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The roles of social support and coping style in the relationship between gratitude and well-being

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Abstract

This study aimed at examining the roles of social support and coping style in the relationship between gratitude and well-being. Seven hundred and fifty Taiwanese college students ranging in age from 18 to 22 years completed measures of gratitude, social support, coping style, and well-being. Structural equation modeling showed partial mediation effects of social support and coping style between gratitude and well-being. Moreover, a multi-group analysis found that females with higher levels of social support tended to use more active coping strategies when encountering a problem compared to their male counterparts. Implications for future research and limitations of the present findings are discussed.

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... Trait gratitude has been shown, with overwhelming support, to lead to diffuse affective states such as increased positive affect (McCullough et al., 2002;Măirean, et al., 2019;Simons et al., 2019;Sun & Kong, 2013;Swickert et al., 2019;Watkins et al., 2003), decreased negative affect (Simons et al., 2019;Sun & Kong, 2013;Swickert et al., 2019;Watkins et al., 2003), affective well-being (Aghababaei et al., 2018;Bhullar et al., 2015;Chan, 2013;Chopik et al., 2019;Corona et al., 2020;Hill & Allemand, 2011;Jiang et al., 2016;Kashdan & Breen, 2007;Kim et al., 2019;Lin, 2014Lin, , 2015aLin, , 2015bLin, , 2016Lin, , 2017Lin & Yeh, 2014;McCullough et al., 2002;Măirean et al., 2019;Yue et al., 2017;Zhang, 2020), and eudaimonic well-being (Barrett-Cheetham et al., 2016). These studies have largely been cross-sectional in nature, but Simons and colleagues (2019) examined this relationship using a seven-day experience sampling study and found that trait gratitude predicted daily positive affect. ...
... Trait gratitude influences the ways individuals interpret stimuli, as evidenced by research that shows trait gratitude is associated with more positive coping (Lin, 2016;Lin & Yeh, 2014) and appraisal styles (Wood et al., 2007). For example, positive coping styles associated with trait gratitude include active coping (Wood et al., 2007) and growth-focused coping (e.g., Mofidi et al., 2014). ...
... Positive cognitions about one's environment includes the ways that individuals perceive their social connections and their appraisal styles. For example, research has shown that gratitude promotes perceptions of social support (Kaniuka et al., 2020;Kong et al., 2020;Lin, 2016;Lin & Yeh, 2014;Ni et al., 2015;Sun et al., 2014) and Appraisal styles that transmit the effects of gratitude to wellness include decreased rumination and negative thoughts (Heckendorf et al., 2019;Kranabetter and Neissen, 2019). ...
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Though gratitude research in organizational behavior (OB) is nascent, this emotion has a rich history in the social sciences. Research has shown gratitude to promote prosocial behaviors, encourage personal well-being, and foster interpersonal relationships. However, gratitude research has been siloed among these three outcomes of gratitude (moral, wellness, and relational). Similarly, past reviews of gratitude have focused on only one group of outcomes, one of its forms (trait, state, or expressed), or empirical findings without emphasis on the theoretical underpinnings. In contrast, this review recognizes that each type of gratitude, its functions, and outcomes are part of a single process model of gratitude. As such, in the current review we provide a comprehensive assessment of gratitude in the social sciences by distilling and organizing the literature per our process model of episodic gratitude. Then, we translate the insights for management scholars, highlighting possible differences and synergies between extant research and workplace gratitude thereby helping advance “gratitude science” in the workplace. In all, this review (a) examines definitions and operationalizations of gratitude and provides recommendations for organizational research; (b) proposes a process model of episodic workplace gratitude as a conceptual map to guide future OB research on gratitude; (c) reviews empirical gratitude research through the lens of our process model; and (d) discusses the current state of the literature, important differences for workplace gratitude, and future directions for organizational scholars.
... Several studies have shown that gratitude is the key predictor of quality of life (Chen et al., 2017;Datu, 2014;Manthey et al., 2016;Tsang et al., 2014). Gratitude enhances optimal functioning at biological, personal, relational, and cultural levels, thereby promoting the psychological, social, and physical well-being as well as quality of life among adolescents (Ham et al., 2011;Lin, 2016;Rash, 2011;You et al., 2018). Research investigating the correlates of gratitude among adolescents reported a positive association between early adolescents' gratitude and their several emotions such as hope, forgiveness, happiness, optimism, inspiration, and positive affect (Froh, Kashdan, et al., 2009;Froh, Yurkewicz, et al., 2009). ...
... Research investigating the correlates of gratitude among adolescents reported a positive association between early adolescents' gratitude and their several emotions such as hope, forgiveness, happiness, optimism, inspiration, and positive affect (Froh, Kashdan, et al., 2009;Froh, Yurkewicz, et al., 2009). Gratitude makes people acknowledge the positive things and events in their lives, and thus helps them to experience high levels of emotional prosperity (Lin, 2016;McCullough et al., 2004;Wood et al., 2008). Gratitude experience positively associates with fresh mood, reduced bodily complaints, reduced fatigue, and increased duration and quality of sleep (Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Mills et al., 2015). ...
... Moreover, empirical evidence has reported a decrease in life satisfaction and quality of life during adolescence (Bisegger et al., 2005); therefore, examining the factors that can support the quality of life is necessary. Furthermore, most studies on gratitude have been conducted in western countries (Wood et al., 2010), questioning the generalizability of findings to Asian countries (Lin, 2016). Thus, research is warranted to explore the cross-cultural generalizability of gratitude outcomes (Lin, 2016). ...
Article
Gratitude can play a significant role in enhancing the well-being of emerging adults since it armors them from the cold waves of psychological distress associated with emerging adulthood. Therefore, this study explored the association between gratitude and the psychological well-being of emerging adults. Further, the study examined the process underlying the association between these concepts through the lens of spirituality. The study investigated proposed relationships on a sample of 413 emerging adults ranging from 18 to 25 years with a mean age of 21.27 (SD = 1.60). First, the study applied structural equation modeling to establish the validity of the model (measurement model validity), and then the model's hypothesized relationships were tested (structural model). The findings illustrated both gratitude and dimensions of spirituality share a positive and significant association with psychological well-being. Spirituality’s dimensions emerged as possible mediators in the association between gratitude and psychological well-being. These results lead to a deeper understanding of the relationship between gratitude and the psychological well-being of emerging adults, concluding that gratitude influences psychological well-being both directly (b = 0.34, p < .001) and indirectly (b = 0.20, p < .001) through spirituality. The study also addresses the theoretical and practical implications of the findings.
... Some research has provided initial support for the social and cognitive hypotheses, both individually and in combination. For example, Lin (2016) found evidence for a multiple mediation model whereby social support and coping style were parallel mediators of the relationship between 18 to 22 year olds' trait gratitude and well-being. Similarly, Kong et al. (2020) found that adolescents' trait gratitude was related to their subjective well-being via resilience and social support, both individually and as parallel mediators. ...
... The other coping styles measured (positive reinterpretation and growth, and behavioural disengagement) were not significant mediators of either relationship, and the statistics for these negative findings were not reported. Lin (2016) assessed the fit of a parallel mediation model predicting greater well-being from gratitude, through positive coping style (comprised of active emotion-focused and problem-focused coping) and social support, also in 18 ...
... A potential limitation of Lin's (2016) study is that the measures used were all designed by the author (Lin & Yeh, 2011;Lin, 2011). Although the psychometric properties of these scales were reported and showed satisfactory internal consistency, the selection of self-created scales may be a source of bias because the measures may have been designed in a way that makes them more sensitive to the constructs and relationships the author set out to establish. ...
Thesis
School-based gratitude interventions show evidence of enhancing student well-being but there is limited research suggesting how gratitude increases well-being. There is also the need for a suitable tool to measure children’s gratitude and evaluate the impact of gratitude interventions. The researcher sought to address these literature gaps. A systematic literature review was used to address the question ‘which variables mediate the association between young people’s gratitude and well-being?’. Stronger evidence was found for cognitive and social resources as mediators, compared to mediators related to affect. A lack of experimental and longitudinal studies in the current evidence base was identified, highlighting avenues for future research. In an empirical study, the researcher designed and screened a new questionnaire of children’s gratitude, the Questionnaire of Appreciation in Youth (QUAY). Items were developed using the literature to identify a comprehensive definition of gratitude and its key features, and through discussion with the research supervisors who have extensive experience of studying gratitude. The initial items were screened in a focus group with three children aged eight to nine. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted with responses from 107 children aged eight to 10. This led to the development of an 11-item scale with good reliability and convergent validity with an existing measure of gratitude, the GQ-6. A three-factor structure was retained, with subscales addressing gratitude, appreciation, and sense of privilege. Limitations include the lack of a more diverse sample, the absence of reverse-scored items, positive skew in responses, and the need to establish discriminant validity. Implications include new insights into the structure of children’s gratitude, providing a working tool which could be further developed in order to measure children’s gratitude more effectively.
... Furthermore, prior research has revealed that social support is connected to subjective well-being (Gallagher and Vella-Brodrick 2008;Kahn et al. 2003;Kong et al. 2019;Siedlecki et al. 2014;. Consistent with the psychosocial model, a recent study has found that trait gratitude can lead to a higher level of social support, which further influences subjective well-being in Taiwan undergraduate students (Lin 2016). However, in the study by Lin (2016), only Taiwan undergraduate students (age range = 18-22 years) were recruited, so it is important to examine whether the mediating role of social support can be found in other samples such as the adolescents. ...
... Consistent with the psychosocial model, a recent study has found that trait gratitude can lead to a higher level of social support, which further influences subjective well-being in Taiwan undergraduate students (Lin 2016). However, in the study by Lin (2016), only Taiwan undergraduate students (age range = 18-22 years) were recruited, so it is important to examine whether the mediating role of social support can be found in other samples such as the adolescents. ...
... Therefore, our result is consistent with the psycho-social model. In addition, our result is partly consistent with the study by Lin (2016) who found social support mediated the link of trait gratitude with subjective well-being in Taiwan undergraduate students. Thus, our study extends their result to the adolescents. ...
Article
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Alkozei et al. (J Happiness Stud 19(6):1–24, 2017) proposed a cognitive model and a psycho-social model for understanding the link of trait gratitude to subjective well-being. The present study examined the two models by testing the mediating role of social support and resilience in the trait gratitude-subjective well-being link in Chinese adolescents. A total of 1445 adolescents (mean age = 15.03 years, SD = 1.95) completed the Gratitude Questionnaire, Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Mediation analyses indicated that both social support and resilience independently mediated the link of trait gratitude with subjective well-being. Besides, effect contrasts revealed that the mediating effect of social support was not significantly different from that of resilience in the link of trait gratitude with subjective well-being. These findings suggest that social support and resilience perform as mediators in the relationship between trait gratitude and subjective well-being, supporting an integrated cognitive and psycho-social model.
... Researchers have presented social support as a significant element in encouraging undergraduates' educational attainment and in reducing their psychological stress (Bai et al., 2018;Li et al., 2018;Marhamah & Hamzah, 2016;Vungkhanching et al., 2016). Social support can be described as an individual's perception or reception from the immediate environment of psychological and social support (Lin, 2016). Examples of such support include assistance, care, and respect (Lee & Goldstein, 2016). ...
