ArticlePDF Available

Employability in the 21st Century: Complex (Interactive) Problem Solving and Other Essential Skills

Authors:

Abstract

Neubert, Mainert, Kretzschmar, and Greiff (2015) plea to integrate the 21st century skills of complex problem solving (CPS) and collaborative problem solving (ColPS) in the assessment and development suite of industrial and organizational (I-O) psychologists, given the expected increase in nonroutine and interactive tasks in the new workplace. At the same time, they promote new ways of assessing these skills using computer-based microworlds, enabling the systematic variation of problem features in assessment. Neubert and colleagues’ (2015) suggestions are a valuable step in connecting differential psychologists’ models of human differences and functioning with human resources professionals’ interest in understanding and predicting behavior at work. We concur that CPS and ColPS are important transversal skills, useful for I-O psychologists, but these are only two babies of a single family, and the domain of 21st century skills includes other families of a different kind that are also with utility for I-O psychologists. The current contribution is meant to broaden this interesting discussion in two important ways. We clarify that CPS and ColPS need to be considered in the context of a wider set of 21st century skills with an origin in the education domain, and we highlight a number of crucial steps that still need to be taken before “getting started” (Neubert et al., 2015, p. last page of the discussion) with this taxonomic framework. But first, we feel the need to slightly reframe the relevance of considering 21st century skills in I-O psychology by shifting the attention from narrow task-related skills to the broader domain of career management competencies.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
http://journals.cambridge.org/IOP
Additional services for Industrial and Organizational
Psychology:
Email alerts: Click here
Subscriptions: Click here
Commercial reprints: Click here
Terms of use : Click here
Employability in the 21st Century: Complex (Interactive)
Problem Solving and Other Essential Skills
Filip De Fruyt, Bart Wille and Oliver P. John
Industrial and Organizational Psychology / Volume 8 / Issue 02 / June 2015, pp 276 - 281
DOI: 10.1017/iop.2015.33, Published online: 28 July 2015
Link to this article: http://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S1754942615000334
How to cite this article:
Filip De Fruyt, Bart Wille and Oliver P. John (2015). Employability in the 21st Century: Complex
(Interactive) Problem Solving and Other Essential Skills. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 8,
pp 276-281 doi:10.1017/iop.2015.33
Request Permissions : Click here
Downloaded from http://journals.cambridge.org/IOP, IP address: 151.80.35.146 on 25 Sep 2015
276     .
Rose, M., Drogan, O., Spencer, E., Rupprecht, E., Singla, N., McCune, E., & Rotolo, C. (2014).
I-O psychology and SIOP brand awareness among business professionals, HR profes-
sionals, faculty members, and college students. Industrial and Organizational Psychol-
ogy: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 52(1), 154–162.
Ryan, A. M. (2003). Dening ourselves: I-O psychology’s identity quest. The Industrial–
Organizational Psychologist, 41(1), 21–33.
Ryan, A. M., & Ford, J. K. (2010). Organizational psychology and the tipping point of pro-
fessional identity. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and
Practice, 3(3), 241–258.
Shotter, J., & Tsoukas, H. (2013). In search of phronesis: Leadership and the art of judgment.
Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13(2), 224–243.
Slaughter, J. E., Christian, M. S., Podsako, N. P., Sinar, E. F., & Lievens, F. (2014). On the
limitations of using situational judgment tests to measure interpersonal skills: The
moderating inuence of employee anger. Personnel Psychology, 67(4), 847–886.
Snow, S. (2014). Smartcuts: How hackers, innovators, and icons accelerate success.NewYork,
NY: HarperCollins.
Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. (2013). Humanitarian work psychol-
ogy: Concepts to contributions [White paper]. Retrieved from http://www.siop.org/
WhitePapers
Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. (n.d.). Mission statement.Retrieved
from http://www.siop.org/mission.aspx
Employability in the 21st Century: Complex
(Interactive) Problem Solving and Other Essential
Skills
Filip De Fruyt and Bart Wille
Ghent University
Oliver P. John
University of California, Berkeley
Neubert, Mainert, Kretzschmar, and Grei (2015) plea to integrate the 21st
century skills of complex problem solving (CPS) and collaborative problem
solving (ColPS) in the assessment and development suite of industrial and
organizational (I-O) psychologists, given the expected increase in nonrou-
tine and interactive tasks in the new workplace. At the same time, they pro-
motenewwaysofassessingtheseskillsusingcomputer-basedmicroworlds,
enabling the systematic variation of problem features in assessment. Neubert
and colleagues’ (2015) suggestions are a valuable step in connecting dieren-
Filip De Fruyt and Bart Wille, Department of Developmental, Personality and Social Psy-
chology, Ghent University; Oliver P. John, Department of Psychology and Institute of Social
and Personality Research, University of California, Berkeley.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Filip De Fruyt, Depart-
ment of Developmental, Personality and Social Psychology, Ghent University, H. Dunantlaan
2, B-9000 Gent, Belgium. E-mail: lip.defruyt@ugent.be
  21   277
tial psychologists’ models of human dierences and functioning with human
resources professionals’ interest in understanding and predicting behavior at
work. We concur that CPS and ColPS are important transversal skills, use-
ful for I-O psychologists, but these are only two babies of a single family,
and the domain of 21st century skills includes other families of a dierent
kind that are also with utility for I-O psychologists. The current contribu-
tion is meant to broaden this interesting discussion in two important ways.
We clarify that CPS and ColPS need to be considered in the context of a
wider set of 21st century skills with an origin in the education domain, and
we highlight a number of crucial steps that still need to be taken before “get-
ting started” (Neubert et al., 2015,p.lastpageofthediscussion)withthis
taxonomic framework. But rst, we feel the need to slightly reframe the rel-
evance of considering 21st century skills in I-O psychology by shifting the
attention from narrow task-related skills to the broader domain of career
management competencies.
Nonroutine and Interactive Tasks Versus Employability
Neubertetal.(2015) started from the assumption that future jobs will
increasingly involve interactive and nonroutine tasks. Although educational
frameworks of 21st century skills usually claim to aect a broad range
of criteria, including quality of life, healthy behavior, civic engagement,
and environmental sustainability, demonstrating labor market tness and
employability are among the key anticipated outcomes. The movement of
21st century skills is further particularly concerned about the skills of those
growing up in dicult circumstances, who have lower education levels or
disabilities or who are at risk of structural unemployment. In addition to
advocating two skills related to task characteristics of more complex jobs,
an alternative could be to introduce 21st century skills into I-O psychology,
starting from an analysis of what employability means anno 2015, and to
identifythoseskillsthatpeoplewillneedtoaccessandnavigateexiblyon
the labor market.
Broadly speaking, employability can be dened as an individual’s labor
market tness and ability to be in charge of his/her own career. Considered
at an operational level, employability can be minimally understood in terms
of ve characteristics. Hogan, Chamorro-Premuzic, and Kaiser (2013)de-
ne employability as a persons propensity to (a) show task engagement and
goal setting, (b) interact with other people (“getting along” or “being reward-
ing to deal with”), and (c) adapt to/t in an organizational structure or have
the capacity to deploy such structure (for those pursuing self-employment).
We propose two additional criteria—that is, (d) demonstrating the ability
and exibility to learn on the job and prepare for future challenges and (e)
beingabletomanageandswitchbetweenshort-andlong-termperspec-
tives. These two extensions of Hogan et al.’s (2013)frameworkareimportant,
278     .
giventheexpectationthatpeoplewillhavetoworklongerinamorevolatile
and quickly changing labor market. Moreover, employees will be required to
focus on their current job but, at the same time, will also have to reect on
and invest in future employability. Put dierently, employees minimally need
to (a) be willing to work and do the job (task engagement and goal setting),
(b)beabletoworkwith/amongothers,(c)tinandendorsethevaluesof
an organization, (d) show an eagerness to learn and demonstrate exibility
and adaptability, and (e) be able to envisage and invest in current and future
career paths (within or outside the organization).
These ve characteristics dene minimal requirements set by the current
21st century labor market across jobs varying in social prestige and job com-
plexity. These employability indices tap into all basic personality dimensions
dened by the ve-factor model of personality (John & Srivastava, 1999),
with task engagement and goal setting related to Conscientiousness, inter-
personal skills related to emotion regulation (Emotional Stability) and the
core dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex (Extraversion and Agree-
ableness), and “tting in,” “learning and adapting,” and “time perspective
related to Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness. For jobs with
higher complexity on the labor market, CPS and ColPS are denitely useful
extensions, because they tap into more hybrid constructs at the intersection
of social-emotional and cognitive skills.
