Article

Assessment of Noise Induced Fear and Anxiety in Dogs: Modification by a Novel Fish Hydrolysate Supplemented Diet

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Abstract

This study examined the effectiveness of 2 different dosage levels of a fish hydrolysate, a natural supplement derived from fish protein, in reducing fear and anxiety in beagle dogs. A thunderstorm model was used, which entailed playing a recorded track of a thunderstorm to elicit measures in an open field test. Fear and anxiety were assessed with behavioral measures, which included noise induced activity and inactivity and an observational behavioral assessment, and blood cortisol levels. The test compound showed some effectiveness in reducing a hyperactivity response to thunder and in reducing the cortisol response. The results of this study provide initial support for considering the use of fish hydrolysate as a dietary supplement to reduce fear and anxiety.

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... Previous studies have analysed the behavioural response to fireworks or thunderstorm stimuli in sound sensitivity dogs in a domestic environment and assigned scores to several behaviours such as trembling, vocalisation, salivating, destruction, search for people and running around [9][10][11]. On the other hand, others have analysed dogs that are non-sensitive to sounds, regarding behavioural responses alone [12,13] or behavioural and physiological responses combined [14][15][16]. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has coupled behavioural, autonomic and endocrine aspects together to propose a single index for sound sensitivity in dogs. ...
... The analysis of cortisol has not been used as a sensible tool for comparing the magnitudes of different types of stress or analysing the effect of anti-stress strategies. While some studies have shown an apparent increase of cortisol levels in response to sound stress [13,38], other studies have failed to show any increase [14] or this elevation was not observed in all the experimental groups [6,16]. In the present study, although the sound increased the cortisol levels, there was no statistical difference between sound sensitive and non-sensitive dogs. ...
... Sound sensitive dogs have shown a more pronounced response to the parameters alert and attention, search sound, trembling, hiding and less intense response in the parameters rest and wink/ Scoring sound sensitivity in dogs sleep. Some studies have assessed several behavioural parameters in beagles or in non-soundsensitive dogs submitted to a sound-stress model in the laboratory [6,[12][13][14][15][16]. Our previous study showed that the thunderstorm stimulus could induce reactions of vigilance (alert and attention), trembling, hiding and restlessness (ambulation) in laboratory dogs and domestic dogs with no history of sensitivity to sounds [6]. ...
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Sound sensitive dogs have exaggerated responses to sound stimuli that can negatively impact the welfare of the dog. Behavioural reactions combined with the response to sound involve a marked autonomic imbalance towards sympathetic predominance and release of cortisol. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, in the laboratory, the cardiac autonomic modulation using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, serum cortisol levels and behavioural parameters in response to sounds of fireworks in dogs with a history of sensitivity to fireworks. Based on these data, and combining qualitative measures and categorical measures, we propose one short and one full index of sound sensitivity in dogs. Six privately owned dogs with no history and another twelve dogs with a history of sound sensitivity to fireworks were used. The sound stimulus consisted of a standardised recording of fireworks (180-seconds long) with a peak intensity of 103–104 dB. The cardiac intervals were recorded using a frequency meter (Polar® RS800CX model) to evaluate the HRV, and the acquired data were processed using CardioSeries 2.4.1 software. Twenty-one behavioural parameters were analysed quantitatively by time, frequency or categorically by scores and were grouped in behavioural categories of arousal, fear, relaxation and “other”. Sound sensitive dogs had exacerbated autonomic responses to the sound stimulus in the laboratory compared to non-sensitive dogs, with higher LF/HF ratios suggesting autonomic imbalance towards sympathetic predominance, but the cortisol levels were similar between the sensitive and non-sensitive dogs. Sound sensitive dogs showed pronounced responses for the parameters: alert and attention, search sound, startle, trembling, hiding, run away and less intense responses for the parameters rest and wink/sleep. Furthermore, the behavioural categories of arousal, fear, relaxation (lack of) and LF/HF were correlated to the caregiver’s perception of the sound sensitivity of the dogs. Not only the short index for sound sensitivity (behavioural categories arousal, fear and relaxation, and LF/HF ratio) but also the full index for sound sensitivity (all behavioural categories, LF/HF and cortisol levels) was highly correlated to sound fear response at home. These indexes can contribute to the development of strategies to treat sound sensitive dogs.
... Various behavioural tests have been developed to measure acute fear or stress responses in dogs (Carlone et al., 2018;Landsberg et al., 2015). These consist of standardised experimental situations in which stimuli serve to elicit behaviours in the observed individuals (Araujo et al., 2013). ...
... These consist of standardised experimental situations in which stimuli serve to elicit behaviours in the observed individuals (Araujo et al., 2013). The stressors can correspond to everyday scenarios (Stellato et al., 2017) or be stronger (e.g., stimuli mimicking thunderstorms; Dreschel & Granger, 2005;Landsberg et al., 2015). ...
... Other more subtle behaviours have been also described, such as acute responses (trembling/shaking, yawning, salivating, panting, pawlifting, barking/growling and piloerection) or chronic ones (coprophagy, self-grooming, repetitive behaviours (pacing), changes in locomotor activity, nosing and digging; Beerda et al., 1998Beerda et al., , 1999Beerda et al., , 2000Stellato et al., 2017). Furthermore, stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis, and therefore the cortisol level is commonly used to assess the physiological level of stress of dogs submitted to fearful and/or stressful situations (Beerda et al., 1997;Landsberg et al., 2015). ...
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Background & Objectives The effectiveness of a new dietary supplement (derived from fish hydrolysate and melon juice concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase) in reducing fear and stress-related behaviours in pet dogs was examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Methods 39 dogs were recruited after the owners had filled out a fear susceptibility index questionnaire. Over a 30-day period, one group of dogs received the supplement, and another group a placebo. Twelve behavioural variables were recorded in a series of four subtests (ST1-ST4) on days 0, 15 and 30. Saliva cortisol levels were measured before and after each set of STs. Results The dogs rated as more fearful displayed significantly higher cortisol values before the day 0 test session, were less active, spent less time playing with the experimenter, and approached the unfamiliar object less frequently. The owners did not correctly guess whether their dog had received the supplement or not. Behaviours of dogs were significantly different across the three sessions, with significant increases of stress-related behaviours (time spent in the door zone, number of interactions with the door, of whining, and of lip-licking). Conversely time spent with the experimenter increased, interactions and curiosity for the novel object and play with the experimenter decreased, presumably due to a habituation process. This suggests that the design of the four subtests session was relevant to test for mild stressors situations. Moreover, supplemented and placebo dogs responded differently to the three test sessions, indicating a supplement effect on dogs' behaviours and their adaptation to mild stressors situations. Conclusion The trial results suggested that the supplement facilitates activity and curiosity in a familiar environment, promotes dog-human interactions with an increased human familiarity, and tends to reduce subtle stress behaviours. Our results suggest that the supplement was effective in the context of mild stressors and habituation.
... However, some owners may be hesitant to administer such medications, whether due to the possibility of undesirable side effects, personal bias against drug use, or cost. This has led to increased interest in the use of natural extract products to alter fearful behaviors, like dog-appeasing pheromones or oral supplementations such as L-theanine, a tryptic hydrolysate of milk protein and fish hydrolysate (8)(9)(10)(11)(12). Additionally, there has been renewed interest in the use of cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) in particular, to regulate anxiety disorders in both humans and companion animals (13). ...
... Cannabidiol is one of over 90 cannabinoids produced by Cannabis sativa and has been proposed to exert several beneficial effects, including acting as an anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anxiolytic agent (14)(15)(16). But unlike 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the other major cannabinoid produced by C. sativa that is toxic to dogs, CBD does not produce psychoactive effects due to its low affinity for the CB1 receptor (17). The potential anxiolytic effects of CBD have been attributed to several mechanisms, including its activation of 5-HT 1A receptors and its ability to indirectly activate cannabinoid receptors by inhibiting the metabolism of the endocannabinoid anandamide (18,19). ...
... In previous work using this model, a thunderstorm track was utilized to test the noise-induced fear response in dogs (9,22). However, a fireworks video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= 5eLcHJLDlI8) was used because according to Blackwell et al. (1) a larger percentage of dogs respond to fireworks than to thunderstorms. ...
Article
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Interest is increasing regarding use of Cannabidiol (CBD) in companion animals due to anecdotal evidence of beneficial behavioral and health effects. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of CBD on behavioral responses to fear-inducing stimuli in dogs. Sixteen dogs (18.1 ± 0.2 kg) were utilized in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial, consisting of control, 25 mg CBD, trazodone (100 mg for 10–20 kg BW, 200 mg for 20.1–40 kg BW), and the combination of CBD and trazodone. A fireworks model of noise-induced fear was used to assess CBD effectiveness after 7 d of supplementation. Each test lasted a total of 6 min and consisted of a 3 min environmental habituation phase with no noise and a 3 min noise phase with a fireworks track. Plasma was collected 1 h before, immediately after, and 1 h following testing for cortisol analysis. Behaviors in each 3 min block were video recorded, and heart rate (HR) sensors were fitted for collection of HR and HR variability parameters. Research personnel administering treats and analyzing behavioral data were blinded as to the treatments administered. Data were tested for normality using the UNIVARIATE procedure in SAS, then differences examined using the MIXED procedure with fixed effects of treatment, period, time, and treatment x time interaction. Inactivity duration and HR increased during the first minute of the fireworks track compared with 1 min prior (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011, respectively), indicating the fireworks model successfully generated a fear response. Trazodone lowered plasma cortisol (P < 0.001), which was unaffected by CBD (P = 0.104) or the combination with CBD (P = 0.238). Neither CBD nor trazodone affected the duration of inactivity (P = 0.918 and 0.329, respectively). Trazodone increased time spent with tail relaxed (P = 0.001). CBD tended to increase HR (P = 0.093) and decreased the peak of low- and high-frequency bands (LF and HF, P = 0.011 and 0.022, respectively). These results do not support an anxiolytic effect of CBD in dogs given 1.4 mg CBD/kg BW/d. © Copyright © 2020 Morris, Kitts-Morgan, Spangler, McLeod, Costa and Harmon.
