Running head: POSTCOITAL DYSPHORIA
Postcoital Dysphoria: Prevalence and Psychological Correlates
Robert D Schweitzer PhD1, Jessica O’Brien MA (Clin Psy)1, Andrea Burri PhD2
1 School of Psychology and Counselling, Queensland University of Technology, Australia
2 Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Submission: Sexual Medicine
School of Psychology and Counselling
Queensland University of Technology
Victoria Park Road
Qld 4059, Australia
Phone: 07 3870 9596
AB reports an Ambizione personal career fellowship from the Swiss National Science
While problems related to desire, arousal and orgasm have been subject to extensive
epidemiologic research, women’s post-coital reactions and feelings, and postcoital dysphoria
(PCD) remains under-researched.
The study examined the association between women’s attachment anxiety and avoidance,
differentiation of self and the experience of postcoital dysphoria (PCD) symptoms.
Two hundred and thirty female university students completed an online survey.
Main Outcome Measures
The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale
(ECRS), the Differentiation of Self Inventory – Revised, and study specific questions.
Forty-six percent of respondents reported experiencing PCD symptoms at least once in their
lifetime with 5.1% experiencing PCD symptoms a few times within the past four weeks. A
small but significant inverse correlation was found between lifetime prevalence of PCD and
sexual functioning (r=-.16). While the regression model accounted for 22% of variance in
lifetime prevalence of PCD, attachment and differentiation of self variables did not account
for significant variance.
The findings confirm that PCD is under recognized and under researched. There appears to
be no relationship between PCD and intimacy in close relationships. Further research is
necessary to understand the subjective experience of PCD and to inform the development of a
Key words: Postcoital dysphoria, sexual problems, FSD, attachment, anxiety,
differentiation of self
Postcoital Dysphoria: Prevalence and Psychological Correlates
The umbrella term of female sexual dysfunctions (FSD) primarily relates to desire,
arousal, orgasm, and pain and, as such, describes feelings and functions occurring prior to or
during sexual activities . Little attention has been given to physiological or emotional
expressions and disturbances occurring post-coitally . A very limited number of recent
studies have drawn attention to a previously poorly recognized phenomenon known as
postcoital dysphoria (PCD), or ‘post-sex blues’ . PCD is the experience of negative affect
characterized by tearfulness, a sense of melancholy or depression, anxiety, agitation or
aggression following sexual intercourse .
Research on the occurrence of PCD symptoms is severely lacking. Bird et al. 
reported that 32.9% of the women in their sample had experienced PCD symptoms in their
lifetime. A study by Burri and Spector  investigated the experience of post-coital
psychological symptoms such as irritability and motiveless crying after sexual intercourse
and/or orgasm in a sample of 1489 female twins in the United Kingdom. They report 7.7%
of women reported experiencing these symptoms persistently and 3.7% of women reported
recent experience of these symptoms. The underlying causes of PCD remain unknown,
although it is speculated that the etiology is multifactorial, with psychological and affective
factors accounting for a large proportion of PCD expression. The genesis of PCD symptoms
may be understood within a broader non-linear model of female sexual functioning provided
by Basson . The model incorporates emotional intimacy, sexual stimuli, and relationship
satisfaction. Basson  suggests that, for most women, their motivation to engage in sexual
activity stems from desire to enhance intimacy with their partner [6-9] as well as to
experience physical pleasure . Therefore, according to Basson  there are two primary
goals of sex: to enhance intimacy with one’s partner and achieve sexual satisfaction.
In seeking to gain a better understanding of the post coital experience in women, is
crucial to gain further understanding on how and to what extent women’s sexual motivation
and therefore functioning is influenced by the need to develop, maintain or enhance intimacy
with one’s partner. Two components of intimacy relate to the role of attachment, and to
differentiation of self, in women’s sexual functioning [4,10]. Attachment and differentiation
of self are postulated to dictate how women manage intimacy in significant relationships
. Differentiation of self relates to one’s ability to balance intimacy and autonomy in
relationships, as well as the ability to separate emotions from rational thinking . Each of
these constructs may be expressed intra-personally and inter-personally. Burri and colleagues
, for example, found the relational variables of attachment avoidance and, to a lesser
degree, attachment anxiety to be associated with FSD, with the inability to maintain a sense
of self in the presence of intimate others being the strongest predictors of sexual problems
. Similarly, attachment avoidance and insecurity, and fear of loss of sense of self may
contribute to post coital dysphoria.
