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A review on pharmacological activities and clinical effects of Cinnamon species

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Abstract

Many herbal remedies have been employed in various medical systems for the treatment and management of different diseases. Cinnamon is the ever green tree of tropical area, a member of family Lauraceae, has been used in day to day routine as a spice. Literature review on cinnamon revealed that it mainly contains essential oils and important compounds like Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, cinnamic acid and cinnamate. It has got good anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-ulcer, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, memory enhancer and many other activities. The present review attempts to encompass the up-to-date comprehensive literature analysis on Cinnamon with respect to its Phytochemistry and its various pharmacological activities.

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... The spice is also known for its aromatic fragrance and sweet, warm taste. It is derived from the bark of a tree, belonging to the family Lauraceae [5]. Having known for its great medicinal values, it is Anti-fungal[6]- [9], Antibacterial [6], [10]- [13], Anti-viral, Anti-parasitic and Anti-septic [14]. ...
... The two major constituents of cinnamon bark are Cinnamldehyde 65-80% &EugenoL5-10%. Other compounds which are present in lesser percentages those are Cinnamic acid, Hydroxyl Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamyl alcohol, Coumarin, Cinnamyl acetate, Borneol etc [5]. ...
... : Constituents of Cinnamon[5] ...
Article
The inherent properties of the textile fibres provide room for the growth of micro-organisms. There are many anti-bacterial fibres and chemicals available in the market but unfortunately, they are from synthetic base and are not eco-friendly. Consumers in India are taking lead in prompting manufacturers to adopt clean technologies to produce eco-friendly products. Many natural plant products such as extracts from roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds shows anti-microbial properties. In the present study, anti-microbial finish has been imparted to cotton fabric using ethanolic and acetonic extracts of Cinnamon Bark and Garcinia indica by direct application and by microencapsulation. The ethanolic extract was prepared by using10 gms of herbal material in 100 ml of ethanol and allowed to stand for 24 hours. The acetone extract of the herbs was prepared by refluxing 40gms of each herb in 400 ml of acetone in a Soxhlet extractor. The extracts were applied by directly soaking the fabric in ethanol extract overnight and also by Microencapsulation (for acetone extracts). For microencapsulation, the herbal extract was used as the core material and Gum acacia as the wall material. The treated samples were then tested for their anti-microbial efficiency and also the wash fastness of the finish. It was observed that both the herbal extracts when applied on cotton fabric gives it an excellent anti-microbial property against both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonaiae. Regarding the wash fastness of the treated samples, it was observed that the finish does not last long. The anti-microbial activity diminishes with every wash and at the end of 5th wash cycle no activity was seen against the selected microbes. However, the limitation of this herbal anti-microbial finish is that it needs to be applied on fabric that is used for disposable products or the products that requires very less washing. The results indicate that the treated fabric is 99.99% anti-microbial and can be used in hygiene products where less washing is required like pillows, curtains, disposable bandages and quilts.
... Only 25% of these patients return to their pre-stroke level of physical activity and social participation [2]. Most ischemic stroke is caused by atherosclerosis [3][4][5] and decreased or completely blocked cerebral blood flow owing to thrombi or emboli. This condition causes rapid cell death followed by loss of neurologic functions [6]. ...
... The bark of different cinnamon species is one of the most popular spices used worldwide for preparing foods and treating diseases in Persian and modern medicines [3,4]. Cinnamon plant with a hot and dry temperament [6] can effectively improve and prevent stroke and motor function. ...
... Cinnamon plant with a hot and dry temperament [6] can effectively improve and prevent stroke and motor function. It positively affects spleen function and is characterized by antioxidant, antiinflammation, antihyperlipidemic, and antiobesity properties [3,4]. ...
Article
Background and Aim: Stroke, mainly caused by atherosclerosis, is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis may be caused by spleen dysfunction, and oxidative stress intensifies the brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia. According to the studies, cinnamon and lentils as hot and cold temperaments, respectively, contain antioxidant compounds and affect spleen function. This study investigated and compared the effect of cinnamon and lentils in preventing stroke. Materials and Methods: Cinnamon and lentil extracts were injected intraperitoneally daily to adult male Wistar rats for 30 days, and at the end, a rotarod test was carried out. Then, blood samples were taken from their eyes. The rats were submitted to the ischemic stroke, and the activity level of Catalase (CAT), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant were measured. The ischemic stroke model was implemented using the MCAO method. Infarct area and ischemic tolerance were measured by the MCAO (Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion) method, and infarct volume was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride. Results: Chronic use of lentil extract decreased motor function, CAT, SOD, and total antioxidant activity compared with cinnamon extract. The cinnamon extract improved the ischemic tolerance and reduced the infarct size. The group receiving lentil extract could not tolerate ischemia and died during the experiment. Conclusion: It seems that diet adjustment can effectively reduce the incidence of stroke or its complications. Awareness of food temperament and its relationship with various diseases can reduce disease burden, though further studies should be conducted on this topic.
... There are found four major varieties of cinnamon, Cassia cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) and Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) are the most popular among them. Ceylon cinnamon is sometimes said to be "true cinnamon ( Vangalapati et al., 2012). Flowers of cinnamon are of greenish colour, which are arranged in panicles and have a distinct odour. ...
... The other minor volatile compounds are hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds i.e., benzyl benzoate, β-caryophyllene, linalool, cinnamyl acetate and eugenyl acetate (Nabavi et al., 2015). Some compounds which are present in lesser percentages those are Cinnamic acid, Coumarin, Hydroxyl Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamyl alcohol, Cinnamyl acetate, Borneol etc. (Vangalapati et al., 2012). ...
Article
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), belongs to family Lauraceae, is an evergreen tree, a member of family Lauraceae, has been used in daily routine as a condiment and spice found in tropical area of India. Cinnamon is mainly composed of essential oils and its other constituents are cinnamic acid, cinnamate and cinnamaldehyde. It possesses excellent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, hypoglycemic, anti-microbial and hypolipidemic activities. It can be used as safer and useful drug in allergic conditions also. So, cinnamon can be used as a potential constituent in pharmaceutical industry.
... The extracts are characterized by their higher content of organosulfur compounds, volatile components, fats, proteins, nutrients, tannins, vitamins, and antioxidants (Peter, 1999). Cinnamon (Cinnamo mumverum) is a rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins (A, C, E and B3), and minerals like Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, P and Zn (Vangalapati et al., 2012). Moreover, it has essential oils, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamate. ...
... Similarly, cinnamon is a rich source of many important components such as proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals (Vangalapati et al., 2012) hence, considered as a stimulator for plant growth and development. Mohammadi et al. (2019) emphasized the activist role of cinnamon essential oil on Halilehei date palm cultivar fruits. ...
... Cinnamon spices are gathered from the bark of Cinnamomum genus trees, which contain ∼250 species, for global utilization in cooking and flavoring and in ethnic and modern medicines [23]. Cinnamomum zeylanicum barks are historical herbal medicines that have numerous curative and food-flavoring attributes [24]. ...
... e CIE antimicrobial potentialities (including antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities) were stated in many reports and attributed to its precious contents from active phytochemicals, e.g., cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, ß-caryophyllene, ethyl cinnamate, and terpenes [24,41,53,54]. Conjugation of CIE with its green synthesized metals' NPs was validated to reinforce their combined antimicrobial performance, mostly because the synergistic actions of NPs and CIE phytochemicals can attack the microbial cells via diverse mechanisms, which are assumingly very hard to gain resistance toward them all [43,45,[55][56][57]. ...