... For the remaining 18 dogs, a highly significant reduction in owner-reported global anxiety scores and time to return to baseline after a storm was found, and treatment success (defined as "an improvement in the behavior score after the 5th storm compared with baseline of at least 1 in 50% of the behaviors identified, with no behavior getting worse") was achieved in 12 of the 18 dogs (Pike et al., 2015). A fish protein supplement appears to have beneficial effects on cortisol reactivity in dogs exposed to a thunderstorm recording (Landsberg et al., 2015b). ...
... Although an analysis of variance indicated no significant treatment or order effect, the number of dogs reducing levels of inactivity during thunderstorm recordings was higher in the treatment group (60%) than in the placebo group (25%) (DePorter et al., 2012). Note, however, that later studies found that many individuals react with an increase, rather than a decrease, in activity to thunderstorm recordings (Gruen et al., 2015;Landsberg et al., 2015aLandsberg et al., , 2015b. ...
... Many owners, however, view medication only as a last resort and prefer to use more "natural" treatments because of concerns such as potential side effects (Notari and Gallicchio, 2008;Sheppard and Mills, 2003). Unfortunately, very few of these products have demonstrated any evidence of effectiveness (Landsberg et al., 2015b). ...
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An online questionnaire survey investigated (1) management and (2) treatment methods for firework fears in dogs employed by dog owners and their (perceived) effectiveness. A PCA on data from 1225 respondents revealed four management strategies (i.e. interventions during firework exposure): the principal components “Environmental modification” (e.g. providing a hiding place, keeping windows and blinds closed, and playing music), “Feed/Play” (providing the dog with chews, play and food during fireworks in general, as well as contingent on loud bangs), “Alternative” (use of calming nutraceuticals, pheromones, herbal products, homeopathic products, Bach flowers, and essential oils) and “Interaction” (allowing body contact, petting and talking to the dog when loud bangs occurred). To explore possible effects of these management methods on fear development, the components were correlated with a score for fear progression. Of the four components, only “Feed/Play” was statistically associated with an improvement in fear responses to fireworks. To evaluate the effectiveness of various treatment strategies, owners were asked to select from a range of options which interventions they had used and whether they considered them as effective. With prescription medication (N=202), improvements were noted by 69% of owners, with high success rates reported for the most frequently prescribed drugs, alprazolam (91%) and Sileo® (74%). While individual products were not evaluated, the reported success rates for the categories “pheromones” (N=316), “herbal products” (N=282), “nutraceuticals” (N=211), “essential oils” (N=183), “homeopathic remedies” (N=250) and “Bach flowers” (N=281) were all in the range of 27-35%, which is not higher than would be expected based on a placebo effect. Pressure vests were deemed as effective by 44% of respondents (N=300). Counterconditioning (providing desirable stimuli after the occurrence of noises) was the most successful training technique according to the owners (N=694), with a reported effectiveness of over 70%. Relaxation training (N=433) was reported to be almost as successful at 69%, while noise CDs (N=377) were effective in 55% of cases. Thus, counterconditioning, relaxation training and anxiolytic medication appear to be the most effective strategies in the treatment of firework fears in dogs. On this basis it is recommended that ad-hoc counterconditioning and relaxation training should complement the standard behavioral technique of desensitization/ counterconditioning with noise recordings. Highlights An online survey on treatment options for firework fears in dogs was performed Feeding or playing with dogs during fireworks was associated with fear improvement Success was highest for ad-hoc counterconditioning, relaxation training and medication Success was similar for pheromones, nutraceuticals and other alternative products Success rates for these alternative products are consistent with a placebo effect
... While an analysis of variance 227 indicated no significant treatment or order effect, the number of dogs reducing levels of 228 inactivity during thunderstorm recordings was higher in the treatment group (60%) than in 229 the placebo group (25%) (DePorter et al., 2012). Note, however, that later studies found that 230 many individuals react with an increase, rather than a decrease, in activity to thunderstorm 231 recordings (Gruen et al., 2015;Landsberg et al., 2015aLandsberg et al., , 2015b. 232 ...
... Many owners, however, view medication only as a last resort and prefer to use 562 more "natural" treatments, due to concerns such as potential side effects (Notari and 563 Gallicchio, 2008;Sheppard and Mills, 2003). Unfortunately, very few of these products have 564 demonstrated any evidence of effectiveness (Landsberg et al., 2015b). 565 ...
Article
Full-text available
An online questionnaire survey investigated (1) management and (2) treatment methods for firework fears in dogs employed by dog owners and their (perceived) effectiveness. A PCA on data from 1,225 respondents revealed four management strategies (i.e., interventions during firework exposure): the principal components “Environmental modification” (e.g. providing a hiding place, keeping windows and blinds closed, and playing music), “Feed/Play” (providing the dog with chews, play and food during fireworks in general, as well as contingent on loud bangs), “Alternative” (use of calming nutraceuticals, pheromones, herbal products, homeopathic products, Bach flowers, and essential oils) and “Interaction” (allowing body contact, petting and talking to the dog when loud bangs occurred). To explore possible effects of these management methods on fear development, the components were correlated with a score for fear progression. Of the four components, only “Feed/Play” was statistically associated with an improvement in fear responses to fireworks. To evaluate the effectiveness of various treatment strategies, owners were asked to select from a range of options which interventions they had used and whether they considered them as effective. With prescription medication (N=202), improvements were noted by 69% of owners, with high success rates reported for the most frequently prescribed drugs, alprazolam (91%) and Sileo® (74%). While individual products were not evaluated, the reported success rates for the categories “pheromones” (N=316), “herbal products” (N=282), “nutraceuticals” (N=211), “essential oils” (N=183), “homeopathic remedies” (N=250) and “Bach flowers” (N=281) were all in the range of 27-35%, which is not higher than would be expected based on a placebo effect. Pressure vests were deemed as effective by 44% of respondents (N=300). Counterconditioning (providing desirable stimuli after the occurrence of noises) was the most successful training technique according to the owners (N=694), with a reported effectiveness of over 70%. Relaxation training (N=433) was reported to be almost as successful at 69%, while noise CDs (N=377) were effective in 55% of cases. Thus, counterconditioning, relaxation training and anxiolytic medication appear to be the most effective strategies in the treatment of firework fears in dogs. On this basis it is recommended that ad-hoc counterconditioning and relaxation training should complement the standard behavioral technique of desensitization/ counterconditioning with noise recordings.
... Stress associated with fear and anxiety can have negative impacts on health, welfare, behavior and lifespan (18,19), depending on both the nature of the stressor (intensity, duration, persistence, etc.) and the coping skills of the individual (20,21). Every day, companion dogs are exposed to common household noises. ...
... If these dogs are experiencing fear in response to regularly-occurring household stimuli, they may as a result be experiencing reduced welfare, and be at risk for the development of stress-related behavioral or physiological problems (24). Damage to the human-animal bond which can result from undesirable behaviors associated with fears and phobias can lead to decreased commitment to care of the dog, and/or an increased risk of relinquishment or euthanasia (19). ...
Article
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Sudden, loud noises are one of the most common triggers for fearful behaviors in dogs, and many companion dogs suffer from noise sensitivity. Existing research focuses on dramatic infrequent sounds (e.g., thunderstorms, fireworks). Anecdotally, and based on reports of undesirable behaviors in response to noises in the home, many common household noises may also be causing fear and anxiety in companion dogs. However, these responses have not yet been studied in home environments. We surveyed 386 dog owners about their dogs' responses to household sounds, and recorded dog behaviors and human reactions from 62 videos and compilations available on an online video sharing platform, featuring dogs reacting to common household noises. Numerous signs of canine fear and anxiety were reported by survey respondents and observed in the videos, in response to both daily, and irregular but “normal,” household noises. Responses were significantly stronger to sounds characterized as high frequency intermittent than to sounds characterized as low frequency continuous. Respondents appeared to underestimate their dogs' fearfulness, and the majority of humans in the videos responded to their dogs' behaviors with amusement; welfare concerns were rarely expressed. While these videos cannot be used to calculate actual prevalence of these issues, our data support that some owners are underestimating fearfulness in their dogs in response to household noises, and responding inappropriately to dogs' expressions of fear and anxiety. Better education is required for dog owners to accurately interpret canine body language, to both safeguard dogs' welfare and minimize development of anxiety-related behavior problems.
... Therefore, considering these data, it is unlikely that the transportation can produce a ceiling-effect or refractory state in the HPA axis. Furthermore, variable cortisol levels are commonly observed in studies with dogs, with contradictory cortisol levels in response to sound stress [8,13,[38][39][40]. Based on this, cortisol analysis has not demonstrated reliability/sensitivity as a tool to analyse the acute effect of anti-stress strategies. ...
... Physiology & Behavior 186 (2018)[37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44] ...
... However, it is important to evaluate the effect of polyherbal supplementation on the behavior and cognitive process in dogs. A stress reduction in dogs could reduce its negative impacts reported on health, welfare, behavior, and lifespan [96]. ...