The first objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of PCD in a sample of female
university students and to determine whether PCD is related to overall sexual functioning.
We hypothesized that lifelong PCD would be fairly common and related to respondents’
overall sexual functioning. The second objective of the study was to identify potential
relational factors associated with PCD by examining the association between respondents’
attachment anxiety and avoidance, and the degree of differentiation of self, and the
experience of PCD symptoms. Here, we hypothesized that respondents with higher degrees
of attachment avoidance and anxiety and with lower levels of differentiation would show
Study data was collected using a cross-sectional online questionnaire. A convenience
sample of female students was recruited by an advertisement that was circulated via email at
Australian universities and on Facebook. To be included in the study women had to be over
the age of 18 and have reported being sexually active. Data collection was conducted over
approximately 6 months from May to November, 2012. Compensation was not provided to
participants. Of the n=300 women who began the questionnaire, only n=231 completed it
resulting in a completion rate of 77%. Furthermore, previous research has reported
significant differences in the prevalence of sexual difficulties between women in same-sex
relationships and women in opposite-sex relationships . Therefore, individuals
identifying as bi- or homosexual were excluded from correlation and regression analyses
(resulting in a total sample of n=195).
The questionnaire was constructed using online survey software, Key Survey, and
data was hosted by a secure University-based server. Participants were notified that their
consent to participate would be inferred by their decision to click the ‘Next’ button. No
identifying information was obtained. Ethics approval was obtained from the University
Human Research Ethics Committee (Approval Number 1100001497).
Main Outcome Measures
Demographic and background information such as age, level of education, sexual orientation,
current relationship status, relationship duration, and number of children was collected using
study-specific, self-constructed questions.
The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI)  was used to assess female sexual
functioning. The FSFI consists of 19 items tapping into the six domains of desire, arousal,
lubrication, orgasm, pain, and sexual satisfaction. Responses were recorded on a Likert-type
rating scale which included an option to indicate that no sexual activity was attempted. The
total FSFI score is indicative of overall sexual functioning with lower scores indicating lower
Two additional items that address the lifetime and four-week prevalence of PCD were
included following the FSFI. These items were adapted from Bird et al.’s study . Items
were: “Have there been any times in your life where inexplicable tearfulness or sadness
following consensual sexual intercourse was a problem for you?” and “Have there been any
times in the past four weeks where inexplicable tearfulness or sadness following consensual
sexual intercourse was a problem for you?”. Responses were coded similarly to the FSFI.
The short form of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR-SF) [15,16] is a
12-item self-report measure of adult attachment. The scale is composed of two dimensions:
attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. The anxiety subscale reflects fear of
abandonment and the intense desire to merge with the other. The avoidance subscale reflects
discomfort with intimacy in close relationships. Responses to all items were recorded on a
seven-point Likert-type rating scale that ranges from “1 = Disagree strongly” to “7 = Agree
strongly”. Across six studies, Wei et al.  found internal reliability coefficients ranging
from .77 to .86 and for the anxiety subscale from .78 to .88.
The Differentiation of Self Inventory – Revised (DSI-R) [17,18] is a measure of the
degree to which an individual is able to balance autonomy and intimacy in close
relationships, as well as the ability to balance rational and emotional reasoning. The
inventory contains 46 items and yields four subscale scores as well as an overall score. The
four subscales include emotional reactivity (i.e., tendency to respond too emotionally to one’s
environment), ‘I’ position (i.e., the ability to maintain a clearly defined sense of self),
emotional cutoff, (i.e., fear of intimacy) and fusion with others (i.e., the tendency to be over-
involved in significant relationships). Responses to all items were coded on a six-point
Likert-type scale ranging from “1 = Not very true of me” to “6 = Very true of me” .