... A total of 30 studies were found that adhered to the inclusion criteria set for the systematic review. Of these, 16 focused on social support and psychological outcomes (Abu-Kaf et al., 2018;Adamczyk, 2015;Bíró, Veres-Balajti, & Kósa, 2016;Ceglarek & Ward, 2016;Frison & Eggermont, 2015;Kim, Kim, & Lee, 2016;Llamas, Morgan Consoli, Hendricks, & Nguyen, 2018;Marhamah & Hamzah, 2016;Ng, Wang, & Chan, 2017;Roohafza et al., 2016;Tang & Dai, 2018;Vungkhanching, Tonsing, & Tonsing, 2016;Wang, Sun, & Wang, 2016;Wongtongkam, 2019;Yıldırım, Karaca, Cangur, Acıkgoz, & Akkus, 2017;You, Lim, & Kim, 2017); 3 focused on social support and academic achievement (Bai et al., 2018 Rodríguez et al., 2017); 4 focused on social support and technology use (Deechuay, Koul, Maneewan & Lerdpornkulrat, 2016;Gökçearslan, Uluyol & Şahin, 2018;Shah, Siddiqui & Ansari, 2016;; 4 focused on sources of social support (Bhochhibhoya et al., 2017;Chuah & Singh, 2016;Lee & Goldstein, 2016;Rios & Eaton, 2016); and 3 focused exclusively on gender differences in social support (Lin, 2016;Zamani-Alavijeh, Raeesi Dehkordi, & Shahry, 2017;Zhang, Zhapng, Zhang, Zhang, & Feng, 2018). All studies except one were quantitative. ...
... Among females, stronger correlation was found between distress and social support (-0.31) than distress and resilience (0.01). Finally, Lin (2016), who studied Taiwanese undergraduates, found gender differences with respect to social support (t = −6.63, p= .001), ...
Article
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Although researchers have conducted multiple studies on social support among male undergraduates, a gap was identified in the lack of systematic reviews of literature synthesizing their findings. The purpose in this systematic review was to obtain an understanding of recent findings on social support among male undergraduates. To identify relevant literature, a search strategy was developed consisting of six criteria for inclusion, which yielded a total of 30 studies from multiple databases. Findings showed an overall positive impact of social support on psychological outcomes, academic achievement, and technology use among male undergraduates. The findings also revealed a diverse range of sources of social support as well as variations based on gender. In addition to addressing the identified gap in the research, findings from the review may help teachers, educational policymakers, educators, and scholars identify relevant patterns that could be used to note important dimensions within which possible interventions could be introduced to promote desired outcomes. Keywords: academic achievement, male undergraduates, social support, systematic review, technology use.
... Several studies have shown that gratitude is the key predictor of quality of life (Chen et al., 2017;Datu, 2014;Manthey et al., 2016;Tsang et al., 2014). Gratitude enhances optimal functioning at biological, personal, relational, and cultural levels, thereby promoting the psychological, social, and physical well-being as well as quality of life among adolescents (Ham et al., 2011;Lin, 2016;Rash, 2011;You et al., 2018). Research investigating the correlates of gratitude among adolescents reported a positive association between early adolescents' gratitude and their several emotions such as hope, forgiveness, happiness, optimism, inspiration, and positive affect (Froh, Kashdan, et al., 2009;Froh, Yurkewicz, et al., 2009). ...
... Research investigating the correlates of gratitude among adolescents reported a positive association between early adolescents' gratitude and their several emotions such as hope, forgiveness, happiness, optimism, inspiration, and positive affect (Froh, Kashdan, et al., 2009;Froh, Yurkewicz, et al., 2009). Gratitude makes people acknowledge the positive things and events in their lives, and thus helps them to experience high levels of emotional prosperity (Lin, 2016;McCullough et al., 2004;Wood et al., 2008). Gratitude experience positively associates with fresh mood, reduced bodily complaints, reduced fatigue, and increased duration and quality of sleep (Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Mills et al., 2015). ...
... Moreover, empirical evidence has reported a decrease in life satisfaction and quality of life during adolescence (Bisegger et al., 2005); therefore, examining the factors that can support the quality of life is necessary. Furthermore, most studies on gratitude have been conducted in western countries (Wood et al., 2010), questioning the generalizability of findings to Asian countries (Lin, 2016). Thus, research is warranted to explore the cross-cultural generalizability of gratitude outcomes (Lin, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents experience numerous physical, social, and emotional changes that adversely affect their quality of life. However, few studies have focused on how to improve their quality of life. This study evaluated the relationship between gratitude and quality of life through the mediating role of mindfulness. The proposed relationship was assessed among 249 adolescents aged 16–18 years with a mean age of 16.94 years. The data were analyzed using a two-step approach to structural equation modeling. The findings revealed that gratitude is significantly related to adolescents’ quality of life. Additionally, mindfulness is a potential mediator of the relationship between gratitude and quality of life. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the association between gratitude and quality of life among adolescents and conclude that gratitude affects the quality of life through mindfulness both directly and indirectly. The study also discusses theoretical and practical implications of the results.
... 26 While COVID-19 is a novel experience for college students, research has found that international students with coping strategies tend to respond more favorably to transition or difficulty, such as COVID-19. 27 Positive emotional expression, such as gratitude and optimism, protect against depression, anxiety, and suicide, promoting positive emotional and behavioral coping (Chang et al., 2016;Lin, 2016;Yu & Luo, 2018). [28][29][30] Infusing positive emotional skills techniques into a required curriculum, such as health, wellness or physical activity course, may help to reach all students to bolster coping behaviors (Cronin & Allen, 2018). ...
... 27 Positive emotional expression, such as gratitude and optimism, protect against depression, anxiety, and suicide, promoting positive emotional and behavioral coping (Chang et al., 2016;Lin, 2016;Yu & Luo, 2018). [28][29][30] Infusing positive emotional skills techniques into a required curriculum, such as health, wellness or physical activity course, may help to reach all students to bolster coping behaviors (Cronin & Allen, 2018). 31 Results also revealed a significant difference in optimism, gratitude, and perception of instructional effectiveness following COVID-19 based on student anxiety classification (i.e., mild, moderate, severe). ...
Article
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Objective To examine the relationship between college student anxiety, optimism, gratitude, and perception of the Physical Activity and Lifestyle program (PAL) instructional response/effectiveness following COVID-19. Participants: Data were collected from a southeastern, midsize university (n = 1640) during April 2020. Methods: Participants responded to a Web-based survey that included mental health factors (optimism, gratitude, anxiety) and perceptions of COVID-19 academic response. Results: The results of this study revealed a significant, negative relationship between anxiety and optimism (r = .36), gratitude (r = −.12), and perceived instruction following COVID-19 (r = −.11). There were statistically significant differences in perceived PAL instructional response/effectiveness following COVID-19 between anxiety classification, with severely anxious students expressing lower instructional response to COVID-19 when compared to moderately or mildly anxious students, [F(2,1516) = 10.60, p < .001]. Conclusions: The results inform educators on the importance of effective education and coping strategies following online transition during a pandemic.
... Lack of social support for chronic disease patients including breast cancer has been linked to poor emotional wellbeing, increased depressive symptoms, and poor quality of life [19]. Socially isolated women who lack access to care especially from social networks such as family and friends may develop an increased risk of mortality after breast cancer diagnosis [20] due to pain, depression, and poor emotional and mental wellbeing. Breast cancer patients with decreased social support report increased incidents of anxiety and depression [14]. ...
... From the above evidence of the positive effect of social support, it stands to reason that the absence of social support may result in negative prognosis and poor quality of life of breast cancer patients [14,19,20]. In this study, some participants expressed disappointments and loss of trust and confidence in their religious-affiliated bodies for not supporting them, at least emotionally, as they went through difficult treatment regimes. ...
Article
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Background Breast cancer is one of the top types of cancer affecting women both in the developed and developing countries. Breast cancer is a chronic and debilitating condition for anybody diagnosed of it and as well as their family. Social support has been shown to offset or moderate the impact of stress caused by the illness and other related negative outcomes. Objective The objective of this study is to assess the availability, accessibility, and impact of social support on treatment for breast cancer patients at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ashanti Region in Ghana. Materials and methods A phenomenological study was employed. An in-depth interview guide was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables and social support availability and accessibility from 15 breast cancer patients. Thematic analysis was employed. Results Majority of the women who participated in the study were postmenopausal women with an average age of 55 years. The study also revealed that all the participants in this study received one kind of support or another including informational, financial, emotional, and tangible support and reported varying positive impacts on their lives as a result of the support received. For those who received support, the prognosis and general quality of life appeared promising and well-adjusted than those who reported not having received any form of support. Conclusion Social support is critical for the survival and quality of life of chronic disease patients including breast cancer patients who were the focus of this study. The availability and/or accessibility of social support or otherwise significantly determines the prognosis and quality of life of breast cancer patients. Healthcare professionals and family members or significant others are major players in organizing social support for chronic disease patients.
... For instance, perceived social support, from parents in particular, has been found to positively predict adolescents' gratitude (Reckart et al., 2017), hence the bidirectional arrow in Fig. 3. In adults, findings indicate that perceived social support explains the relation between gratitude and well-being (Lin, 2016;Lin & Yeh, 2014) and life satisfaction (Kong, Ding, & Zhou, 2015) in crosssectional studies. Furthermore, Petrocchi and Couyoumdjian (2016) found an indirect effect of gratitude on symptoms of anxiety and depression through the self-relating processes of criticizing, attacking, and reassuring the self in adults. ...
... Replication is strongly needed as this proposed mechanism is based on one study with children. Research with adults has found an indirect effect of gratitude on well-being through coping in cross-sectional studies (Lin, 2016;Lin & Yeh, 2014), and Wood, Joseph, and Linley (2007) also found coping to partially explain the relation between trait gratitude and stress as well as trait gratitude and life satisfaction in college students. These findings collectively lend some support to cognitive coping as a mechanism partially explaining the relation between gratitude and well-being in children. ...
Article
Positive psychology has highlighted the importance of personal positive qualities such as gratitude for human thriving. Reviews of research on gratitude are predominantly based on work with adults. We address this gap by considering the familial roots and well-being implications of gratitude in children. We conducted two systematic reviews examining children’s gratitude as it relates to parent–child relationships (N = 10) and children’s gratitude and well-being (N = 38). Children’s gratitude was higher when parents modeled gratitude, there was a more secure parent–child attachment, and parents employed more supportive, autonomy granting, and warm parenting. These findings align with attachment theory, social learning and emotion socialization theories, and the find-remind-and-bind theory. Additionally, children’s gratitude was positively related to greater life satisfaction, positive affect, and mental well-being in cross-sectional and intervention studies. These findings provide some support for the broaden-and-build theory, the adaptive cycle model, and the schematic hypothesis. The reviewed theoretical frameworks and empirical findings formed the basis of our proposed model whereby children’s gratitude is posited to mediate the relation between parent–child relationship factors and children’s well-being. Further, we identified several testable mechanisms that might explain why gratitude is related to well-being. Our proposed model is an important contribution to the current literature because it provides a novel, overarching synthesis of existing work on children’s gratitude that is intended to be a framework for future research to test potential mechanisms relevant to children’s gratitude development and well-being outcomes.
... In these studies, gratitude as a trait and state has been shown to negatively correlate with perceived stress (Wood et al. 2007b;Wood et al. 2008a, b;Lee et al. 2018), physical health symptoms (O'Connell et al. 2016), anxiety (McCullough et al. 2002, depression (Wood et al. 2008a, b;Lin 2015;Bryan et al. 2016), negative affect (Eaton et al. 2014), risky behaviors (Ma et al. 2013), suicidal ideation (Stockton et al. 2016), PTSD symptoms (Van Dusen et al. 2015, and neuroticism (Wood et al. 2008a, b). However, gratitude has shown to positively correlate with quality of life (Eaton et al. 2014;Yun and Wee 2016;Toussaint et al. 2017), life satisfaction (Wood et al. 2007b;Eaton et al. 2014;Chen et al. 2017), subjective and psychological well-being (Wood et al. 2009a, b;Bhullar et al. 2015;Lin 2015;Lin 2016), physical health (Hill et al. 2013), positive affect (Eaton et al. 2014;McCullough et al. 2002), hopefulness (Loo et al. 2014), personal growth (Loo et al. 2014, forgiveness (Eaton et al. 2014), self-esteem (Lin 2015), extroversion, agreeableness, and conscientious personalities (McCullough et al. 2002;Wood et al. 2008a, b), sleep quality (Wood et al. 2009a, b;Mills et al. 2015), cognitive reappraisal (Bryan et al. 2016), self-efficacy (Mills et al. 2015), social support and active coping (Lin 2016), and vitality and subjective happiness (McCullough et al. 2002). One study of 67 cancer patients compared the characteristics of individuals with high and low gratitude using the Gratitude Questionnaire-6 (GQ-6; Ruini and Vescovelli 2013). ...