Article
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Choline chloride is used to provide choline in dog foods; however, in other domestic species, it has been replaced with a polyherbal containing phosphatidylcholine. A polyherbal containing Achyrantes aspera, Trachyspermum ammi, Citrullus colocynthis, Andrographis paniculata, and Azadirachta indica was evaluated in adult dogs through body weight changes, subcutaneous fat thickness, blood metabolites, and gene expression. Forty dogs (4.6 ± 1.6 years old) who were individually housed in concrete kennels were randomly assigned to the following treatments: unsupplemented diet (377 mg choline/kg), choline chloride (3850 mg/kg equivalent to 2000 mg choline/kg diet), and polyherbal (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) for 60 days. Blood samples were collected on day 59 for biochemistry, biometry, and gene expression analysis through microarray assays. Intake, final body weight, and weight changes were similar for the two choline sources. Feed intake variation among dogs (p = 0.01) and dorsal fat (p = 0.03) showed a quadratic response to herbal choline. Dogs that received the polyherbal diet had reduced blood cholesterol levels (Quadratic, p = 0.02). The gene ontology analysis indicated that 15 biological processes were modified (p ≤ 0.05) with implications for preventing cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, cancer prevention, inflammatory and immune response, and behavior and cognitive process. According to these results that were observed in a 60 day trial, the polyherbal form could replace choline chloride in dog diets at a concentration of 400 mg/kg.
... En el área de comportamiento animal y humano, se observa un estudio en el cual se concluyó que la inclusión de un hidrolizado de pescado, obtenido de una especie de pez blanco (tipo Gadidae) capturado en el Atlántico Norte, como suplemento dietético proporciona apoyo inicial para reducir el medio y la ansiedad (Landsberg et al., 2015). ...
Article
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La Agroindustria Pesquera representa una cadena de producción de gran importancia en la economía mundial, sin embrago, grandes cantidades de subproductos se generan anualmente, lo que redunda en pérdidas económicas y en impactos negativos sobre el medio ambiente. No obstante, los residuos pueden ser utilizados de manera eficiente para múltiples propósitos: mejorar las propiedades funcionales de los alimentos, como potentes antioxidantes, proteger la salud de las personas y proporcionar los nutrientes esenciales. La tecnología de la hidrólisis permite el procesamiento integral del pescado con el fin de lograr estos propósitos. Esto ha despertado el interés de los investigadores y las industrias de todo el mundo mediante el estudio de nuevas especies, procesos y tecnologías que conduzcan a materializarse en productos con potencial de mercado. El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar la producción, beneficios y nuevos desarrollos sobre los hidrolizados de pescado desde un aspecto tecnológico, nutricional y funcional.
... Supplementation with protein hydrolysates represents a good complement to diets in states of malnutrition because their bioactive ingredients are easily absorbed due to the high content of di-and tripeptides that are better assimilated by organisms compared to native protein (92). In a study conducted by Landsberg et al. (93), fish hydrolysate has anxiolytic properties in dogs, which appear to be manifested by decreased hyperactivity and a reduced cortisol response to stress. ...
Article
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Background: Growing aquaculture production around the world generates an important environmental impact because of its waste volume, which reaches nearly 60%. These byproducts have important levels of protein and lipids that can be revaluated to obtain products that are of interest to the pharmaceutical and food industries such as bioactive peptides and functional properties. Recently, technologies have been applied to the isolation and purification of bioactive peptides according to their molecular weight, such as membrane separation techniques and chromatography. Currently, there are commercial products from fish protein hydrolysates that can be used in nutritional and pharmaceutical applications as a source of amino acids with different physiological functions. Objective: Give information on aquaculture byproducts, hydrolysis methods, methods of purification, bioactive peptides and functional properties and nutritional supplements. Methods: Science Direct, Springer Link, Wiley Online Library, and Scopus were reviewed using the keywords aquaculture products, protein hydrolysis, bioactive peptides, functional properties. For the selection of the articles, the year of publication, the language, the methodology used and the trajectory of the authors were taken into account. Conclusions: This review is a brief description of the use of aquaculture byproducts using different types of hydrolysis process and their multiple applications on several industries.
... This may not be the result of any effect on arousal but rather because exercise increased panting, and dogs cannot pant and sniff at the same time. Panting may also result from the increased arousal (which itself might reduce performance in line with the Yerkes-Dodson Law) associated with distress, such as anxiety or frustration (Dreschel & Granger, 2005;Godbout, Palestrini, Beauchamp, & Frank, 2007;Landsberg, Mougeot, Kelly, & Milgram, 2015;McCobb, Brown, Damiani, & Dodman, 2001;Sheppard & Mills, 2003), and so stress management in scent detection dogs is of particular importance. Both exercise, particularly in hot conditions, and stress might have a direct impact on scent detection performance by physically limiting the amount that dogs are able to sniff. ...
Article
Scent detection dogs are used in a variety of contexts; however, very few dogs successfully complete their training, and many others are withdrawn from service prematurely due to both detection accuracy issues in the field and wider behavioral issues. This article aims to review our understanding of the factors affecting variation in scent detection dogs' learning of the tasks and performance in the field. For this we deconstructed the scent detection task into its key behavioral elements and examined the literature relating to the factors affecting variation in the dogs' success all across their development. We first consider factors that affect individuality and individual performance, in general, such as temperament, arousal, the handler-dog relationship, training regimes, and the housing and management of scent detections dogs. We then focus on tasks specific to scent detection dogs and critically appraise relevant literature relating to the learning and performance of these tasks by dogs. This includes prenatal and early life exposure and later environment, training regime, and the human-dog relationship, as well as performance limiting factors such as the need to pant in hot environments during work.
... Some affected animals may also develop longterm chronic stress responses as well as phobias to other loud noises (Dreschel and Granger 2005). As it is difficult for owners to completely eliminate exposure during firework displays, a number of different management strategies have been explored including desensitisation and counter-conditioning (Levine et al. 2007;Levine and Mills 2008), dietary supplements (Landsberg et al. 2015b), pressure vests (Pekkin et al. 2016), dog appeasing pheromones (Sheppard and Mills 2003;Frank et al. 2010;Landsberg et al. 2015a), homeopathic remedies Mills 2008, 2011), and short-term sedative drugs (Walker et al. 1997;Herron et al. 2008). While the efficacy of many of these interventions is still debatable, even ones with reasonably good evidence base will not work if owners are unwilling to try them with their pets or use them inappropriately. ...
Article
Aims To provide updated results on the adverse behavioural effects of fireworks on companion animals in New Zealand, measures that owners use to mitigate these effects, and opinions on a ban on the sale of fireworks. Method A cross-sectional survey of companion animal owners in New Zealand was conducted between 02 November and 05 December 2016 using an online survey. The survey was modelled after a similar study conducted in 2006. Owners were asked to provide information on the types and severity of behaviours observed in their animals that were frightened by fireworks, what they did for their frightened animals and whether they would support a ban on the sale of fireworks. Results There were 4,293 respondents who completed the online survey and they owned 15,871 companion animals, of which 11,750 (74.4%) were frightened of fireworks. For the 7,464 fearful animals with individual data available, the most commonly reported adverse behaviours were hiding (5,287; 70.8%), shivering (4,058; 54.3%) and cowering (3,324; 44.5%). Owners reported that 345 animals had been physically injured as the result of fireworks. Of 3,682 owners with frightened animals, 2,649 (71.9%) had not sought help or treatment for their animal. Frightened animals were mostly kept inside (3,479/7,464; 46.%) or comforted (2,112/7,464; 28.2%). Of all 4,325 respondents, 3,631 (84.0%) were supportive of a ban on the private sale of fireworks, with 370 (8.6%) against and 315 (7.3%) undecided. Owners with ≥1 animal that was fearful towards fireworks were more likely to support a ban (3,137/3,412; 91.9%) than owners whose animals were not afraid (466/561; 83.1%) (OR = 2.32; 95% CI = 1.80–2.98). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance Among respondents to this survey, many owners of companion animals reported that their animals were adversely affected by fireworks, but few of them sought advice about strategies to mitigate the impacts. The majority of respondents supported a ban on the private sale of fireworks. Campaigns to raise public awareness of treatment strategies for managing fear behaviours during anticipated fireworks displays may be beneficial.
... Preference for a sound may be based on many factors, such as its amplitude, frequency range, and composition, but also the experience of the individual. Certainly, individuals prefer sounds that are not painful (in humans < 120 dB) or distracting for them, and plenty of studies show that loud sounds can be aversive to animals (Ballantyne, 2018;Blackshaw et al., 1990;Heffner & Heffner, 1998;Job, 1999;Landsberg, Mougeot, Kelly, & Milgram, 2015). However, whether a sound is perceived as aversive may depend on other factors, such as frequency composition (McDermott, 2012) as well as learned associations (Lopes Fagundes et al., 2018) and more general previous experience. ...
... Thus, recovery of fish protein from by-products may be of great value. In addition, fish protein hydrolysates commonly used as nutritional supplements (commercial names PC60 and Stabilium 200) were reported to reduce anxiety in humans and to improve memory and learning performances in animals and human patients (Dorman, et al., 1995;Landsberg et al., 2015;Le Poncin, 1996a, 1996bGevaert et al., 2016). ...