Article
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Bioactive nanocomposites were constructed, containing chitosan (Cht), extracted from shrimps' wastes, and transformed into nanoparticles (NPs) using ionic-gelation. Selenium NPs (Se-NPs) were phytosynthesized using cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extract (CIE), characterized and evaluated with Cht-NPs as antimicrobial composites against bacterial food-borne pathogens "Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes"and as potential edible coating (EC) basements. The CIE-phytosynthesized Se-NPs had well-distributed and spherical shapes with 23.2 nm mean diameter. The CIE, CIE/Se-NPs, and innovative CIE/Se/Cht-NP composites exhibited distinguished antibacterial actions toward the entire screened pathogens; CIE/Se/Cht-NP composite was significantly the most potent. The formulated ECs from CIE/Se/Cht-NP nanocomposites had matching antibacterial manner, which was strengthened with CIE/Se-NP percentage increments. Scanning micrographs indicated the attachment of CIE/Se-NPs to bacterial cells to cause their complete lysis and death after 10 h of exposure. CIE/Se/Cht-NP composites are proposed as effectual control agents toward food-borne pathogens using efficient biological carriers and eco-friendly phytosynthesis protocol.
... Pippali, [60] Jeeraka, [73,74,83] Tejpatra [67] Maricha [84] Anti-Tussive Pippali, [75] Jeeraka, [68] Tejpatra, [76] Maricha, [77,78] Dhanyaka [69] Bronchodilator ...
... Pippali, [63,65] Ela, [82] Dhanyaka [69,87] Anti-oxidant Jeeraka, [83,84] Shunthi, [71] Tejpatra, [67] Ela, [74,85] Twaka, [68,69] Maricha, [60,86] Dhanyaka [68,86] Anti-microbial Jeeraka, [66,67] Shunthi, [71] Tejpatra, [67] Ela, [76] Twaka, [68,69] Dhanyaka [68,87] ...
Article
Respiratory ailments represent over 10% of all disability-adjusted life-years, a statistic that reflects the measure of active and productive life lost owing to a condition. A large number of Confections (Avaleha) have been recommended in various authoritative treatises by ancient seers for different respiratory disorders. Kushmanda Avaleha is one such multi-ingredient Ayurvedic formulation, which is advocated for the first time in Ashtanga Sangraha for Cough, Hiccups, Fever, Dyspnea, etc. Its chief constituent is Benincasa hispida Thumb. It has also been included in the Essential drug list published by the Ministry of AYUSH. Thus, this article is emphasized on compiling and exploring various classical references as well as reported current literature in various scientific journals and online databases about the therapeutic potential of Kushmanda Avaleha as well as its ingredients with special reference to respiratory illness. All the information has been placed here in comprehensive manner. Moreover, a number of studies have also been conducted and published which established the efficacy of its all ingredients in diverse respiratory pathologies through manifold mechanisms such as Bronchodilator, Anti-tussive, Mucolytic, etc. Therefore, on meticulous appraisal, it can be inferred that Kushmanda Avaleha is a complete care and an effective medication for various respiratory disorders.
... The bark of the Dalchini tree has been used all over the world as both traditional and modern medicine with a variety of uses in addition to as a spice for cooking. Cinnamon trees may be found all over the world, and the Dalchini has at least 250 species that have been documented to date 41,42 . Insulin resistance and signs of hyperinsulinemia have been identified in women with PCOS. ...
Article
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The review gives a brief about poly cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and the symptoms related to the disease. Around 2.2 to 26% of cases of PCOS are present globally. The disorder generally occurs in the reproductive age group of women. The review has a mention of few herbs which can be used to correct the diseased condition. The various herbs have a positive effect on the diseased condition and can be used to cure symptoms like hypothyroidism, hyperplasia, obesity, diabetes, Menorrhagia, sleep disturbances, cardiovascular problems, hyperlipidemia, hirsutism, infertility, irregular menstrual cycle, etc. The herbs included in the review include Bauhinia variegata useful in hormone imbalance, Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula, and Commiphora wightii are used to regulate the hormones, Cinnamon cassia acts as an anti-oxidant, Tribulus terrestris improves reproductive dysfunction, Hypericum perforatum regulates depression, Commiphora myrrha prevents menorrhagia, Nigella sativa controls cholesterol, Saraca asoca has estrogenic action, Asparagus racemosus promotes folliculogenesis, Tinospora cordifolia regulates menstrual flow, Ocimum sanctum as an anti-oxidant. The plants taken had a positive effect on women with PCOS without causing any side effects. The natural herbs used for the treatment of PCOS did not have any side effects and treated the diseased condition naturally. This review aims to understand the natural plants available for the treatment of the disease naturally. The herbs can be used individually or can be used in combination. Keywords: Poly cystic ovarian syndrome, Herbal medicine, Herbs, Natural plants
... They also give plants their flavor, color and smell [15]. The results of the phytochemical analysis in the present study are in accordance with the findings of published studies in various spices [16,17]. The phenylalanine in cinnamic acid pathway serves as the starting material producing phenolic acids, lignans, flavonoids, isoflavonoids and coumarins [18]. ...
Article
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Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Cinnamon Bark, Fennel Seeds and Peppermint Leaves
... Gupta et al. investigated the antimicrobial properties of cinnamon extract (50% ethanol) and EO against ten bacteria and seven fungi by the agar sound diffusion method. Cinnamon EO was more effective than cinnamon extract against tested microorganisms, with the MICs ranging from 1.25 to 5% v/v [55]. The cinnamon essential oil was quite effective against bacteria B. cereus and fungi Rhizomucor sp. ...
Article
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Increasing consumer concerns about the dangers associated with synthetically produced additives in food processing have led researchers to focus their investigation on eco-friendly materials and natural antimicrobials from animal sources, microorganisms, and plant-based materials. Although fruits and vegetables are an essential element of most people’s diets, the perishable nature of these products results in a very limited shelf-life. Postharvest factors such as transportation, environmental factors, and preservation methods further decrease the product quality and storage limits. Thus, it is crucial to choose the correct substance and packaging method to retain product freshness. Minimally processed fruits and vegetables (MPFV) are among the most developing branches of the food industry. One of the practical techniques is essential oils (Eos) as natural preservatives and antimicrobial agents in MPFV. Eos demonstrated compelling against different pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. This review provides updated information on the use of Eos like Thyme, cinnamon, sage, peppermint, clove, their synergetic effect and applications in minimally processed fruits and vegetables. These essential oils ought to be investigated in the future to inspect their harmfulness and results through in vitro and clinical examinations. Graphic abstract
... Nutraceuticals have shown effects on immune status and susceptibility to cold and cold-related symptoms and other disease conditions. They also exhibit disease-modifying indications related to oxidative stress, including allergy, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular diseases, cell proliferation, obesity and hypoglycaemia (Vangalapati et al. 2012). ...
Book
Cinnamon Botany, Agronomy, Chemistry and Industrial Applications
... Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil which makes up 0.5 to 1% of its composition. The oil extract of Cinnamon aids in the preservation of certain foods through its antimicrobial properties (Meena et al., 2012;Khandelwal, 2008 aeruginosa have been demonstrated (Miyashita and Sadzuka, 2013;Sheng and Zhu, 2014). The emergence of infections caused by drugresistant bacteria is a serious and growing global health concern. ...
