and-edit framework to instantiate two major characteristics of sarcasm: reversal of valence and semantic incongruity with the context which could include shared commonsense or world knowledge between the speaker and the listener. While prior works on sarcasm generation predominantly focus on context incongruity, we show that combining valence reversal and semantic incongruity based on the commonsense knowledge generates sarcasm of higher quality. Human evaluation shows that our system generates sarcasm better than human annotators 34% of the time, and better than a reinforced hybrid baseline 90% of the time.
... If this process is successful, the problem is solved; if unsuccessful, a continues search for other possible answers is required. An observation is that establishing links between relevant information and integrating relevant information are two key cognitive processing processes to complete the RAT (Cheng & Leung, 2013;Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015). Additionally, solving IT problems requires establishing connections between the relevant information of a problem situation and integrate information. ...
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Zhongyong thinking is a common approach adopted by Chinese people to solve problems encountered in life and work. Based on the four modes of zhongyong thinking proposed by Pang (Social Sciences in China, 1, 1980, 75), this study chooses the “neither A nor B” form, which represents the “mean” (中) char- acteristics of zhongyong thinking, called eclectic thinking, and the “both A and B” form, which reflects the “harmony” (和) feature, called integrated thinking. This study primed eclectic thinking and integrated think- ing, respectively, through self-compiled problem situations, and 150 college students and postgraduates stu- dents were the participants. Experiment 1 explored the role of the priming of zhongyong thinking in three classic creative thinking tasks: a divergent thinking test, remote association test, and insight problem-solving test. Experiment 2 further examined the effect of priming of zhongyong thinking on “market investment problems” with higher ecological validity. The findings show that priming integrated thinking can improve remote associates test performance and promote creative solutions to market investment problems, but there is no significant impact on the scores of divergent thinking test and insight problem-solving; priming eclec- tic thinking has no significant impact on any of the subsequent creative tasks. This study shows that inte- grated thinking primes cognitive processing related to information association and information integration, promoting subsequent creative tasks.
... In this framework, Fredrickson (2004) highlights the potential of positive emotions to expand people's creativity and openness. Because positive attitudes and humor tend to breed more of the same, leaders then can trigger more positive emotions in their employees by using humor (Cooper et al., 2018) while also stimulating their employees' creativity and productivity (Cooper, 2008;Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015). ...
Chapter
It is ever more important for increasingly boundary-less leaders of global businesses to take caution when using humor in mixed cultural company or in an entirely different culture. Although humor is often touted as reliable tool for effective leadership, various cultural forces–three of which we review here–may meaningfully alter employees’ humor appreciation and the effects of leaders’ humor. Overall, we do believe that humor can be an effective tool for a global leader if a leader possesses cultural intelligence and uses humor under the right contexts, with the right followers, and at the right time.
... Creat. tests d) Alternate Uses Divergent thinking test [42,51] "[...] think of as many unique and unusual uses for a common object" e) Remote Associates Convergent thinking test [30,44] "find a word that [is] logically linked to the set of three words" Table 1: Examples of creative tasks and creativity tests given to crowd workers on crowdsourcing platforms. ...
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General-purpose crowdsourcing platforms are increasingly being harnessed for creative work. The platforms' potential for creative work is clearly identified, but the workers' perspectives on such work have not been extensively documented. In this paper, we uncover what the workers have to say about creative work on paid crowdsourcing platforms. Through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of a questionnaire launched on two different crowdsourcing platforms, our results revealed clear differences between the workers on the platforms in both preferences and prior experience with creative work. We identify common pitfalls with creative work on crowdsourcing platforms, provide recommendations for requesters of creative work, and discuss the meaning of our findings within the broader scope of creativity-oriented research. To the best of our knowledge, we contribute the first extensive worker-oriented study of creative work on paid crowdsourcing platforms.
... For example, meditation or simply walking at a natural pace could affect individuals' creativity by changing their internal states or external environment respectively (Ding et al., 2014;Kuo & Yeh, 2016;M€ uller, Gerasimova, & Ritter, 2016;Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014). Moreover, the use and interpretation of creative language such as humorous and sarcastic expressions could also foster creativity, because they had similar cognitive process as creativity or could activate abstract thinking (Chang, Chen, Hsu, Chan, & Chang, 2015;Chen, Chen, & Roberts, 2019;Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015;Lu, Martin, Usova, & Galinsky, 2019). ...