Models in the Real World Versus Models From Academic Psychology
Although less elaborately discussed by Neubert et al. (2015), it is impor-
tant to clarify that the concept of 21st century skills actually refers to a
broader set of characteristics, of which CPS and ColPS are only two—be they
important—examples. For example, AssessmentandTeachingof21stCen-
tury Skills (Grin, Care, & McGaw, 2012) summarized 21st century skills
under the acronym KSAVE (knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and ethics)
and grouped them into four broad categories: “ways of thinking,” “tools of
working,” “ways of working,” and “ways of living” in the world (Grin et
al., 2012). Trilling and Fadel (2009) listed over one hundred 21st century
skills, grouped into the categories “learning and innovation skills,” “digital
literacy,” and “life and career skills.” Reviewing the content of these cate-
gories and lists shows an amalgam of constructs, with a rst group referring
to cognitive skills, a second cluster that is best described as social-emotional
skills, and nally, a group of more hybrid constructs building on cognitive
resources but also tapping into social-emotional skill content. CPS is a skill
that is conceptually chiey situated in the cognitive domain, whereas ColPS
is probably best conceived as a hybrid construct related to, though distinct
from, cognitive and social-emotional skills.
In line with Neubert and colleagues (2015), we agree that both skills
have key importance for I-O psychologists but advocate at the same time
  21   279
that the cluster of social-emotional skills should also be brought to the at-
tention of I-O psychologists. Social-emotional skills represent a large cluster
in the 21st century skill domain, and they are crucial in evaluating individ-
uals’ suitability to work in a range of jobs with varying degrees of complex-
ity. Social-emotional skills can be best dened as individual characteristics
that (a) originate in the reciprocal interaction between biological predispo-
sitions and environmental factors; (b) are manifested in consistent patterns
of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors; (c) continue to develop through formal
and informal learning experiences; and (d) inuence important socioeco-
nomic outcomes throughout the individual’s life.
Although each of the specic constructs in the above mentioned clusters
(Grin et al., 2012;Trilling&Fadel,2009)hasitsownmeritsandimpor-
tance, to move this eld further, it is necessary to empirically structure this
variability to better deal with overlap and represent the observed common-
ality into a taxonomy. Such taxonomy should then form the starting point to
constructacomprehensivethoughmanageableassessmenttoolthatcanbe
used in 21st century skill research, monitoring, and follow up.
Recently, Primi, Santos, John, and De Fruyt (2015) examined the un-
derlying structure of eight instruments that are frequently used to assess
social-emotional skills in childhood and adolescence in Brazil. They found
a structure that showed strong parallels, but was not isomorphic, with the
dimensions of the ve-factor model of personality—that is, Extraversion,
Agreeableness, Emotional Stability (Neuroticism), Openness to Experience,
and Conscientiousness, supplemented with a sixth dimension referring to
Negative Valence. These dimensions are well familiar to both cross-cultural
and I-O psychologists (De Fruyt & Wille, 2013; Schmitt, 2014). Although
Neubert and colleagues (2015)arguedthatconstructsrepresentingoverar-
ching transversal characteristics, such as intelligence and personality, would
be of little value in concrete situations, the ndings by Primi et al. (2015)
showed the opposite for social-emotional skills, although these are dierent
constructs than CPS and ColPS. Moreover, this empirical study showed that
the ve-factor model taxonomy was the most comprehensive of the eight
measures that were examined, suggesting that this framework provided a
good starting point to develop a new assessment tool for a large group of
21st century skills.
Developmental Paths, Malleability, and Predictive Validity
The eld of 21st century skills is relatively young, and so far, eorts mainly
concentrated on listing and conceptually grouping skills and especially cre-
ating awareness for their importance. Groups taking the lead in this policy
and research endeavor also started working on developing new methodolo-
gies to assess these skills (e.g., CPS and ColPS). Whether this broad range
280     .
of skills can be reliably and validly assessed will be a key factor for their
implementation and integration success into I-O psychology. In an attempt
to work with more application-oriented constructs, human resources and
I-O psychology professionals are already working with the concept of com-
petencies (Hoekstra & Van Sluijs, 2003), considered more helpful in con-
crete situations or to understand behavior at work. The assessment of these
competencies in professional practice, however, turned out to be often dif-
cult and sometimes even problematic. Pervasive problems associated with
competency measurement include, among others, lack of evidence for con-
struct and divergent validity. Moreover, competencies are often assessed in
professional practice using assessment exercises with only one or two raters,
with insucient information on the reliability of the ratings. In order not to
oversell, we strongly recommend that considerable attention be given to the
assessment of the proposed 21st century skill constructs; otherwise, there
is no argument to replace competency constructs with 21st century skills.