Subscale scores were then summed to provide a total score. Higher scores indicate greater
differentiation whereas lower scores indicate poor differentiation. Skowron and Schmitt 
found adequate internal reliability for the full scale and each subscale: DSI-R = .92,
emotional reactivity = .89, ‘I’ position = .81, emotional cutoff = .82, and fusion with others
Psychological Distress. The K6  was used to screen for mental illness among
participants. The K6 consists of 6 items that assess cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and
physical symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders. Responses were coded on a five-point
Likert-type scale ranging from “1 = None of the time” to “5 = All of the time”. A
Cronbach’s α of .89 has been found previously for the K6 .
To control for the association between sexual functioning and sexual abuse (e.g.,
), two items adapted from Bird et al.  were included to identify individuals with a
history of sexual abuse. Responses were coded as either “Yes” or “No”.
Data handling and all statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS and Predictive
Analysis Software (PASW) Statistics Version 17.0 for PC. For all analyses, a P value less
than .05 was considered statistically significant. Assumptions of normality were assessed
with the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Internal reliability of each scale was calculated using
Cronbach’s α. All scales were found to have good internal reliability; however, both PCD
items and the attachment avoidance subscale of the ECR-SF were found to be skewed and
were subsequently transformed using a logarithmic transformation.
Sample characteristics and variables of interest were reported on the basis of means
and standard deviations or numbers and percentages, as appropriate. To investigate the
relationship between the variables, a set of correlation and regression analyses were used,
including Spearman correlation (rho) between categorical and continuous variables ,
Pearson correlation (r), and linear regression for continuous variables.
Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess whether
attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and differentiation of self predict prevalence of
PCD symptoms. The data were analyzed using the Predictive Analysis Software (PASW)
Statistics Version 17.0 for PC. Since only a small percentage (5.1%) of women indicated that
they experienced PCD symptoms within the past four weeks, only lifetime prevalence of
PCD symptoms was used in multiple regression analyses. Also, differentiation of self,
attachment, as well as previous experience of abuse represent more enduring factors and it is
therefore reasonable to investigate their association with lifelong PCD symptoms as opposed
to short-term symptoms, where other factors might contribute to symptom expression. As a
precaution, history of sexual abuse and psychological distress were entered into the first
block of the hierarchical multiple regression models as confounders. Although age was not
correlated with lifetime prevalence of PCD symptoms, it was possible that age remained a
potential confound due to its previously demonstrated association with sexual difficulties .
As a check, the multiple regression analyses were run with and without age included at block
one. The inclusion of age did not significantly affect the output and therefore was left out of
the analysis. FSFI was entered in the first block; the two primary predictors of attachment
and differentiation of self were entered in two separate blocks. As differentiation of self has
a broader theoretical scope than attachment, it was entered in the final block within the
following multiple regression analyses to determine whether it accounted for more variance
A breakdown of the sample demographics is provided in Table 1. The mean age of women
was 25.9 (SD 8.15). Key differences were noted between the heterosexual and the non-
heterosexual group, particularly in the association between a history of sexual abuse, either as
a child or an adult, and the experience of PCD, both across the lifetime and within the past
four weeks. Therefore, individuals identifying as bi- or homosexual were excluded from
correlation and regression analyses (resulting in a total sample of n=195). Table 2 shows the
descriptive statistics and the internal reliability of each scale used to assess sexuality-related
and psychological variables of interest.
Prevalence of PCD and Correlation with Psychological and Sexuality-Related Variables
Table 3 presents the prevalence of PCD symptoms in the sample. Symptoms of PCD
in the past four weeks were reported by around 5% of women, whereas lifetime PCD
symptoms were more common, being reported by 46.2% of women (figures relating to a “few
times” to “almost always or always”). Only 2% of women reported experiencing symptoms
of PCD “always” or “most of the time”.
To determine which variables needed to be included in the regression model, analysis
of correlations between all key variables was conducted (see Table 4). There was a weak
albeit statistically significant correlation (r = - .16, p = .02) between the total FSFI score and
lifetime prevalence of PCD (but not recent PCD) symptoms, suggesting that sexual
difficulties are mildly associated with higher incidence of lifetime PCD symptoms.