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Internet language is a creative product of the rapid development of computer-mediated communication. The present study was to investigate whether the use of Internet language enhances creative problem solving. In Study 1, sixty-two selected participants were equally divided into two groups according to their use experience of Chinese Internet language, and then both more and less experienced groups were asked to complete Chinese remote associates test and Chinese chengyu riddles. Results showed that the more experienced group performed significantly better in both the creative tasks. In Study 2, forty-six participants were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was asked to learn Chinese Internet Language, while the control group was asked to learn scientific terminology. Two groups completed the aforementioned creative tasks in pretest and post-test. Results showed that the interaction between the group and test order was significant in Chinese chengyu riddle solving, in which the experimental group had a significantly higher average score in post-test than pretest. And there was no difference for the control group. These findings supported that Internet language use benefited creative problem solving, and it might be a convenient way in the practice of promoting creativity.
... This work advances the broader literature on the positive functions of intrapersonal contradictory experiences. It goes beyond the existing work by demonstrating that not only do contradictions within the mind (e.g., pursuing conflicting goals) or between the mind and verbal expressions (e.g., being sarcastic through contradictory statements) trigger adaptive actions (e.g., Gino & Wiltermuth, 2014;Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015;Kleiman & Hassin, 2013;Tadmor, Galinsky, & Maddux, 2012), contradictions between the mind and body can serve similar functions, that is, helping individuals survive and flourish in atypical situations through creativity. In addition, a mechanism examined or indicated in much of the work on intrapersonal contradiction is the inclination to consider alternative, unusual, or even opposing ideas and to embrace the ambiguity and multifacetedness of creativity-related problems. ...
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Mind–body dissonance (MBD) is the psychological experience of one’s bodily expressions contradicting one’s mental states. Across four experiments (total N = 887), the current research proposes and demonstrates that MBD can enhance creativity by facilitating an atypicality mind-set. First, two different instantiations of MBD (i.e., assuming a high-power/low-power role while adopting a constricted/expansive posture, or recalling a happy/sad memory while frowning/smiling) increased performance on creative association, insight, and generation tasks (Experiments 1 and 2). A third study showed that an atypicality mind-set was an underlying mechanism for the creativity effect (Experiment 3). Finally, the frequency of past MBD experiences was found to reduce MBD’s creativity effect (Experiment 4). The present research offers evidence for the positive functions of bodily expressions that contradict mental states and highlights the significance of understanding the interactive effects of psychological states and their physical analogues in studying creativity.
... Certain kinds of humour (e.g. sarcasm) would require individuals to integrate remote ideas, which is related to creativity (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015). James et al. (1999) suggested that MC might be the outcome of the interaction of negative target, negative emotion, and concept generation (also see . ...
Article
Three studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between motivation and malevolent creativity (MC). In Study 1, participants completed motivation scales and a measure of MC in online formats. Results showed that approach motivation accurately predicted MC, whereas avoidance motivation was negatively related to MC. In Study 2, participants solved MC problems in either approach or avoidance motivation conditions. Analyses revealed higher MC in the approach than in the avoidance motivation condition. In Study 3, participants were further asked to solve MC problems in one of the following conditions: approach-success/approach-failure/avoidance-success/avoidance-failure. The beneficial effects of approach motivation over avoidance motivation were again observed. Moreover, the experience of 'no closure' (failure in doing something) enhanced individual MC performance and counteracted the negative impact of avoidance motivation on MC. These findings indicate that individual MC performance might be enhanced by approach motivation and the experience of 'no closure'.
... Most dyadic processes in the work we reviewed relate to the relational/affective (RA) conflict. For example, Huang, Gino, and Galinsky (2015) found that sarcastic comments, which could be viewed as inflows, increased conflict. The flow could be "enlarged" to identify a broader range of combative behaviors including negativity (Webb et al., 2017), anger (Halevy, 2017), threats (Halevy, Chou, & Galinsky, 2012), and demeaning treatment (Anicich et al., 2016); all of which have been shown to increase conflict. ...