... In these studies, gratitude as a trait and state has been shown to negatively correlate with perceived stress (Wood et al. 2007b;Wood et al. 2008a, b;Lee et al. 2018), physical health symptoms (O'Connell et al. 2016), anxiety (McCullough et al. 2002, depression (Wood et al. 2008a, b;Lin 2015;Bryan et al. 2016), negative affect (Eaton et al. 2014), risky behaviors (Ma et al. 2013), suicidal ideation (Stockton et al. 2016), PTSD symptoms (Van Dusen et al. 2015, and neuroticism (Wood et al. 2008a, b). However, gratitude has shown to positively correlate with quality of life (Eaton et al. 2014;Yun and Wee 2016;Toussaint et al. 2017), life satisfaction (Wood et al. 2007b;Eaton et al. 2014;Chen et al. 2017), subjective and psychological well-being (Wood et al. 2009a, b;Bhullar et al. 2015;Lin 2015;Lin 2016), physical health (Hill et al. 2013), positive affect (Eaton et al. 2014;McCullough et al. 2002), hopefulness (Loo et al. 2014), personal growth (Loo et al. 2014, forgiveness (Eaton et al. 2014), self-esteem (Lin 2015), extroversion, agreeableness, and conscientious personalities (McCullough et al. 2002;Wood et al. 2008a, b), sleep quality (Wood et al. 2009a, b;Mills et al. 2015), cognitive reappraisal (Bryan et al. 2016), self-efficacy (Mills et al. 2015), social support and active coping (Lin 2016), and vitality and subjective happiness (McCullough et al. 2002). One study of 67 cancer patients compared the characteristics of individuals with high and low gratitude using the Gratitude Questionnaire-6 (GQ-6; Ruini and Vescovelli 2013). ...
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The positive personality traits/human strengths mindfulness and gratitude are attracting increasing attention in the literature. Two separate studies were undertaken to evaluate quality of life and health outcomes in individuals who are more mindful and more grateful versus those who are not mindful and not grateful. In study 1, 315 male soldiers completed standardized scales of mindfulness (MAAS), gratitude (GQ-6), general health, life satisfaction, quality of life, insomnia severity, and perceived stress. Participants were divided into three groups: a high dispositional mindfulness/gratitude group (high mindfulness/gratitude individuals), a low dispositional mindfulness/gratitude group (low mindfulness/gratitude individuals), and a moderate dispositional mindfulness/gratitude group (medium mindfulness/gratitude individuals). Data were analyzed using a series of multivariate analyses of variance. The results showed significant differences in quality of life, life satisfaction, perceived stress, mental health, insomnia, gratitude, and mindfulness among the high mindfulness, medium mindfulness, and low mindfulness groups, as well as among individuals in the high gratitude, medium gratitude, and low gratitude groups (p < 0.001). For study 2, data were collected from 432 college students (207 female) who completed the mindfulness (MAAS), self-regulation, and psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, and stress; DASS-21) scales. The results showed significant differences in level of depression, anxiety, stress, and self-regulation among individuals in the high mindfulness, medium mindfulness, and low mindfulness groups (p < 0.001). Moreover, the results of both studies indicated that the rate and pattern of relationships between mindfulness and/or gratitude with the variables under investigation were different according to the individuals’ personality type (i.e., high/low mindfulness traits and high/low gratitude traits). Together, the results of these studies indicate that individuals with more mindful and grateful traits enjoy a higher quality of life and more physical and psychological well-being.
... However, coping theory (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) maintained that problem and emotion-focused coping efforts are not mutually exclusive. Many scholars agree that consumers often rely on both coping efforts within the single coping process (Duhachek, 2005;Mick & Fournier, 1998;Lin, 2016). Therefore, challenge and threat appraisals are hypothesized to influence consumers' overall coping behavior, which involves both problem-focused and emotionfocused coping. ...
... This finding provides an empirical evidence of the concurrence of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping efforts in a single coping process, which was discussed in prior studies. Coping theory emphasized that problem-focused and emotion-focused coping efforts are not exclusive, and consumers often rely on both efforts within the single coping process (Beaudry & Pinsonneault, 2005;Duhachek, 2005;Lazarus & Folkman, 1984;Lin, 2016;Mick & Fournier, 1998). The support for hypotheses H6 and H7 confirms that emotion-focused copingd despite it is a cognitive effort to manage the stressful experience d occurs simultaneously with problemfocused coping. ...
Article
Consumers’ concerns about health and privacy risks of the Internet of Things, and in particular healthcare wearable devices, have been recently intensified. Yet there is little research examining the impact of those concerns on consumers’ behavioral patterns related to the post-adoptive use of healthcare wearable devices. The purpose of this study is to examine how consumers attain extended use of healthcare wearable devices in the presence of health and privacy concerns. This study empirically tests a novel research model drawing on coping theory and coping model of user adaptation. Data were collected from United States consumers using stratified and random sampling method. The effective sample included 260 responses from consumers. The results indicate that consumers’ health and privacy concerns initiate a coping process. Problem-focused and emotion-focused coping efforts significantly predict the extended use of healthcare wearable devices. This study offers several implications for theory and research. Most notably, it demonstrates the viability of coping as a high-level theoretical lens for examining consumers’ post-adoptive use of information technology.
... Lee et al. confirmed the relationship between receiving gratitude and proactive and reactive helping at work [19]. Many other psychologists confirmed the relation between gratitude and long-term well-being [5,9,[20][21][22]. ...
... This study is the first to provide a new research method using digital devices for gratitude study. Until now, questionnaires have been the primary measurement method in studies of gratitude characteristics [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]. Intervention methods, such as writing on paper, such as a thank you letter or expressing thanks verbally, have been used in studies of gratitude intervention [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. ...
Article
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Employee engagement has become a critical issue in Japanese companies. One way to develop it is to improve the relationship among employees through gratitude expressions. In the post-COVID-19 remote work environment, digital devices are essential. This paper confirms that expressions of gratitude delivered via digital devices enhance the relationship between employees. We experimented in a small-town government office where participants (n = 88) were asked to (1) use the Thanks App, an app we developed to express gratitude, for two months and (2) respond to an engagement survey we developed before and after the experimental period. Through cross-analysis of the data from the app and questionnaire, we found that the “trust in colleagues” factor had a strong correlation (r = 0.80, p < 0.001) with our new index computed by the app’s data. The results suggest that the use of the Thanks App may help visualize the trust relationship among teams. This study has a practical value in providing a new team management tool for visualizing team trust. In addition, it provides a new research method for emotional and social psychology using digital devices.
... Social support can be defined as the perception and reality that an individual can get assistance from other people in his or her social network (Gabert-Quillen et al., 2011;Lin, 2016). The supportive resources can be physical or tangible (e.g., financial assistance), emotional (e.g., nurturance), informational (e.g., advice), and companionship (e.g., sense of belonging; Dunst, Trivette, & Cross, 1986;Uchino, 2004). ...
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This study investigated the relationship between Chinese drug users’ perceived social support and their intentions for choosing abstinence. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed with 3,239 drug users, especially heroin (427) and methamphetamine (890) users. All participants were from multiple Chinese compulsory drug treatment institutions. Perceived support from friends was the factor that showed a strongest positive relationship with Chinese drug users’ abstinence intentions. The positive influence from family support on the willingness to seek and choose abstinence was not as great as scholars have suggested, which challenges previous research findings. Methamphetamine users had a significantly lower chance of pursuing abstinence, but their abstinence intentions were positively related to perceived support from friends. Comparatively, all types of perceived social support had no significant influence on heroin users’ abstinence intentions. This study highlights that, as China’s methamphetamine-addicted population rapidly expands, tailored treatment, especially facilitating positive peer support, is urgently needed.
... Interpersonal gratitude Sharing from daily gratitude journal (5 min) Importance of interpersonal gratitude-Discuss benefits of expressing gratitude toward others (5 min) Expressing gratitude toward others Practicing positive mental subtraction-Group members share a person who has been a positive influence in their lives and imagine how their lives would be different if this person did not exist (10 min) The power of the gratitude letter-Group facilitators disclose personal examples of how gratitude letter writing has had a positive influence on their lives (5 min) Gratitude letter writing-Instructions (5 min) Tips for writing a good gratitude letter (10 min) Gratitude letter writing activity (20 min) Group sharing after writing the letter-e.g., how they felt, what they learned, what was surprising (20 min) Gratitude letter writing plan-When group members plan to complete and send the letter to their recipient (5 min) (table continues) al., 2016; Wong et al., 2016) to provide a more time-intensive curriculum that systematically exposes members to a variety of gratitude activities, so that they can experience and practice diverse facets of gratitude (e.g., intrapersonal and interpersonal gratitude; Lin, 2016). Table 1 describes the content of our fivesession psychoeducational Gratitude Group Program (more details about procedures are in the Method section). ...
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Despite mounting interest in the psychology of gratitude, scholarship on the clinical applications of gratitude to psychotherapy has been fairly limited. Therefore, the aims of this article are to describe the Gratitude Group Program, the first known therapeutic model to focus on the cultivation of gratitude as its core goal, as well as to provide preliminary evidence for its effectiveness. Grounded primarily in positive psychology, but also in an assimilative integration of cognitive-behavioral, existential, narrative, and interpersonal perspectives, the Gratitude Group Program is a psychoeducation therapeutic group intervention that addresses diverse facets of gratitude. Evidence from a preliminary, one-group, prepost design study showed a significant and clinically meaningful decrease in psychological distress and increase in state gratitude, satisfaction with life, and meaning in life among college students who participated in the group program. Moreover, the effect sizes for decreases in psychological distress at the conclusion of the group program (d = 1.19) and 30 days later (d = 1.37) are comparable to that found in previous research on psychotherapy in university counseling centers. The practical implications of these findings are discussed.
... Coping refers to the strategies that people follow to challenge and overcome the negative experiences they encounter. [10] In literature, several studies have identified factors that enhance the use of coping strategies: social support; [11] positive self-talk; [12] and spirituality and faith. [13] Sociodemographic factors such as marital status and gender were found to affect psychological coping in CRC patients. ...
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Objective: The objective was to identify and understand the coping strategies of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Methods: A mixed-methods approach including quantitative and qualitative methods was used to collect data from Jordanian patients. In the quantitative phase, we aimed to determine the coping strategies employed in a representative sample (n = 200) of Jordanian adult patients with CRC using the Jalowiec Coping Scale. In the qualitative phase, we aimed to understand these coping strategies through an in-depth and detailed exploration. A sample of ten participants was chosen purposefully based on their coping score in the quantitative phase, and interviews were conducted. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software version 23. Qualitative data were analyzed using directed content analysis. Results: Results from the quantitative phase indicated that evasive coping strategies were used predominantly, followed by confrontive coping strategies and optimistic coping strategies. In contrast, fatalistic and emotive coping strategies had the lowest scores. In addition, the results indicated that the total scores for the effectiveness of coping strategies ranged from 42 to 143, with a mean of 93.45 (standard deviation 13.67); higher scores reflected greater effectiveness. Content analysis in the qualitative phase identified three themes, and subcategories emerged, including perceived collaborative support, increased awareness of treatment, and internal power. Conclusions: CRC patients used different coping strategies to face the new challenge. Oncology nurses can play a pivotal role in enhancing these coping strategies through implementing multidisciplinary programs.
... In other words, coping styles and loneliness are closely correlated. Researchers in China and in other countries have verified the mediating role of coping styles in the relationship between stress and mental health (Lin, 2016;W. Liu, Li, Ling, & Cai, 2016). ...