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The world fisheries resources have exceeded 160 million tons in recent years. However, every year a considerable amount of total catch is discarded as by-catch or as processing leftovers, and that includes trimmings, fins, frames, heads, skin, viscera and among others. In addition, a large quantity of processing by-products is accumulated as shells of crustaceans and shellfish from marine bioprocessing plants. Recognition of the limited marine resources and the increasing environmental pollution has emphasized the need for better utilization of the by-products. Marine by-products contain valuable protein and lipid fractions, minerals, enzymes as well as many other components. The major fraction of by-products are used for feed production—in making fish meal/oil, but this has low profitability. However, there are many ways in which the fish and shellfish waste could be better utilized, including the production of novel food ingredients, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, biomedical materials, fine chemicals, and other value-added products. In recent times, much research is conducted in order to explore the possible uses of different by-products. This contribution primarily covers the characteristics and utilization of the main ingredients such as protein, lipid, chitin and its derivatives, enzymes, carotenoids, and minerals originating from marine by-products.
... Aangezien gedrag sterk beïnvloed wordt door voeding (Beata et al., 2007;Landsberg et al., 2015) kunnen tot slot voedingssupplementen en voeding gebruikt worden als aanvullende behandeling bij angstig gedrag gerelateerd aan SGP. Huidige voedingssupplementen waarvoor indicaties bestaan dat ze effectief zijn bij angst zijn het melkeiwit alfa-casozepine (of merknaam Zylkène), tryptofaan en recentelijk ook CBD-olie. ...
Thesis
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In dit werk wordt ingegaan op scheidingsgerelateerd(e) probleemgedrag (SGP) of -gedragingen (SGP’s) bij honden. Ter vergemakkelijking worden doorheen dit werk vanaf nu de afkortingen SGP en SGP’s gebruikt. Op basis van wetenschappelijke literatuur en literatuur gericht aan hondeneigenaren wordt een overzicht gegeven van de huidige inzichten rond SGP, inclusief aanvullingen en bedenkingen bij huidige gangbare kennis over dit thema in de theorie en in de praktijk. Behalve van (wetenschappelijke) literatuur maak ik gebruik van praktijkkennis en -inzichten bij hondengedragsdeskundigen. Immers, het belang van “bottom-up” kennis die vertrekt vanuit de (veelal jarenlange) praktijkervaring van wie (veelal dagelijks) in de praktijk staat, wordt steeds vaker benadrukt, ook vanuit wetenschappelijke hoek. Het includeren van kennis die “leeft” onder experts – maar ook onder eigenaars die vanuit hun ervaring de gedragsproblemen met hun hond vaak goed kunnen beschrijven – kan beschouwd worden als een vorm van burgerwetenschap (“citizen science”) en kan onderzoekers helpen in de beschrijving van fenomenen die ze nadien willen verklaren en/of – in dit geval – waarvoor ze aangepaste behandelprotocollen en gerichte informatie willen verspreiden bij het juiste publiek. Binnen dit eindwerk maak ik bewust gebruik van deze “levende kennis” omdat zij kan bijdragen aan een beter begrip van onduidelijkheden over het fenomeen SGP. Daarnaast kan deze kennis informatie geven over zaken die (nog) niet wetenschappelijk bestudeerd zijn en richting geven aan pistes voor toekomstig onderzoek.
... Certainly, individuals prefer sounds that are not painful (in humans < 120 dB) or distracting for them, and plenty of studies show that loud sounds can be aversive to animals (Ballantyne, 2018;Blackshaw et al., 1990;H. E. Heffner & Heffner, 1998;Job, 1999;Landsberg, Mougeot, Kelly, & Milgram, 2015). However, whether a sound is perceived as aversive may depend on other factors, such as frequency composition (McDermott, 2012) as well as learned associations (Lopes Fagundes et al., 2018) and more general previous experience. ...
... German shepherds often reacted by pacing, while Border collies and Australian shepherds showed a high rate of hiding and panting). Also individuals within a single breed may adopt different coping strategies associated with either active or passive (and more subtle) coping behaviours 43,44 . Taken together, both the sensitivity and the specificity of vocalisations and of panting as fear indicators are low; i.e. not all fearful dogs vocalise or pant, and not all dogs that vocalise or pant are fearful. ...
Article
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A high proportion of pet dogs show fear-related behavioural problems, with noise fears being most prevalent. Nonetheless, few studies have objectively evaluated fear expression in this species. Using owner-provided video recordings, we coded behavioural expressions of pet dogs during a real-life firework situation at New Year’s Eve and compared them to behaviour of the same dogs on a different evening without fireworks (control condition), using Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. A backwards-directed ear position, measured at the base of the ear, was most strongly associated with the fireworks condition (effect size: Cohen’s d = 0.69). Durations of locomotion (d = 0.54) and panting (d = 0.45) were also higher during fireworks than during the control condition. Vocalisations (d = 0.40), blinking (d = 0.37), and hiding (d = 0.37) were increased during fireworks, but this was not significant after sequential Bonferroni correction. This could possibly be attributed to the high inter-individual variability in the frequency of blinking and the majority of subjects not vocalising or hiding at all. Thus, individual differences must be taken into account when aiming to assess an individual’s level of fear, as relevant measures may not be the same for all individuals. Firework exposure was not associated with an elevated rate of other so-called ‘stress signals’, lip licking and yawning.
... Fish peptides were found to reduce anxiety in humans ( Dorman et al., 1995 ). In dogs, a preliminary trial suggested that supplementation with fish peptides may have reduced fear and anxiety ( Landsberg et al., 2015 ). ...
Article
Objective : To evaluate (1) the effects of three mild stressors on urinary cortisol - a stress marker - in cats and to evaluate (2) the effects on this parameter of a new prescription diet (diet US) with L-tryptophan, lemon balm, oligofructose and fish peptides compared with a control prescription diet (Diet U) with L-tryptophan alone. Methods : Ten colony cats were included in the study. Baseline measurements were firstobtained with cats fed a baseline diet without nutraceutical to validate the effects of three mild stressors (open field test, overnight fast and blood sampling) on urinary cortisol. Twenty-four-hour free catch urine specimens were obtained under routine management conditions and following application of the three mild stressors. Cats were then randomized in two groups to test diet U or US for five weeks in a crossover design, following the same procedure as for baseline measurements. Twenty-four-hour urinary cortisol/creatinine ratio, serum cortisol and serum serotonin were measured. Results : At baseline, open field test and blood sampling induced greater twenty-four-hour urinary cortisol/creatinine ratio compared to the value obtained under routine management while overnight fasting did not. In the crossover design, compared to diet U, diet US resulted in a lower average twenty-four-hour urinary cortisol/creatinine ratio. Conclusions : Open field test and blood sampling can be considered as mild stressors in cats. Compared to a diet with L-tryptophan alone, a diet supplemented with lemon balm, fish peptides, oligofructose and L-tryptophan resulted in a lower average twenty-four-hour urinary cortisol/creatinine ratio, a marker of stress, in cats.
... 5 Other functional foods that have shown some efficacy in reducing anxiety and stress in dogs include a fish hydrolysate-supplemented diet and a diet supplemented with fish and vegetable hydrolysates, minerals, and nutraceuticals including Valeriana, but these are not yet commercially available. 26,27 Although there is no published evidence supporting a cause and effect, dietary ingredients have been reported to cause behavior problems, with exclusion or avoidance of the ingredients leading to an improvement in behavior. In 1 case report, behavioral changes including aggression were resolved with a hydrolyzed protein, gluten-free diet. ...
Article
There are several natural products and functional ingredients that, either alone or in combination with other ingredients, have shown evidence for decreasing signs associated with cognitive dysfunction and anxiety in dogs and cats, and in management of seizures in dogs with epilepsy. The evidence supporting the role that a healthy gastrointestinal tract plays in behavior is also growing as more is learned about the gut-brain axis. Nutritional support may play an important role in therapy for certain brain disorders and behavioral problems, in conjunction with other aspects of management. A multimodal approach provides the greatest likelihood of success.
... Thus, several interesting results were reported from experiments conducted with the milk-derived αS1-casein hydrolysate or with the fish protein hydrolysate. In fact, under a chronic oral administration regimen, both hydrolysates demonstrated anxiolytic-type properties in rodents (both mice and rats [13][14][15][16][17]), but also in several other animal species such as cats and dogs [18][19][20][21]. A few investigating works in humans have also been published ( [22,23], see also for review [24]). ...
Article
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Anxiety appears among the most frequent psychiatric disorders. During recent years, a growing incidence of anxiety disorders can be attributed, at least in part, to the modification of our eating habits. To treat anxiety disorders, clinicians use benzodiazepines, which unfortunately display many side effects. Herein, the anxiolytic-like properties of two natural products (αS1–casein hydrolysate and Gabolysat®) were investigated in rats and compared to the efficacy of benzodiazepine (diazepam). Thus, the conditioned defensive burying test was performed after a unique oral dose of 15 mg/kg, at two time-points (60 min and then 30 min post oral gavage) to show potential fast-onset of anxiolytic effect. Both natural products proved to be as efficient as diazepam to reduce the time rats spent burying the probe (anxiety level). Additionally, when investigated as early as 30 min post oral gavage, Gabolysat® also revealed a fast-anxiolytic activity. To date, identification of bioactive peptide, as well as how they interact with the gut–brain axis to sustain such anxiolytic effect, still remains poorly understood. Regardless, this observational investigation argues for the consideration of natural compounds in care pathway.