Article
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The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial activity of ethanol, dichloromethane and n-hexane extracts of Cinnamomum verum stem bark against Multi-drug resistant clinical isolates. C. verum bark powder was extracted with ethanol, dichloromethane and hexane respectively using Soxhlet extractor for 6 hrs. at temperature not exceeding the boiling point of the respective solvents. The extracts were further subjected to phytochemical screening as well as antimicrobial tests against clinical isolates of confirmed multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were also determined. The extracts yield 11.8g, 10.2g and 9.0g for ethanol, dichloromethane and hexane respectively. The results of phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycoside, flavonoid, anthraquinones and tannins in the extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed the highest antimicrobial activity of 12.3±0.5mm against P. aeruginosa and 15.3±1.3mm against K. pneumoniae at 100mg/ml and antibacterial activities of 11.3±0.5mm against K. pneumoniae followed by 9.0±0.4mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the least 8.0±0.0mm against Staphylococcus aureus at 20mg/ml concentration. While hexane extract of the plant has the highest activity of 9.0±0.0mm against Staphylococcus aureus isolates but less active against the remaining isolates at 20mg/ml concentration. Dichloromethane extract was less active against all the MDR isolates. The results showed that the MICs of C. verum ranged from 5-20 mg/ml while the MBCs ranged from 10-40 mg/ml. Thus C. verum could be used as potential source of antibacterial agents against MDR microbes.
... Emphatically, cinnamon like a lot of plants has a wide variety of phenolics compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activities (Lange-veld et al., 2014). While the most important phenolic compounds in cinnamon plants are cinnamaldehyde, cinnamate and cinnamic acid (Vangalapati et al., 2012). Except that, the presence and concentration of each compound vary depending on the plant part, trans-cinnamaldehyde in bark was shown to be responsible for antimicrobial activity in cinnamon extracts (Rao and Gan, 2014). ...
Article
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Cinnamon and Garlic had a traditional important nutritional and medical importance because they contain many important active compounds, the rediscover of its compositions and the extraction protocol will be led futural to improve their antimicrobial properties that increase the safety of food products and their shelf life through work against spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens. In current study, cinnamon and garlic plants were used to determine their chemical composition, phenolic compounds profile by (HPLC) and evaluate the antimicrobial effects against gramme negative and positive bacterial strains Escherichia coli O157, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Shigellasp., Staphylococcus aureusand Streptococcus pyogenes and the food spoilage fungi Aspergillusniger and Aspergillusflavus were also chosen as models. The watery, acetonic and ethanolic extracts of cinnamon parks and garlic bulbs (with concentrations of zero, 100, 200 and 400 mg.ml-1) were prepared, the antimicrobial activities were tested by disc diffusion method. The ethanolic extracts were more antimicrobial efficiency by comparing with the acetonic or watery extracts, the inhibition zones were dramatically increased by increasing the extracts concentrations with recorded the lowest levels of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by 45 mg.ml-1, the maximum inhibition zones ranged from 23.6 to 27.4 mm as maximum,the garlic extracts showed stronger antifungal activities comparing with cinnamon extracts with (MIC) of 80 mg.ml-1 as maximum. Keywords Cinnamon bark; Garlic bulbs; ethanolic extract; foodborne pathogens
... The two main antifungal components present in cinnamon oils are eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. According to the raw material (either cinnamon leaves or bark) from which the oil was obtained, the ratio of these two components may change (Vangalapati et al., 2012). In the present study, inhibition of test fungi by cinnamon leaf oil vapour was not as high as with clove oil, because the chemical compositions of clove and cinnamon oils are different. ...
Article
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Purpose: Stem-end rot (SER) is an endophytic fungal infection of avocado causing significant postharvest losses, affecting its marketability. This study was conducted to identify effective concentrations of selected eco-friendly essential oils and chemicals to control SER pathogens by conducting in vitro bioassays and to develop treatments to control SER in naturally infected avocado (cv. Pollock) using less hazardous alternatives to synthetic fungicides. Research Method: In vitro disc volatilization and poison food bioassays were conducted to identify inhibitory concentrations of some essential oils and chemicals against SER pathogens. Avocado fruits were subjected to eco-friendly fumigation and dip treatments and their pathological, physicochemical and sensory properties were assessed after 7 days of storage at 15 °C. Findings: Disc volatilization bioassay revealed that 5 µL/plate clove oil was most effective against Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Diaporthe nelumbonis and Fusarium oxysporum. According to Poisoned food bioassay, 5% (w/v) sodium bicarbonate and 0.07% (v/v) acetic acid were highly effective against the test pathogens. SER incidence of avocado fruits has been successfully delayed for 7 days after subjecting to fumigation treatment with clove oil and dip treatments with sodium bicarbonate and acetic acid, followed by storage at 15 °C. None of the treatments adversely affected physicochemical and sensory properties of avocado. Originality/Value: Treatments could be further improved by conducting a medium-scale in vivo trial to obtain good quality avocado with higher consumer acceptance.
... Cinnamon consist of several medicinal properties such as antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-cancer, anticholinergic, antifungal, bactericidal, antiulcer activities and cardiovascular disease-lowering properties (Gulcin et al., 2019;Nabavi et al., 2015;Pandey et al., 2020;Singh et al., 2021;Vangalapati et al., 2012;Wang et al., 2020). In addition to the unique flavor, cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives contribute to anti-cancer, anti-fungal, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-oxidant properties (Brackman et al., 2008;Doyle and Stephens, 2019;Zhu et al., 2017) of cinnamon. ...
Article
Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, commonly known as Ceylon cinnamon or true cinnamon has gained worldwide attention than ever due to recent scientific pieces of evidence on its health benefits and medicinal applications. Ceylon cinnamon consists of a higher concentration of beneficial chemical compounds, superior flavor and taste while having a minimum amount of harmful coumarin. Our study focused on morphological, yield and biochemical characterization of the largest C. zeylanicum germplasm in the world. Of the 515 accessions characterized separately for bark and leaf chemical composition using methanol extracts, the majority had above-average values of bark cinnamaldehyde and leaf eugenol. Interestingly, more than 70 % of bark and more than 90 % of leaf samples did not have a detectable amount of coumarin. The overall average coumarin content in methanol extracts of bark and leaf was 0.010 mg/g and 0.004 mg/g respectively. The large-scale chemical fingerprinting work confirmed the superiority of Ceylon cinnamon. After a comprehensive analysis considering 25 different traits, 16 superior genotype accessions were identified as parental materials for immediate breeding attempts and or to release to the farmers after mass propagation.
... Some of chemical essential structures of cinnamon(Meena et al., 2012) ...
Article
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The aim of the study to estimate the antioxidant action and protecting effect of ethanolic cinnamon extract against CCl4 induced toxicity in male rats. To determine the effect of different concentrations of ethanolic cinnamon extract on male rats that fed a high cholesterol diet that induced hyperlipidemia. The experiment has been conducted in the present study., aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective, role of Cinnamomum zeylanicum ethanolic extract in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxic male rats, The cinnamon and its oil reported to have many beneficial uses in food preservation due to antioxidant of cinnamon. The Phenolic compounds extracted from cinnamon such as hydroxyl cinnamaldehyde and the hydroxycinnamic acid act as scavengers of peroxide radicals and avoid oxidative damage (Mathew and Abraham, 2006; Leela, 2008). Ranjbar et al, (2006) observed individuals consuming cinnamon tea showed increased total serum antioxidant status, increased thiols such as glutathione, NADPH, NADH, SOD, and decreased lipid peroxidation.
... Exploration of new therapeutic modalities by utilizing natural ingredients is one of the optimal strategies in solving mental problems and problems due to psychotic disorders. Cinnamon is a plant that is often found in Indonesia and has been used from generation to generation by the ancestors, especially as a cooking spice and traditional medicinal agent [11]. Cinnamon is rich in secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and alkaloids. ...