... In other contexts such mischievous identity performances may turn the familiar upside down. Indeed, as these forms of humour often involve a complex shifting between two different framings (the expected framing of social reality and an alternative), they can create new meanings (Ritchie, 2005) and increase creativity (Huang, Gino, & Galinsky, 2015). Again this hints at the serious side to humour and the significance of Orwell's (1945) observation that "every joke is a tiny revolution". ...
Article
Prejudice and discrimination are not funny. Yet ‘jokes' denigrating minority groups abound and are socially consequential. We contribute to the literature on intergroup humour through considering how minority group members may themselves use humour in their encounters with majority group members. Below, we consider minority group members' experiences of prejudicial intergroup encounters and their interaction management strategies. We then consider research on intergroup humour before reporting interview data originating from a minority group subject to much everyday discrimination and disparagement: Hungarian Roma. In particular, we explore how minority group members report using humour so as to allow themselves a degree of control over their interactions with majority group members. In so doing, we contribute to the literature on minority group members' interaction management strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Sarcasm detection and analysis has also been among the recent research areas in the text analysis. Among all the texts and data available online, 11% of the data is said to be sarcastic in nature [15]. This has attracted the interest of the researchers to propose various sarcasm detection techniques. ...
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Micro blogging sites and online platforms are prevalent mediums of choices these days to express views, thoughts, and opinions on various topics, events etc. throughout the year. The text/comments/opinions are entered using smart IoT based devices. Opinion mining can be applied to analyse such large amount of textual data. One interesting analysis is the ability to automatically detect sarcasm from the opinions entered by people online, use it for various applications domains and to indicate personality trait(s) of people, sarcastic or non-sarcastic. This research work aims to achieve more accuracy, for sarcasm detection, than the prevalent approaches by focusing on the data cleaning process. The purpose is to identify the levels of sarcasm from the text written by the users on social media blogs and online articles and determine their personality traits and any changes observed in the personality traits over a period of time. This classification is achieved using supervised classification algorithms and a comparative study is performed. Gender-based experiments are conducted to observe changes in the level of sarcasm and personality traits in both the genders along with bloggers from varied professions. The outcome of this research is to understand effect of events, seasons, gender, profession etc. on sarcasm and personality traits over the period of time.
Video games and movie industry are and have always been billion-dollar businesses. In the last decades, they have had a major impact on how people spend their leisure time, and it is widely recognized that they are changing people’s behaviors and activities. On the other hand, one of the key characteristics of today’s societies is creative idea generation. This study intends to investigate the relation between simple funny video games and short comedy movies and creative idea generation. The contribution of this paper is to suggest that certain short, simple funny/comedy digital audiovisual technologies are important to drive creativity. In particular, it is shown that both simple funny video games and short comedy movies have a positive and meaningful correlation with computer users’ creative idea generation. The results of this research may have positive impact on organizational resources management, especially, human resources management and it can justify the creation of new start-ups in the multimedia industry targeting the production of special video games and movies addressing organizational objectives.
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Management scholars have long depended on convenience samples to conduct research involving human participants. However, the past decade has seen an emergence of a new convenience sample: online panels and online panel participants. The data these participants provide—online panel data (OPD)—has been embraced by many management scholars owing to the numerous benefits it provides over “traditional” convenience samples. Despite those advantages, OPD has not been warmly received by all. Currently, there is a divide in the field over the appropriateness of OPD in management scholarship. Our review takes aim at the divide with the goal of providing a common understanding of OPD and its utility and providing recommendations regarding when and how to use OPD and how and where to publish it. To accomplish these goals, we inventoried and reviewed OPD use across 13 management journals spanning 2006 to 2017. Our search resulted in 804 OPD-based studies across 439 articles. Notably, our search also identified 26 online panel platforms (“brokers”) used to connect researchers with online panel participants. Importantly, we offer specific guidance to authors, reviewers, and editors, having implications for both micro and macro management scholars.