Chapter
Stress in animals is evident through the disruptive behaviors exhibited, including excessive barking, restlessness, repetitive behavior, extreme vigilance, etc. Sociability is a key factor in determining the successful adaptation of pets to their environment. Sociable dogs are more comfortable with strangers and unfamiliar situations. Thus, reducing stress and anxiety in pets is essential in providing positive social interactions and to improve the quality of their life and that of the owners. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, and many anxiolytic drugs exert their action through interactions with the GABA receptors. In addition to the GABAergic system, serotonergic, dopaminergic, and noradrenergic systems are also implicated in the development of anxiety and stress in various animal models and in humans. Furthermore, the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and dysregulation of the immune system may also mediate social stress in animals that produces aggression and/or depression. While a number of anxiolytic drugs are available on the market, dietary supplements and herbal extracts are shown to exert equivalent calming effects with no or minimal addictive or aversive side effects. This chapter describes the underlying mechanisms involved in the development of stress and anxiety and various nutraceuticals and substances that have potential to reduce the stress behavior and improve social interactions in canines.
Article
Emotional stress is currently considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Experimental evidence clearly shows robust autonomic cardiovascular effects in animals exposed to stress stimuli. Considering the remarkable variability of stressors, the urban environment can pose a severe challenge to cardiovascular control. Interestingly, pet ownership is indicated as an efficient non-pharmacological therapy to attenuate stress effects that can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the risk of cardiovascular diseases in pets themselves living in urban environment has not received attention it deserves. Here, we review the central mechanisms involved in the autonomic cardiovascular response to emotional stress. Next, we discuss experimental evidence showing the cardiovascular effects produced by emotional stressors in animals, aiming to establish a parallel with common urban stressors. Association of additional risk factors such as sedentarism, obesity and ambient temperature are also considered. Our aim is to identify and raise awareness of the risk of cardiovascular disease in pets exposed to quotidian emotional stressors present in the urban environment.
Article
About one in three people are affected by anxiety disorders during their lifetime. Anxiety episodes can be brief due to a stressful event, but anxiety disorders can last at least 6 months. A wide variety of therapeutic drugs is available for the treatment of anxiety disorders, but due to the associated side effects of these anxiolytics, it is interesting to find alternatives. Some food protein hydrolysates or active peptide fragments present in such hydrolysates provide a natural and promising mean for preventing certain forms of anxiety. To date, only a few numbers of hydrolysates or peptides from food proteins with anxiolytic-like activity have been characterized. Most of these hydrolysates or peptides have displayed potent anxiolytic profiles in animal or clinical studies. The results suggest that these molecules may exert their effects at different levels. This paper reviews data of the structure/activity relationship of anxiolytic peptides, their physiological effects displayed in in vitro and in vivo assays, bioavailability, and safety profiles.
Chapter
Anxiety is a very prevalent mental disorder. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain and many anxiolytic drugs exert their action through interactions with the GABA receptors. In addition to the GABAergic system, serotonergic, dopaminergic, and noradrenergic systems are also implicated in the development of anxiety and stress in various animal models and humans. Furthermore, involvement of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and dysregulation of the immune system may also mediate stress and anxiety in humans and animals. While a number of anxiolytic drugs are available on the market, dietary supplements and herbal extracts are shown to exert equivalent calming effects with minimal to no addictive or adverse side effects. This chapter describes the pharmacological targets involved in the development of stress and anxiety and the role of various nutraceuticals and dietary supplements that have the potential to reduce anxiety and stress.
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Separation anxiety and noise aversions are 2 of the most common welfare issues affecting pet dogs. Despite the high prevalence of these conditions, many affected dogs do not receive treatment. Separation anxiety, noise aversions, and confinement distress may be comorbid with each other and with other behavioral issues. A behavioral history and video can help confirm the diagnosis. Treatment with psychopharmaceuticals and behavior modification is recommended to improve the affected dog's welfare.
Article
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Background Previous studies in human patients suggest depth of sedation may be affected by environmental noise or music; however, related data in domestic animals is limited. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of noise and music on dexmedetomidine-induced (DM- 10 µg/kg, IM) sedation in 10 dogs. Methods In a crossover design, post-DM injection dogs were immediately subjected to recorded human voices at either 55–60 decibel (dB) (Noise 1) or 80–85 dB (Noise 2); classical music at 45–50 dB (Music); or background noise of 40–45 dB (Control+). Control− included IM saline injection and exposure to 40–45 dB background noise. Sedation was assessed via monitoring spontaneous behavior and accelerometry (delta-g) throughout three 20-min evaluation periods: baseline, noise exposure, and post-treatment. Sedation was further assessed during two restraint tests at 30 min (R1) and 40 min (R2) post-injection. A mixed model for crossover design was used to determine the effect of noise exposure and time on either spontaneous behavior scores or delta-g. The restraint scores were analyzed using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA. Results Spontaneous behavior scores indicated less sedation during Noise 2 compared to Control+ ( P = 0.05). R2 restraint scores for all DM treatments except Noise 2 indicated significantly higher sedation than Control− [C+ ( P = 0.003), M ( P = 0.014) and N1 ( P = 0.044)]. Discussion Results suggest that the quality of sedation is negatively impacted by high-intensity noise conditions (80–85 dB), but exposure to music did not improve sedation in this population of research dogs.
Article
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The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across 'during' and 'post' thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity. British Veterinary Association.
Conference Paper
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PURPOSE The current study examined the effectiveness of DAP® for reducing sound-induced anxiety using a thunderstorm simulation model. CONCLUSION DAP® collars reduced global and reactive anxiety to a thunder recording, possibly by counterbalancing noise-related increased reactivity. This supports the use of DAP®* for reducing noise-related fear and anxiety
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Measuring non-auditory effects of noise such as stress-inducing ones have become of interest recently. Salivary cortisol has become a popular measure in stress research. So, assessing noise-induced stress via saliva cortisol evaluation can present a bright future in non-invasive exposure assessment methods. This study had 3 goals: (1) Assess and compare saliva cortisol concentrations in the morning and evening in normal work day and leisure day in industrial workers, (2) assess the relationship between industrial noise exposure and salivary cortisol concentrations, and (3) assess the possibility of using salivary cortisol as a possible marker of noise-induced stress. This study included 80 male participants working in 4 different parts (painting, assembling lines, casting, and packaging) of a household manufacturing company. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected at 7.00 am and 4.00 pm, respectively. Noise exposure levels were assessed by sound level meter and noise dosimeter. All measurements occurred in two days: One in leisure day and other in working day. Descriptive statistics, paired sample t-test, and regression analysis were used as statistical tools of this study with P < 0.05. On the leisure day, morning salivary cortisol (geometric mean [GM], 15.0; 95% CI, 12.0 to 19.0 nmol/L) was significantly higher than evening cortisol (GM, 5.2; 95% CI, 4.2 to 6.3 nmol/L) (P < 0.05). Also, on the working day, morning salivary cortisol (GM, 14.0; 95% CI, 11.25 to 18.0 nmol/L) was significantly higher than evening cortisol (GM, 8.0; 95% CI, 6.5 to 10.0 nmol/L) (P < 0.05). No significant difference was obtained for morning cortisol levels between leisure day and working day samples (P = 0.117). But, for evening cortisol concentrations, a strong significant difference was noted leisure day and working day (P < 0.001). The evening cortisol in the working day correlated significantly with noise exposure > 80 dBA. Our study revealed that industrial noise, with levels > 80 dBA, has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation.
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To evaluate the effectiveness of dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) in reducing fear and anxiety in puppies and its effects on training and socialization. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. ANIMALS-45 puppies between 12 to 15 weeks of age at the time of inclusion. Puppies enrolled in puppy classes were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups: 2 large-breed groups (1 DAP and 1 placebo group) and 2 small-breed groups (1 DAP and 1 placebo group). The investigator, trainers, and owners were unaware of treatment allocation throughout the study. Classes lasted 8 weeks, and owners were asked to complete a questionnaire before the first lesson and at the end of each lesson thereafter. Data collected included amount of learning and degrees of fear and anxiety for each puppy. Follow-up telephone surveys of owners to obtain information on subsequent socialization of puppies were performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the classes ended. Dogs in DAP and placebo groups were significantly different with respect to degrees of fear and anxiety; longer and more positive interactions between puppies, including play, were evident in dogs in the DAP groups. Data from follow-up telephone surveys indicated that puppies in the DAP groups were better socialized and adapted faster in new situations and environments, compared with puppies in the placebo groups. When compared with a placebo treatment, DAP was useful in reducing anxiety and fear in puppies during puppy classes and resulted in improved socialization.
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To determine the frequency of nonspecific clinical signs in dogs with separation anxiety, thunderstorm phobia, noise phobia, or any combination of these conditions and determine whether these conditions are associated in dogs. Case series. 141 dogs. Diagnoses were established using specific criteria. Owners of dogs completed a questionnaire on how frequently their dogs exhibited destructive behavior, urination, defecation, vocalization, and salivation when the owners were absent and the types and frequency of reactions to thunderstorms, fireworks, and other noises. Associations of the 3 conditions and of various nonspecific clinical signs within and between diagnoses were nonrandom. The probability that a dog would have separation anxiety given that it had noise phobia was high (0.88) and approximately the same as the probability it would have separation anxiety given that it had thunderstorm phobia (0.86). However, the probability that a dog would have noise phobia given that it had separation anxiety (0.63) was higher than the probability that it would have thunderstorm phobia given that it had separation anxiety (0.52). The probability that a dog would have noise phobia given that it had thunderstorm phobia (0.90) was not equivalent to the converse (0.76). Results suggested that dogs with any of these conditions should be screened for the others. Interactions among these conditions are important in the assessment and treatment of dogs with > 1 of these conditions. Responses to noise were different from those to thunderstorms, possibly because of the unpredictability and uncertainty of thunderstorms.
