ArticlePDF Available

Mobile Application Development for Crisis Data

Authors:

Abstract

With the reactive nature of disaster relief efforts, the response time of NGO's and humanitarian organizations is critical. Organizations cannot predict the next crisis, nor can they build a catch all solution for any future problem. Consequently, the quicker a system is in place following a crisis, the more data can be collected to improve the relief efforts. Data is vital in assessing the severity of a crisis, informing organizations on how to prepare or give aid, and informing the community about an event. Mobile phones in general, and smartphones in particular, are an ideal tool for the collectionof this valuable data.
Procedia Engineering 107 ( 2015 ) 255 262
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
1877-7058 © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of HumTech2015
doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2015.06.080
ScienceDirect
Humanitarian Technology: Science, Systems and Global Impact 2015, HumTech2015
Mobile Application Development for Crisis Data
Anubhav Jaina, Julius Adebayoa, Eduardo de Leona, Weihua Lia, Lalana Kagala, Patrick
Meierb, Carlos Castillob
aMassachusetts Institute of Technology, 32 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
bQatar Computing Research Institute, Tornado Tower, 18th Floor, Doha, Qatar
Abstract
With the reactive nature of disaster relief efforts, the response time of NGO’s and humanitarian organizations is critical.
Organizations cannot predict the next crisis, nor can they build a catch all solution for any future problem. Consequently, the
quicker a system is in place following a crisis, the more data can be collected to improve the relief efforts. Data is vital in
assessing the severity of a crisis, informing organizations on how to prepare or give aid, and informing the community about an
event. Mobile phones in general, and smartphones in particular, are an ideal tool for the collection of this valuable data.
The development effort required to create smartphone applications is usually substantial. There are technical barriers to entry,
and usually lengthy development times. Because of this, traditional mobile application development has been limited in its ability
to help disaster relief. The Punya framework, presented in this paper, drastically shortens the development time required for
Android applications, while supporting the communication and sensor features needed to acquire data during a crisis scenario.
Punya’s advanced sensor functionality, as well as its data capture and reporting components, allow organizations to build mobile
applications quickly that can gather both user and context data as well as visualize results.
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of HumTech2015.
Keywords: mobile apps; crisis data; punya; smartphones
© 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of HumTech2015
256 Anubhav Jain et al. / Procedia Engineering 107 ( 2015 ) 255 – 262
1. Introduction
Despite modern technological advances, humanitarian response and relief efforts suffer from a
lack of co-ordination and data access. NGOs and humanitarian organizations face problems
related to data collection and data management that can lead to a waste of resources. Several
times relief workers end up resorting to slow manual work, because a potentially more efficient
automatic system is difficult to use or simply does not work. The ubiquity of handheld
computing technology has become invaluable in disaster management and relief operations. Data
collection and management through handheld devices accelerates the aggregation and usability
of the data, with the ability to connect to many other data sources as well.
In a world where key decisions are driven by data, human resources and information are some
of the most important pieces in having a successful response during a crisis and post crisis for
analysis. Crisis information is slowly becoming available through various APIs, like ReliefWeb
[6] and CrisisNET [7], and through projects such as GDELT [8] that are not necessarily crisis-
specific. Disaster information is not just important for relief organizations, but also for
individuals who want to get an understanding of what happened and which organizations were
involved. Individuals can use crisis information to get an understanding of a new environment
they might be entering or of the history of their environment. The new publicly available datasets
have created a need for a new way to enter, browse, understand, and consume crisis data.
2. Motivation
The volume, and variety of data being generated about the world is increasing at a rapid pace.
Recently, it has been estimated that nearly all firms with more than 1000 employees across all
sectors will generate at least 200 terabytes of data. For comparison, 200 terabytes was two times
the size of Wal Mart's entire data warehouse in 1999 [1]. Going forward, even more industries
ranging from healthcare to energy will be driven by data. Such tremendous increase in data
generation has the potential to create value in different ways. Through analysis of such vast
amount of data, key insights can be learned leading to potentially better decision-making.
Increased data generation has not only been limited to companies or large organizations.
Individuals are also generating more personal data, known as digital traces, than ever before [2].