Given time constraints to assess qualities in job applicants, I-O psychologists
will not embrace over 100 dierent constructs, so taxonomic work will have
to guide the assessment development program. To achieve this goal, models
from dierential psychology will be certainly helpful to structure and assess
the cognitive and the social-emotional skill areas, but we agree that designing
assessment tools for skills from the hybrid cluster will be most challenging.
I-O researchers and practitioners will be also curious about the develop-
mental paths of 21st century skills and the factors that inuence their track.
At present, not that much is known on how 21st century skills develop and
how malleable and coachable these are, in light of developmental constraints,
environmental contingencies, and individuals’ genetic makeup. With respect
to Neubert et al.’s (2015) plea for integrating CPS and ColPS in I-O psychol-
ogy, key questions are, for example, how do CPS and ColPS skills develop, in
what contexts are these skills eective, and to what extent are they malleable
and coachable?
The ultimate criterion to judge on the importance of a construct is
whether it predicts something meaningful. Researchers and practitioners in
the elds of 21st century skills and human resources share an interest in pre-
diction. Educationalists want to monitor learning achievements and predict
development of social-emotional skills at school and academic performance,
culminating into students’ employability when they enter the employment
market. From that stage onward, I-O psychologists assess their potential
and t for lling up job vacancies and predicting future work performance.
Whether I-O psychologists will embrace these 21st century assessment con-
cepts and assessment tools will thus be highly dependent on these skills’ va-
lidity to predict I-O outcomes and to do this better and more incrementally
than currently existing selection assessment methodology.
   281
References
De Fruyt, F., & Wille, B. (2013). Cross-cultural issues in personality assessment. In
N. D. Christiansen & R. P. Tett (Eds.), Handbook of personality at work (pp. 333–354).
New York, NY: Routledge.
Grin, P., Care, E., & McGaw, B. (Eds.). (2012). Assessmentandteachingof21stcentury
skills. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.
Hoekstra, H. A., & Van Sluijs, E. (Eds.). (2003). Managing competencies: Implementing hu-
man resource management.Nijmegen,theNetherlands:RoyalVanGorcum.
Hogan, R., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Kaiser, R. B. (2013). Employability and career suc-
cess: Bridging the gap between theory and reality. Industrial and Organizational Psy-
chology:Perspectives on Science and Practice, 6(1), 3–16. doi:10.1111/iops.12001
John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and
theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality:
Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 102–139). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Neubert, J. C., Mainert, J., Kretzschmar, A., & Grei, S. (2015). The assessment of 21st
century skills in industrial and organizational psychology: Complex and collaborative
problem solving. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and
Practice.
Primi, R., Santos, D., John, O. P., & De Fruyt, F. (2015). The development of a nationwide
inventory assessing social and emotional skills in Brazilian youth.Manuscriptinprepa-
ration.
Schmitt, Neal. (2014). Personality and cognitive ability as predictors of eective perfor-
mance at work. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Be-
havior, 1, 45–65. doi:10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091255
Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (Eds.). (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times:San
Franciso: Wiley.
Incorporating “Soft Skills” Into the Collaborative
Problem-Solving Equation
Ronald E. Riggio and Karan Saggi
Claremont McKenna College
Inonlyaveryfewplaces,Neubert,Mainert,Kretzschmar,&Grei(2015)
mention the role of communication and coordination among team mem-
bers in collaborative problem solving. Although complex and collaborative
problem solving is indeed an imperative for team and organizational success
in the 21st century, it is easier said than done. Collaborative problem solving
is critically dependent on the communication and interaction skills of the
Ronald E. Riggio and Karan Saggi, Kravis Leadership Institute, Claremont McKenna Col-
lege.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Ronald E. Riggio, Kravis
Leadership Institute, Claremont McKenna College, 850 Columbia Avenue, Claremont, CA
91711. E-mail: ronald.riggio@claremontmckenna.edu
... Consequently, soft skills are difficult to define within an all-inclusive concept (Matteson et al., 2016). Nevertheless, the literature does venture to suggest that common core soft skills, such as communication, leadership, problem-solving, initiative, self-regulation, expertise, know-how, ambition, and ethics (Alvarez & Alvarez, 2018;Fruyt et al., 2015;Hirsch, 2017;Hogan et al., 2013), could be grouped within the skills categories of learning and innovation, digital literacy, and life and career (Trilling & Fadel, 2009). ...