Article
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BACKGROUND: Cinnamon is a plant that is often found in Indonesia and is rich in secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and alkaloids. Flavonoids and phenols are very potential as natural antioxidants to suppress various oxidant activities, including oxidant activity that occurs in the hippocampus, which is the underlying psychotic disorder. AIM: This study was aimed to explore the potential of cinnamon extract (CE) on psychotic symptoms. METHODS: Cinnamon simplicia was obtained from the Research and Testing Center for Traditional Medicine, Tawangmangu, Central Java, Indonesia. The extraction of cinnamon was carried out using the maceration method. The animals were subjected to lir-psychotic induction by intraperitoneal injection with ketamine (30 mg/kg BW) for 5 days. The rats were grouped into six groups; each group contained five animals; normal control group, a lir-psychotic group without treatment, lir-psychotic group with haloperidol, lir-psychotic with CE (25 mg/kg BW, 50 mg/kg BW, and 100 mg/kg BW). Oxidative stress in experimental animals was measured by evaluating malondialdehyde (MDA) expression in the brain tissue using immunohistochemical tests. RESULTS: There were differences in clinical symptoms of psychotic disorder in the animal model between before intervention with CE supplementation and after the intervention. The higher the CE dose administered, the better the improvement in psychotic symptoms seen in the psychotic-induced rats. CE supplementation could reduce MDA expression in the hippocampus. This suggests that there was an optimal significance of cinnamon supplementation in reducing oxidative stress from the hippocampus. CONCLUSION: CE was effective in improving psychotic symptoms in lir-psychotic rats through regulation of oxidative stress in neuronal cells.
... The extracts and essential oils from bark of the genus Cinnamomum are commonly used for their antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, nematicidal, insecticidal, and anticancer effects [129][130][131][132]. These compounds include cinnamaldehyde, cinnamate, and cinnamic acid [133]. trans-Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, camphor, β-caryophyllene, L-borneol, cinnamyl acetate, and other compounds have also been identified [134,135]. ...
Article
Medicinal and aromatic higher plants are sustainable resources for natural product compounds, including essential oils, phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, and saponins. Extractives and essential oils as well as their bioactive compounds have many uses due to their antimicrobial, anticancer, and antioxidant properties as well as application in food preservation. These natural compounds have been reported in many works, for instance biofungicide with phenolic and flavonoid compounds being effective against mold that causes discoloration of wood. Additionally, the natural extracts from higher plants can be used to mediate the synthesis of nanoparticle materials. Therefore, in this review, we aim to promote and declare the use of natural products as environmentally eco-friendly bio-agents against certain pathogenic microbes and make recommendations to overcome the extensive uses of conventional pesticides and other preservatives.
... Also, cinnamon oil protects kidney against acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity by ameliorating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation in rats [20]. e stem barks of Cinnamomum zeylanicum contain 45%∼65% cinnamaldehyde, 12%∼18% eugenol, and small amounts of 2′-hydroxycinnamaldehyde and 2′-benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde [21,22]. ...
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Nephropathies and especially nephrotoxicity have become one of the serious causes of life-threatening conditions because of intensive exposure to xenobiotic whether by environmental pollution or by drug abuse. The present study was undertaken to assess the protective effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark aqueous extract (AECZ) on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. AECZ was prepared by maceration in water and tested orally at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day to prevent gentamicin-induced nephropathies in male Wistar rats. Gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day) was administered for 14 consecutive days by intraperitoneal route, concomitantly with AECZ or silymarin (50 mg/kg/day) used as reference drug. Animal body weight was monitored during the treatment. After the last treatment on the 14th day, animals were sacrificed. Blood was collected for the evaluation of hematological and renal function biomarkers. The homogenate of one kidney was used to assess oxidative stress markers and proinflammatory cytokines, while the other one was fixed in formaldehyde for histopathological studies. Gentamicin decreased body weight, serum total proteins, and calcium level but increased kidneys’ relative weight, serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased, while an increase in malondialdehyde, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), and nitrites was observed in the negative control group as compared to normal control. Histological analysis of the kidney revealed the presence of tubular necrosis, glomerular degeneration, and macrophage infiltration in the gentamicin-treated group. All these impairment parameters were prevented by AECZ and silymarin treatments. AECZ has a protective effect against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of this extract may highly contribute to its nephroprotective activity.
... Cinnamon has following chemical constituents like Cinnamaldehyde, Coumarin, Eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde seems to reduce plasma blood glucose concentration more effectively when it compared with berberin and metformin [1]. ...
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Objective Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark as several trees from the genus cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savory foods. It has a long history of use in traditional medicine, but no evidence indicates that it is useful to treat any medical condition. The present study deals with the inhibition of selected target protein which is Protein Tryrosine Phosphatase. It helps to control insulin regulation in Type-2 diabetes using computational docking study. Materials and Methods The present study deals with the computational docking study performed for Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, cinnamic acid and cinnamate against selected target protein (Protein Tyrosine phosphatase). Autodock software was used to study the binding affinity and protein-ligand stability. Based on its score, binding affinities were studied and through hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions protein-ligand stability were also studied since protein-ligand interactions plays significant role in structure based drug design. Results Eugenol, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamic acid, and Cinnamate shown significant binding affinity towards target protein tyrosine phophatase Conclusion According to this computational docking study, the protein-ligand properties were used to ensure the results for further In-vivo and In-vitro studies to promote these molecules as a conventional therapeutic molecule.
... Chemical constituent analysis of C. zeylanicum bark by earlier workers revealed several constituents responsible for its glycemic control efficacy [39,40]. The major constituents were found to be cinnamaldehyde (65 to 80%), eugenol (5 to 10%), cinnamylalcohol, cinnamic acid, procyanidins and catechins [39,41]. ...
Article
Background and Objectives Cardiovascular diseases are the leading source of global deaths, and obesity is an independent risk factor. An obese mutant (WNIN/Ob) rat strain was identified and propagated at the animal facility of National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), India. In the current study, we have investigated alterations in WNIN/Ob rat heart in comparison with its lean littermates. Methods Six- and 12- month-old male WNIN/Ob rats along with their age-matched lean controls were overnight fasted to collect heart tissue. The sorbitol levels, aldose reductase activity, advanced glycation end products, and hydroxyproline of the cardiac tissue were measured by spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods. Masson’s trichrome staining was done for studying fibrosis. The status of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers was analyzed by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. TUNEL assay was performed to know the extent of apoptosis. Results While the heart weight was significantly higher in 12-month-old obese rats, organ to body weight ratio was lower in both 6 and 12 months of age. Histology revealed enlarged interstitial space and perinuclear vacuoles and increased cardiomyocyte size in the 12-month-old obese rats. Further, we have observed an increase in aldose reductase activity, sorbitol levels, fibrosis, ER stress markers and apoptosis in the 12-month-old obese rats. Conclusion WNIN/Ob rat displayed the typical obesity-associated cardiac alterations like that of both genetic- and diet-induced animal models of obesity and thus may serve as a valuable animal model to investigate obesity-associated cardiac alterations.
... Cinnamon being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-diseaselowering compound. Cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases (Vangalapati et al., 2012;Sangal, 2011;Rao and Gan, 2014). ...