Age and relationship duration was not correlated with female sexual functioning or
PCD symptoms. Sexual abuse as a child and an adult positively correlated with PCD
symptoms (r=23, p<0.01 for childhood and r=0.15, p<0.05 for adulthood abuse). Only sexual
abuse as an adult was associated with FSFI such that those who experienced abuse were more
likely to report overall sexual difficulties. Psychological distress as measured by the K6 was
associated with both sexual functioning (r=0.25, p<0.01) and PCD (r=0.33 and r=0.16,
respectively). Table 4 also shows significant correlations between the predictors. This was
expected given that they are similar constructs.
Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analyses
Table 5 contains the statistics for the hierarchical regression model with PCD
symptoms as the criterion. The overall model was significant and accounted for 22% of the
variance. At block one, all predictors accounted for approximately 17% of the variance, with
childhood sexual abuse accounting for 4% of unique variance, β=0.20, t=3.04, p=0.003, sr² =
0.04. At block two, there was a non-significant increase in accounted variance with the
addition of attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance into the model. None of the factors,
however, contributed significantly to the overall accounted variance. At block three, an
additional 4% of variance was accounted for, with a statistically significant effect of
emotional reactivity, accounting for approximately 2% unique variance in the final model.
Overall, there was 16% shared variance.
Overall, women’s experience of the resolution phase, and PCD in particular, remains under-
recognized and under-researched. The present study reports occurrence of lifelong and
current PCD symptoms and is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to investigate
attachment and differentiation of self as potential risk factors in the etiology of PCD.
Approximately 46.2% of the current sample reported that they had experienced PCD
symptoms at least once in their lifetime. In regards to the past four weeks, 5.1% of the
sample reported experiencing PCD symptoms. Although the rates are somewhat comparable
to the estimates reported by Bird and colleagues (32.9% at least once in their lifetime and
9.5% within the past four weeks) , they are much higher than those found in Burri and
Spector’s study (3.7% in the past four weeks and 7.7% lifetime) . Dissimilar assessment
methods, as well as differing sample characteristics (i.e. mean age) might be the reason for
these huge discrepancies in prevalence rates. Nevertheless, these and Bird’s  relatively
high rates highlight the crucial need for further research into PCD and post-coital phase,
particularly for women.
The study further examined PCD by investigating whether women’s experience of
PCD symptoms was related to their self-reported overall sexual functioning. Based on
previous research  it was hypothesized that PCD symptoms would mildly correlate with
overall sexual functioning. This hypothesis was partially supported as a weak link was found
between lifelong PCD symptoms and overall sexual functioning. Contrary to Bird’s study
, however, no significant relationship could be detected between the experience of PCD in
the past 4 weeks and overall sexual functioning. Insufficient power might provide an
explanation for these findings, as only 5.1% of the sample reported experiencing PCD four
weeks prior to completing the questionnaire. Alternatively, it could also mean that PCD
symptoms might not necessarily be related to overall sexual functioning and could occur
despite or following ‘normal’ physiological functioning. This potential explanation provides
further support to Burri and Spector’s  supposition that the underlying cause of PCD
symptoms may be due to multiple biopsychosocial factors. In their twin study, genetics were
found to account for approximately 26% to 28% of variance in the experience of post-coital
psychological symptoms such as irritability and motiveless crying . While these results
suggest there is a genetic component to post-coital psychological symptoms, a large
proportion of variance remained unaccounted for. Burri and Spector  therefore proposed
that factors such as relationship satisfaction and history of sexual abuse may be more
predictive of post-coital symptoms. In accordance with this conclusion, a history of
childhood sexual abuse appeared to be the most important predictor of PCD accounting for
5% unique variance in the present study. This finding is also consistent with Bird et al.’s 
multiple regression analyses where history of childhood abuse explained approximately 4.1%
of the unique variance . The results are further in line with findings from Burri and
Spector  who reported significant associations not only between sexual abuse and
symptoms of PCD but also of physical and emotional abuse. Several possible explanations
regarding these associations are feasible. Previous experience of abuse can lead to the
development of emotional and/or psychological problems including anxiety about sexual
contacts which again might impact on women’s long-term sexual functioning and behavior.
It is further plausible that women with an abusive history may be more prone to enter
relationships in which they do not always feel in control of their experience, or assertive
about their wants/needs, and perhaps may be prone to resentment . Accordingly, we also
found a significant association between adulthood sexual abuse and attachment avoidance.