Often, individuals can post and access historical and real time information about their
environment, interests, and other variety of topics through social media and micro-blogging
platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. During cases of emergency and disaster, individuals
often turn to social media platforms to disseminate relevant information on issues regarding their
safety, status, and the overall condition of their immediate environment [4]. Going forward,
several critical decisions are being driven by access to and analysis of data, hence it is crucial to
provide platforms that enable easy access to and integration of various sources of data. In
disaster management, data generated can often be used to drive key decision making capabilities;
before, during, and after a crisis. In such applications, access to data is of critical importance in
ensuring that key actionable insights are learned.
The types of data generated range from sensor readings from physical devices to status
information from social media channels. Often, such data is unstructured consisting of
combinations of images, text, and numeric data. A pressing and distinct challenge involves
combining, querying, and analyzing data from such disparate sources. Given the need to infer
future actionable insights from data, it is critical to develop platforms that can ensure that data
from disparate sources, in various, often unstructured formats, can be combined, queried, and
analyzed. In addition, such data would need to be combined across multiple time spans in order
257
Anubhav Jain et al. / Procedia Engineering 107 ( 2015 ) 255 – 262
to learn historical patterns from curated data, but also to learn emerging trends from real time
data.
As noted earlier, smartphones have come to be used for a wide range of activities. High
penetration of mobile phones across various regions of the world also make them uniquely suited
as platforms through which data analysis can be entered and insights can be presented. In
addition, mobile phones are typically integrated with various kinds of sophisticated sensors that
make them integral to the data collection process. Mobile applications can also be tailored
towards particular tasks depending on the goal of the mobile developer. In a data driven world,
more developers are seeking to integrate several useful data sets into their mobile applications.
Data integration and analysis capability in mobile applications necessitates the need for a
platform that provides seamless data integration in the mobile application creation process.
3. Challenges
The capabilities to quickly create a mobile app and modify them rapidly are critical to make
crisis data available at people’s fingertips. From our collaborations with various NGOs, we
identified three challenges for developing mobile apps for humanitarian projects. The challenges
are (1) lengthy development cycle, (2) costly budget, and (3) lack of agile development. In many
cases, an NGO’s project is a direct response to an ongoing crisis, and given the short time frame,
these challenges are insurmountable.
From our investigation, we have learned that it usually takes around a year to fully develop
and deploy one mobile app and the cost can often be measured in the scale of hundreds of
thousands of dollars. There are many factors for the lengthy development cycle and costly
budget. First of all, NGOs often lack in-house mobile app developers and the mobile app
development and deployment tasks are often outsourced. With that, it is understandable that the
processes of gathering requirements and validating critical features take longer than having in-
house developers. While the needs for crisis relief often involve rescuing human lives, restoring
damages, and coordinating of crisis resources, getting the right requirements for an app would
require in depth discussions with multiple stakeholders. Furthermore, requirement changes often
occur halfway through or near the end of the project cycle and they often require additional
resources. The necessity for an app-building platform that enables fast-prototyping and rapid
testing of an app has become ever more apparent. It helps to refine the requirements that might
not be obvious at the beginning when designing the app.
From our experience working with the NGOs, the ability to reuse and modify an existing app
is greatly favored. Given NGOs current practice for the mobile solution, it is hard for them to
quickly change an existing app on the fly. It would be ideal to have an app-building framework
that allows agile development. The framework should allow its users to upload an existing app,
modify it, and create new apps. The use-modify-create mechanism allows people to customize
the app according to their own needs.
4. How does PUNYA help
Punya is a mobile application development platform that builds on the App Inventor
framework. App Inventor, which is an open source, graphical development platform [3],
provides a block-based interface through which individuals can easily create Android
applications. The App Inventor framework has been successful in introducing millions of
individuals across the world to mobile application development. To date, over 5 million mobile
258 Anubhav Jain et al. / Procedia Engineering 107 ( 2015 ) 255 – 262
applications addressing a variety of domains and tasks have been built through App Inventor. As
an extension to App Inventor, Punya contains a number of additional capabilities for data
collection, querying, and integration in addition to the ability to easily use sensor information
from smartphones. Along with this, crowdsourcing functionality and the ability to obtain
streaming data from platforms such as Twitter are also integrated into Punya.
Punya’s data integration capabilities are uniquely suited to a setting in which key decisions
and actions are driven by data. Through Punya’s data integration extensions, mobile developers
can easily query, analyze, and present actionable insights from both historical and real time data.