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El presente artículo de revisión examina 97 textos académicos, fundamentalmente en el ámbito hispanohablante, durante los últimos 25 años. Estos se agrupan en cuatro categorías: formas y funciones de la ironía (35 trabajos), comprensión de textos irónicos (17), la ironía en géneros discursivos específicos (30), e ironía y educación (15). Del análisis efectuado, salta a la vista que la ironía se re-visita conceptual y metodológicamente, lo que constituye un campo de investigación pródigo en perspectivas y prospectivas, susceptible de nuevos abordajes, por ejemplo, en el ámbito educativo.
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Given its capacity to cultivate a range of positive outcomes in the workplace, humor has been recognized as a valuable tool for leadership purposes. However, the theoretical understanding of leader humor remains relatively limited and the mechanism through which it influences follower outcomes has not been clearly identified. Drawing on signaling theory, we developed and empirically tested a model which delineates the relationship between leader humor and a specific follower behavior – proactive feedback seeking. We collected data from 304 employees and their respective leaders working in a large Canadian retail organization. Results of our analyses indicate that leader humor can impact subordinate feedback-seeking behavior via its influence on subordinates’ affect-based and cognition-based trust in the leader.
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This study investigates the impoliteness of Willy Wonka, a leading character in the children’s fantasy novella Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, and probes into the workings of his sadistic innuendo. While the menacing undertones of Wonka’s verbal aggression simultaneously thrill and horrify, they also deserve an explanation that goes beyond their trite dismissal as the embodiment of schoolboy humour. This research applies a Gricean framework to Wonka’s sarcastic discourse to reveal his grotesque violation of the social conventions of conversation. It scrutinises his covert verbal abuse with the aim of demonstrating how pragmatic resources help to serve literary characterisation. The analysis demonstrates how Dahl meticulously exploits the tool of conversational implicatures in order to position Wonka as an ambivalent villain.
Chapter
Sharyn Roach Anleu and Jessica Milner Davis. 2018. "The intersection of opposites? Judges, judging and humour". Chap. 1 of "Judges, Judging and Humour", eds. Jessica Milner Davis and Sharyn Roach Anleu, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, pp. 1-38. This chapter introduces a book which sets out to examine legal, social and literary aspects of humour relating to the judiciary, to judicial behaviour and judicial work, in several different cultures and times. It defines terminology and places the book in the context of studying humour, addressing such issues as the involvement of both cognition and emotion in the creation and appreciation of humour, styles of using humour, correctively as well as benignly, literary styles of humour and wit, their social functions of persuasion, correction, criticism, inclusion and exclusion and so on. It outlines how the individual chapters identify traditionally recorded wit concerning judges and judging in both the United Kingdom and the United States of America and explore humorous portrayals of the figure of the judge and magistrate and their courts in the European theatre. It also identifies the emergence and role / uses of humour in contemporary courts in the UK, Australia, Sweden, the US and Brazil. The book contributes to both cultural studies and social science or socio-legal studies of the role of emotions in the judiciary and in judging. It considers the surprisingly varied intersections between humour and the judiciary in several legal systems and over time: judges as the target of but also the source of humour; legal decisions regulating humour; the use of humour to manage aspects of judicial work and courtroom procedures; and judicial/legal figures and legal customs featuring in comic and satiric entertainment across multiple legal systems and over time. Keywords: comedy; courts; cultural history; emotions; humour; humour studies; humour and the law; jokes and joking; judges; judicial humour; judicial work; legal history
Chapter
Conventional understandings of the judicial role emphasise impersonality, leaving little space for humour. However, the courtroom is a workplace where different professions come together, each highly dependent on the other. Solicitors, barristers and police prosecutors (in lower courts) provide information or undertake tasks necessary for judicial decision-making. Although judicial officers in both higher and lower courts have considerable formal legal authority, their direct supervisory power over the out-of-court work of these other professionals is limited. This observational study of Australian lower courts finds that one strategy magistrates adopt to bridge this gap is humour. A magistrate’s practical use of humour can help judicial officers meet organisational challenges such as time management, while the normative use of humour delineates inter-professional roles and obligations.