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To evaluate use of clomipramine, alprazolam, and behavior modification for treatment of storm phobia in dogs. Prospective open clinical trial. 40 dogs with storm phobia. Dogs received clomipramine at a dosage of 2 mg/kg (0.9 mg/lb), PO, every 12 hours for 3 months; then 1 mg/kg (0.45 mg/lb), PO, every 12 hours for 2 weeks; then 0.5 mg/kg (0.23 mg/lb), PO, every 12 hours for 2 weeks. Alprazolam was given at a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg (0.009 mg/lb), PO, as needed 1 hour before anticipated storms and every 4 hours as needed. Desensitization and counter-conditioning were conducted at home by the caregiver with an audio simulation of storm sounds that had induced a fear response during evaluation. 30 of the 32 dogs that completed the study had a degree of improvement, as measured by caregivers' global assessment. Two caregivers considered the storm phobia to be resolved. Panting, pacing, trembling, remaining near the caregiver, hiding, excessive salivation, destructiveness, excessive vocalization, self-trauma, and inappropriate elimination all decreased significantly during treatment. Improvement was greater during true storms (rain, thunder, and lightning) than during rain only. Response to audio simulation did not change during treatment. Four months after the study, improvement was maintained. The combination of clomipramine, alprazolam, and behavior modification can be effective in decreasing or eliminating storm phobia. Improvement could not be evaluated by use of audio simulation of a storm.
Article
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Thirty dogs that showed signs of fear in response to fireworks participated in an open clinical trial to assess the potential value of dog-appeasing pheromone for the alleviation of their behavioural signs. The treatment was delivered continuously into the atmosphere of each dog's home with an electrically heated diffuser. At the baseline assessments, the owners identified the behavioural signs of fear that their dogs normally displayed in response to fireworks, rated their frequency and assessed the overall severity of their responses. These measures were repeated at the final assessment and the owners also rated the change in their dogs' responses. There were significant improvements in the owners' rating of nine of the 14 behavioural signs of fear that were examined, and in their ratings of the overall severity of the responses. The treatment was generally associated with a reduction in the intensity of fear but there were variations in the responses of individual dogs.
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Fear is a common behavioral problem in dogs. In this paper, we studied the association between behavioral and physiological responses in two potentially fear-eliciting situations. The aim was to establish whether it is possible to separate dogs of the collie breed that are fearful of floors and gunshots from those that are not by studying changes in heart rate and hematocrit, plasma cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, vasopressin, and beta-endorphin concentrations. Thirteen privately owned male dogs of the collie breed were studied during a floor test, using different types of floors, and a subsequent gunshot test. Seven of the dogs were identified as being fearful of floors and six were declared as fearless. Out of the 13 dogs, seven were fearful of gunshots and six were fearless of gunshots. Since fear of floors did not always occur concomitantly with fear of gunshots, there were consequently four different groups of dogs. The heart rate increased during the floor test in all groups, but dogs that were fearful of floors had higher heart rates than dogs that were fearless of floors. Dogs that were fearful of gunshots had higher heart rates, higher hematocrit levels and higher plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, vasopressin, and beta-endorphins during the gunshot test than did dogs that were found to be fearless of gunshots. Plasma cortisol and progesterone increased drastically during the gunshot test in dogs identified as being fearful of gunshots. In fearful dogs, the testosterone concentration increased after completion of the floor test and before the gunshot test started, but there were no significant differences in testosterone between the groups. Since dogs fearful of gunshots had increased levels of several physiological parameters, the results demonstrated that this fear is a serious stress for the individual, a fear which it is possible to register with physiological variables.
Article
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To determine trends in behavior diagnoses; assess the relationship between diagnoses and age, sex, reproductive status, and breed; and evaluate associations between diagnoses within the same dog (comorbidity). Retrospective case series. 1,644 dogs. Medical records of dogs evaluated for behavioral problems were reviewed for breed, sex, reproductive status, consultation year, birth date, and diagnoses. Numbers of dogs with aggression, anxiety, and unruly behavior increased over the course of the study, as did the total number of dogs evaluated for behavioral problems. In general and for aggression, Dalmatians, English Springer Spaniels, German Shepherd Dogs, and mixed-breed dogs were evaluated more often than expected, whereas Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers were evaluated less often than expected. Labrador Retrievers were also underrepresented for anxiety, whereas mixed-breed dogs were overrepresented. Males were overrepresented except for interdog aggression, anxieties, and phobias, whereas females were overrepresented for phobias. Dogs with phobias were evaluated at a median age of 6.5 years, compared with dogs with other problems (median age, 2.5 years). A mean of 1.6 diagnoses/dog was observed, with certain diagnoses clustered. Results suggested that in dogs, behavioral problems changed over the course of the study; age, sex, and breed distributions varied among diagnoses; and certain diagnoses were likely to occur together.
Chapter
Barking/whining/howling;Cowering and restlessness / pacing;Drooling saliva and self-harm;“Freezing to the spot”;Lincoln sound-sensitivity scale;Owner-seeking behaviour;Running around and bolts;Shaking or trembling;Vomiting, defecating, urinating and/ or diarrhoea
Conference Paper
The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between individual personality, owner intervention and severity of signs during thunder exposure in dogs. A 101 closed-item questionnaire was completed online by 611 dog owners. Multivariate analysis was by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation, orthogonal projections to latent structures regression (OPLS), and PCA-hierarchical cluster analysis (PCA-HCA). Groups of variables relating to dogs’ behaviour during thunder events, owner interventions, range of noises the dogs responded to, and general behaviour of the dogs (not during thunder) were analysed independently by PCA. All models passed tests of model quality (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure, Bartlett’s sphericity test). PCA of owner intervention revealed three principal components (PCs), which explained 69.5% of variance. These were termed “petting”, “play” and “punishment”, according to the dominant loading variable for each PC. OPLS of variables relating to dog’s response to thunder against owner intervention factor score showed a strong and significant relationship (R2X=0.417, R2Y=0.218; p<0.0001) with characteristically different patterns of dogs’ behaviour associated with the three styles of owner intervention. Based on variables relating to the dogs’ general behaviour (not during a thunder event) PCA-HCA identified two subgroups within the population, which were termed “extrovert” (n=414) and “introvert” (n=197) according to the dominant variables in the model. PC scores for behavioural responses to thunder were compared between these groups, and significant differences were found for 6 out of 7 PCs (Mann-Whitney U, p<0.002). This study provides evidence for an interaction between owner behaviour, individual personality and thunder-response in dogs.
Article
Fear is a common behavioral problem in dogs. In this paper, we studied the association between behavioral and physiological responses in two potentially fear-eliciting situations. The aim was to establish whether it is possible to separate dogs of the collie breed that are fearful of floors and gunshots from those that are not by studying changes in heart rate and hematocrit, plasma cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, vasopressin, and -endorphin concentrations. Thirteen privately owned male dogs of the collie breed were studied during a floor test, using different types of floors, and a subsequent gunshot test. Seven of the dogs were identified as being fearful of floors and six were declared as fearless. Out of the 13 dogs, seven were fearful of gunshots and six were fearless of gunshots. Since fear of floors did not always occur concomitantly with fear of gunshots, there were consequently four different groups of dogs. The heart rate increased during the floor test in all groups, but dogs that were fearful of floors had higher heart rates than dogs that were fearless of floors. Dogs that were fearful of gunshots had higher heart rates, higher hematocrit levels and higher plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, vasopressin, and -endorphins during the gunshot test than did dogs that were found to be fearless of gunshots. Plasma cortisol and progesterone increased drastically during the gunshot test in dogs identified as being fearful of gunshots. In fearful dogs, the testosterone concentration increased after completion of the floor test and before the gunshot test started, but there were no significant differences in testosterone between the groups. Since dogs fearful of gunshots had increased levels of several physiological parameters, the results demonstrated that this fear is a serious stress for the individual, a fear which it is possible to register with physiological variables.
Article
Disorders of fear and anxiety are significant behavioral and physiological concerns in veterinary medicine. Thus, the present studies sought to develop and validate novel preclinical laboratory models for the development of anxiolytics for the veterinary market. Specifically, noise-induced sensitivity and aversion using thunderstorm recordings on an open-field task in Beagle dogs was used to establish this model. This thunderstorm task was based on the open-field tests previously described for the dog, except that a thunderstorm recording, compiled from desensitization compact discs, played during the middle of the test was used to elicit anxious or fearful responses in laboratory dogs. Initially, we compared the behavioral response on this test with that on an open-field test, in which no sound stimulus was provided. When compared with the open field, the thunderstorm recording increased inactivity duration and frequency, which was related to freezing behaviors and near-door duration. This suggests that we can objectively characterize a fear and anxious response to noise. We then attempted to pharmacologically validate this model by testing 0.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg doses of diazepam on this behavioral outcome. In test-naïve subjects, diazepam reduced the increase in inactivity seen at washout compared with that seen at baseline, suggesting that this paradigm may be useful for establishing the effect of drugs that reduce or prevent sensitization to fear-invoking events. In test-experienced subjects, diazepam reduced inactivity compared with both baseline and washout, indicating that this model may be useful for screening drugs counteracting fear and phobia, as well as anticipatory anxiety responses. Interestingly, diazepam stimulated behavioral activity as measured with the Actiwatch method. The test described here provides a laboratory method for testing therapeutics targeted at reducing either anxiety or fear related to noise sensitivity and aversion in pet dogs.