Further, mobile developers can also easily integrate crowdsourced data and information from
microblogging platforms into their applications. As another channel for data integration, Punya
allows individuals to easily collect information from various smartphone sensors, such as
accelerometers or wireless connection antennas. Generally, the Punya platform enables mobile
application developers to more easily integrate data into their applications from a variety of
sources in a seamless manner. Finally, the platform is regularly being developed and supports
Android version 2.3 and up, allowing users to use old apps on newer operating systems and
removing the need to worry about upgrades.
Figure 1: Diagram of the Punya use-modify-create Ecosystem
Figure 2: Punya supports streaming data APIs enabling mobile Apps to easily consume this data.
259
Anubhav Jain et al. / Procedia Engineering 107 ( 2015 ) 255 – 262
To date, several applications that leverage the Punya platform have been developed. An
example proof-of-concept application developed using the Punya platform is WeReport [3].
WeReport is an Android based incident reporting application. WeReport allows individuals to
easily report disaster incidents through pictures and videos using their Android devices. Incident
reports are also automatically updated and posted on Twitter. In addition, individuals can also
easily follow various kinds of incidents that occur in their vicinity. The WeReport application
demonstrates how information from smartphone sensors, Twitter, and other sources can be easily
integrated for use in an application. The ease of the use-modify-create mechanism that Punya
allows for enables other individuals to develop additional capabilities on top of the WeReport
application. The WeReport application can be extended to report power outages, or even in
hackathons, to report locations where individuals are seeking help. As various kinds of data are
being analyzed and integrated into mobile applications, mobile developers can look to the Punya
platform to quickly develop Android applications that can integrate different kinds of data
seamlessly.
5. Use case
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA)
provides ReliefWeb, a public API that provides access to current and historical data on global
crises and disasters. ReliefWeb has been in existence since October 1996, however,
Humanitarian Kiosk, a mobile application to consume the data was not released until 2013 and it
limits the data that is accessible to the public through the application. The reports available
through the application are custom developed and don’t allow the full functionality to browse
through the API.
(a)
(b)
(c)
260 Anubhav Jain et al. / Procedia Engineering 107 ( 2015 ) 255 – 262
(d)
(e)
(f)
Figure 3: Screenshots of Humanitarian Kiosk application built using the Punya framework. Starting at the top left image, users select a country
either (a) by scrolling through the list or (b) by entering a search term, (c) followed by an organization and then can (d) select a report, which
will either (e) open a PDF or a (f) browser to show them the web report.
Using Punya, we built a proof of concept application within a day that not only serves the core
purpose of the Humanitarian Kiosk application but also provides additional functionality. Please
refer to Figure 3 for screenshots of the completed app and Figures 4 and 5 for screenshots of how
the app was developed within the Punya framework. The published Humanitarian Kiosk
application only supports twenty-one countries currently and has a limited set of pre-created
reports. On the other hand, the Punya application supports the dynamic loading of sources with
each time the application is opened and the ability to read reports that are only available as web
based content along with PDF reports. The simplicity of the Punya framework’s drag and drop
interface allowed multiple individuals to edit the application as it was in development and allows
us to easily alter the application as requirements and data sources change. Our application
provides the ability to filter reports by country and then organizations within the country while
this list of both countries and organizations is continually changing with updates to ReliefWeb.
Upon launching the Punya-based Humanitarian Kiosk application, a call to the ReliefWeb
API is made to fetch the complete list of countries for which reports are available. In the original
application, this list is preset and needs to be refreshed whenever a new country is added to the
data set. With our data driven application, the Punya based app will continually update with new
countries as the data becomes available, without needs for further development. After selecting a
country, the user is brought to a page containing the list of organizations that have created
reports for the selected country. Upon selection of an organization a list of documents
261
Anubhav Jain et al. / Procedia Engineering 107 ( 2015 ) 255 – 262
that are either PDFs or Web reports are shown to the user. These documents are opened using the
phone’s Web browser or a built-in PDF viewing application. With little extra effort, we could
change the user flow to support filtering the returned results or even remove the country
organization flow in support of just a list of all possible organizations due to the use-modify-
create functionality of the Punya framework.