Other previously reported risk factors of sexual problems, such as age, were also
investigated. Although age is commonly seen as a predictor for sexual problems, evidence
suggests that age cannot be regarded a global risk factor for impaired sexual functioning .
Although several studies have consistently reported a decrease in libido and subjective and
genital arousal, other domains such as overall sexual satisfaction may even improve.
Accordingly, we did not find any significant association between age and PCD or overall
sexual functioning in our study.
Statistically significant, albeit small to moderate, correlations provided some evidence
for an association between attachment, differentiation of self and experience of PCD, with
higher levels of attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance, greater emotional reactivity,
and greater difficulty maintaining an ‘I’ position being associated with the experience of PCD
symptoms. When assessing the four-week prevalence, however, only emotional reactivity,
‘I’ Position and fusion with others were significantly correlated with PCD symptoms.
Results could only partially be replicated in the hierarchical regression analyses. While
attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance did not predict experience of PCD symptoms
across lifetime, a significant contribution of emotional reactivity could be detected. As this is
the first study to investigate differentiation of self and the experience of PCD symptoms,
potential explanations of significant correlations are based solely on Bowen’s theoretical
framework  and should be treated tentatively. According to Bowen , differentiation
of self represents a critical determinant of well-being, as poor differentiation is thought to
lead to psychological and physical distress. A number of studies have demonstrated the
association between differentiation of self and psychological distress and found that
differentiation of self was highly predictive of self-reported life satisfaction [17,23]. There is
little evidence available in the literature which assessed the relationship between
differentiation of self and sexual functioning. This is intriguing as a large part of marital and
sex therapy draws on Bowen theory as a foundation for its practice . Schnarch , for
example, argues that greater differentiation of self in intimate relationships leads to increased
intimacy and greater sexual satisfaction by allowing for greater sexual communication
without being overwhelmed by anxiety. Those with lower differentiation may be more
anxious about ‘losing one’s self’ or control during sexual intercourse, thus resulting in sexual
problems. Schnarch  further argues that if partners can increase their differentiation by
developing an intimate connection without fear of losing their sense of self, their relationship
and sexual satisfaction will be enhanced.
In our study, individuals who have difficulty maintaining an ‘I’ position and are more
emotionally reactive were more likely to report symptoms of PCD. In the period following
sexual intercourse, individuals who are emotionally reactive may be more sensitive or
vulnerable to negative emotions, resulting in an acute period of depression or irritability.
Those who have a tendency to become fused with others may perceive the resolution phase of
sexual intercourse as a separation from their partner, which may be overwhelming. However,
differentiation of self did not account for significant variance in the overall regression model
which suggests that the explanation for PCD symptoms may lie elsewhere. Therefore, further
exploration of PCD and the potential biopsychosocial risk factors is greatly needed.
Several limitations are noted. Firstly, this study utilized a non-clinical convenience
sample of heterosexual and mostly Caucasian women attending university thus restricting the
generalizability of the study’s findings. Studies using general populations are needed for
greater generalizability of the findings to women. Additionally, the inclusion of non-
heterosexual women is needed to contribute to greater external validity. Secondly, due to the
lack of reliable and validated measures of PCD, the prevalence rates established in this study
need to be treated with caution. To assist future research in sexual functioning, a reliable
measure of the resolution phase with a particular focus on the psychological symptoms of
PCD needs to be developed. Reference may also be made to a broader definition of PCD, as
suggested by Sadock and Sadock  which includes anxiety and agitation in their description
of PCD. However, the question used to assess PCD occurrence in the present study is
comparable to the one used by Bird and colleagues  and Burri and Spector . Third, due
to the retrospective nature of self-report measures, data can be inaccurate due to poor recall or
socially desirable answers . Finally, no information on clinical and sub-clinical
depressive status of the women was available. Mental illness, including depressive
symptoms, were, however, assessed with the K6 and taken into account in all analyses.
Future research may extend upon the current study by taking account of the duration and
quality of relationships.
Overall, our results support the notion that PCD symptoms are prevalent in the general
population and that they can occur in spite of an otherwise physiologically functional sexual
experience. Lifetime prevalence of PCD suggest that differentiation of self is a stronger
predictor of PCD symptoms than attachment. The significant bivariate correlations warrant
the need for further exploration of the concepts which could have clinical implications and
may inform future prevention and educational strategies aiming at promoting sexual health.