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This review paper highlights the medicinal properties particularly the immunogenic potentiality of iconic baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) (Kalphavraksha or Wish)tree species belongs to Malvaceae family. During the recent outbreak of second wave of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) mutants, Delta variant (B. 1. 617.2) strainand Delta Plus (AY.1) in India has created a major health issue resulted in more hospitalizations and death. Another problem is fully vaccinated people with"breakthrough" infections is rare but reported. This has created a situation and therefore, promoted herbal medicine, fruit pulp of baobab as an immunity boosterfor controlling the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The baobab (Kalphavraksha or Wish tree) fruit pulp is very rich in vitamin C (280-350 mg/g of the fruit), zinc, andthe source of protein and used as a herbal medicine long time ago by local traditional healers in India, Africa, Madagascar and other Asian countries. In additionto this, the baobab fruit pulp is acidic in nature and also known for protease inhibitors which limits the consumption of fruits. Plant protease inhibitors are directlyinvolved in blocking the viral replication and inhibited the viral synthesis. Therefore, two dose vaccination with additional dietary and medicinal therapy will helpto prevent the human body against invading viral antigen and improved the overall health condition of the Covid-19 patients. In India, the oral consumption ofbaobab (Kalphavraksha or Wish tree) fruit pulp with milk as an immunity booster has improved the Covid-19 patients health condition. However, there are noclinical evidences to support the scientific validation. Therefore, clinical experimental studies should be conducted particularly for the scientific validation ofimmunogenic potentiality of baobab fruit pulp. This will help in developing a novel drug for controlling the coronavirus infections in future pandemic. (PDF) Role of herbal medicine for controlling coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/350631457_Role_of_herbal_medicine_for_controlling_coronavirus_SARS-CoV-2_disease_COVID-19 [accessed Oct 16 2022].
... It is also used for flavouring foods, cosmetics and medicines ). The cinnamon species barks are the sources of flavours utilized worldwide in cookery, traditional and modern medicines (Sangal 2011;Vangalapati et al. 2012). The oil is emmenagogue, liver tonic, antiinflammation, antisapasmodic and carminative (Kirtikar and Basu 1984). ...
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Gurez is situated along the Kishanganga river in Kashmir valley. It is remotely located but the most beautiful valley. Owing to connectivity problems, this valley has largely remained unexplored and thereby its various features have generally gone unnoticed. This beautiful valley harbors a diversity of the medicinal plants. These medicinal plants are not only used in traditional health care system for the treatment of various diseases but also provide an edge for socio-economic upliftment for households. The socio-economic profile of the people of this remote area depicts that these people live in underprivileged conditions. The medicinal plants indigenous to Gurez, like Bunium persicum, Achillea Millefolium, and Carum carvi besides others, have high commercial value and can be utilized as a source of income. These phytochemically rich plant species can contribute to the development of various formulations of herbal therapies. However, overexploitation of these plant species has caused a decline in the frequency of these species in the past few years. Planned cultivation, proper exploitation, and the commercialization of these medicinal plants can serve as a primary source of income to the people of this downtrodden community of Gurez, particularly marginalized farmers and landless poor people. These plants have the potential to broaden livelihood opportunities of these people by framing proper policy that can give topmost priority to proper exploration of these plants.
... (13) It has anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-diabetic action and its consumption also provides trace amounts of choline, which helps in acetylcholine synthesis and fat metabolism. (14) The literature has shown that the addition of turmeric, cinnamon, and okra to the diet have positive effects on variables including body mass, blood glucose, lipid profile, and the immune system, such as increased production of immunoglobulin A (IgA). (15)(16)(17) Serum IgA was first discovered in 1953 (18) and mediates a variety of protective functions through interaction..with..FcRα..receptors..on..monocytes Ruzon-Camargo, F. I. et al. ...
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Introduction: some plants such as turmeric, cinnamon, and okra are known to have therapeutic functions such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, an immunomodulatory role has been observed in the production of antibodies, in particular immunoglobulin A (IgA), which mediates a variety of protective functions for the organism. Objective: the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary plants on the production of IgA in healthy Wistar rats. Methods: thus, 48 male Wistar rats of 90 days of age were allocated to four groups. The animals were treated for 14 days with dried turmeric, cinnamon, or okra (50, 50, 12.5 mg/day, respectively) in phosphate buffered saline, or with only phosphate buffered saline by gavage. The animals received water and feed ad libitum. Body mass and relative weight ofperitoneal fat, adrenal gland, kidney, spleen, liver and thymus, biochemical parameters, and IgA levels were analyzed. Results: no significant changes were observed in the body mass, relative weight of organs and tissues, and biochemical parameters. An increase in serum IgA levels was observed in animals treated with turmeric or cinnamon. Conclusion: we conclude that the treatment with turmeric and cinnamon increased IgA production. Therefore, our study supports the idea that dietary supplementation with these plants may improve humoral immunity.
... Chemical constituent analysis of C. zeylanicum bark by earlier workers revealed several constituents responsible for its glycemic control efficacy [39,40]. The major constituents were found to be cinnamaldehyde (65 to 80%), eugenol (5 to 10%), cinnamylalcohol, cinnamic acid, procyanidins and catechins [39,41]. ...
Article
There is an increase in the incidence and prevalence of type-2 diabetes and obesity which leads to the structural and functional changes in myocardium leading to a lethal complication called diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). In the present study, we investigated the preventive effect of cinnamon (3% of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark powder in AIN-93 diet for 3 months) feeding on DCM and the concerned mechanisms in a rodent model. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg b.w streptozotocin (STZ), 15 min after the ip administration of 60 mg/kg b.w of nicotinamide (NA) in Wistar-NIN (WNIN) male rats. The oxidative stress parameters were investigated by assessing superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) enzyme activity, protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The histopathology of myocardium was analyzed by H&E and Masson’s trichrome staining, and scanning electron microscopy. The changes in diabetic rat heart involved the altered left ventricular parietal pericardium, structural changes in myocardial cells, enhanced oxidative stress. Masson’s trichrome and H&E staining have shown increased fibrosis, and perinuclear vacuolization in NA-STZ induced diabetic rat myocardium. Cinnamon feeding prevented the oxidative stress and myocardial alterations in the heart of diabetic rats. Taken together, these results suggest that cinnamon can effectively prevent the metabolic and structural changes in NA-STZ induced diabetic cardiomyopathy.
... Cinnamon being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-diseaselowering compound. Cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases (Vangalapati et al., 2012;Sangal, 2011;Rao and Gan, 2014). ...
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This review paper highlights the use of herbal medicine in the management of the coronavirus disease COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, which has caused a worldwide outbreak of respiratory illness. This is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is zoonotic infecting both animal and human. Vaccines are the most promising solution to mitigate new viral strains. The Indian system of holistic medicine known as "Ayurveda" plays an important role in controling the viral disease SARS-CoV-2 and other health disorders. Dietary therapy and herbal medicine could be a complementary preventive therapy for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). Plants have been used as a expression systems for the production of diagnostic reagents and pharmaceutical proteins often described as "molecular farming. On the basis of literature survy presented, some of the plant secondary metabolites that showed prominent antiviral activity against coronaviruses SARS-CoV-2 through impeding the main machinery used in their pathogenesis and replication cycle. The in vitro, in vivo, and in silico investigations revealed numerous plant-derived compounds with promising anti-SARS-CoV and anti-SARS CoV-2 activity. Therefore, this review gathered all antiviral plants in a single platform to facilitate the laboratory-based research for the development of novel drug/molecular therapeutics to overcome the SARS-CoV-2 and future pandemic situations. Further detailed clinical trial experiments should be conducted for the scientific validation.