... Term frequency for further desired core competencies featured teamwork ability (Dufour et al., 2021) (tf = 887), various soft skills (tf = 821), and communication skills (tf = 585). These results reinforce the importance of possessing a mix of complementary hard and soft skills with different insights from the literature whose implications will be discussed (De Fruyt et al., 2015;Griffin & Annulis, 2013;Mishra, 2014;Pool & Sewell, 2007;Wang et al., 2022;Woya, 2019). Mastery of hard skills, such as algorithms, data processing, R, Python, artificial intelligence, data sources and analytics, has emerged from the textual analysis, highlighting that, at present, employers still pay great attention Smaldone et al. to technical skills (Alamelu et al., 2017;Cimatti, 2016;Harris & King, 2015;Mishra, 2014;Oviawe et al., 2017;Woya, 2019). ...
... Secondly, the alignment between employers and academia must be fostered so as to implement practical skills mapping as applicable to the employability construct. As the latter is constantly advancing in theory and in practice, it is essential that its interpretation develops in parallel in both domains (de Fruyt et al., 2015;Fugate et al., 2021;Hirsch, 2017;Hogan et al., 2013;Petrovski et al., 2017). The need arises due to various issues, including curriculum relevance, timely scholarly insight into practice, and skills-gap management in the workforce. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the current scenario, data scientists are expected to make sense of vast stores of big data, which are becoming increasingly complex and heterogeneous in nature. In the context of today's rapid technological development and its application in a growing array of fields, this role is evolving simultaneously. The present study provides an insight into the current expectations of employers seeking to hire individuals with this job title. It was achieved by harvesting relevant data from job advertisements published on US employment websites, which currently attract the US market's highest recruitment traffic. This research aims to identify the skills, experience, and qualifications sought by employers for their data scientists, thus also indicating to the candidates the tangible parameters that would increase their employability in such roles.
... Cedefop working paper series -No 2 / November 2021 Social and emotional skills are also seen as crucial components of the 21st century and employability skills (De Fruyt;Wille and John, 2015;Trilling and Fadel, 2009), because they are important for an individual's personal and career development, and being able to contribute productively to society (Kankaraš and Suarez-Alvarez, 2019;National Academy of Sciences, 2012). Studies have demonstrated that people who choose a career that aligns with their personal and vocational values tend to experience a higher level of happiness, satisfaction with life and career, and to have high work performance (Hartung and Taber, 2008;O'Brien, 2003). ...
... Cedefop working paper series -No 2 / November 2021 Social and emotional skills are also seen as crucial components of the 21st century and employability skills (De Fruyt;Wille and John, 2015;Trilling and Fadel, 2009), because they are important for an individual's personal and career development, and being able to contribute productively to society (Kankaraš and Suarez-Alvarez, 2019;National Academy of Sciences, 2012). Studies have demonstrated that people who choose a career that aligns with their personal and vocational values tend to experience a higher level of happiness, satisfaction with life and career, and to have high work performance (Hartung and Taber, 2008;O'Brien, 2003). ...
... Cedefop working paper series -No 2 / November 2021 Social and emotional skills are also seen as crucial components of the 21st century and employability skills (De Fruyt;Wille and John, 2015;Trilling and Fadel, 2009), because they are important for an individual's personal and career development, and being able to contribute productively to society (Kankaraš and Suarez-Alvarez, 2019;National Academy of Sciences, 2012). Studies have demonstrated that people who choose a career that aligns with their personal and vocational values tend to experience a higher level of happiness, satisfaction with life and career, and to have high work performance (Hartung and Taber, 2008;O'Brien, 2003). ...
... Cedefop working paper series -No 2 / November 2021 Social and emotional skills are also seen as crucial components of the 21st century and employability skills (De Fruyt;Wille and John, 2015;Trilling and Fadel, 2009), because they are important for an individual's personal and career development, and being able to contribute productively to society (Kankaraš and Suarez-Alvarez, 2019;National Academy of Sciences, 2012). Studies have demonstrated that people who choose a career that aligns with their personal and vocational values tend to experience a higher level of happiness, satisfaction with life and career, and to have high work performance (Hartung and Taber, 2008;O'Brien, 2003). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The scope of this paper is mainly on identifying practitioner competences relating to initial training but it acknowledges also the increasing importance of in-service training and continuous professional development. It is a contribution to a Cedefop's collection. This collection is a step towards updating Cedefop's work on professionalising career guidance since the publication of Professionalising career guidance: practitioner competences and qualification routes in Europe over 10 years ago. The current papers consist of diverse authored contributions from independent CareersNet guidance experts and contributors to Cedefop’s 2020 CareersNet meeting. Changing career guidance delivery and career learning contexts, responding to widespread labour market changes and digital transformation of services, lead to new challenges, developments, and opportunities. Papers focus on the broad theme of professionalising the career guidance workforce and the particular competences fit for the digital and wider societal context. Not all authors place direct focus on technology-related themes. Attention is also paid to developments prior to, surrounding, or triggered by, the pandemic crisis. Theoretical/conceptual and overview papers are included, while several present illustrations of standards in national/regional guidance systems or particular training or service developments.