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We explored the relationships among older adults’ self-esteem, coping styles, and loneliness. Participants were 312 older adults who ranged in age from 60 to 88 years, and who were living in Beibei District, Chongqing, China. Participants completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. The results indicated that older adults’ self-esteem, coping style, and loneliness were closely related to each other, and that a positive coping style partially mediated the relationship between the self-esteem and loneliness of the participants. These findings provide new insights into the effect of self-esteem on loneliness of older adults. © 2017 Scientific Journal Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
... Although the word "gratitude, " or its linguistic equivalent, is present in almost every language, the concept has rarely been examined in the social sciences in general or organizational psychology in particular (Emmons and Crumpler, 2000). The construct of gratitude is traditionally a fundamental variable in the positive psychology framework (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000;Seligman, 2002) and has been studied in relation to well-being (McCullough et al., 2002;Emmons and McCullough, 2003;Watkins et al., 2003Watkins et al., , 2014Wood et al., 2009Wood et al., , 2010Lin, 2016). More recently, certain studies have focused on organizational contexts, analyzing not only the relationship between gratitude and well-being (Emmons, 2003) but also the relationship with other variables, in particular relational aspects such as positive relationships and social support at work (Hu and Kaplan, 2014), prosocial organizational behaviors (Michie, 2009;Grant and Gino, 2010), organizational citizenship behaviors (Dik et al., 2014), and teamwork and altruism (Dik et al., 2014). ...
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This article reviews the construct of gratitude. Gratitude has been shown to be a fundamental resource for strengthening individual well-being. From a positive psychology perspective, gratitude is recognized as a promising opportunity for individuals because it can be enhanced through specific training according to a primary prevention framework. In organizations, gratitude is now thought to be crucial to employees’ efficiency, success, and productivity while also improving organizational citizenship behaviors, prosocial organizational behavior, and the organizational climate. Thus, gratitude is noteworthy because it increases positive relationships, social support, and workers’ well-being, reduces negative emotions at the workplace, and enhances organizational health and success. This perspective article concludes by suggesting new directions for gratitude research and intervention in the organizational context.
... Coping refers to the strategies that people follow to challenge and overcome the negative experiences they encounter. [10] In literature, several studies have identified factors that enhance the use of coping strategies: social support; [11] positive self-talk; [12] and spirituality and faith. [13] Sociodemographic factors such as marital status and gender were found to affect psychological coping in CRC patients. ...
Article
Objective: The objective was to identify and understand the coping strategies of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Methods: A mixed‑methods approach including quantitative and qualitative methods was used to collect data from Jordanian patients. In the quantitative phase, we aimed to determine the coping strategies employed in a representative sample (n = 200) of Jordanian adult patients with CRC using the Jalowiec Coping Scale. In the qualitative phase, we aimed to understand these coping strategies through an in‑depth and detailed exploration. A sample of ten participants was chosen purposefully based on their coping score in the quantitative phase, and interviews were conducted. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software version 23. Qualitative data were analyzed using directed content analysis. Results: Results from the quantitative phase indicated that evasive coping strategies were used predominantly, followed by confrontive coping strategies and optimistic coping strategies. In contrast, fatalistic and emotive coping strategies had the lowest scores. In addition, the results indicated that the total scores for the effectiveness of coping strategies ranged from 42 to 143, with a mean of 93.45 (standard deviation 13.67); higher scores reflected greater effectiveness. Content analysis in the qualitative phase identified three themes, and subcategories emerged, including perceived collaborative support, increased awareness of treatment, and internal power. Conclusions: CRC patients used different coping strategies to face the new challenge. Oncology nurses can play a pivotal role in enhancing these coping strategies through implementing multidisciplinary programs.
... 13). Lin (2016) examined the roles of social support and coping styles in the association between gratitude and well-being among 750 Taiwanese college students. The results indicated that gratitude leads to a higher level of social support which positively and indirectly affects individual well-being by increasing the use of active coping styles. ...
Article
This paper explores the role of gratitude as recovery capital' in the process of recovery from substance misuse. Recovery capital denotes the quantity and quality of internal and external resources that enable an individual to initiate and sustain long-term addiction recovery. The prospects for successful recovery are dependent on personal and social resources including character traits and attitudes, material resources and relationships. In this context, gratitude has been empirically highlighted consistently as a valuable positive emotion and attitude, building lasting and beneficial personal and social resources and helping to maintain interpersonal relationships, improve quality of life and promote more adaptive coping strategies rather than resorting to negative strategies such as substance misuse. Gratitude enables the individual to develop the personal arsenal of strengths necessary to conduct a sober and productive life. The Narcotic Anonymous (NA) program has adopted gratitude as a key component of recovery and urges members to practice gratitude on a daily basis on their journey toward successful recovery. This article represents a first step in examining the role of gratitude as recovery capital in the process of long-term recovery. The results may be helpful for developing treatment that incorporates gratitude-based intervention that initiates and sustains long-term recovery.
... For instance, gratitude has been found to correlate with more perceived social support [33], to foster prosocial behaviours in both the benefactor and others [34][35][36], to improve relations between classmates and teachers [37] and to predict greater social integration [38]. It has also been found to reduce behavioural aggression in response to provocation [39], the tendency to denigrate partners [40] and anti-social behaviour [19]. ...
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Cyber-bullying is becoming an increasing school and health problem affecting adolescents worldwide. A number of studies have examined risk factors and protective factors in cyber-bullying situations and their consequences on the psychological well-being of adolescents. Gratitude and Emotional Intelligence (EI) are two personal resources that have been shown to have beneficial effects on the health and the social, personal and psychological functioning of young people. Nevertheless, little is known about these two variables in the context of cyber-bullying. The main purpose of this study was to examine the roles of gratitude and EI in cyber-aggression. Specifically, we hypothesised a mediational effect of gratitude in emotional intelligence-cyber-aggression link. A total of 1157 students aged 12–18 years (54.4% females) completed several questionnaires assessing gratitude (Gratitude Questionnaire; GQ-5), EI (Wong and Law’s Emotional Intelligence Scale; WLEIS-S) and cyber-bullying (European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire; ECIPQ). The results showed expected significant associations between the studied variables. Moreover, the structural equation model analysis confirmed that EI dimensions were indirectly associated with cyber-aggression via gratitude, even when controlling for the effects of socio-demographic variables. These findings provide evidence on why those adolescents high in emotional intelligence are less aggressive in cyber-bullying context and suggest possibilities for gratitude interventions to reduce aggressive actions by electronic means among adolescents. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Five 90-minute sessions were conducted weekly on topics of: (1) micro gratitude, appreciating the little things in life; (2) gratitude savoring, deliberately enhancing the intensity or duration of positive experiences; (3) interpersonal gratitude, expressing thanks to others; (4) redemptive gratitude, finding and reflecting on redemptive elements of stressful experiences for which one can be grateful; and (5) macro gratitude, appreciating the big things in life. Intervention content and structure were chosen on the basis of previous recommendations calling for a variety of activities to broaden participants' exposure to various facets of gratitude (Davis et al., 2016;Lin, 2016;Wong et al., 2018). Each session consisted of didactic learning, two experiential activities, and group discussion. ...
Article
Learning how to cultivate gratitude can be a valuable skill for life and sport, allowing one to reframe negative situations, enhance interpersonal relationships, and build resilience. While one-time gratitude interventions have demonstrated benefits for personal and social well-being, multi-session programs have the potential to strengthen these effects, as well as team dynamics. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine (1) the impact of a multi-session gratitude intervention among youth athletes and (2) the effect of coach participation on respective outcomes. Eighteen varsity members of a high school girls’ soccer team participated in The Athlete Gratitude Group (TAGG). To test the effect of coach participation, team members were randomly assigned to receive the intervention with or without the head coach present. Repeated measures analysis of variance tests and subsequent pairwise comparisons found significant improvements in athletes’ state gratitude, mental health, resilience, team cohesion, and coach-athlete relationship pre- to post-intervention. For the entire sample, lasting effects on mental health, resilience, and coach-athlete relationship were observed at 1-month and 3-month follow-ups. Moreover, positive effects on mental health were significantly maximized for athletes in the coach group. No significant group x time interaction effects were observed on state or trait gratitude, resilience, team cohesion, or quality of the coach-athlete relationship; all athletes derived positive benefits from the program, regardless of group membership. Strengths, limitations, practical implications, and future research recommendations are discussed. Lay Summary: A high school soccer team participated in “The Athlete Gratitude Group,” a multi-session gratitude intervention. Half the team completed the program with the head coach present. All athletes exhibited enhanced gratitude, mental health, resilience, team cohesion, and coach-athlete relationship, with the coach group reporting even greater improvements in mental health. • Implications for Practice: • Intervention programs aimed toward cultivating gratitude in life and sport may enhance athlete mental health, resilience, team cohesion, and quality of the coach-athlete relationship. • Coach participation in gratitude interventions at the team level may maximize positive effects on athlete mental health. • Collectively engaging in gratitude practice as a team may increase resiliency and foster better quality relationships in sport.
... They are coherent with the relationship-building inherent nature of gratitude [49]. They also reinforce previous evidence that dispositional gratitude promotes positive relations with others [50] and has a positive influence on perceived social support as both received from and given to others [18,19,[51][52][53][54]. However, this is the first study that put together the three constructs. ...
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Future time perspective, perceived social support, and dispositional gratitude are topics of interest that positively influence people's psychological health. Although gratitude has been positively associated with future time perspective and social support, this is the first study to investigate its mediating role in the relationships of future time perspective with perceived social support. A convenience sample of 1256 adults (55.1% women), mean age 34.55 years (SD = 13.92), completed self-reported measures of future time perspective (conceptualized as remaining time and opportunities), dispositional gratitude, and received and given social support. Results indicated that higher dispositional gratitude mediated the relationship between the perception of more remaining time and opportunities and greater perception of received and given social support. These findings highlight the importance of considering dispositional characteristics to better understand the impact of perceived future on the individuals' subjective experience of social exchanges. Interventions addressing future time perspective and dispositional gratitude might have beneficial effects on individuals' social well-being.
... Trait gratitude is often defined as part of a wider life orientation towards noticing and appreciating the positive in the world (Wood et al., 2008). Prior research has showed that trait gratitude is associated with more social support, greater self-esteem and higher happiness (Chen & Wu, 2014;Kong, Ding, et al., 2015;Lin, 2016;Watkins et al., 2003), and less depression and stress (Disabato et al., 2017;Petrocchi & Couyoumdjian, 2016;Wood et al., 2008). In the present study, we would explore the predictive causality link between trait gratitude and subjective well-being (SWB) from a longitudinal perspective. ...
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Previous studies have rarely explored the predictive causality relationship between trait gratitude and subjective well-being (SWB) that has been demonstrated to have a bi-factor structure (i.e., three specific factors and a general factor of SWB). A sample of 494 adolescents participated in a two-wave study including the measurements of trait gratitude and SWB. We employed structural equation modeling techniques to assess cross-lagged effects between trait gratitude and the bi-factor structure of SWB (i.e., life satisfaction, negative affect, positive affect and the general SWB factor) in four models. The results showed that trait gratitude could predict life satisfaction and positive affect, but could not predict negative affect and the general SWB factor over two months. Besides, there was no evidence for the reverse or reciprocal relationships between trait gratitude and the bi-factor structure of SWB. Implications and future directions of the findings were discussed.
... Results obtained confirm such hypothesis. A lack in social support lowers patients' quality of life to such an extent that the loss or absence of support networks from family or friends can lead to an increase of the mortality risk after the cancer diagnosis (Lin, 2016). The lack of support after the diagnosis and the subsequent treatment can have a negative impact on the effect of the treatment itself (Thompson et al., 2017). ...
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Introduction The aim of the present study is to carry out a multidimensional analysis on the relation between satisfaction with social support received, resilience and optimism in cancer patients and their quality of life. Materials and Methods Data were gathered through questionnaires fulfilled by 142 cancer patients. Data relate to sociodemographic, health, quality of life, social support, resilience and optimism. Results Satisfaction with the sources and types of support, resilience and optimism relates positively with quality of life. Predictive models show that informational support from friends is the variable that most increases patients’ general health, while emotional support from the partner is the one that best improves how patients cope with the disease. In the same line, emotional support from the partner, together with informational support from family are the ones that most contribute to reduce patients’ symptoms. Resilience improves general health and functioning, and reduces symptoms. Patients’ optimism and resilience also reduce symptoms. Gender differences were found, with females showing lower quality of life than males, mainly in how they cope with cancer. Patients in the stage of treatment showed lower quality of life and higher symptoms. Such increase was observed in patients who received hormonotherapy or chemotherapy. Discussion Important practical implications can be drawn from results, which could help improve cancer patients’ quality of life through intervention strategies aimed at increasing their resilience, optimism and the social support provided by their closer sources.
