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The Effects of Positive and Negative Perfectionism on Work Engagement, Psychological Well-being and Emotional Exhaustion

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Abstract

This study aims to investigate the effects of positive and negative perfectionism on work engagement, psychological well-being and emotional exhaustion. Previous studies indicate that positive and negative perfectionism lead some desirable and undesirable consequences on employees’ work and social life. Accordingly, the study consists of some positive and negative results of the perfectionism. In this context, the data were collected by using a survey method from 146 employees who work as supervisors and managersof hotels. The obtained data were analysed with structural equation modelling technique. The result of the study shows that positive perfectionism affects work engagement and psychological well-being positively, whereas it has no direct effect on emotional exhaustion. In addition to this, negative perfectionism affects psychological well-being negatively but it has no direct effect on work engagement and emotional exhaustion. Therefore, it can be seen that psychological well-being has a fully mediator role in the relationships between negative perfectionism and emotional exhaustion. Moreover, psychological well-being hasa fully mediator role in the relationships between positive perfectionism and emotional exhaustion.
Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 1367 – 1375
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
2212-5671 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Selection and/ peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Research and Education Center
doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00522-5
ScienceDirect
2nd GLOBAL CONFERENCE on BUSINESS, ECONOMICS, MANAGEMENT and
TOURISM, 30-31 October 2014, Prague, Czech Republic
The Effects of Positive and Negative Perfectionism on Work
Engagement, Psychological Well-Being and Emotional Exhaustion
Pelin Kantena
*
, Murat Yesıltasa
aMehmet Akif Ersoy University, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Burdur, Turkey
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the effects of positive and negative perfectionism on work engagement, psychological well-being
and emotional exhaustion. Previous studies indicate that positive and negative perfectionism lead some desirable and undesirable
consequences on employees work and social life. Accordingly, the study consists of some positive and negative results of the
perfectionism. In this context, the data were collected by using a survey method from 146 employees who work as supervisors
and managers of hotels. The obtained data were analysed with structural equation modelling technique. The result of the study
shows that positive perfectionism affects work engagement and psychological well-being positively, whereas it has no direct
effect on emotional exhaustion. In addition to this, negative perfectionism affects psychological well-being negatively but it has
no direct effect on work engagement and emotional exhaustion. Therefore, it can be seen that psychological well-being has a
fully mediator role in the relationships between negative perfectionism and emotional exhaustion. Moreover, psychological well-
being has a fully mediator role in the relationships between positive perfectionism and emotional exhaustion.
© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Selection and/ peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Research and Education Center.
Keywords: Positive perfectionism, negative perfectionism, work engagement, psychological well-being, emotional exhaustion
1. Introduction
Nowadays, the term of perfectionism is rooted in people’s life because of humans competitions in workplaces
become higher and organizations have a tendency to employ individuals who possess specific personality
characteristics (Khodarahimi, 2010). One of the personality characteristic which reects the employee’s disposition
to engage in over activity, to strive flawlessness and to set excessively high performance standardises are
characterized as a perfectionism (Stoeber and Rennett, 2008; Appleton et al., 2009; Cumming and Duda, 2012).
Perfectionism refers to an “extreme or obsessive striving for perfection, as in one’s work”. However, the concept of
perfectionism has been regarded as a multidimensional personality trait comprising both positive and negative
*Pelin Kanten. Tel.: +90-2482134400
e-mail address: pelinkanten@mehmetakif.edu.tr
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Selection and/ peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Research and Education Center
1368 Pelin Kanten and Murat Yesıltas / Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 1367 – 1375
aspects (Dykstra, 2006; Butt, 2010). Positive perfectionism refers to the cognitions and behaviors which direct
individuals to achieve high-level goals by positive reinforcement and willingness to gain success, whereas negative
perfectionism represents individuals striving for unrealistically performance standards and includes negative
reinforcement and a fear of failure (Stoeber, and Rambow, 2007; Kung and Chan, 2014). Accordingly, it can be said
that positive and negative perfectionism which affect individuals work and social life from different perspectives
may lead positive and negative consequences both for individuals and organizations (Ram, 2005). Therefore,
theoretical and empirical research interests about perfectionism and its consequences have grown considerably over
the last decade (Bieling et al., 2004). Thus, the study will examine some of the consequences of perfectionism. In
other words, work engagement, psychological well-being and emotional exhaustion concepts are evaluated as scope
of the consequences of perfectionism. In this context, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of positive
and negative perfectionism on work engagement, psychological well-being and emotional exhaustion.