... Moreover, in the era of Industrial revolution 4.0 (the age of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning), the global innovations and developments are so fast that specific vocational skills gained by individuals at their earlier age of life become outdated too quickly (Levin 2012) and as a result these vocationally trained individuals find it difficult to get gainful employment in their later period of life (Levin 2015). Nowadays, the global economy demands the individuals to have higher level of knowledge and intellectual capacity to stay competitive in the twenty-first century (De Fruyt et al. 2015). This may be perhaps one of the reasons why some developed countries (like U.S. Canada, Japan, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom) don't provide too much emphasis on tracking students towards vocational education at earlier age and keep their entire lower secondary school system comprehensive (Hanushek and Woessmann 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: A considerable amount of research identified socio-economic status and cognitive ability as robust predictors, the influence of student’s ability to delay gratification (ADG) on their educational transition choice doesn’t received researcher’s attention. To address this gap, the present study examined the incremental power of students ADG in predicting the dichotomous choice i.e. the choice of general or vocational education after successful completion of compulsory schooling. Methods: Amid Covid-19 pandemic, cross sectional survey via an online mode was found feasible for the data collection process in our study. An online link of survey questionnaire was created in the Google forms and administered to (N = 1024) grade 8 students in the Union Territory of Jammu & Kashmir, India. Multiple binary logistic regressions were conducted to predict the students’ choice, and odds ratios and average marginal effects were reported for better interpretation of results. Results: Our results showed that students tracking choice differed significantly with respect to their gender and locale (smaller effect), ADG (medium effect), and cognitive ability and socio-economic status (larger effect). The probability of choosing the track of vocational education (with general education track as a baseline category) increases as students ADG decreases, and vice versa. This association of student’s ADG with the choice of vocational education track held same over and above the covariates – socio-economic status, cognitive ability, gender and locale. Key words: Ability to Delay Gratification, Educational Transition, Tracking choice, Vocational education, General education, Cognitive Ability & Socio-economic Status
... Estão divididas em cinco temas amplos (Big Five socioemocional). Elas são características individuais que (a) se originam na interação recíproca entre predisposições biológicas e fatores ambientais; (b) se manifestam em padrões consistentes de pensamentos, sentimentos e comportamentos; (c) continuam a se desenvolver por meio de experiências formais e informais de aprendizagem; e (d) influenciam importantes resultados socioeconômicos ao longo da vida do indivíduo 88 Educadores sempre conheceram a relevância de características como determinação, assertividade, empatia, tolerância à frustração, curiosidade para aprender, entre tantas outras. No entanto, nos últimos anos tem crescido o conhecimento científico sobre as competências e qual sua relação com resultados de vida importantes para as pessoas, como: aprendizagem, educação, emprego, salários, saúde, cidadania, entre outros k . ...
Chapter
Due to globalizing world demands and the government’s ambitious goals in the education sector, the number of early childhood education (ECE) programs is constantly increasing. Oman as a country is not immune to this development where bilingual early education programs are popular. Considering these developments, Sultan Qaboos University (SQU)- the nation’s flagship university, took an important initiative and established a bilingual Child Care Center (CCC) in 2007. The CCC is supposed to be a model program and applying the Whole Child Approach (WCA). Any early childhood program needs thorough, multidimensional, and developmentally appropriate assessment and evaluation procedures to refine its practices serving its goals and objectives. However, the quality and efficiency of these procedures should also be revisited and analyzed continuously. Therefore, the present chapter attempts to take an in-depth picture of the assessment and evaluation practices at CCC by considering the tenets of WCA. Implications are discussed and recommendations are made for stakeholders.