6. Summary
The explosion of data and proliferation of smartphones in our world today have driven the
need for new tools that are able to parse, understand, and make information available at our
fingertips. This is even more important with respect to crisis data. The Punya framework is one
such tool that enables data to be quickly gathered and made available via mobile apps. A project
that is closely related to Punya is the Kobotoolbox [5], which is a platform developed by
Figure 4: View of the Humanitarian Kiosk app in Punya's Designer
Figure 5: View of Punya's Block Editor showing a call to the ReliefWeb API
262 Anubhav Jain et al. / Procedia Engineering 107 ( 2015 ) 255 – 262
researchers at Harvard Humanitarian Initiative. However, its focus is to mainly enable quick and
seamless data collection. Unlike Punya, it has no support for the consumption or manipulation of
existing crisis data or crowdsourcing capabilities. The Punya framework provides a simple
interface to design mobile applications for users to not only generate and share data but also
consume crisis data while supporting an agile workflow that allows for fast modification and
iteration. It’s drag and drop design allows users, regardless of experience, to develop mobile
applications that can consume and interact with a variety of data sources. The Punya framework
is constantly growing with additional support for different kinds of visualizations and the ability
to work offline.
Acknowledgements
This material is based on work supported by the Qatar Computing Research Institute and the
National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1228687.
References
[1] Manyika, J., Chui, M., Brown, B., Bughin, J., Dobbs, R., Roxburgh, C., & Byers, A. H. "Big data: The next
frontier for innovation, competition, and productivity." Mckinsey Global Institute. (2011).
[2] Lazer, David, et al. "Life in the network: the coming age of computational social science." Science (New York,
NY) 323.5915 (2009): 721.
[3] Fuming Shih, Oshani Seneviratne, Daniela Miao, Ilaria Liccardi, Lalana Kagal, Evan Patton, Patrick Meier and
Carlos Castillo, “Democratizing Mobile App Development for Disaster Management”, IJCAI 2013 Workshop on
Semantic Cities, 2013.
[4] Abbasi, Mohammad-Ali, et al. "Lessons learned in using social media for disaster relief-ASU crisis response
game." Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling and Prediction. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012.
282-289.
[5] Kobotoolbox Platform, http://www.kobotoolbox.org/.
[6] ReliefWeb, http://reliefweb.int.
[7] CrisisNet, http://crisis.net.
[8] The GDELT Project, http://gd eltproject.org/data.html.
... The literature (e.g. Jain et al., 2015;Caulfield et al., 2019) confirms the pivotal role of crowdsourcing in producing and employing big data in crises and emergencies, given that few studies (e.g. Tang et al., 2018) have addressed this issue in relation to emerging infectious diseases or global pandemics. ...
... Many studies (e.g. Huang et al., 2020;Jain et al., 2015;Kaufhold et al., 2020) have investigated issues related to the use and analysis of big data during disasters, crises and emergencies. Research (e.g. ...
... When the members of society encounter high uncertainty and a lack of knowledge or facts about risks, they turn to trusted information sources to guide them (Jain et al., 2015). The literature reveals widely divergent and mixed perspectives on trust and confidence in social media during crises. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the impact of big crisis data on the contradictions, trust and perceived value of social media crowdsourcing in pandemics. The study also examines the impact of contradictions on trust and the perceived value of social media crowdsourcing. Finally, the study explores the impact of trust on the perceived value of social media crowdsourcing during pandemics. Data were collected from 405 respondents to an online survey. PLS-SEM was used to analyse the data and test the research model. The results show that big crisis data has a significant positive impact on contradictions and a significant negative impact on the perceived value of social media crowdsourcing. The results also confirm a significant negative impact of contradictions and a significant positive impact of trust on perceived value.
... Recent studies have demonstrated that some EROs commit resources to innovation and the acquisition of contingent workforce to generate new knowledge, so they have to develop new ways of providing relief services. For example, they use AI for humanitarian purposes (Jain et al., 2015). ...