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We tested sarcasm production and identification across original communicators in a spontaneously produced conversational setting, including testing the role of synchronous movement on sarcasm production and identification. Before communicating, stranger dyads participated in either a synchronous or nonsynchronous movement task. They then completed a task designed to elicit sarcasm, although no instruction to produce sarcastic content was provided. After communicating, participants immediately reviewed their conversations and identified their own and their addressees’ sarcastic utterances. No definition of sarcasm was provided. We found that participants who had moved synchronously identified more sarcasm in their own productions. They did not identify more sarcasm in their partner’s productions however. We also discovered that most identifications of sarcasm did not align across conversational participants, and neither did those of outside observers. People reported sarcasm in their addressees commensurate with the sarcasm they produced, rather than the sarcasm that their addressees self-reported. There were numerous cases of sarchasm, where producers’ intended sarcasm was not identified by addressees.
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Is dishonesty affected by one's creativity and environment? Recent studies have documented the effects of creativity and environment on dishonesty respectively. However, little attention has been given to the interaction effect of creativity and environment. Based on past findings, we hypothesized that creative people, compared to their non-creative counterparts, may tell more lies in an enriched (vs. scarce) environment. An experiment was conducted on a sample of 97 undergraduate students to examine the moderation effect of environment on the linkage of creativity and cheating. Participants completed a creativity task and a questionnaire on general knowledge about Malaysia. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that creative participants, as well as those in the enriched environment, were more likely to tell lies than their counterparts. More importantly, the interaction effect of creativity and environment was statistically significant. Specifically, the creative people were more likely to cheat in the enriched environment than in the scarce environment. The results not only shed light on the link between creativity and dishonesty but also suggest a new direction for minimizing dishonesty behaviours.
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Research on humor is carried out in a number of areas in psychology, including the cognitive (What makes something funny?), developmental (when do we develop a sense of humor?), and social (how is humor used in social interactions?) Although there is enough interest in the area to have spawned several societies, the literature is dispersed in a number of primary journals, with little in the way of integration of the material into a book. Dr. Martin is one of the best known researchers in the area, and his research goes across subdisciplines in psychology to be of wide appeal. This is a singly authored monograph that provides in one source, a summary of information researchers might wish to know about research into the psychology of humor. The material is scholarly, but the presentation of the material is suitable for people unfamiliar with the subject-making the book suitable for use for advanced undergraduate and graduate level courses on the psychology of humor-which have not had a textbook source.
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In three experiments, we investigated the social payoffs of speaking ironically. In Experiment 1, participants rated videotaped ironic remarks (criticisms and compliments) as funnier than literal remarks, but no more or less status enhancing. In Experiment 2, participants listened to audiotaped ironic criticisms and compliments. Ironic compliments were rated as more insulting than literal compliments, but ironic criticisms were found to be less insulting than literal criticisms. In Experiment 3, participants read literal or ironic criticisms. Ironic comments were rated as more amusing than literal ones. When irony was directed at the addressee's poor performance, it served to protect the addressee's face by softening the criticism. When irony was directed at the addressee's offensive behavior, it served to protect the speaker's face by showing the speaker as less angry and more in control. In addition, irony damaged the speaker—addressee relationship less than did literal criticism. Taken together, these studies suggest that speakers choose irony over literal language in order to be funny, to soften the edge of an insult, to show themselves to be in control of their emotions, and to avoid damaging their relationship with the addressee.
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Recent investigations of the pragmatic functions of ironic criticism (e.g., saying “Nice shot” to condemn a fellow player for missing a free throw and losing a basketball game) have argued that ironic criticism is used to dilute condemnation. Dews and Winner (1995) and Dews, Kaplan, and Winner (1995) showed that, relative to literal criticism (e.g., Terrible shot”), ironic criticism expresses less condemnation. This article reports the results of four experiments to show that ironic criticism in many cases is used for just the opposite reason—to enhance rather than to dilute condemnation. These findings have significant implications for both pragmatic and processing theories of verbal irony.