Article
Full-text available
Since independence, policymakers in India exhibited their increasing tendency to use vocational education and training (VET) as a catchall solution to the problem of unemployment and as a result kept it alive as an important policy tool even today. Recently, National Education Policy, (NEP, 2020) envisioned that at least 50% of our students should receive VET by 2025, and to achieve this target and in comprehension to address different challenges of VET, the policy made several propositions and proposed for different structural changes. A critical question arises how far these policy propositions and structural changes could prove helpful in addressing the challenges of VET and in achieving the desired objectives. The present review study made an attempt to examine thoroughly the approach to VET manifested in the policy. Backed up with in-depth desktop analysis of a considerable amount of literature and the web portals of VET related institutions, the study identified different needs necessarily required for overcoming the challenges of VET, for achieving the desired objectives as envisioned in the policy, and finally for the future development process of VET in India.
Article
Resumo Este trabalho propõe uma discussão teórica sobre o desenvolvimento positivo por meio do esporte, com foco na aprendizagem de “competências de vida”, que recebem uma atenção crescente na educação do século XXI, e pretende discutir e integrar diferentes modelos existentes com base na teoria social cognitiva (TSC) de Albert Bandura. Para isso, foi descrito o modelo heurístico de Gould e Carson, traçando comparativos com modelos teóricos posteriores. São apresentados aspectos da TSC que possibilitam a percepção de uma unidade teórica entre os diversos modelos, o que pode facilitar e aprofundar a compreensão do fenômeno. Conclui-se que os benefícios do esporte ao desenvolvimento humano não são automáticos e dependem de múltiplos fatores, especialmente dos aspectos cognitivos e relacionais associados a essas práticas. Esses fatores devem ser o foco das intervenções para que as vivências esportivas sejam, de fato, promotoras de um desenvolvimento positivo. A TSC permite integrar os diferentes modelos e pode servir de base para o planejamento de intervenções e pesquisas que promovam a aprendizagem de competências de vida nos esportes.
Article
Full-text available
Responding to the need for school-based, broadly applicable, low-cost, and brief assessments of socio-emotional skills, we describe the conceptual background and empirical development of the SENNA inventory and provide new psychometric information on its internal structure. Data were obtained through a computerized survey from 50,000 Brazilian students enrolled in public school grades 6 to 12, spread across the entire State of São Paulo. The SENNA inventory was designed to assess 18 particular skills (e.g., empathy, responsibility, tolerance of frustration, and social initiative), each operationalized by nine items that represent three types of items: three positively keyed trait-identity items, three negatively keyed identity items, and three (always positively keyed) self-efficacy items, totaling a set of 162 items. Results show that the 18 skill constructs empirically defined a higher-order structure that we interpret as the social-emotional Big Five, labeled as Engaging with Others, Amity, Self-Management, Emotional Regulation, and Open-Mindedness. The same five factors emerged whether we assessed the 18 skills with items representing (a) a trait-identity approach that emphasizes lived skills (what do I typically do?) or (b) a self-efficacy approach that emphasizes capability ( how well can I do that? ). Given that its target youth group is as young as 11 years old (grade 6), a population particularly prone to the response bias of acquiescence, SENNA is also equipped to correct for individual differences in acquiescence, which are shown to systematically bias results when not corrected.
Article
Full-text available
Educational practitioners have been increasingly interested in the use of formative assessment and rubrics to develop social-emotional skills in children and adolescents. Although social-emotional rubrics are nowadays commonly used, a thorough evaluation of their psychometric properties has not been conducted. In this scoping review, we examine the knowns and unknowns of the use of formative assessment approaches and rubrics in social-emotional learning. We first review initiatives of formative assessment and development of rubrics to assess social-emotional skills. Then, we discuss challenges associated with the development and use of rubrics to evaluate social-emotional skills in youth focusing on 1) assessment of single skills versus assessment of a comprehensive taxonomy of skills; 2) developing rubrics’ performance level descriptions that accurately describe increasing mastery of skills; 3) obtaining adequate internal consistency and discriminant validity evidence; 4) self-reports versus observer reports of skills; and finally 5) how to account for adolescents’ development in the construction of rubrics. This review outlines a research agenda for the psychometric study of rubrics to be used in social-emotional skill assessment.
Article
Whereas the structure of individual differences in personal attributes is well understood in adults, much less work has been done in children and adolescents. On the assessment side, numerous instruments are in use for children but they measure discordant attributes, ranging from one single factor (self-esteem; grit) to three factors (social, emotional, and academic self-efficacy) to five factors (strength and difficulties; Big Five traits). To construct a comprehensive measure for large-scale studies in Brazilian schools, we selected the eight most promising instruments and studied their structure at the item level (Study 1; N = 3,023). The resulting six-factor structure captures the major domains of child differences represented in these instruments and resembles the well-known Big Five personality dimensions plus a negative self-evaluation factor. In a large representative sample in Rio de Janeiro State (Study 2; N = 24,605), we tested a self-report inventory (SENNA1.0) assessing these six dimensions of socio-emotional skills with less than 100 items and found a robust and replicable structure and measurement invariance across grades, demonstrating feasibility for large-scale assessments across diverse student groups in Brazil. Discussion focuses on the contribution to socio-emotional research in education and its measurement as well as on limitations and suggestions for future research.