Article
Behavioural signs of fear or anxiety on exposure to noises in owned domestic dogs have been suggested in clinical studies to be common and a significant welfare concern. In this study two approaches were taken to investigate the occurrence of, and risk factors for, these behaviours: a postal survey of dog owners to investigate general demographic factors (n = 3897), and a structured interview of a sub-set of owners to gather more detailed information (n = 383). Almost half of owners in the structured interview reported that their dog showed at least one behavioural sign typical of fear when exposed to noises, even though only a quarter had reported their dog as ‘fearful’ in the general survey. This difference indicates that even where owners recognise behavioural responses to noises, they may not interpret these as associated with altered subjective state in their dog. The difference in reported prevalence between the studies highlights the importance of methodological approach in owner questionnaire studies investigating behavioural signs.
Article
The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a diet containing caseinate hydrolysate (CH) on signs of stress in 2 groups of dogs (defined as Anxious and Nonanxious), using physiological (serum cortisol and lysozyme, N:L ratios and heart rate) and behavioral parameters.From an initial group of 40 female Beagle dogs, ranging in age from 10 months to 4 years (mean = 1.47 years; SD = 0.53) belonging to a dog colony, 32 were selected for this study according to their level of anxiety. A group of 16 Anxious dogs and a group of 16 Nonanxious dogs were identified.A baseline period, aimed to obtain reference values of investigated parameters, preceded the experimental phase. Both groups (Anxious and Nonanxious) were divided into a treatment group, which received the diet containing CH, and a control group which received a placebo diet (PD). Anxious CH and PD groups were balanced for anxiety level. Each dog was evaluated 3 times a day at 4 weeks intervals (T1-T2-T3). Each evaluation lasted 2 days and involved a Reactivity Evaluation Form, a blood sampling, heart rate recording, and a 10-minute behavioral video recording. Results from Reactivity Evaluation Form scores showed that although at T1 Anxious dogs had significantly higher scores (Mann–Whitney test, P < 0.001) compared with Nonanxious dogs, no difference was found between Anxious dogs fed with CH diet and Nonanxious fed with PD or CH diet at T3. Behavioral observations evidenced some signs of improvement in Anxious dog fed with CH diet. Cortisol level significantly decreased in Anxious dogs fed with CH diet (Friedman test, P < 0.05). Individual differences in physiological measures of stress responses may have contributed to the large variability, making interpretation of these measures difficult. These results suggest that CH may be used as a functional ingredient alleviating stress in dogs.
Article
A blinded and randomized study was carried out to investigate whether dog owners would report different treatment effects depending on whether they knew they might be administering a placebo, versus if they knew they were definitely administering a homeopathic remedy. A secondary aim was to determine the consistency of owner reports of treatment effect across multiple trial periods. A total of 73 dogs with a stable, predictable, and easily assessable response to firework noises were enrolled and randomly allocated to receive 1 of the 2 homeopathic preparations along with a basic behavior modification program. Treatment A was a homeopathic treatment formulated for firework noise sensitivity that had previously been tested in a placebo-controlled study by the authors, and Treatment B was a different formulation for the same condition. The same allocated treatment was trialed on 2 occasions by all participants to allow assessment of owner-report reliability. It was found that knowledge of participating in a placebo-controlled trial had no effect on the owners’ perception of treatment effect, and that their reports of effect were consistent across both trial periods. No specific effect of homeopathic treatment was found in this study; however, it was observed that the reported behavioral effects that followed each treatment were similar across the 2 firework periods, but that there was a consistently different pattern of behavioral effects reported between Treatment groups A and B. These results might be ascribed to either a treatment or population effect. We suggest that examination of the consistency of owner-reported effects within and between treatments may be used as part of the suite of methodologies available to investigate whether any specific effect can be ascribed to homeopathic interventions.
Article
The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of two self-help CD based desensitization and counter-conditioning programmes with the use of Dog Appeasing Pheromone (DAP) for the treatment of firework fears in dogs and to evaluate the training progress and owner compliance. Fifty-four individuals were recruited for an 8-week period of training between August and October 2004. The dogs were separated into two treatment groups, each using a different CD based programme. After implementing the CD programme for the 8-week period without any personalized instruction, two telephone follow-up interviews were completed after periods during which fireworks are commonly used (November and January). Forty-two individuals completed the first 4 weeks of training and 38 completed the 8-week training period. Thirty-six individuals completed the first follow-up interview with 29 completing the second follow-up interview. Assessment of efficacy was measured using both owner reports of its natural response (i.e. the dog's behaviour in the home) and video footage of behaviour in response to a novel recording of the problem sound (i.e. the dog's behaviour in the behaviour clinic) pre- and post-treatment.
Article
This study addresses interactions between hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activation in response to stress, relationship quality, and behavior in thunderstorm-anxious dogs and their owners. Using a controlled repeated-measures design, we experimentally manipulated exposure of individuals to a stressor they were highly fearful of, and assessed both their own and their caregivers’ physiological and behavioral responsiveness. Saliva samples were collected from 19 dog–owner dyads before, 20 and 40min after exposure to a simulated thunderstorm and were later assayed for cortisol. In response to the challenge, the dogs exhibited classic signs of fear (i.e., pacing, whining, hiding), their cortisol levels increased 207%, and these levels did not return to baseline within 40min. There were no effects of the owners’ behavior or the quality of the dog–owner relationship on the dogs’ HPA or behavioral reactivity. However, the presence of other dogs in the household was linked to less pronounced reactivity and more rapid recovery of the dog's HPA response. On average, the cortisol levels of the caregivers did not increase. Owners’ mood (e.g. depression, anger) affected their behavioral response towards their dogs. These findings are among the first to study the HPA responsiveness of anxious canines in response to stress in a home setting, and the physiological and behavioral effects of problem canine behavior on their caregivers.
Article
Anxiety and fear are common underlying factors in many canine behavior problems that impair the human–pet bond and often result in abandonment, relinquishment, or euthanasia. A combination of behavioral and pharmacological interventions is used to ameliorate the behavioral signs associated with anxiety-related behaviors in dogs, but there continues to be need for effective interventions. The current study examined the effects of the nutraceutical ANXITANE® (l-Theanine) chewable tablets on fear of unfamiliar human beings. We first characterized dogs as anxious on the basis of the existence of a fear response to human beings in their home-pen. We then demonstrated that dogs characterized as anxious (N = 10) showed reduced interaction with an unknown human being as compared with normal controls (N = 7). The effect of an administration of ANXITANE® tablets (N = 5) on these anxious Beagle dogs was compared with placebo (N = 5). Objective behavioral measures of anxiety were obtained using an open-field test, a human interaction test, and an actiwatch protocol that allowed monitoring of activity over 24-hours. The ANXITANE® tablets-treated dogs showed greater human interaction and approach than the placebo control group, and no side effects related to treatment, including motor stimulant or sedative effects, were seen. The current study suggests that ANXITANE® tablets are effective for reducing fearful behavior toward unfamiliar human beings in dogs and supports their use for treating anxiety-related behaviors.
Article
Poor housing conditions, harsh training sessions and uncontrollable or unpredictable social environments are examples of the situations that may lead to reduced welfare status in dogs. Individuals that suffer from poor welfare presumably experience stress and may consequently exhibit stress responses. In order to evaluate stress responses as potential indicators of poor welfare in dogs, we review studies dealing with dogs subjected to stressors. The reported stress responses are categorized as being behavioural, physiological or immunological, and demonstrate the various ways stress is manifested in the dog.
Article
After a first study showing efficacy on anxiety disorders in cats, the putative effects of alpha-casozepine (a tryptic bovine as1-casein hydrolysate) on anxious disorders in dogs was investigated. The trial was conducted against a control molecule, selegiline. Thirty-eight dogs were recruited within veterinary practices by certified behaviorist surgeons. This 56 day trial, against the reference molecule, selegiline, showed that both products were efficient to decrease the EDED score and no statistical difference was found between their success score. Owners assessment was also statistically perfectly equivalent. Due to this efficacy, and to its safety, alpha-casozepine (Zylkene) should be considered an option by the veterinary surgeon for the biological management of anxiety beside the compulsory behavior modifications.
Article
Fear and anxiety-related behaviors are common in pet dogs and are likely to cause a physiological stress response in individuals that are exposed to those things they find fear or anxiety-inducing. Stress responses are related to a number of changes in hormonal and immune modulation and have been shown in many species to be related to disease processes and shortened lifespan. It was predicted that dogs with fear and anxiety disorders would have decreased lifespan and increased disease frequency and severity.In this retrospective study, owners of 721 deceased dogs completed a 99 question on-line survey that asked about the demographics, training, behavioral characteristics, health history, age at and cause of death in their pets. Correlational and regression analyses were performed to explore relationships between behavior; fear and anxiety subscales; lifespan; and specific diseases and causes of death.Results show that how “well-behaved” an owner felt their dog was positively correlated with lifespan (R2 = 0.18, P < 0.001). Dogs with extreme non-social fear and separation anxiety were found to have an increased severity and frequency of skin disorders (R2 = 0.03, P < 0.001). While neither stranger-directed fear nor any other fear or anxiety scales were related to specific causes of death, fear of strangers was found to be related to a significantly shortened lifespan (R2 = 0.16, P < 0.001). There is evidence to suggest that the stress of living with a fear or anxiety disorder can have negative effects on health and lifespan in the domestic dog.