... Thus, the chainmediating route of counting blessings→gratitude→BPN→SWB is reasonable. Furthermore, gratitude directly affects SWB, indicating that gratitude can also affect SWB through other variables, such as social support and prosocial behaviors (Lin, 2016;Wang & Peng, 2017). ...
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Counting blessings is one of the gratitude intervention methods to promote gratitude and subjective well-being (SWB). This study aimed to examine whether counting blessings could effectively promote SWB in prisoners and test whether the effect was mediated by gratitude and satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN). A total of 124 male prisoners wrote either grateful things or a control topic. The results demonstrated that counting blessings were associated with significant increase in gratitude, partially increases in satisfaction of BPN, and slightly increase SWB at the post-intervention assessment. Additionally, gratitude and satisfaction of BPN mediated the effect of counting blessings on SWB.
... Several studies have reported genderdifferences in terms of coping strategies (Matud, 2004;Ptacek et al., 1994). Men seem to resort to approach coping style (Gan et al., 2009), problem-focused approach (Sinha & Latha, 2018;Tolor & Fehon, 1987), rational, detachment and rumination coping style (Matud, 2004), and cognitive hardiness (Beasley et al., 2003), whereas women are found to use emotion-focused coping style (Loukzadeh & Mazloom Bafrooi, 2013;Manna et al., 2007), avoidance coping style followed by approach coping style (Gan et al., 2009), planned-breather leisure coping method (Tsaur & Tang, 2012), active coping strategies (Lin, 2016), and social support (Linnabery et al., 2014). • Community Specific Coping. ...
Article
COVID-19 is the new face of pandemic. Since the discovery of COVID-19 in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, it has spread all over the world and the numbers are increasing day by day. Anyone can be susceptible to this infection but children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with comorbidity are more vulnerable. The spread of coronavirus resulted in closures of schools, businesses, and public spaces worldwide and forced many communities to enact stay at home orders, causing stress to all irrespective of their age, gender, or socioeconomic status. The sudden and unexpected changes caused by the outbreak of coronavirus are overwhelming for both adults and children, causing stress and evoking negative emotions like fear, anxiety, and depression, among different populations. The aim of the paper is to ascertain how stress during this pandemic inculcates various psychological health issues like depression anxiety, OCD, panic behavior, and so on. Further, the paper is an attempt to identify different general as well as population specific coping strategies to reduce the stress level among individuals and prevent various stress-induced psychological disorders with reference to different theories and research articles.
... The result also chimes with Kok's model (Kok et al., 2013). This model suggests that links between physical health and positive affect are mediated by perceptions of social relationships -while gratitude can of course relate to non-human phenomena, much of gratitude is related to the characteristics, actions and affections of others (Konig & Gluck, 2014), and it is through these social aspects that gratitude impacts on well-being (Lin, 2016). A smaller, but significant, relationship to wellbeing also emerged for pain self-efficacy, which uniquely explained 1.7% and 0.81% of the variance in satisfaction with life and depression respectively. ...
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Background: Chronic back pain is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Negative mental health outcomes, such as depression and anxiety, are common in those with chronic pain. Positive Psychology Variables (PPVs) including mindfulness, gratitude, pain self-efficacy and self-compassion have variously been found to be associated with the experience of pain itself, and with mental health in those with pain. Aims: The current study sought to assess the relationships of these variables to depression and satisfaction with life in people with chronic back pain. Method: This was an online cross-sectional survey with data from 211 adults with chronic back pain living in Ireland and the UK. Results: Controlling for demographic variables, personality, and level of pain, the four PPVs collectively explained 25.2% of variance in satisfaction with life scores, and 8.8% in depression scores. Gratitude was the strongest unique predictor. Discussion: Dispositional or trait gratitude was found to be an important predictor of satisfaction with life and in depression in people with chronic back pain. Conclusion: Positive psychology variables play an important role in pain-related outcomes. Future research should evaluate the role of gratitude interventions among people with chronic back pain. Keywords: chronic pain; back pain; wellbeing; depression; gratitude; mindfulness; self-compassion; selfefficacy; positive psychology
... The coping style includes strategies to manage behaviors, emotions, and cognition in people affected by stress [49]. Coping style is differentiated between (i) emotion-focused and (ii) problem-focused styles [50]. ...
Article
Better understanding the capacity of farmers to react to the COVID-19 pandemic shock requires analyzing their coping mechanisms. This study investigates the relationship between coping style and coping behaviors with COVID-19, identifying the psychological factors affecting them based on the cognitive theory of stress. Perceived government support is added to the original model as a predictor for coping style and behavior. Cross sectional survey data was collected among farmers living in Dashtestan county of Bushehr province in southern Iran (N = 377). To determine the strength of the model, structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed. We find that demand appraisal and perceived collective efficacy have a positive, direct, and significant effect on coping style and an indirect effect on behaviors. Coping style and perceived government support are significantly related to behavior. The research model predicts 63% and 31% of variance changes in coping style and behavior, respectively. The results of this study provide empirical evidence on how people cope with the COVID-19 shock as well as useful information for designing and implementing health and social programs and policies in the agricultural communities.
... Prior studies posit that problem and emotion-focused coping methods are not mutually exclusive (Bhattacherjee et al. 2018;Marakhimov and Joo 2017). Individuals often rely on both the coping methods and use mixed adaptation strategies to deal with the event (Lin 2016). Lazarus and Folkman (1984) argue that coping method is conditioned by how the subjects discern and decipher the stressors. ...
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The current study examines students’ coping process of a forced technological intervention in academic outcome assessment in a higher education setting. A mixed-method approach was used to study 246 post-graduate students’ post-usage behaviour of electronic tablet-PC exams and examined their end-user satisfaction. This is an empirical study grounded in the Coping Model of User Adaptation (CMUA). Respondents of the study comprise of post-graduate students, who were exposed to an innovative digital device for writing descriptive exams as a substitute to the conventional paper-mode exam. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Nvivo. Findings indicate that problem-focused coping has a significant influence on end-user satisfaction, and on the contrary emotion-focused coping is insignificant among the students. The study offers insights into those institutions, which are aspiring to advance with similar interventions in academic outcome assessment. The study contributes to the literature on technostress, coping strategy, and end-user satisfaction of ICT.
... Este recurso, definido como una disposición a tener sentimientos de apreciación por la ayuda de alguien o algo que se mantiene a través de situaciones y en el tiempo, se relaciona con un mayor bienestar psicológico y subjetivo (McCullough et al., 2002). Estudios recientes sobre este recurso personal han encontrado que las personas agradecidas presentan menores niveles de estrés y desajuste, así como mayores niveles de bienestar personal (Lin, 2016;Nezlek et al., 2019). En el contexto profesional, se ha encontrado que la gratitud se relaciona positivamente con el bienestar docente (Chan, 2013) y de forma negativa con el síndrome de estar quemado por el trabajo (Lanham et al., 2012). ...
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Introducción: debido a las alarmantes tasas de abandono del profesorado novel, un creciente número de estudios han examinado los factores individuales que contribuyen a explicar los niveles de bienestar y motivación en el contexto universitario. En este sentido, la inteligencia emocional y la gratitud se han mostrado como recursos persona-les relevantes debido a sus efectos positivos sobre las actitudes académicas, el ajuste psicológico y el bienestar. Pese al número creciente de estudios sobre los beneficios inteligencia emocional y la gratitud en el contexto educativo pre-ocupacional y profe-sional, hasta ahora no se ha abordado el análisis del papel conjunto de ambos recursos como predictores del bienestar académico. Objetivo: esta investigación analiza las asociaciones directas y conjuntas de la inteligen-cia emocional y la gratitud como predictores personales del bienestar (engagement) aca-démico en una muestra de profesorado novel. Método: participaron 231 estudiantes (62,3% mujeres) del Máster en Profesorado de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria y Bachillerato, Formación Profesional y Enseñanza de Idiomas de la Universidad de Málaga. Los participantes cumplimentaron una batería con variables sociodemográficas y escalas autoinformadas de inteligencia emocional, gratitud y engagement académico. Resultados: tanto la inteligencia emocional como la gratitud se asociaron positivamen-te con los niveles de engagement académico. Además, los resultados del análisis de mode-ración mostraron un efecto de exaltación de los recursos personales, es decir, la inteli-gencia emocional no se asoció con mayor engagement académico para aquellos estudian-tes con puntuaciones bajas de gratitud. A su vez, los niveles más altos de engagement académico fueron informados por aquellos participantes con altas puntuaciones en inteligencia emocional y gratitud. Conclusiones: estos datos subrayan la importancia de incorporar una perspectiva desde el enfoque de la psicología positiva e integrar los recursos personales en la expli-cación del bienestar académico del profesorado novel. Pese a las limitaciones de este estudio relacionadas con el diseño y el uso de pruebas autoinformadas, estos resultados apuntan a la importancia de incorporar la formación en competencias emocionales y en otros recursos personales positivos como la gratitud dentro de intervenciones multifa-céticas orientadas a mejorar el bienestar en el contexto universitario de posgrado.
... Feelings of gratitude often arise when individuals perceive that they are receiving benefits and their power or influence is limited (Emmons and McCullough, 2004). Recently, studies have shown the significance of gratitude as an important personal resource for individuals (Emmons and Shelton, 2002;Snyder et al., 2014) and overall individual well-being (McCullough et al., 2002;Emmons et al., 2003;Watkins, 2014;Wood et al., 2009;Lin, 2016). Past studies have also highlighted how gratitude could act as a cushion in reducing stress and burnout at work (Lee et al., 2018) and serve as a catalyst for prosocial behaviour (Kim and Qu, 2020). ...
Article
Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gratitude and workplace friendship with affective well-being (AWB) at work amongst millennial employees. Specifically, it details the mediating effect of workplace friendship in explaining the linkages between gratitude and AWB at work.
... In contrast, lack of social support has been associated with poor emotional wellbeing, and poor quality of life and higher levels of stress, maladaptive adjustment, cancer-related exhaustion, and depressive symptoms (Drageset et al., 2012). Women living in isolation or lacking access to support particularly from close relations may develop an increased risk of mortality after their illness is diagnosed (Lin, 2016). ...
Article
One of the major global health crises in the contemporary scenario is the rapid increase in the incidence of the disease of cancer in general with breast cancer in particular affecting millions of women worldwide. The diagnosis of breast cancer provokes a series of changes in patient’s lives with social support seen as critical in facilitating women cope with the illness as well as the stress associated with it. Although breast cancer has emerged as the focus of clinical research and intervention in Kashmir, the experiences of support dynamics characterising post-diagnosis situation among such patients have been neglected. This qualitative study, thus, investigated the experiences of Kashmiri women with breast cancer regarding social support. Participants were invited for in-depth face-to-face interviews between November 2018 and March 2019 using snowball sampling technique, and the participants were recruited until data saturation was reached (n= 12). The study revealed that participants received overwhelming support (emotional, financial, practical, moral, and informational) from significant others (parents, siblings, husbands, children, extended family), important others (relatives, friends, neighbours, colleagues, peers), healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, paramedics, physician’s assistants), and religion and spirituality (religious beliefs and practices, spiritual healers, shrines) throughout their journey with breast cancer and reported varying positive outcomes as a result of the support received. Moreover, social support received provided them strength, and encouragement and instilled feeling of optimism that helped them to deal with their illness. The study further highlights a need for interventions that could address the unmet support needs thereby reducing the disturbance and sufferings experienced by women post-diagnosis.