Article
In this article, we highlight why and how industrial and organizational psychologists can take advantage of research on 21st century skills and their assessment. We present vital theoretical perspectives, a suitable framework for assessment, and exemplary instruments with a focus on advances in the assessment of human capital. Specifically, complex problem solving (CPS) and collaborative problem solving (ColPS) are two transversal skills (i.e., skills that span multiple domains) that are generally considered critical in the 21st century workplace. The assessment of these skills in education has linked fundamental research with practical applicability and has provided a useful template for workplace assessment. Both CPS and ColPS capture the interaction of individuals with problems that require the active acquisition and application of knowledge in individual or group settings. To ignite a discussion in industrial and organizational psychology, we discuss advances in the assessment of CPS and ColPS and propose ways to move beyond the current state of the art in assessing job-related skills.
Article
Conclusions about the validity of cognitive ability and personality measures based on meta-analyses published mostly in the past decade are reviewed at the beginning of this article. Research on major issues in selection that affect the use and interpretation of validation data are then discussed. These major issues include the dimensionality of personality, the nature and magnitude of g in cognitive ability measures, conceptualizations of validity, the nature of the job performance domain, trade-offs between diversity and validity, reactions to selection procedures, faking on personality measures, mediator and moderator research on test–performance relationships, multilevel issues, Web-based testing, the situational framing of test stimuli, and the context in which selection occurs.
Article
Employability is defined as the capacity to gain and retain formal employment, or find new employment if necessary. Reasons for unemployment are often attributed to economic factors, but psychological factors associated with employability also contribute to the problem. Consequently, industrial‐organizational psychologists should be uniquely suited to contribute to policy solutions for enhancing employability. This review begins by surveying the most common research approach to employability—the study of career success—which psychologists believe is determined by cognitive abilities, personality, and educational achievement. Next, we review the literature concerning what employers actually want. This section highlights the importance of social skills (being rewarding to deal with) as a key determinant of employability. We conclude by proposing a model for understanding the psychological determinants of employability and for bridging the gap between what psychologists prescribe and what employers want.
Book
Rapid-and seemingly accelerating-changes in the economies of developed nations are having a proportional effect on the skill sets required of workers in many new jobs. Work environments are often technology-heavy, while problems are frequently ill-defined and tackled by multidisciplinary teams. This book contains insights based on research conducted as part of a major international project supported by Cisco, Intel and Microsoft. It faces these new working environments head-on, delineating new ways of thinking about '21st-century' skills and including operational definitions of those skills. The authors focus too on fresh approaches to educational assessment, and present methodological and technological solutions to the barriers that hinder ICT-based assessments of these skills, whether in large-scale surveys or classrooms. Equally committed to defining its terms and providing practical solutions, and including international perspectives and comparative evaluations of assessment methodology and policy, this volume tackles an issue at the top of most educationalists' agendas. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Following a growing awareness that many countries are moving from an industrial-based to information-based economy and that education systems must respond to this change, the Assessment and Teaching of Twenty-First Century Skills Project (ATC21S) was launched at the Learning and Technology World Forum in London in January 2009. The project, sponsored by three of the world’s major technology companies, Cisco, Intel and Microsoft, included the founder countries Australia, Finland, Portugal, Singapore and England, with the USA joining the project in 2010. An academic partnership was created with the University of Melbourne. The directorate of the research and development program is situated within the Assessment Research Centre at that university. Two areas were targeted that had not been explored previously for assessment and teaching purposes: Learning Through Digital Networks and Collaborative Problem Solving. The project investigated methods whereby large-scale assessment of these areas could be undertaken in all the countries involved and technology could be used to collect all of the data generated. This in turn was expected to provide data from which developmental learning progressions for students engaged in these twenty-first century skills could be constructed. This project has major implications for teaching and education policies for the future.
Managing competencies: Implementing human resource management
  • H A Hoekstra
  • Van
Hoekstra, H. A., & Van Sluijs, E. (Eds.). (2003). Managing competencies: Implementing human resource management. Nijmegen, the Netherlands: Royal Van Gorcum.