... Species of cinnamon include Cinnamomum verum, C. zeylanicum and Cinnamon cassiacae [138,140]. The main bioactive substances of cinnamon essential oil are eugenol and trans-cinnamic aldehyde [137,138,141]. Cinnamon exhibited herbicidal effects on Ageratum conyziodes, Amarantus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Bidens pilosa, Cassia occidentalis, Chenopodium album, Commelina benghalensis, Echinochloa crus-galli, Leptochloa chinensis, Lolium spp., Phalaris minor, Sinapis arvensis, Sorghum halepense, and Taraxacum officinale [132,[142][143][144]. Cinnamon essential oil also inhibited the seed germination of Amaranthus tricolor and Echinochloa crus-galli [137,145]. ...
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Concerning human and environmental health, safe alternatives to synthetic pesticides are urgently needed. Many of the currently used synthetic pesticides are not authorized for application in organic agriculture. In addition, the developed resistances of various pests against classical pesticides necessitate the urgent demand for efficient and safe products with novel modes of action. Botanical pesticides are assumed to be effective against various crop pests, and they are easily biodegradable and available in high quantities and at a reasonable cost. Many of them may act by diverse yet unexplored mechanisms of action. It is therefore surprising that only few plant species have been developed for commercial usage as biopesticides. This article reviews the status of botanical pesticides, especially in Europe and Mediterranean countries, deepening their active principles and mechanisms of action. Moreover, some constraints and challenges in the development of novel biopesticides are highlighted.
... The nding obtained the evidence backed with hard research on why Cinnamon(6-10) maybe the solution for blood sugar control, weight loss, alertness, creating natural disinfectants, cancer prevention. Cinnamon (11,12) is a powerful antibacterial (13)(14)(15)(16). Cinnamon is famous because of its aromatic structure and good behavior. ...
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Cinnamon is applying for diabetes and insulin resistance as plant medicine. In this study DFT calculation to consider pregnancy function role of cinnamon compounds were done by B3LYP/6-311G. Thermodynamics properties, molecular electronics, docking of cinnamon compounds with estrogen, testosterone and progesterone and drug parameters calculated the results obtained among of sexual hormones ,progesterone has act with chemical component of cinnamon.
... Cinnamon is a spice widely known for its use in food seasoning, with remarkable properties that have benefited traditional medicine for alleviating symptoms of various diseases through centuries. 2,3 Over the past few decades, many studies investigated the logic behind remedial effects of cinnamon, and according to their results, cinnamon is rich in components with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Cinnamon contains trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA), cinnamaldehyde as well as camphor, eugenol and other bioactive compounds 4 with TCA and cinnamaldehyde being the most effective ones. ...
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An increasing amount of evidence suggests that cinnamon, due to its rich source of polyphenol content, may exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, hence could be used in the treatment of variety of diseases. in this regard, many studies explored the effects of cinnamon and its bioactive components (coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and type A procyanidin polymers) on various neurological diseases including Parkinson’s disease, neuroinflammation, multiple sclerosis, brain injury, Alzheimer’s disease, migraine, and hyperactivity. The present study attempts to review available data concerning the therapeutic potential of cinnamon and its derivatives in neurological disorders.
... Cinnamon consist of several medicinal properties such as antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-cancer, anticholinergic, antifungal, bactericidal, antiulcer activities and cardiovascular disease-lowering properties (Gulcin et al., 2019;Nabavi et al., 2015;Pandey et al., 2020;Singh et al., 2021;Vangalapati et al., 2012;Wang et al., 2020). In addition to the unique flavor, cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives contribute to anti-cancer, anti-fungal, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-oxidant properties (Brackman et al., 2008;Doyle and Stephens, 2019;Zhu et al., 2017) of cinnamon. ...
Article
Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, commonly known as Ceylon cinnamon or true cinnamon has gained worldwide attention than ever due to recent scientific pieces of evidence on its health benefits and medicinal applications. Ceylon cinnamon consists of a higher concentration of beneficial chemical compounds, superior flavor and taste while having a minimum amount of harmful coumarin. Our study focused on morphological, yield and biochemical characterization of the largest C. zeylanicum germplasm in the world. Of the 515 accessions characterized separately for bark and leaf chemical composition using methanol extracts, the majority had aboveaverage values of bark cinnamaldehyde and leaf eugenol. Interestingly, more than 70 % of bark and more than 90 % of leaf samples did not have a detectable amount of coumarin. The overall average coumarin content in methanol extracts of bark and leaf was 0.010 mg/g and 0.004 mg/g respectively. The large-scale chemical fingerprinting work confirmed the superiority of Ceylon cinnamon. After a comprehensive analysis considering 25 different traits, 16 superior genotype accessions were identified as parental materials for immediate breeding attempts and or to release to the farmers after mass propagation.
... Selain itu, umumnya digunakan retinol untuk mencegah penuaan kulit secara lokal, tetapi retinol rentan menyebabkan iritasi pada kulit [10] . [30] . Pada studi terdahulu, selain sebagai antioksidan dan antipenuaan sel [14] , kayu manis terbukti mengurangi gula puasa sebanyak 18-29%, penderita diabetes tipe 2 setelah mengkonsumsi 1-6 gram kayu manis per hari selama 40 hari [31] . ...
... It is cultivated mostly in Sri Lanka, Mayan mar, Malabar cost of India, South America, Caribbean, Southest Asia and the West indies [9] . The chemical compounds found in various parts of cinnamon tree where leaves contain 70-95% eugenol and 1-5% cinnamaldehyde while bark contain 5-10% eugenol and 65-80% cinnamaldehyde [10,11] . The report on in vitro antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cinnamon powder against various bacteria was very limited. ...
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The study was planned to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark powder ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Screening of cinnamon powder ethanolic and aqueous extracts for antibacterial sensitivity and MIC against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was carried out. ABST was performed by the disc diffusion method. The cinnamon powder ethanolic and aqueous extracts were suspended in a solution containing 10% dimethyl sulfoxide and 0.5% tween 80. Under aseptic condition, empty sterilized discs were impregnated with 50 μl of different concentrations (50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25% and 3.12%) of the cinnamon powder ethanolic and aqueous extracts and placed on the agar plate surface. Paper disc moistened with vehicle (DMSO plus tween 80) was placed on the seeded petri plate as a vehicle control. Standard disc containing antibacterial drugs (gentamicin, tetracycline, cefpirome and ampicillin) were used as reference control. The petri plates were incubated at 37°C for 18 h. After the incubation period, the zone of inhibition was measured. Among the tested bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli showed the sensitivity at different concentration of cinnamon powder ethanolic extract whereas Streptococcus agalactiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed no zone of inhibition. Aqueous extract of cinnamon powder showed no antibacterial activities against all tested bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of cinnamon powder ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined by micro-broth dilution technique. The results of MIC revealed that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed various MIC against all tested bacteria. Ethanolic extract of cinnamon powder has lower MIC value against Staphylococcus aureus among tested bacteria.
... In recent years, it has become well known that antioxidant phytochemicals are present in plants, fruits and vegetables. Indeed, herbal medicine such as ginseng (Panax ginseng) (Mansour, 2013 andAnees et al., 2014), green tea (Camellia sinensis) (Abd El-Megid, 2014 andChoi et al., 2016) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (Vangalapati et al., 2012 andSaifan, 2014) is generally considered a wellestablished form of complementary medicine. ...