2. Literature Review
Positive and negative perfectionism are characterized as one of the most important feature and emotional state
which differentiate individuals from each other and bring about some changes in their lives (Forghani et al., 2013).
Positive perfectionism includes high level of personal standards and trying to do best, whereas negative
perfectionism comprise of individuals worries about making mistakes, fear of criticisms of others and fear of
discrepancy between results and standards (Geranmayepour and Besharat, 2010). Both positive and negative
perfectionism require individuals to have high personal standards for their work or behavior but individuals response
are different or varied when they face with failure. For example, positive perfectionists may have low levels of
distress when they could not reach their standards, while negative perfectionists experience high levels of distress in
the same boat (Beauregard, 2012). Researchers suggested that positive perfectionism has been described as a
normal, healthy, or adaptive perfectionism, and it has positive correlations with indicators of desirable outputs such
as positive affect and positive workplace attitudes and behaviors. However, they asserted that negative
perfectionism labelled as neurotic, unhealthy, or maladaptive perfectionism and it is related with some negative
statements such as depression, anxiety, stress etc. (Besharat and Shahidi, 2010). In literature, researchers suggested
that positive perfectionism has a positive effect on workaholism, work involvement, enjoyment of work and
achievement of individuals. Moreover, it has been asserted that positive perfectionist employees have a high-level of
self-esteem and self-efficacy, positive affects, more positive family dynamics and increased life satisfaction,
psychological well-being and work engagement (Ram, 2005; Stoeber, and Rambow, 2007; Mitchelson, 2009;
Stoeber et al., 2013; Haase et al., 2013; Tziner and Tanami, 2013; Gnilka et al., 2013).
Work engagement refers to individual possessing a persistent, positive, fullling, and work-related state of mind
at work which is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Vigor includes individual having a high level of
energy and mental resilience while working and it is related with the willingness to invest effort. Dedication is
defined as an individual’s strong involvement in work which involves a sense of enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and
challenge. Absorption is characterized the status of someone who is deeply engrossed in work and is unable to
detach himself or herself from the work (Shih, 2012; Lu and Guy, 2014; Rayton and Yalabik, 2014). Accordingly,
individuals who have positive traits and perceive their work environment favourable and fulfil their expectations
may have a high level of engagement. Because work engagement emerges depending on the situational and
individual factors. In literature, perfectionism is considered one of the individual components that lead to work
engagement. Researchers suggested that positive perfectionism related with work engagement positively (Zhang et
al., 2007: 1537; Childs and Stoeber, 2010; Tziner and Tanami, 2013). However, positive and negative perfectionism
related with psychological well-being. Psychological well-being is defined as an individual’s perception and
assessment of their lives. In other words, it refers to some combination of feeling good or positive affective states
and functioning effectively social life (Rasulzada, 2007; Huppert, 2009; Winefield et al., 2012). Psychological well-
being is a broad concept which includes subjective experiences such as self-confidence, self-efficacy or some
personality characteristics, presence of positive emotions and absence of negative emotions and global judgement
about one’s whole life (Rathi, 2011).