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We report the findings of 3 studies looking at people's emotional reactions to different kinds of ironic language (e.g., irony, sarcasm, overstatement, understatement, satire, rhetorical questions, and nonironic statements). The first experiment instructed the participants to rate their own emotional reaction, the second to rate the emotional state of the speaker, and the third to rate how the participants thought the speaker wished them to feel. The choice of a statement predictably affected addressees' emotions, especially when participants read irony, rhetorical questions, understatement, and nonironic statements. With sarcasm and satire, speakers may reveal their own emotions with little intention to affect addressees' emotions, and overstatements had a negative effect that speakers did not intend. Finally, detailed patterns show how, when, and which emotions are influenced by the various types of irony.
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Many White people simultaneously hold both sympathetic and antagonistic attitudes toward Blacks. The present research found that activation of these conflicted racial attitudes gives rise to psychological tension and discomfort, as evidenced by negative mood change, and that the amount of discomfort depends on individual differences in measured ambivalence. The salience of Mite subjects' racial attitudes was manipulated by exposing half the subjects to controversial statements about a recent local incident of racial violence; the other half read neutral material Before and after this manipulation, subjects took a mood test disguised as a subliminal perception task. Subjects in the high-salience condition showed significantly more negative mood change. This effect was carried by high-salience subjects who were also relatively high on dispositional racial ambivalence, as measured by a questionnaire. Ambivalence was unrelated to mood in the control condition. A second study showed that merely completing the questionnaire was not sufficient to produce negative mood change.
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This article reports the findings of a single study examining irony in talk among friends. Sixty-two 10-min conversations between college students and their friends were recorded and analyzed. Five main types of irony were found: jocularity, sarcasm, hyperbole, rhetorical questions, and understatements. These different forms of ironic language were part of 8% of all conversational turns. Analysis of these utterances revealed varying linguistic and social patterns and suggested several constraints on how and why people achieve ironic meaning. The implications of this conclusion for psychological theories of irony are discussed.
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According to the tinge hypothesis, the evaluative tone of the literal meaning of ironic utterances automatically colors the hearer's perception of the intended meaning. In Experiment 1, participants read short stories that end with either a literal or an ironic insult. Ironic insults are rated as less critical than literal insults, and the ironic speaker is rated as less annoyed than the literal speaker. In addition, the speaker-target relationship is affected less negatively when the insult is delivered ironically rather than literally. These results are obtained regardless of whether the addressee or a third person is the target of the remark and regardless of whether the story characters know one another or have just met. In Experiment 2, participants read similar short stories that end with either a literal or ironic compliment. Results mirror those of Experiment 1. Ironic compliments are rated as less praising than literal compliments, and the ironic speaker is rated as less pleased than the literal speaker. The speaker-target relationship is affected less positively when the compliment is ironic than when it is literal. As in Experiment 1, these results are obtained regardless of addressee or familiarity of the story characters. The results from these two experiments support the tinge hypothesis by demonstrating that irony mutes the criticism or praise conveyed by literal language.
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Two experiments investigated (a) subjects' intuitions about the communicative functions of irony and (b) how communicative functions affect recall. Previous research (Long, Kreuz, & Church, 1989) suggested that ironic statements allow speakers to fulfill communication goals that are difficult to convey literally. The present research extends these findings by identifying which communication goals (and other factors) influence recall. In Experiment 1, subjects read scenarios that concluded with ironic or literal statements and selected goals fulfilled by the statements from a checklist. The results indicated that ironic statements fulfill more communication goals than literal statements. In Experiment 2, subjects recalled these scenarios after a 24-hr delay. Presence of irony and fulfillment of pragmatically salient goals predicted recall in a series of multiple regression analyses.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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Integrating creativity and social network theories, I explore the direct and interactive effects of relationship strength, network position, and external ties on individual creative contributions. Results from a study of research scientists suggest that weaker ties are generally beneficial for creativity, whereas stronger ties have neutral effects. I also found that centrality is more positively associated with creativity when individuals have few ties outside of their organization and that the combination of centrality and many outside ties is not optimal. I discuss the implications of these findings for creativity and social network research.