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This study aimed to determine the in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oil from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmannii) on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from raw milk. Essential oil from cinnamon bark obtained from the steam distillation method and essential oil was made in a series dilution with a concentration of 1%, 2%, 4%, and 8%. The antibacterial activities were tested using the disk diffusion method. Results showed from five isolates of MRSA, one isolate was sensitive of essential oil with a concentration 2% and all of the isolate was sensitive with a concentration 4% and 8%. The antibacterial activity showed by inhibition zones on MRSA. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon bark has an antibacterial effect on MRSA and it is developed as phytopharmaca.
Chapter
Ceylon cinnamon, which is also known as true cinnamon, has been very popular as a spice and a traditional medicine for centuries. Cinnamon growing in Sri Lanka was sought after by many countries. Presently, Cinnamomum zeylanicum is considered a superior quality material and fetches a high price. Research undertaken on the health benefits of cinnamon are conducted using the bark, bark powder, extracts and bark and leaf essential oils. Many antioxidants, flavonoids and phenolic compounds have been isolated. Value addition of this material can be undertaken to convert it to additional products, such as health supplements and herbal healthcare products, which are gaining popularity at the present time. The applications using cinnamon are being subjected to scientific research in order to be used for medicinal purposes. Results so far obtained using in vitro and animal in vivo models indicate that cinnamon has antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular, cholesterol-lowering, antidiabetic and immunomodulatory effects. Yet, only very few controlled clinical studies have been done to confirm these potential health benefits. The promising applications of cinnamon as a flavour in aromatherapy and in nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industries are outlined with future market prospects.
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Inflammation and Natural Products brings together research in the area of the natural products and their anti-inflammatory action in medical, nutraceutical and food products, addressing specific chronic inflammatory diseases like cancer and the mechanistic aspects of the mode of action of some key natural products. Inflammation is a complicated process, driven by infection or injury or genetic changes, which results in triggering signalling cascades, activation of transcription factors, gene expression, increased levels of inflammatory enzymes, and release of various oxidants and pro-inflammatory molecules in inflammatory cells. Excessive oxidants and inflammatory mediators have a harmful effect on normal tissue, including toxicity, loss of barrier function, abnormal cell proliferation, inhibiting normal function of tissues and organs and finally leading to systemic disorders. The emerging development of natural product formulations utilizing the unique anti-inflammatory compounds such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, terpenes, fatty acids, proteins and several other bioactive components has shown notable successes. Inflammation and Natural Products: Recent Development and Current Status provides a comprehensive resource, ranging from detailed explanation on inflammation to molecular docking strategies for naturally occurring compounds with anti-inflammatory activity. It is useful for graduate students, academic and professionals in the fields of pharmaceutical and medical sciences and specialists from natural product-related industries.
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The objective of the present study has focused on the phytochemical analysis of Cinnamon cassia bark for determination of bioactive components, which have been associated with antioxidative stress induced by difenoconazole treatment in hepatic tissue of male albino rats. Ninety rats were assigned randomly to 9 groups, each group comprised of 10 animals. The first group served as control animals were administrated distilled water and the rest served as the experimental groups. Groups II and III animals were orally administrated with difenoconazole at doses of 58.9 and 117.8 mg/kg BW (represent of 1/20 and 1/10 of oral LD 50 , respectively) while the groups IV and V animals were received aqueous extract of cinnamon (AEC) at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg BW , respectively . In addition groups VI and VII, animals were received AEC prior to 2h of administration with difenoconazole at low dose as well as groups VIII and IX, rats were received with AEC before treatments with high dose of difenoconazole for 28 days. Results of the present study indicated the presence of total phenolic, flavinoids and tannins as the main bioactive components in the AEC. Furthermore, the final body weight and liver index were increased markedly in difenoconazole-treated rats and these parameters values were comparable to control group following co-administration with AEC. However, difenoconazole-treatment induced a significant elevation in the level of (LPO) associated with adepletion of GSH level and an elevation in the activities of serum liver enzyme markers (i.e., AST ,ALT,ALP and GGT) was observed. These results confirmed with histopatlogical findings . In contrast, treatment with AEC in difenoconazole-treated rats elevated the level of endogenous hepatic antioxidant system (SOD, CAT and GSH) along with reducing the activities of serum liver enzymes. However, the hepatic protective property of AEC was further confirmed by histopathological findings. These findings may be attributed to the presence of total phenolic , flavoniods and tannins , which have anti-oxidative effect against oxidative injury- induced by tested fungicide.
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All the plants and their secondary metabolites used in the present study were obtained from Ayurveda, with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. The selected secondary metabolites have been experimentally validated and reported as potent antiviral agents against genetically-close human viruses. The plants have also been used as a folk medicine to treat cold, cough, asthma, bronchitis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome in India and across the globe since time immemorial. The present study aimed to assess the repurposing possibility of potent antiviral compounds with SARS-CoV-2 target proteins and also with host-specific receptor and activator protease that facilitates the viral entry into the host body. Molecular docking (MDc) was performed to study molecular affinities of antiviral compounds with aforesaid target proteins. The top-scoring conformations identified through docking analysis were further validated by 100 ns molecular dynamic (MD) simulation run. The stability of the conformation was studied in detail by investigating the binding free energy using MM-PBSA method. Finally, the binding affinities of all the compounds were also compared with a reference ligand, remdesivir, against the target protein RdRp. Additionally, pharmacophore features, 3D structure alignment of potent compounds and Bayesian machine learning model were also used to support the MDc and MD simulation. Overall, the study emphasized that curcumin possesses a strong binding ability with host-specific receptors, furin and ACE2. In contrast, gingerol has shown strong interactions with spike protein, and RdRp and quercetin with main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. In fact, all these target proteins play an essential role in mediating viral replication, and therefore, compounds targeting aforesaid target proteins are expected to block the viral replication and transcription. Overall, gingerol, curcumin and quercetin own multitarget binding ability that can be used alone or in combination to enhance therapeutic efficacy against COVID-19. The obtained results encourage further in vitro and in vivo investigations and also support the traditional use of antiviral plants preventively.
Chapter
Cinnamon has been used as a spice, condiment, and aromatic plant since centuries ago. Cinnamon is a small evergreen tree belonging to the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. There are more than 250 species of cinnamon worldwide. In India, Cinnamomum verum and Cinnamomum cassia are the most common species grown in the Himalaya region. They have been used as folk medicine for the treatment of nausea, flatulent dyspepsia, coughs, diarrhea, malaria, gastric disorder, and to alleviate pain and inflammation in rheumatic arthritis. Therapeutic properties of cinnamon are due to the presence of bioactive constituents such as p-coumaric, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol are the major active constituents responsible for its characteristic flavor, aroma, and therapeutic properties. Pharmacological studies found that it could be a promising candidate with potential for designing new drugs. This review is aimed to summarize the ethanomedicinal importance, phytochemistry, and wide spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic applications of cinnamon.
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This review paper developed on the basis of literature survey highlights the use of traditional herbal folk medicine for controlling the deadly outbreak of corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) mutants, Delta variant (B.1.617.2) and Delta Plus (AY. 1) causing major health issue with the highest viral infections and deaths. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) is a pandemic respiratory infections viral disease. SARS-CoV-2 syndrome is also causing an unusual type of pneumonia leading to the lungs infection. Botanical drugs constantly become a worthy therapeutic alternatives against viral infections including corona virus (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, there is an urgent need for the agents that can act against SARS-CoV-2 as a precautionary measures which boost our immunity during Covid-19. In this review paper, there are many medicinal plants listed have been found inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 viral replications, and acts as immunity booster. The use of spices and herbs may also play a significant role against viral infections. Therefore, herbal and dietary therapy plays significant role in controlling many infectious diseases including corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) affecting human health. However, there is no clinical evidence to support herbal medicine as remedy for corona virus and warranted further scientific evidence. Further detailed clinical trial experiments should be conducted for the scientific validation. This review paper updates about plants either used as expression patterns for plant based vaccines or as antiviral drugs as a medicine for controlling SARS-CoV-2 outbreak since the disease is becoming endemic.