In literature, researches indicated that perfectionism has some negative consequences for individuals such as
anxiety, depression, chronic insomnia, social phobia, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating
disorders, psychosomatic disorders etc. Furthermore, it leads to suicidal ideation, chronic sense of failure,
indecisiveness, procrastination, shame, negative affect and burnout (Bieling et al., 2004: Molnar et al., 2006; 1374;
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Pelin Kanten and Murat Yesıltas / Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 1367 – 1375
Chan, 2007; Stairs, 2009; Besharat and Shahidi, 2010; Tashman et al., 2010; Philp et al., 2012). Moreover, studies
suggest that positive perfectionism which is considered as a healthy and desirable feature could affect psychological
well-being positively. On the other hand, negative perfectionism involves high levels of distress associated with
psychological well-being negatively. For example, researchers asserted that positive perfectionism result in low
levels of depression while negative perfectionism bring about psychological distress (Chang, 2006; Chan, 2007;
Butt, 2010; Cumming and Duda, 2012; Black  Reynolds, 2013; Kung and Chan, 2014). Therefore, positive
perfectionism makes individual feel enjoyment and satisfaction and it facilitates them to have psychological well-
being, and reinforces their mental health. Accordingly it can be said that while positive perfectionism leads to
positive emotions and decreases psychological distress; negative perfectionism results in negative effects on mental
health (Geranmayepour and Besharat, 2010). Furthermore, it has been expected that negative perfectionism causes
some other unfavourable outcomes on both individual’s work and social life which is called as an emotional
exhaustion.
Emotional exhaustion is characterized as feelings of individuals such as emotionally overextended, extreme tired
and depleted. However, emotional exhaustion represents feeling of energy loss and a sense of being completely
drowned from emotional and physical perspective. Emotional exhaustion is considered the first and basic stage of
burnout which indicates individuals stress levels (van Jaarsveld et al., 2010; Akpınar et al., 2013). Accordingly,
emotional exhaustion emerges when an individual regularly works under stress that is triggered by interpersonal
interactions and working conditions (Wu and Hu, 2009). In literature it has been considered that there are several
organizational and individual factors lead to emotional exhaustion. Researchers mainly focus on some factors such
as demographic variables, personality and social support as the scope of individual determinants of emotional
exhaustion. Moreover they have suggested that some of the personality traits like hardiness, locus of control, Type A
behavior, self-esteem, achievement motivation and perfectionism play an important role in the development of
emotional exhaustion (Bakker et al., 2002; Houkes et al., 2003; Basım et al., 2013; Pervichko et al., 2013).
Therefore, it is possible to express that employee who is a negative perfectionists is confronted with emotional
exhaustion much more than a positive perfectionist in work environment. In the literature researches indicated that
there is a significant and positive relationship between negative perfectionism and burnout dimensions (Stoeber and
Rennert, 2008: 45; Appleton et al., 2009; Gotwals, 2011; Schwenke, 2012; Shih, 2012; Li et al., 2014).
In this context, it is possible to express consequences of perfectionism whether they are positive or negative
depends on individuals’ perfectionism type. In other words, individuals who have a positive perfectionism can meet
positive consequences with their work and social life. Otherwise, individuals who tend to be negative perfectionists
meet with unfavourable outcomes in their life. Accordingly, it is expected that individuals with higher levels of
perfectionism are more tend to engage their works and have a higher level of psychological well-being. However,
employees who are characterized as a negative perfectionists experience higher levels of emotional exhaustion and
lower levels of psychological well-being. Therefore, it can be said that perfectionism lead some desirable and
undesirable results in people’s life. In the literature, there are some researches indicating the consequences of
positive and negative perfectionism in working life. However, there is not any research investigating the
relationships among positive-negative perfectionism, work engagement, emotional exhaustion and psychological
well-being together in the existing literature. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relationships among these
variables and attempts to add contribution to the literature. Within the scope of research, it is assumed that positive
and negative perfectionism affect work engagement, emotional exhaustion and psychological well-being. In order to
test the relationships among them research hypotheses are developed.
H1: Positive perfectionism affects emotional exhaustion negatively.
H2: Positive perfectionism affects work engagement positively.
H3: Positive perfectionism affects psychological well-being positively.
H4: Negative perfectionism affects emotional exhaustion positively.
H5: Negative perfectionism affects work engagement negatively.
H6: Negative perfectionism affects psychological well-being negatively.
3. Research Method
3.1. Sample and Procedures
1370 Pelin Kanten and Murat Yesıltas / Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 1367 – 1375
The sample of the research is composed of four and five-star hotels in Muğla city which is located in Turkey.