... Subjective factors include personality characteristics, such as self-concept [74], self-acceptance [75], gratitude [53]. Meanwhile, objective factors include social relations [24], family support [76], and a positive social environment [77]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the model of the influence of family social support, gratitude, and self-acceptance on subjective well-being in student in Islamic boarding schools. The population in this study was all student of class VII in boarding school X and boarding school Y in Yogyakarta, with a total of 430 students. The sample in this study was 150 students. The sampling technique used for this study was cluster random sampling. The data were collected by using several instruments in the form of scales. The scales consisted of family social support scale, gratitude scale, self-acceptance scale, and subjective well-being scale. Data analysis was performed by testing the outer model and the inner model. The data were analyzed using structural equation model (SEM) through the Smart Partial Least Square 3.2.8 program. The results of this study suggested that the formation of a model of the influence of family social support, gratitude, and self-acceptance on subjective well-being fits with empirical data obtained. In other words, there was a significant positive correlation between all variables being studied and subjective well-being. The theoretical model formed in this study was considered fit, so it can be used as a valid model reference in investigating adolescents' subjective well-being.
... These social connections make individuals feel a high level of social support. Based on the above analysis, highly grateful individuals can experience more social support in social bonds (Chen, 2013;Froh, Yurkewicz, & Kashdan, 2009;Lin, 2016). Social support is a type of available social and emotional resources which can be used to cope with difficulties in daily life. ...
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The present research verified the relationship between gratitude and moral disgust and explored its internal mechanism based on the social norm theory for the first time. In this study, 979 participants were recruited and required to complete the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ), the Moral Disgust Questionnaire (MD), the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS), and the Connor‐Davidson Resilience Scale (CD‐RISC). Data were then analyzed via structural equation model. The results demonstrated that gratitude indirectly affects moral disgust through the chain path of social support → resilience rather than being directly mediated by social support and resilience. From the perspective of social norm theory, the current research reveals the internal mechanism between gratitude and moral disgust, which is of great significance to expand our understanding of theory and apply it to practice.
... The pathway can be explained by the broaden-and-build theory [18], which suggests that positive affective states broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires. This may help individuals to develop social bonds and enhance perceived social support [19] or engage in help-seeking behaviors. ...
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Background Work engagement is one of the most important outcomes for both employees and employers. Although the findings to date, integrated 40 intervention studies aiming to improve work engagement, consistent results have not yet been produced, suggesting the importance of further intervention studies. This study aims to investigate the effects of gratitude intervention programs focused on two important work engagement factors among Japanese workers: personal and job resources. Methods This study will be a two-arm, parallel-group cluster (organization) randomized control trial. Japanese organizations and nested employees will be recruited through the first author’s acquaintances using snowball sampling. Organizations that meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly allocated to intervention or control groups in a 1:1 ratio within the company unit. The intervention groups will be provided with a 1-month long gratitude intervention program, which aims to promote reciprocal gratitude exchanges within the same organization. The program consists of psychoeducation, gratitude lists, and behavioral gratitude expression. The control groups will not receive any intervention. The primary outcome will be work engagement measured by the Japanese version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale at baseline and after 1 (immediate post-survey), 3, and 6 months. Multilevel latent growth modeling will be conducted to examine the effectiveness of the intervention program. Discussion This study will be the first cluster randomized controlled trial applied to the investigation of gratitude intervention aimed at improving work engagement among Japanese workers; to promote reciprocal gratitude exchanges within a given organization; and to include both gratitude lists and behavioral gratitude expression. Gratitude interventions have several strengths in terms of implementation: the objectives of the exercises are easy to understand and implement; it does not require much time or expense; they tend to have lower dropout rates; and they do not require experts in psychology. Although implementation difficulties have been common in previous interventions targeting work engagement, gratitude intervention may be suitable even for workers who have limited time to devote to the tasks. Trial registration : This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR, ID=UMIN000042546): https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000048566 on November 25, 2020.
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What is the impact of dispositional gratitude on well-being? By synthesizing the literature, we evaluate the association between dispositional gratitude and mental well-being as a function of its various categories (i.e., positive, negative), dimensions (i.e., subjective, psychological), and indicators (e.g., life satisfaction, happiness, stress). Our meta-analytic aggregation of 404 effect sizes from 158 independent samples (N = 100,099) provides evidence that dispositional gratitude is moderately to strongly correlated with well-being, and that the strength of these associations varies by the indicator of well-being. We also examine potential moderators (i.e., religiosity, individualistic orientation, age, gender, dispositional gratitude measure, and sample type) of the association between dispositional gratitude and well-being. We find that country-level individualistic orientation, sample mean age, and sample type (i.e., clinical vs. non-clinical) present moderating effects for several of the relationships examined. We conclude the paper by presenting avenues for future research.
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In this article, we explore the reflexive use of emotion in understanding emerging relational rhythms in participatory video. The focus of our analysis is the Visualizing the Voices of Migrant Women Workers project, which involved a series of eight video-making workshops from February–April 2017 in Hong Kong for over 40 domestic workers, asylum seekers, and ethnic minority participants. The emotions that were key to navigating relational rhythms central to this creative space were (1) feelings of discomfort to understand relations between the workshop participants and the facilitation team, (2) gratitude to assess the ‘chemistry’ or relations between workshop participants and (3) trepidation to re-write participants' relations with the city of Hong Kong. There is an important opportunity to explore the role of emotion in analysing relational rhythms in PV practice, in order to nurture creative solidarities and create new ethical potentialities.
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Even though there is a great deal of research showing that being grateful plays an important role in maintaining one's quality of life and well-being, the mechanisms of this relationship remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the role of perceived stress and mental health in the relationship between dispositional gratitude and quality of life, both uniquely and in-sequence (a serial two-mediator model: gratitude-stress-mental health-quality of life mediation model). Three-hundred and fifteen male Iranian soldiers completed the Gratitude Questionnaire, the WHO Quality of Life Assessment, the General Health Questionnaire, and the Perceived Stress Scale. The data were analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling using the maximum likelihood estimation and Bootstrap estimation method (k = 10,000). The results indicated that perceived stress and mental health, together and uniquely, partially mediated the relationship between dispositional gratitude and quality of life. Perceived stress also mediated the relationship between gratitude and mental health. Moreover, the serial two-mediator model which was used to examine the relationship between gratitude and quality of life through perceived stress and mental health, in sequence, was supported. It can be concluded that gratitude not only has direct effects on quality of life, but also has indirect effects through perceived stress and mental health.
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Previous studies demonstrated that parenting differences between fathers and mothers may trigger family conflict, which is a risk factor for failing to develop gratitude and psychological resilience in their offspring. Gratitude has also been shown to be a protective factor for developing psychological resilience. However, little is known about the role of gratitude in parenting differences and psychological resilience. This study examined the effects of parenting differences on gratitude and psychological resilience in adolescents and the mediating role of gratitude on the relationship between parenting differences and psychological resilience. A sample of 1117 Chinese adolescents aged 11 to 19 years (mean age = 14.32; SD = 1.10) participated in this study and completed measures of parenting, gratitude, and psychological resilience. The results indicated that for the same level of parenting, compared with parenting consistency on a given parenting dimension, parenting differences on that same parenting dimension had more negative effects on gratitude and psychological resilience in adolescents. The results also revealed that gratitude mediated the relationship between parenting differences and psychological resilience in adolescents. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of the inner mechanism of parenting differences affecting psychological resilience of adolescents and provide guidance for effectively improving adolescent individual psychological resilience.
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This study proposes grateful disposition as an individual affective factor affecting service employees’ psychological well-being. Grateful disposition is the tendency to recognize and appreciate the contributions of others as positive experiences or to experience gratitude easily. To analyze the relationship between emotional dissonance and psychological well-being and the moderating effect of social support and grateful disposition, hierarchical regression analysis was used. Using convenience sampling from department store employees (n = 239) in Korea, this study found that grateful disposition as well as social support moderated the relationship between emotional dissonance and psychological well-being. This study demonstrates the importance of individual affective traits affecting psychological well-being, which were overlooked in the previous studies, and provides an opportunity to discuss grateful disposition in service marketing.
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The current study examined the nature of gratitude and future time perspective (FTP) during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the effects of age and virus worry on the associations between gratitude and remaining opportunities and time. Data came from a survey of a representative sample of Swiss adults (N = 1,008; 18–90 years) assessed during the pandemic in 2020. Local structural equation modeling (LSEM) was used to investigate the effects of continuous age and virus worry on mean-levels and correlations. While gratitude was unaffected by age and worry, the remaining opportunities and time factors of FTP decreased across age and levels of worry. The associations between gratitude and the FTP factors were invariant across age and levels of worry. Additionally, using previous cross-sectional data, the study found that associations between gratitude and future time perspective were significantly smaller during the pandemic as compared to an assessment in 2018.
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Gratitude is a crucial element of mental health and wellbeing. But the underlying mechanism by which gratitude is negatively associated with anxiety and depression has been underinvestigated. The current study aimed to examine the associations among gratitude, anxiety, and depression in Chinese adolescents, with a focus on coping flexibility as an individual factor mediating their associations. To do this, 492 middle‐school students in China were surveyed. Subsequently, a mediation model based on the broaden‐and‐build theory, transactional theory of coping, and previous studies was tested. Results demonstrated that the total effects of gratitude on both anxiety and depression were significant. Moreover, coping flexibility significantly mediated the influence of gratitude on both anxiety and depression. Therefore, improving gratitude and enhancing coping flexibility may protect Chinese adolescents from anxiety and depression.
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The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated abrupt and substantial changes in daily life, and public health strategies intended to protect physical health can negatively affect mental health and well-being, especially for individuals with pre-existing mental health challenges. For this study, we surveyed a sample of clients (N = 94) in the summer of 2020 from a community mental health clinic in the northeast United States. A mixed-methods, concurrent triangulation design was used to (a) identify client subgroups on indicators of mental health (i.e. anxious and depressive symptoms) and emotional, psychological, and social well-being using latent profile analysis (LPA), and (b) within these subgroups, examine qualitative, thematic patterns in self-described challenges, benefits and learning related to the pandemic. The LPA revealed five distinct subgroups with various levels of symptoms and well-being, including Stagnant (moderate symptoms/moderate well-being), Languishing (high symptoms/low well-being), Flourishing (low symptoms, high well-being), Fortitudinous (high symptoms, moderate well-being) and Mobilized (moderate symptoms, high well-being). These divergent subgroups support the need to conceptualise mental health symptoms apart from well-being and assess for heterogeneous constellations of such constructs among psychotherapy clients. Thematic analysis offered additional insight into pandemic experiences within each subgroup, including attention to psychological, emotional, behavioural/lifestyle, relational, physical and ecological/contextual dimensions of self-experience, as well as the ways clients had adjusted to the pandemic's circumstances. Findings support nuanced conceptualisations of positive mental health and offer insight into coping and adaptation during this public health crisis.
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The Black Lives Matter Movement is alive and growing as the media capitalizes on the killings of Black men. Amid the marches, protests, funeral services, television appearances, political rallies, and other symbolic gestures that have allowed those touched by the tragedies to express themselves emotionally, one might wonder how, in particular, the mothers of these young Black men respond, cope, and move forward with their lives. With an understanding of this type of loss, two women decided to reach out to a family in order to share in their grief and offer words of support. This article examines the letters written by Wanda Johnson, mother of Oscar Grant III, and Sybrina Fulton, mother of Trayvon Martin, to the family of Michael Brown. It seeks to uncover the rhetoric of their grief and highlight the necessity of their words as a part of the grieving and healing process.
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The most commonly used method to test an indirect effect is to divide the estimate of the indirect effect by its standard error and compare the resulting z statistic with a critical value from the standard normal distribution. Confidence limits for the indirect effect are also typically based on critical values from the standard normal distribution. This article uses a simulation study to demonstrate that confidence limits are imbalanced because the distribution of the indirect effect is normal only in special cases. Two alternatives for improving the performance of confidence limits for the indirect effect are evaluated: (a) a method based on the distribution of the product of two normal random variables, and (b) resampling methods. In Study 1, confidence limits based on the distribution of the product are more accurate than methods based on an assumed normal distribution but confidence limits are still imbalanced. Study 2 demonstrates that more accurate confidence limits are obtained using resampling methods, with the bias-corrected bootstrap the best method overall.