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Background: The review gives a brief about PCOS and the symptoms related to the disease. Around 2.2 to 26% of cases of PCOS are present globally. The disorder generally occurs in the reproductive age group of women. The review has a mention of few herbs which can be used to correct the diseased condition. The various herbs have a positive effect on the diseased condition and can be used to cure symptoms like hypothyroidism, hyperplasia, obesity, diabetes, Menorrha-gia, sleep disturbances, cardiovascular problems, hyperlipidemia, hirsutism, infertility, irregular menstrual cycle, etc. The search engines used are PubMed, various review articles, etc. Methods: The method involved in the review includes various medicinal herbs that have been seen to affect women having various gynecological disorders like Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome, Uterine Fibroids, and Endometriosis. Materials: The herbs included in the review include Bauhinia variegata useful in hormone imbalance , Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula, and Commiphora wightii are used to regulate the hormones, Cinnamon cassia acts as an anti-oxidant, Tribulus terrestris improves reproductive dysfunction, Hypericum perforatum regulates depression, Commiphora myrrha prevents menorrhagia, Nigella sativa controls cholesterol, Saraca asoca has estrogenic action , Asparagus racemosus promotes folliculogenesis, Tinospora cordifolia regulates menstrual flow, Ocimum sanctum as an anti-oxidant. Conclusion: The plants taken had a positive effect on women with PCOS without causing any side effects. The natural herbs used for the treatment of PCOS did not have any side effects and treated the diseased condition naturally. This reviewaims to understand the natural plants available for the treatment of the disease naturally. The herbs can be used individually or can be used in combination .
Chapter
Coffee, cinnamon, and ginger are natural products rich in bioactive compounds that have led to renewed interest to validate their health benefits through in vitro and in vivo studies. This chapter describes several mechanisms of action to understand their antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti‐inflammatory, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects observed in preclinical and clinical studies. Coffee, ginger, and cinnamon were selected for this chapter because coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, and ginger rhizome and cinnamon bark are among the most commonly used spices for their flavor and medicinal properties. All contain bioactive substances responsible for or attributable to their beneficial health effects, among which are caffeine and gallic acid from coffee, gingerols, shogaols, and paradols from ginger, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamate, and cinnamic acid of cinnamon among others phytochemicals. The molecular mechanisms involved in the antioxidant effects are associated with the activation of Keap1‐Nrf2 pathway that enhances the expression and activation of cytoprotective proteins to prevent oxidative stress. The molecular mechanisms involved in the antidiabetic potential are related to the modulation of glucose metabolism enzymes, increase of glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity through the action signaling pathways such as AMPK, PI3K/Akt, NF‐κB, and the family of proliferator‐activated receptor (PPAR) proteins. Cardiovascular protection capacity has been attributed to modulating the expression of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis enzymes, sterol regulatory Element‐Binding Protein 1 (SREBP‐1), the Liver X Receptor alpha, PPARα, and PPARγ. The hepatoprotective benefits of coffee have been associated with TGFβ and JNK modulation, fibrogenic genes suppression, and of NFκβ and MAPK pathways modulation, whereas ginger and cinnamon reduce the expression of different proteins involved in lipid metabolism; in addition, ginger increases liver antioxidant capacity and cinnamon reduces proinflammatory proteins. Finally, the molecular signaling of anti‐inflammatory effects occurs through activation of the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κβ, JNK/AP‐1, PI3K/Akt, and ERK/MAPK signaling pathways and the subsequent downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. The available scientific evidence indicates that they are potential natural sources for the development of functional foods and new drugs with greater efficacy and safety.
Chapter
Diabetes has emerged as one of the major health problems of the modern world. It is often described as a syndrome rather than a disease. It is considered to result in abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. It signifies a condition where body is unable to regulate carbohydrate metabolism due to partial or complete absence of insulin. Inadequate regulation of the blood sugar in turn starts a cascade of imbalances in the fat and protein metabolism. These impose serious consequences to the health of patients. The complications that ensue due to glycation of proteins and deposition of fat are diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy and cardiovascular disorders. Thus diabetes along with its related complications result in high incidences of morbidity and mortality among the sufferers. As per the recent estimates the incidence of diabetes are increasing at alarming rates worldwide. India in particular is termed as the diabetes capital of the world. The conventional antidiabetic drugs are oral hypoglycaemic drugs and insulin therapy. These interventions are effective in the management of diabetes, however, they do not treat it and some of them have serious side effects. Medicinal plants offer highly attractive alternative to synthetic antidiabetic agents. In this chapter the plants with antidiabetic potential are described with focuses on edible plants. The use of edible antidiabetic plants or products remains the mainstay of the chapter. Individual plants have been described with respect to the biological source, geographical origin and distribution, traditional uses along with their biologically active compounds and pharmacological reports.
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Plodia interpunctella is the primary insect that penetrates food packaging during storage, causes significant economic losses, and poses great health risks to consumers. In this study, we identified the repellent compounds and component with the strongest insect-repellent activity in cinnamon bark extract using solvent–solvent partitioning, column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), which was the strongest insect-repellent compound, was used to fabricate insect-proof packaging. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and xanthan gum (XG) blended with different weight mixing ratios [100:0, 90:10 (PVA90/XG10), 80:20, and 70:30] were used to fabricate strips, and the TC content and TC loading efficiency of the fabricated strips were evaluated. Thereafter, insect-proof sachets with or without the optimal TC-containing strips, which comprised PVA90/XG10, were fabricated, and their characteristics, such as the TC release profile and pest-repellent and insecticidal properties were evaluated. According to the repellent and infestation assays, TC-containing sachets can protect food from P. interpunctella infestation.
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Cinnamon has been using as a fragrant plant and spice. Cinnamon is a member of family Lauraceae. Cinnamon has been used as a traditional medicine to reduce blood glucose level in diabetes and to control Blood pressure, Tumor Growth, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Cinnamon nutritional composition revealedthat it contained a significant value of mineral, vitamins, and the main bioactive component is cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamon caloric content was determined as ofcarbohydrate (CHO), protein, fat, fiber, moisture and ash. Cinnamon contained the uppermost amount of carbohydrate(53.37%) in T1 and the lowermost amount of ash (1.25%) in T3. The mineral content of macro-elements and micro-elements were determined fromchromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sodium (Na). The content of minerals in Cinnamon contained the highest amount of potassium (135.2) in T1 and the lowest sodium in T2. The content of vitaminsin Cinnamon contained the fat-solubleand water-soluble vitamins A, K, E, D, β-caroteneand C, B12, B9, B6, B3, B2, B1were determined. Amongst the vitamins, cinnamon contained the uppermostvalue ofβ-carotene (112) and the lowermostvalue of vitamin B6 (0.158). Bioactive compounds of Cinnamon were determined cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, β-caryophyllene and coumarin. Among the bioactive compounds in Cinnamon contained the uppermostvalue of cinnamaldehyde (64.56). The antioxidant capacity of cinnamon bark extract was (49 μg/mL). Conclusively,cinnamon is enriched with nutritional values. So, it can be used in the treatment of various disease.
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