The sample used for the study consists of approximately 200 staff, who works as a supervisors and managers in 10
different hotels which were determined via convenient sampling method. However, questionnaire survey method is
used for data collection. Questionnaire form that was used in the survey contains four different measures related to
research variables. From the 200 questionnaires that have been sent out, 150 were returned, representing a response
rate of 75%. After elimination of cases having incomplete data and outliers 146 questionnaire (73%) were accepted
as valid and included in the evaluations.
3.2. Measures
Measures used in the questionnaire forms were adapted from the previous studies in the literature. Measures
were adapted to Turkish by following the method of forward backward translation from the lecturers and for the
validity of these measures pilot study was conducted. As a result of the conducted pilot study, some corrections were
done in questionnaire forms.
Perfectionism Scale: Employees perfectionism levels were measured with 20 items from Haase and
Prapavessis’s (2004) study. Exploratory factor analyses using principle component analysis with varimax rotation
was applied to the adapted scale for checking the dimensions. As a result of the varimax rotation of the data related
to perfectionism variables, 9 items were removed from the analysis due to the factor loadings under 0.50 and two
factor solutions were obtained as per theoretical structure. Factor loadings of the item ranged from .52 to .82. The
Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the perfectionism scale items is 0.73.
Psychological Well-Being Scale: Psychological well-being was measured with 39 items which was devepoled
Ryff (1989) taken from Springer and Hauser’s (2006) study. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted for the
psychological well-being scale. As a result of the varimax rotation of the data related to psychological well-being
variables, 22 items were removed from the analysis due to the factor loadings under 0.50 and three factor solutions
were obtained as per theoretical structure. Factor loadings of the item ranged from .54 to .83. The Cronbach’s alpha
coefficient of the psychological well-being scale items is 0.83
Emotional Exhaustion Scale: Employees exhaustion levels were measured with 8 items from Karatepe’s
(2013) study. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted for the emotional exhaustion scale. As a result of the
exploratory factor analyses of the data related to emotional exhaustion variables, all items have sufficient factor
loading. Factor loadings of the item ranged from 0.68 to 0.90. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the emotional
exhaustion items is 0.92.
Work Engagement Scale: Employees work engagement levels were measured with 17 items taken from
Kanten’s (2012) study. This scale was adapted to Turkish in sample of Turkish employees by Kanten (2012). The
Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the work engagement scale items is .85
After the exploratory factor analyses, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted by Lisrel 8.8 for all scales.
Goodness of fit indexes is presented in table 1.
Table 1. Goodness of fit indexes of the scales
4. Research Findings
4.1. Respondent Profile
Variables
X2
df
X2/df
5
GFI
.85
CFI
.90
NFI
.90
NNFI
.90
Perfectionism
113.27
63
1.80
0.89
0.95
0.90
0.93
Psychological Well-Being
155.56
86
1.81
0.87
0.95
0.89
0.93
Work Engagement
75.57
40
1.89
0.91
0.97
0.93
0.96
Emotional Exhaustion
12.77
8
1.60
0.97
0.99
0.98
0.99
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Pelin Kanten and Murat Yesıltas / Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 1367 – 1375
55% of employees are male and 45% are female. Majority 70% of the employees are between the ages 21-35. In
terms of education level, 55% of them have vocational school education and 45% of them have bachelors and
master’s degree. 53% of employees are supervisors, while %47 of them are managers. %50 of employees are work
at food and beverage department, 28% of them are work at front office department and %22 of them are work at
administrative units.
4.2. Descriptive Analysis
Correlations, standard deviations and means were computed which is related with negative and positive
perfectionism, work engagement, psychological well-being and emotional exhaustion. Table 2 illustrates them:
Table 2. Means, standard deviations and correlations of the study variables
*. p0.05 **. p0.01
As can be seen in table 2, employees’ positive perfectionism levels are higher than their negative perfectionism
levels. Employees work engagement and psychological well-being levels are relatively higher than their emotional
exhaustion levels. Correlation results shows that there is a positive relationship between positive perfectionism
(r=.370; p0.05) and psychological well-being and there is a positive relationship between positive perfectionism
and work engagement (r=.638; p0.05). However, positive perfectionism is negatively related to emotional
exhaustion (r=-.244; p0.01). In addition to this, negative perfectionism is negatively related with psychological
well-being (r=-.223; p0.01), whereas it is related positively with emotional exhaustion (r=.443; p0.01).