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Using the broaden-and-build theory, I examined whether or not gratitude can build social, cognitive, physical, and psychological resources, and whether or not gratitude induces other positive emotions that trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. I recruited participants (N = 375 undergraduates) to complete measures of the variables of interest. The results indicated that higher levels of gratitude significantly predicted increases in social support, adaptive coping abilities, and beneficial psychological outcomes (e.g., life satisfaction), as well as decreases in avoidant coping style and detrimental physical outcomes (e.g., negative emotions). Further, I found that gratitude could induce other positive emotions which partially mediated the effects of gratitude on emotional well-being. These findings provide empirical support for the idea that gratitude is, in essence, a positive emotion beneficial for positive functioning, as well as broadening and building other positive emotions, which, in turn, result in an increase in emotional well-being.
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We examined whether gratitude was correlated with distinct coping styles, and whether coping styles mediated the relationship between gratitude and well-be- ing. Participants (n = 236) completed measures of coping styles, dispositional grati- tude, and measures of well-being. Gratitude correlated positively with seeking both emotional and instrumental social support, positive reinterpretation and growth, active coping, and planning. Gratitude correlated negatively with behav- ioural disengagement, self-blame, substance use, and denial. Coping styles medi- ated up to 51% of the relationship between gratitude and stress, but did not substantially mediate the relationship between gratitude and either happiness, de- pression, or satisfaction with life. We suggest that different mechanisms relate grati- tude to separate aspects of well-being. Further research is indicated into the role of gratitude in social support processes, and in growth following adversity.
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his article reports four longitudinal field studies and one experimental study designed to shed light on the functional roles of social support within the stress and coping context. First, the enabling hypothesis is examined that assumes a facilitating effect of support on self-efficacy, which, in turn, promotes coping with the aftermath of cardiac surgery. Second, we discuss the support cultivation hypothesis that regards support as a mediator between self-efficacy and various outcomes, such as depressive mood, as illustrated by a finding on the experience of macrosocial stress during the East German transition. Third, support is highlighted as a coping resource by specifying provided partner support as a predictor of patients' coping with cancer. It was found that the direct effect of provided support on coping needs to be mediated by received support in order to become effective. Fourth, coping efforts of a target person are found to be predictive of support intentions of a potential provider. The better a victim appears to cope with various stigmas, the higher the likelihood that a significant other is willing to help. Fifth, in a dyadic study on coping with cancer, partners were found to provide high levels of support to patients, but received support was affected only at later points in time. Time-lagged partner effects may characterize resource transfer in asymmetric social situations in which only one element of the dyad is under severe stress.
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Independent of traditional risk factors, psychosocial variables such as lack of social support and depression are known to predict coronary heart disease. A study was conducted to examine the current status of these factors and their changes over time in relation to gender and age among East German migrants in a two-year follow-up study initiated shortly before the fall of the Berlin Wall. Longitudinal data were collected starting in September 1989. The second and third waves were conducted during the fall of 1990 and the fall of 1991. A total of 126 men and 109 women between ages 14 and 66 participated in all three waves. Young women reported receiving the highest social support, whereas middle-aged and older women indicated relatively low levels of support. Men of all ages reported similar levels of social support. Social support increased for both sexes during the follow-up period. Social support also predicted negative affect (depression and anxiety) and health complaints. Among women, those who related the most social support (younger women) also had the lowest levels of negative affect and health complaints. Men reported comparatively low levels of negative affect, and men who were older than 45 years indicated strikingly low levels of health complaints. Analyses predicting health complaints and depression by gender, age, and social support showed that women reporting low social support had the highest levels of depression and health complaints, whereas social support levels of men were unrelated to their depression and health complaints.
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Research programs examining psychological strengths and vulnerabilities have remained largely separate, making it difficult to determine the relative contributions of strengths and vulnerabilities to well-being. Two studies (241 normals, 54 depressed outpatients) compared certain psychological strengths (Transcendence subscales, Values In Action Inventory of Strengths) and cognitive vulnerabilities (Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale). In multiple regression, strengths usually related more to positive well-being—life satisfaction, positive affect, vitality, meaning, elevating experience—though vulnerabilities also related to the first three variables; vulnerabilities related more to illbeing— negative affect, depression—though hope, humor, enthusiasm, and forgiveness sometimes also showed relationships. Pre-treatment strengths (hope, spirituality, appreciation of beauty and excellence) predicted post-treatment recovery from depression; cognitive vulnerabilities did not. Strengths and vulnerabilities sometimes interacted, with strengths weakening the relationship between vulnerabilities and well-being. Our findings indicate that strengths and vulnerabilities are not mere opposites (correlating at most moderately) and deserve study as distinct contributors to well-being.
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The purpose of these studies was to develop a valid measure of trait gratitude, and to evaluate the relationship of gratitude to subjective well-being (SWB). Four studies were conducted evaluating the reliability and validity of the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT), a measure of dispositional gratitude. This measure was shown to have good internal consistency and temporal stability. The GRAT was shown to relate positively to various measures of SWB. In two experiments, it was shown that grateful thinking improved mood, and results also supported the predictive validity of the GRAT. These studies support the theory that gratitude is an affective trait important to SWB.
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Responds to comments by A. C. Bohart and T Greening, S. B. Shapiro, G. Bacigalupe, R. Walsh, W. C. Compton, C. L. McLafferty and J. D. Kirylo, N. Abi-Hashem, A. C. Catania, G. K. Lampropoulos, and T. M. Kelley (see records 2002-15384-010, 2002-15384-011, 2002-15384-012, 2002-15384-013, 2002-15384-014, 2002-15384-015, 2002-15384-016, 2002-15384-017, 2002-15384-018, and 2002-15384-019, respectively) on the January 2000, Vol 55(1) special issue of the American Psychologist dedicated to positive psychology. M. E. P. Seligman and M. Csikszentmihalyi expand on some of the critical themes discussed in the commentaries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present study examined how different types of social support differentially moderated the relationship between trauma history characteristics and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) following a motor vehicle accident (MVA). Two hundred thirty-five MVA victims self-reported levels of social support and trauma history, and were evaluated for PTSS 6- and 12-months post-MVA. Results indicated that after controlling for gender, injury severity and income, number of prior trauma types, and subjective responses to prior traumatization predicted subsequent PTSS (ps < .05). Appraisal social support was a significant moderator of the total number of types of trauma (appraisal: 6-months β = –.16, p < .05; 12-months β = –.17, p < .05) and subjective physical injury during the prior trauma (appraisal: 6-months β = –.14, p < .05; 12-months β = –.19, p < .05) in predicting PTSS. Results underscore the importance of examining both trauma history and social support as multidimensional constructs and suggest merit to addressing social support in trauma victims with a prior trauma history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Gratitude is conceptualized as a moral affect that is analogous to other moral emotions such as empathy and guilt. Gratitude has 3 functions that can be conceptualized as morally relevant: (a) a moral barometer function (i.e., it is a response to the perception that one has been the beneficiary of another person's moral actions); (b) a moral motive function (i.e., it motivates the grateful person to behave prosocially toward the benefactor and other people); and (c) a moral reinforcer function (i.e., when expressed, it encourages benefactors to behave morally in the future). The personality and social factors that are associated with gratitude are also consistent with a conceptualization of gratitude as an affect that is relevant to people's cognitions and behaviors in the moral domain.
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Migrants have to deal with a number of stressors, among them tenacious job search and the constitution of a new social network. Prolonged unemployment and lack of social support can result in impaired health. A sample of 235 East Germans was investigated at three times during two years following their transition to West Berlin in 1989, after the breakdown of the communist system. The majority found a job during this time and succeeded to adapt psychosocially. Those, however, who remained unemployed were worse off in terms of self-reported health. This stress—health relationship was moderated, however, by social support. Within the group of migrants who suffered from long-term joblessness, social support exerted a longitudinal buffer effect. At Wave 3, frequent physical symptoms were reported only by migrants who neither held a job nor received support. In a longitudinal causal model, the employment status affected mainly health complaints, but also social support. The relationship between health and support was found to be reciprocal over time.
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The breakdown of the former communist system in East Germany was a major critical life event for those who left that country as well as for those who stayed behind. When the borders were opened, a longitudinal study was launched to examine the psychological readaptation process. Some indicators of social changes of migrants compared to nonmigrants were available. At three points in time over 2 years, both groups reported on their social bonding and social support. Migrants readjusted well by making new friends. In particular, young men were socially active, and more same-sex than opposite-sex friendships were established. The group of young migrants reported having received the most support, in particular when they had a partner. Anticipated support, in contrast, was highest for young single women who did not migrate. Results contribute to the understanding of social dynamics that occur after a stressful relocation.
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Commonality in etiology and clinical expression plus high comorbidity between pathological gambling and substance use disorders suggest common underlying motives. It is important to understand common motivators and differentiating factors. An overarching framework of addiction was used to examine predictors of problem gambling in current electronic gaming machine (EGM) gamblers. Path analysis was used to examine the relationships between antecedent factors (stressors, coping habits, social support), gambling motivations (avoidance, accessibility, social) and gambling behavior. Three hundred and forty seven (229 females: M = 29.20 years, SD = 14.93; 118 males: M = 29.64 years, SD = 12.49) people participated. Consistent with stress, coping and addiction theory, situational life stressors and general avoidance coping were positively related to avoidance-motivated gambling. In turn, avoidance-motivated gambling was positively related to EGM gambling frequency and problems. Consistent with exposure theory, life stressors were positively related to accessibility-motivated gambling, and accessibility-motivated gambling was positively related to EGM gambling frequency and gambling problems. These findings are consistent with other addiction research and suggest avoidance-motivated gambling is part of a more generalized pattern of avoidance coping with relative accessibility to EGM gambling explaining its choice as a method of avoidance. Findings also showed social support acted as a direct protective factor in relation to gambling frequency and problems and indirectly via avoidance and accessibility gambling motivations. Finally, life stressors were positively related to socially motivated gambling but this motivation was not related to either social support or gambling behavior suggesting it has little direct influence on gambling problems.
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Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are highly prevalent and can result in a complex interplay of physical injury, disability, and emotional distress. It has been suggested that the manner in which individuals cope with pain experienced after injury may determine how much recovery of function can be achieved. Only a limited number of studies have examined this process in the context of a rehabilitation program, and to date few studies have examined both functional and quality of life outcomes in MVA recovery in a tertiary level program as a function of coping style. A sample of 96 consecutive referrals to a tertiary-level multidisciplinary functional restoration program completed physical performance measures pre- and post-treatment, as well as a standardized self-report measure of quality of life (QOL) at the same time points and 6-month follow-up. Findings suggested that improvements from pre- to post-treatment were evident on the 6-minute walk test, left and right grip strength, and most QOL measures. Increases in active coping during treatment were associated with pre- to post-treatment increases in QOL across most domains, and improvements in performance on the 6-minute walk test. Likewise, decreases in passive coping during the course of treatment were associated with improved performance on the 6-minute walk test, right-handed standing reach test, and most QOL indicators. Findings suggest that those who adopt an active approach (and avoid taking a passive approach) to rehabilitation following complex musculoskeletal injury benefit along both QOL and functional dimensions relative to those who do not.