Article
To study the effects of a synthetic, dog-appeasing pheromone (sDAP) on the behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress responses in dogs undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. 46 dogs housed in animal shelters and undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy. Intensive care unit cages were sprayed with sDAP solution or sham treated with the carrier used in the solution 20 minutes prior to use. Dogs (n = 24 and 22 in the sDAP and sham treatment exposure groups, respectively) were placed in treated cages for 30 minutes before and after surgery. Indicators of stress (ie, alterations in behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase responses) were evaluated perioperatively. Behavioral response variables, salivary cortisol concentration, WBC count, and serum concentrations of glucose, prolactin, haptoglobin, and C-reactive protein were analyzed. Behavioral response variables and serum prolactin concentration were influenced by sDAP exposure. Dogs exposed to sDAP were more likely to have alertness and visual exploration behaviors after surgery than were dogs exposed to sham treatment. Decreases in serum prolactin concentrations in response to perioperative stress were significantly smaller in dogs exposed to sDAP, compared with findings in dogs exposed to the sham treatment. Variables examined to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune system, and acute-phase responses were unaffected by treatment. sDAP appeared to affect behavioral and neuroendocrine perioperative stress responses by modification of lactotropic axis activity. Use of sDAP in a clinical setting may improve the recovery and welfare of dogs undergoing surgery.
Article
Stress parameters that can be measured noninvasively may help to identify poor welfare in dogs that live in private homes and institutions. Behavioural parameters are potentially useful to identify stress, but require further investigation to establish which behaviours are appropriate. In the present study, behaviours were recorded and analysed for signs of acute stress in dogs. Simultaneously, saliva cortisol and heart rate were measured to support the interpretation of the behavioural data with regard to stress. Ten dogs of either sex, different ages and various breeds were each subjected to six different stimuli: sound blasts, short electric shocks, a falling bag, an opening umbrella and two forms of restraint. Each type of stimulus had been selected for its assumed aversive properties and was administered intermittently for 1 min. The stimuli that could not be anticipated by the dogs, sound blasts, shocks and a falling bag, tended to induce saliva cortisol responses and a very low posture. The remainder of the stimuli, which were administered by the experimenter visibly to the dog, did not change the cortisol levels but did induce restlessness, a moderate lowering of the posture, body shaking, oral behaviours, and to a lesser extent, yawning and open mouth. Pronounced increases in the heart rate were nonspecifically induced by each type of stimulus. Heart rate levels normalized within 8 min after stressor administration had stopped. Saliva cortisol levels decreased to normal within the hour. Correlations between behavioural and physiological stress parameters were not significant. From the present results, we conclude that in dogs a very low posture may indicate intense acute stress since dogs show a very low posture concomitant with saliva cortisol responses. Dogs may typically show increased restlessness, oral behaviours, yawning, open mouth and a moderate lowering of the posture when they experienced moderate stress in a social setting. The nonspecific character of canine heart rate responses complicates its interpretation with regard to acute stress.
Article
Companion dogs commonly experience states of anxiety, fears, and phobias. Separation anxiety and noise aversions, as discussed in this article, are especially prevalent. Veterinarians are encouraged to recognize and treat such conditions on first presentation to address welfare issues and optimize successful management. New data suggest new treatment modalities, including behavioral management, pharmacotherapy, and species-specific pheromone use. Failure to treat can result in disruption of the human-animal bond and subsequent abandonment, relinquishment, or even euthanasia of the affected dog.
Article
It is increasingly important to have simple, non-invasive indicators of stress in animals. Studies in various species have shown that concentrations of cortisol in saliva relate closely to plasma levels of the free hormone; the aim of the present procedure was to show a similar correlation in the dog. Baseline blood and saliva samples were collected concurrently from six male beagles. Synthetic adrenocorticotrophic hormone was given and further samples were collected at 0.25, 0.5, one, two and 2.5 hours later. The results indicated a statistically significant correlation between the levels of cortisol in blood and saliva. Concentrations in saliva were between 5 and 10 per cent of those in plasma at each collection time. To demonstrate a response to a more natural stimulus, saliva samples were taken from a dog during exposure to a known stressor for that individual. The results showed a marked, delayed increase from baseline which was maintained for at least 0.5 hours after stressing.
Article
Parameters of exploratory behaviors responsive to anti-anxiety drugs are reviewed with respect to their sensitivity and specificity for anxiolytics in mice. Mouse models appear to rest on a disinhibition of natural exploratory tendencies by anxiolytic treatments. Analysis of agonists of the brain benzodiazepine binding site, such as chlordiazepoxide and diazepam, significantly increase exploration of a hole-board, of a two-chambered light in equilibrium dark apparatus, increase social interaction under high levels of illumination, increase consumption of a novel food in an unfamiliar environment, and increase punished crossings in a footshock conflict paradigm. These tests detect anxiolytic responses at doses of benzodiazepines well within the clinically effective range. Pharmacological specificity was established for the hole-board and light in equilibrium transition tests, showing that non-anxiolytic categories of psychoactive drugs did not produce false positives. Open field behaviors and isolation-induced aggression were reduced by anxiolytics, at doses which may be within the sedative-hypnotic range. Analysis of antagonists of the brain benzodiazepine binding site did not show active antagonist properties in the light in equilibrium transitions model, although the antagonist Ro-15-1788 appeared to have partial agonist properties in the open field test, suggesting that rat models may be more sensitive to anxiogenic compounds than are mouse models. The wide separation between anxiolytic and sedative doses in mouse models recommend these exploration paradigms as good predictive screens for the testing of novel anxiolytic compounds.
Article
Alternative therapies are widely used by consumers. A number of herbs and dietary supplements have demonstrable effects on mood, memory, and insomnia. There is a significant amount of evidence supporting the use of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) for depression and Ginkgo biloba for dementia. Results of randomized, controlled trials also support the use of kava for anxiety and valerian for insomnia. Although evidence for the use of vitamins and amino acids as sole agents for psychiatric symptoms is not strong, there is intriguing preliminary evidence for the use of folate, tryptophan, and phenylalanine as adjuncts to enhance the effectiveness of conventional antidepressants. S-adenosylmethionine seems to have antidepressant effects, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, may have mood-stabilizing effects. More research should be conducted on these and other natural products for the prevention and treatment of various psychiatric disorders.
Article
Gabolysat PC60 is a fish protein hydrolysate with anxiolytic properties commonly used as a nutritional supplement. The diazepam-like effects of PC60 on stress responsiveness of the rat pituitary-adrenal system and on sympathoadrenal activity were studied. The activity of the pituitary-adrenal axis, measured by plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (B) of the sympathoadrenal complex, measured by circulating levels of noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A), and the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in the hippocampus and the hypothalamus were investigated in male rats which received daily, by an intragastric feeding tube, for 5 days running either diazepam (1 mg/kg) or PC60 (300 or 1,200 mg/kg). Controls received only solvent (carboxymethylcellulose 1%). Six hours after the last force-feeding, the rats were subjected to 3 min ether inhalation or 30 min restraint and killed by decapitation 30 min after ether stress or at the end of restraint. Baseline plasma levels of ACTH, B, NA and A were not affected by either diazepam or PC60. Both ether- and restraint-induced release of ACTH, but not B, were similarly and drastically reduced by diazepam and PC60 (1,200 mg/kg). Both diazepam and PC60 (1,200 mg/kg) deleted restraint-induced NA and A increases. Both treatments also reduced the ether-induced rise of A. Basal levels of GABA were significantly increased in both the hippocampus and the hypothalamus in PC60-treated rats and only in the hippocampus in diazepam-treated ones. In controls, ether inhalation as well as restraint increased GABA content of these two brain structures. In contrast, such stress procedures performed in PC60-treated rats reduced GABA content slightly in the hippocampus but significantly in the hypothalamus. In diazepam-treated rats, GABA content of the hypothalamus was unaffected by stresses but that of the hippocampus was slightly decreased. Present data suggest diazepam-like effects of PC60 on stress responsiveness of the rat pituitary adrenal axis and the sympathoadrenal activity as well as GABA content of the hippocampus and the hypothalamus under resting and stress conditions. These effects of PC60 agree with anxiolytic properties of this nutritional supplement, previously reported in both rats and humans.
Prevalence of fearful and anxious behaviors in dogs in the United States
  • S Denenberg
  • G M Landsberg
  • P Blizzard
Denenberg, S., Landsberg, G.M., Blizzard, P., 2013. Prevalence of fearful and anxious behaviors in dogs in the United States. Proc. 2013 ACVB/AVSAB Veterinary Behavior Symposium. Chicago, 50e51.
Behavior Problems of the Dog and Cat
  • G Landsberg
  • W Hunthausen
  • L Ackerman
Landsberg, G., Hunthausen, W., Ackerman, L., 2013a. Behavior Problems of the Dog and Cat (3rd Ed.). Saunders Elsevier, Edinburgh, UK, pp. 139e149, 181-186.
Anxiety Reducing Effectiveness of CalmzÒ Anxiety Relief System in Beagle Dogs in a Modified Thunderstorm Model. ACVB/AVSAB Veterinary Behavior Symposium
  • N W Milgram
  • G M Landsberg
  • B Snow
Milgram, N.W., Landsberg, G.M., Snow, B., 2014 Anxiety Reducing Effectiveness of CalmzÒ Anxiety Relief System in Beagle Dogs in a Modified Thunderstorm Model. ACVB/AVSAB Veterinary Behavior Symposium, Denver, CO, 29e30.
Manual of Clinical Behavioral Medicine for Dogs and Cats
  • K L Overall
Overall, K.L., 2013. Manual of Clinical Behavioral Medicine for Dogs and Cats. Elsevier, St. Louis, pp. 231e261.