4.3. Measurement Model
For the verification of the model two step approaches by Anderson and Gerbing (1988) was used. According to
this approach, prior to testing the hypothesized structural model, first the research model needs to be tested to reach
a sufficient goodness of fit indexes. After obtaining acceptable indexes it can be proceeded with structural model
(Yüncü, 2010: 86). As a result of the measurement model, it can be seen that 4 latent and 45 observed variables.
Observed variable consist of 11 items related with work engagement, 13 items related with perfectionism, 15 items
related with psychological well-being and 6 items related with emotional exhaustion. For accepting measurement
model goodness of fit need to be considered. Therefore indexes of measurement model are; x²: 893.16, df: 586,
x²:/df; 1.52; RMSEA: 0.06; CFI: 0.93; IFI: 0.93, NFI: 0.85, SRMR: 0.08. These values indicate that measurement
model is acceptable (Schermelleh-Engel et al., 2003: 52; Meydan and Şeşen, 2011: 35).
4.4. Structural Equation Model
After the correlation analyses and measurement model, the study applied a structural equation model to verify
hypotheses for the causal relationships between variables in accordance with literature. The proposed model that
was used to test the relationships is shown in Figure 1. The results of the structural model are; x²: 284.80; df: 142;
x²/df: 2.00; RMSEA: 0.083; GFI: 0.83; CFI: 0.92; IFI: 0.92; NFI: 0.86; NNFI: 0.90. These results indicate that
structural model has a weak fit with the data and it was not considered in the acceptable range. (Schermelleh-Engel
et al., 2003: 52; Yılmaz and Çelik, 2009: 166; Meydan and Şeşen, 2011: 37).
Variables
Mean
S.D.
1
2
3
4
5
Positive Perfectionism
4.05
0.70
1
Negative Perfectionism
2.74
0.79
-.193*
1
Psychological Well-Being
3.80
0.54
.370**
-.223**
1
Work Engagement
3.81
0.58
.638**
-.090
.388**
1
Emotional Exhaustion
2.68
0.95
-.244**
.443**
-.536**
-.168*
1
1372 Pelin Kanten and Murat Yesıltas / Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 1367 – 1375
Figure 1. Path results of proposed model.
On the basis of the results, proposed model was revised according to the theoretical framework due to the
lower and unacceptable values thus more significant model was obtained. The revised model that was used to test
the relationships is shown in Figure 2. The results of the revised model are; x²: 246.15; df: 140; x²/df: 1.75;
RMSEA: 0.072; GFI: 0.85; IFI: 0.94; CFI: 0.94; NNFI: 0.97. Revised model results were much higher than
proposed model. Therefore, it is possible to express that all values in revised model get better and this model has a
better fit with the data than the proposed model.
Figure 2. Path results of hypothesized model
According to the results of revised model, the path parameter and significance level show that positive
perfectionism has no direct effect on emotional exhaustion and H1 hypothesis was rejected (β=0.04; t=0.37
;p>0.05). However, positive perfectionism effects work engagement (β=0.76; t=7.23; p0.01) and psychological
well-being (β=0.33; t=2.80; p0.01) positively. Thus H2 and H3 hypothesis were supported. In addition to these
findings, negative perfectionism had no direct effect on emotional exhaustion (β=0.17; t=1.74; p>0.05) and work
engagement (β=0.09; t=0.91; p>0.05) so H4 and H5 hypothesis were not supported. Moreover, negative
perfectionism had a negative effect on (β=-0.30; t=-2.48; p>0.05) psychological well-being and H6 hypothesis was
supported. Consequently, in this study two models were tested and compared. In the proposed model, insufficient
results were obtained therefore model needed to be revised. In the revised model, psychological well-being was
taken as a mediator variable. When psychological well-being was considered as a mediator, results revealed that
psychological well-being fully mediated the effects of negative perfectionism on emotional exhaustion. However,
results indicate that psychological well-being has a fully mediator role in the relationships between the positive
perfectionism and emotional exhaustion.