... Artificial intelligence in EROs is limited to the use of intelligent and semantic search engines, machines, robots, drones, applications, and analytics, which are all aimed at extracting useful data from repositories and translating them into meaningful information 40 for decision-making. Recently, some researchers have published articles on the issue of using AI for EROs (Jain et al., 2015). In these studies, the researcher explores different knowledge dimensions, such as data capture, knowledge creation, transfer between people, and dissemination through social media. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Knowledge management (KM) discipline includes the convergence of people, processes, and systems. This research intends to promote new ways of approaching KM by examining the conjunction of human capital, social capital, structural capital, and artificial intelligence. It entails valuing human capital for effective transfer of tacit and implicit knowledge, reinventing organizational structural capital, adapting current knowledge governance to meet employees’ aspirations, deregulating social capital, and allowing employees to exercise creativity and to enable bottom-up knowledge creation and improved collaboration. It considers the application of Artificial Intelligence in the aid sector as a means of achieving this and it proposes its use for providing ready-to-use knowledge for decision-making in emergencies. This research found that the employees’ age is not related to their attitude in communicating across organizational boundaries to exchange knowledge (X2 [1, N = 743] = 0.23, p > 0.05), yet age is a factor in the use of organizational social networks as the main communication tool (t [142] = 2.08; p<0.05). It also found the age is related to employees’ designation in the organizational hierarchy (X2 [4, N = 996] = 123.92, p < 0.0001). Further, it found that age is a key factor in the frequency of changing jobs, which contributes to the loss of tacit and implicit knowledge in aid organizations (X2 [4, N = 296] = 18.48, p < 0.001). Finally, it finds that frontline employees prefer using artificial intelligence technologies to help in filling the gap that adds value to bottom-line activities (f [4,715] = 5.05, p < 0.001). This paper proposes a new holistic framework to enhance the transferability of tacit and implicit knowledge in EROs and concludes by providing recommendations for action within each of the knowledge dimensions. Keywords: artificial intelligence, contingent workforce, knowledge management, knowledge transfer. relief organizations, human capital, structural capital, and social capital
... Recent studies have demonstrated that some EROs commit resources to innovation and the acquisition of contingent workforce to generate new knowledge, so they have to develop new ways of providing relief services. For example, they use AI for humanitarian purposes (Jain et al., 2015). ...
... Artificial intelligence in EROs is limited to the use of intelligent and semantic search engines, machines, robots, drones, applications, and analytics, which are all aimed at extracting useful data from repositories and translating them into meaningful information 40 for decision-making. Recently, some researchers have published articles on the issue of using AI for EROs (Jain et al., 2015). In these studies, the researcher explores different knowledge dimensions, such as data capture, knowledge creation, transfer between people, and dissemination through social media. ...
Thesis
Knowledge management (KM) discipline includes the convergence of people, processes, and systems. This empirical research intends to promote new ways of approaching KM by examining the conjunction of human, social, structural capital, and artificial intelligence (AI). It examines the valuing human capital for effective transfer of tacit and implicit knowledge, reinventing organisational structural capital, adapting current knowledge governance to meet employees’ aspirations, deregulating social capital, and allowing employees to exercise creativity and to enable bottom-up knowledge creation and improved collaboration. It considers the application of AI as a means of achieving this and it proposes its use for providing ready-to-use knowledge for decision-making in emergencies. The results reveal that the employees’ age is not related to their attitude in exchange knowledge across organisational boundaries (X2 [1, N = 743] = 0.23, p > 0.05), yet age is a factor in the use social networks is the main communication tool (t [142] = 2.08; p<0.05). it found that age is related to employees’ designation in the organisational hierarchy (X2 [4, N = 996] = 123.92, p < 0.0001),and is also, a key factor in the frequency of changing jobs, contributing to the loss of tacit and implicit knowledge (X2 [4, N = 296] = 18.48, p < 0.001). Frontline employees prefer using AI to help in filling the gap that adds value to bottom-line activities (f [4,715] = 5.05, p < 0.001). This paper proposes a new holistic framework and recommendations to enhance the transferability of tacit and implicit knowledge in EROs.
... People around the world use App Inventor to provide mobile solutions to real problems in their families, communities, and the world. The platform has also been adapted to serve requirements of more specific populations, such as building apps for emergency/first responders (Jain et al., 2015) and robotics (Papadakis & Orfanakis, 2016). ...
... Early work focused on understanding how to appropriately name components for educational use (Turbak, Wolber, & Medlock-Walton, 2014). Usability in domain-specific contexts, such as humanitarian needs (Jain et al., 2015) and educational settings (Morelli, De Lanerolle, Lake, Limardo, Tamotsu, & Uche, 2011;Xie, Shabir, & Abelson, 2015), is also an area of interest. More recently, App Inventor has been used as a mechanism for data collection and visualization (Harunani, 2016;Mota, Ruiz-Rube, Dodero, & Figueiredo, 2016;Martin, Michalka, Zhu, & Boudelle, 2017). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
MIT App Inventor is an online platform designed to teach computational thinking concepts through development of mobile applications. Students create applications by dragging and dropping components into a design view and using a visual blocks language to program application behavior. In this chapter, we discuss (1) the history of the development of MIT App Inventor, (2) the project objectives of the project and how they shape the design of the system, and (3) the processes MIT uses to develop the platform and how they are informed by computational thinking literature. Key takeaways include use of components as abstractions, alignment of blocks with student mental models, and the benefits of fast, iterative design on learning.