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Demographics and Background Information of the overall sample (n = 230)
Variable M SD Range
Age in years 25.88 8.15 18-55
Middle Eastern 0.4
Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander 0.4
Country of residence
Did not respond 1.3
Highest level of education
High school 30.4
Tertiary qualification 53.0
Post graduate qualification 16.5
Living together 33.9
Not currently in a relationship 17.0
Less than 3 months 4.3
Less than 6 months 4.3
Less than 1 year 8.7
Less than 2 years 14.8
Less than 5 years 24.8
Greater than 5 years 26.1
Experienced childhood sexual abuse 20.4
Experienced adult sexual abuse 20.4
Descriptive statistics and internal reliability of sexuality-related and psychological variables
(n = 195)
Variable Mean (SD) Score Range Skewness Cronbach’s α
PCD 4 weeks - - 2.27 -
PCD Lifetime - - 1.44 -
Total FSFI 23.28 (5.11) 2.80 – 32.00 -1.35 0.91
Anxiety 21.00 (7.54) 8.00 – 42.00 .56 0.81
Avoidance 13.33 (6.70) 6.00 - 37.00 1.10 0.85
Emotional Reactivity 3.21 (1.01) 1.00 – 5.64 .02 0.89
I Position 4.01 (.80) 1.73 – 5.82 -.36 0.82
Emotional Cut-off 4.58 (.91) 2.00 – 6.00 -.55 0.86
Fusion 3.39 (.80) 1.50 – 5.67 .27 0.77
K6 6.45 (4.30) 0.00 - 21.00 .95 0.85
Prevalence of Postcoital Dysphoria (PCD) (n = 195)
Percentage (%) of sample experiencing PCD
Frequency of PCD after intercourse Over four weeks Over lifetime
Did not attempt intercourse 7.2 -
Almost never or never 87.7 53.8
A few times (less than half) 3.1 37.9
Sometimes (about half the time) 1.5 6.2
Most times (more than half the time) 0.5 1.5
Almost always or always 0.0 0.5
Correlation matrix of sexuality-related and psychological variables
Anx ER IP EC FO
Age - .37** .17* .19** -.04 .13 .05 -.06 -.11 -.19** .13 .13 .08 .30**
Duration - .11 .01 -.11 -.01 .07 .14 -.56** -.37** .10 -.04 .36** .16*
Sexual Abuse (C) - .13 .07 .23** -.01 .05 -.04 .01 -.04 .05 -.11 -.01
Sexual Abuse (A) - .14 .15* -.01 -.15* .15* .021 -.06 -.05 -.27** -.04
K6 - .33** .16* -.25** .33** .44** -.57** -.47** -.48**
PCD Life - .35** -.16* .19** .24** -.35** -.27** -.24**
PCD 4weeks - .12 .05 .06 -.18* -.21** -.03 -.16*
FSFI - -.36** -.22** -.11 .29** .40** .21**
Attach Avoid - .33** -.14 -.14 -.74** -.101
Attach Anx - -.65** -.48** -.35**
ER - .68** .30** .61**
IP - .25** .51**
EC - .28**
*p < .05, **p < .01, ***p ≤ .001
Abbreviations FSFI = Female Sexual Function Index, PCD = Post Coital Dysphoria, Differentiation of Self Inventory comprises four
subscales: ER = Emotional Reactivity, IP= ‘I’ Position, EC = Emotional Cutoff, FO = Fusion with Others subscale.
Hierarchical multiple regression model with PCD lifetime as the criterion
Predictors R² R²ch Fch df β sr²
Block 1 0.17*** 0.17 9.39 4, 190
Sexual Abuse 0.22*** 0.04
Abuse 0.07 0.01
Distress 0.12 0.01
FSFI -0.08 0.00
Block 2 0.18*** 0.01 1.56 2, 188
Anxiety -0.04 0.00
Avoidance 0.14 0.01
Block 3 0.22*** 0.04 2.19 4, 184
Reactivity -0.27* 0.02
I Position -0.05 0.00
Cut-off 0.07 0.00
Fusion 0.04 0.00
*p < .05, **p < .01, ***p ≤ .001