POSP: Positive Perfectionism
NEGP: Negative Perfectionism
EE: Emotional Exhaustion
PSYWELL: Psychological
Well-Being
WORKENG: Work Engagement
NEGPRF: Negative
Perfectionism
POSPRF: Positive
Perfectionism
EE: Emotional Exhaustion
PSYWB: Psychological Well-
Being
WRKENG: Work
Engagement
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Pelin Kanten and Murat Yesıltas / Procedia Economics and Finance 23 ( 2015 ) 1367 – 1375
5. Conclusion
Perfectionism is considered as a positive and negative personality trait from the perspective of individuals in
working environment. In other words, perfectionism type whether it is positive and negative may have some positive
and adverse effects on individuals work and social life. For example, employees who possess a negative
perfectionism trait can feel lower level of psychological well-being, work engagement, life and job satisfaction.
However, their distress, depression and emotional exhaustion levels get higher than positive perfectionist
individuals. Conversely, it is expected that positive perfectionism results in work engagement, psychological well-
being and life satisfaction, decreasing of stress and emotional exhaustion levels. Therefore, it can be said that
positive perfectionism is a desirable personality trait in the 21st centuries’ working conditions. Because
organizations need to employ qualified and perfect employees who have a high levels of personal standards,
purposes and achievement motivation in order to gain a sustainable competitive advantage. Especially positive
perfectionism is thought to be an important factor an employee’s attitudes and behaviors towards customers and
their organizations in hospitality industry. Accordingly, it is possible to state that employees who are positive
perfectionist can demonstrate positive attitudes and behaviors such as work engagement, job embeddedness, extra-
role and organizational citizenship behaviors etc. On the other hand, positive perfectionist individuals have a
positive mood, higher levels of self-esteem, self-confidence and psychological well-being as they have achieved
their performance standards. Furthermore, employees who have positive perfectionist trait are more willing to learn
new things, have a tendency to perform work roles efficiently and to take additional responsibilities. In this context,
it can be said that both positive perfectionism and negative perfectionism are remarkable personality traits which
need to be managed carefully in organizations because of their important consequences.
Concordantly, this study aims to determine some of the consequences of positive and negative perfectionism. As
a result, the research findings revealed that the purposed model of the study needs to be revised due to its statistical
values. In other words, the purposed model was tried to be modified according to the theoretical framework to
acquire more significance results. In this context, psychological well-being was taken as a mediator variable in the
revised model and considerably important outputs were obtained. For example, positive perfectionism effects both
work engagement and psychological well-being positively. Therefore H2 and H3 hypothesis were supported. But
not any direct effect of positive perfectionism was found on emotional exhaustion, and therefore H1 was hypothesis
rejected. When the psychological well-being was considered as a mediator, it was seen that psychological well-
being had a mediating role between positive perfectionism and emotional exhaustion. In other words, positive
perfectionism affects employees psychological well-being positively at first, and then in times their emotional
exhaustion levels affected negatively based on their psychological well-being levels. Moreover, research results
indicate that negative perfectionism affects employees psychological well-being negatively so H6 hypothesis was
supported. On the other hand there occurred no direct affect between negative perfectionism-work engagement and
negative perfectionism-emotional exhaustion hence H4 and H5 hypothesis were not supported. However, it can be
said that psychological well-being has a mediator role in the relationships between negative perfectionism and
emotional exhaustion. That is, negative perfectionism affects employees’ psychological well-being negatively at
first then their emotional exhaustion levels get affected from the negative perfectionism due to the psychological
well-being. All of these results show that individuals work engagement, psychological well-being and emotional
exhaustion levels are affected positively or negatively depending on the perfectionism type. In this context, it is
possible to say that positive perfectionist managers will confront work engagement and psychological well-being
while negative perfectionist managers meet with undesirable outputs in hotels’ scope of the research. For future
studies, the research model can be tested on larger samples then consequences can be compared to the degree of the
managers’ levels. Furthermore, the study can be expanded by adding other variables which are classified as
important consequences both for individuals and organizations such as life satisfaction, job satisfaction, workholism,
positive affect etc.
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