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This review argues for the development of a Positive Clinical Psychology, which has an integrated and equally weighted focus on both positive and negative functioning in all areas of research and practice. Positive characteristics (such as gratitude, flexibility, and positive emotions) can uniquely predict disorder beyond the predictive power of the presence of negative characteristics, and buffer the impact of negative life events, potentially preventing the development of disorder. Increased study of these characteristics can rapidly expand the knowledge base of clinical psychology and utilize the promising new interventions to treat disorder through promoting the positive. Further, positive and negative characteristics cannot logically be studied or changed in isolation as (a) they interact to predict clinical outcomes, (b) characteristics are neither "positive" or "negative", with outcomes depending on specific situation and concomitant goals and motivations, and (c) positive and negative well-being often exist on the same continuum. Responding to criticisms of the Positive Psychology movement, we do not suggest the study of positive functioning as a separate field of clinical psychology, but rather that clinical psychology itself changes to become a more integrative discipline. An agenda for research and practice is proposed including reconceptualizing well-being, forming stronger collaborations with allied disciplines, rigorously evaluating the new positive interventions, and considering a role for clinical psychologists in promoting well-being as well as treating distress.
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The goal of the current study was to examine how social support and coping strategies are related in predicting emotional well-being of women with breast cancer. In achieving this goal, we examined two hypothesized models: (1) a moderation model where social support and coping strategies interact with each other in affecting psychological well-being; and (2) a mediation model where the level of social support influences choices of coping strategies between self-blame and positive reframing. In general, the data from the current study were more consistent with the mediation model than the moderation model.
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This paper presents a new model of gratitude incorporating not only the gratitude that arises following help from others but also a habitual focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life", incorporating not only the gratitude that arises following help from others, but also a habitual focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life. Research into individual differences in gratitude and well-being is reviewed, including gratitude and psychopathology, personality, relationships, health, subjective and eudemonic well-being, and humanistically orientated functioning. Gratitude is strongly related to well-being, however defined, and this link may be unique and causal. Interventions to clinically increase gratitude are critically reviewed, and concluded to be promising, although the positive psychology literature may have neglected current limitations, and a distinct research strategy is suggested. Finally, mechanisms whereby gratitude may relate to well-being are discussed, including schematic biases, coping, positive affect, and broaden-and-build principles. Gratitude is relevant to clinical psychology due to (a) strong explanatory power in understanding well-being, and (b) the potential of improving well-being through fostering gratitude with simple exercises.
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Metadata only Relationships between self-efficacy, coping and retention among first-year undergraduate students were investigated. Qualitative methods were used to develop a self-efficacy measure assessing confidence to achieve those competencies required to successfully complete the first year of an undergraduate degree. One hundred and thirty-one first-year students completed a 40-item self-efficacy questionnaire and the MCOPE (Crocker and Graham, 1995) at the start of the academic year. Factor analysis indicated a coherent 5-factor model that described self-efficacy to manage time, use learning resources, work in groups, work well in lectures, and communicate. Results indicated that the coping strategies of planning and seeking social support for instrumental purposes significantly related to more than one self-efficacy factor and that self-efficacy scores taken at the start of the course could correctly classify 81.3% of students who subsequently withdrew. Findings lend insight into the association between strategies used to cope with environmental and interpersonal demands, and self-efficacy to cope with the demands of an undergraduate degree.
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Two theories have been advanced to explain gender differences in coping. Socialization theory states that women are socialized into using less effective coping strategies than men. Role constraint theory affirms that no gender differences in coping exist when men and women occupy the same roles. Three studies, where the roles occupied by women and men were the same, were conducted to test the theories. Two of them also compared role constraint and socialization theories for social support. The results for coping did not support the socialization theory and partially supported the role constraint theory. With one exception, men and women did not differ in the ways they coped with similar role stressors. The results for social support indicated that women reported using more support than men in similar role situations. These findings suggest that higher levels of psychological disturbance among women cannot be attributed to their coping styles independent of their social roles.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
Book
This book provides clear and sometimes surprising answers to why gratitude is important to living well. The science of gratitude has shown much growth in the last ten years, and there is now sufficient evidence to suggest that gratitude is one of the most important components of the good life. Both correlational and experimental studies have provided support for the theory that gratitude enhances well-being. After providing a lucid understanding of gratitude, this volume explores the many aspects of well-being that are associated with gratitude. Moreover, experimental work has now provided promising evidence to suggest that gratitude actually causes enhancements in happiness. If gratitude promotes human flourishing, how does it do so? This issue is addressed in the second section of the book by exploring the mechanisms that might explain the gratitude/well-being relationship. This book provides an up to date account of gratitude research and suggested interesting paths for future research, all while providing a theory of gratitude that helps make this information more understandable. This book is very valuable to gratitude investigators, as well as all who are interested in pursuing this line of research, students and scholars of emotion and well-being and instructors of positive psychology courses and seminars.
Article
Gratitude, like other positive emotions, has inspired many theological and philosophical writings, but it has inspired very little vigorous, empirical research. In an effort to remedy this oversight, this book brings together prominent scientists from various disciplines to examine what has become known as the most-neglected emotion. The volume begins with the historical, philosophical, and theoretical foundations of gratitude, and then presents the current research perspectives from social, personality, and developmental psychology, as well as from primatology, anthropology, and biology. The volume also includes a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of research on gratitude. This work contributes a great deal to the growing positive psychology initiative and to the scientific investigation of positive human emotions. It will be an invaluable resource for researchers and students in social, personality, developmental, clinical, and health psychology, as well as to sociologists and cultural anthropologists.
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Whether chronic stress stems from persistent relationship difficulties, shared adversities, or personal problems, the hardships associated with it rarely stop at one person’s doorstep. Most often, chronic stress exerts widespread effects on the lives of entire families and other close intimates (Flor, Turk, & Scholz, 1987; Gottlieb, 1987; Stephens, Crowther, Hobfoll, & Tennenbaum, 1990). For many months or even years at a time, all those affected must find ways to cope. The consequences of one person’s coping generally reverberate far beyond the confines of the individual (Pearlin, 1991). The coping of one family member may facilitate, constrict, or interfere with the coping efforts of loved ones. In turn, the expectations, emotional reactions, and coping actions of loved ones may influence the individual’s appraisals and attempts to cope. Family members labor not only with their own distress but also with the distress of their loved ones. Finding ways to maintain personal well-being while simultaneously trying to address the needs of loved ones is one of the supreme challenges that people face when coping with chronic stress (Coyne & Smith, 1991; DeLongis & O’Brien, 1990).
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
Chapter
Gratitude is an acknowledgment that we have received something of value from others. It arises from a posture of openness to others, where we are able to gladly recognize their benevolence. Societies through the ages have long extolled the benefits of gratitude, and classical writings have deemed it the "greatest of the virtues." But only recently has psychological theory and research on gratitude begun to catch up with philosophical commendations. This chapter begins by reviewing research on gratitude and positive human functioning. It explores the mechanisms by which gratitude enhances well-being and considers at several explanations and evaluates the empirical evidence for each. The chapter then establishes an agenda for the future by considering some ways in which the scientific field of gratitude can be advanced.
Chapter
This chapter examines how the conscious practice of gratitude can help transform individuals' emotional lives. It evaluates previous research that indicates that gratitude has a causal influence on mood, especially positive mood. It stresses the need for a critical examination of research on gratitude and well-being and argues that the cultivation of grateful emotions might be efficacious in the treatment and prevention of depressed affect.
Chapter
This chapter examines the feeling of being grateful. It suggests feeling grateful is similar to other positive emotions that help build a person's enduring personal resources and broaden an individual's thinking. It describes various ways by which gratitude can transform individuals, organizations, and communities in positive and sustaining ways. It discusses the specific benefits of gratitude including personal and social development, community strength and individual health and well-being.
Article
Gratitude is an emotional state and an attitude toward life that is a source of human strength in enhancing one's personal and relational well-being. In this article, we first explore the theological origins of gratitude as a virtue to be cultivated in the major monotheistic traditions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Each tradition emphasizes the development of gratitude as a path to a good life, and prescribes approaches for practicing. Gratitude is explored further in the context of psychological theory and research. Empirical research linking gratitude with well-being and goal attainment is presented and discussed. Finally, future research questions and a tentative research agenda are presented.
Article
This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem‐focused coping, and well‐being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well‐being. Next, the students' problem‐focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3‐way interaction of stress, social support, and avoidant coping revealed that only frequent use of avoidant coping accelerated the association between stress and well‐being in a negative way at both low and high support.
Chapter
This chapter explores the philosophical and theological foundations of gratitude. It examines the place of gratitude in the history of ideas, focusing primarily on the influential writings of philosopher and economist Adam Smith. It provides a scholarly overview of several other philosophers for whom gratitude was central in their thinking, including Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel Pufendorf and evaluates the importance of gratitude in civic society.
Article
In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
Article
This chapter reviews the scientific research on subjective well-being. Subjective well-being consists of a person's cognitive and affective evaluations of his or her life. First, the authors will provide a brief historical review of research on subjective well-being. Second, they will summarize the main measurement issues (e.g., the validity of self-reports, memory bias). Third, they will present the major theoretical approaches to this area of research (e.g., need and goal satisfaction theories, process or activity theories, genetic and personality predisposition theories). Finally, the authors will review current findings (e.g., hedonic adaptation, the effect of intervention, cultural variation) and suggest future directions for the study of subjective well-being.
Article
This longitudinal study assessed both the mobilization and deterioration dynamics of postdisaster social support and aid unfolding within the first 12 months after a natural disaster. These were the predictor variables hypothesized to influence various subsequent manifestations of survivors' social psychological well-being such as perceptions of social support and community cohesion, engagement in interpersonal contacts, and beliefs about mutual helpfulness and benevolence. Data came from a sample of 285 respondents who experienced a severe flood that devastated parts of southwestern Poland in 1997. A series of hierarchical regression analyses that controlled for the influence of sociodemographic factors and direct disaster exposure measures showed that a greater involvement in the instantaneous postdisaster altruistic communities (mainly the amount of social support received) was associated with more favorable appraisals of interpersonal and community relationships assessed 20 months after the flood. Conversely, the indicators of postdisaster social bitterness, operationalized as dissatisfaction with aid and interpersonal and community animosities and disagreements, were predictive of lower levels of subsequent social psychological well-being. Results underscore the relevance of both the social support mobilization and social support deterioration models for trauma theory. These findings also suggest that postdisaster relief and intervention programs should consider helping survivors maintain, or even augment, their perceptions of being supported and their trust in benefits of belonging to a valued social group and community. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Perhaps beginning with Cicero, who called gratitude "the parent of the virtues," scholars in the humanities have associated gratitude with morality and prosocial behavior. The limited amount of social scientific research on gratitude that has accumulated over the last century demonstrates these assertions to be generally accurate, with some qualifications. The emotion of gratitude functions as a moral barometer, a moral motive, and (when people express their grateful emotions in words or actions) a moral reinforcer. Furthermore, we hypothesized that, because gratitude is so closely tied to moral and prosocial behaviors, personality differences in gratitude would be positively associated with traits that facilitate interpersonal relations, and negatively associated with traits that interfere with maintaining stable, positive relationships (see Roberts, chap. 4, this volume, for details on the distinction between emotional and dispositional gratitude). In this chapter, we elaborate on each of these hypotheses and briefly describe the strength of supporting research evidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Social support is a construct with multiple dimensions that can be approached at multiple levels. Findings from a variety of disciplines and recognition of its bidirectional nature can help map the construct. Bidirectionality is a process that requires attention to moderators, such as, gender, cultural change, and personal development, together with the relationship between the receiver and the provider of support. Both close personal ties and weaker ones that often are part of community involve­ ment need to be taken into account in order to map the con­ struct comprehensively. KEY WORDS: social support· close relationships· community support· support providers Since Darwin, the contribution of social embeddedness to survival has been widely recognized. Today many disciplines see the value of a better under­ standing of why and in what ways people are important to people and the mechanisms involved in social relationships. Two articles published in 1976 put the spotlight on the help and support social ties provide. Cassell (1976) and Cobb (1976), building upon clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological evidence, directed attention to individuals whose social ties are limited and/ or noxious. Both noted that these people appeared to get sick more often than those with more rewarding interpersonal relationships and speculated that social deficiencies contribute to stress, that in turn, gets in the way of health maintenance. They described interpersonal provisions that offer the individual love, interest, liking, caring, and a willingness to help should it be needed. Both noted that these provisions had the power to influence an individual's self-concept, attitudes, and behavior.
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.