Article
Health is an important part of human life. The awareness about the quality health care plays a major role in the human life. The present Corona virus Disease (COVID-19) is infectious and fast spreading. In a country like India, prevention of the infection is still the best option. The use of Geo-Information Communication Technology (Geo-ICT) framework can help in the prevention of spread of the disease. The use of geo-spatial technologies simplifies the complex data to improve decision making. In this manuscript, an attempt is made to design a geo-spatial framework to capture data, store data in centralized geo-spatial data bank and use the data to alert the citizens in near real time for COVID-19 clusters using mobile map interface. The solution will support citizens in protecting themselves from infection. The paper also discusses the methods of data moderation and data dissemination to the mobile app users. We conclude that the present study is an effort towards enabling the information dissemination process for quick and reliable mitigation measures.
Chapter
Accurate, speedy and interoperable information exchange among the stakeholders achieve effective rescue and relief operations in an emergency. The current research work aims at location-based real time or near real time disaster data gathering and accumulation. The dynamic disaster data is integrated with the static geospatial data to facilitate spatial analytics and disseminate the integrated data through OGC web services to various stakeholders for further processing by different expert domain applications. The research work also facilitates spatio-temporal querying system through Geo-query, and OLAP operations on integrated disaster data with geospatial visualization. The design and implementation of the work is achieved through a mobile application integrated with a GIS based web portal by a centralized remote server. The entire architecture has been tested by implementing in an emergency situation and facilitated by an effective interoperable information exchange and spatio-temporal queries.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract:- Emergency alert and response is carried out in different ways around the world. Governments, corporate bodies and individuals take emergencies very seriously and continue to develop ingenious ways of responding to emergencies very swiftly. Most Urban areas have well-developed emergency response systems but this is not true of rural and sub-urban settlements. Security risk keeps increasing by the day due to rapid population growth. This is particularly true at the grassroots or community level. This paper proposes a very effective and economical way of alerting a community to all kinds of security emergencies. It incorporates the use of a mobile application that was codenamed “CEMAS” (Community Emergency Alarm System). The mobile application with a “Panic button” on it provides all inhabitants of the community with the means of triggering two SMS-activated central alarms. The first alarm is located at the community center and the second at the community police station. The central alarm system is activated by pressing the “Panic Button” whenever there is a security threat. The designed and implemented system worked satisfactorily well. Keywords:- Alarm, anti-intruder, motion sensing, images, cloud, server, application programme interface, security, home.
Article
Full-text available
The mobile application is an application that is growing very rapidly and gains broad market. One of its advantages is practical and easy to use everywhere. Although its development is quite rapid,its applications in the field of consultationis limited, especially in the field of consultation services organized by the Catholic Church. This paper describes how to design mobile application counseling for the Catholic Church using User Centered Design (UCD) and Wireframe. The scope of the consultation material is about the marriage preparations. The research is conducted on marriage preparation classes in one of the Catholic Churches in Yogyakarta. The results of the study, that is analyzed using ISO standardwith score average 4.425 andSystem Usability Scale (SUS) evaluation method with totalscore 82 showed that this study succeeded in designing a mobile application marriage counseling in the Catholic Church is consistent with user needs.
Article
Accurate, speedy and interoperable information exchange among the stakeholders achieve effective rescue and relief operations in an emergency. The current research work aims at location-based real time or near real time disaster data gathering and accumulation. The dynamic disaster data is integrated with the static geospatial data to facilitate spatial analytics and disseminate the integrated data through OGC web services to various stakeholders for further processing by different expert domain applications. The research work also facilitates spatio-temporal querying system through Geo-query, and OLAP operations on integrated disaster data with geospatial visualization. The design and implementation of the work is achieved through a mobile application integrated with a GIS based web portal by a centralized remote server. The entire architecture has been tested by implementing in an emergency situation and facilitated by an effective interoperable information exchange and spatio-temporal queries.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In disasters such as the earthquake in Haiti and the tsunami in Japan, people used social media to ask for help or report injuries. The popularity, efficiency, and ease of use of social media has led to its pervasive use during the disaster. This creates a pool of timely reports about the disaster, injuries, and help requests. This offers an alternative opportunity for first responders and disaster relief organizations to collect information about the disaster, victims, and their needs. It also presents a challenge for these organizations to aggregate and process the requests from different social media. Given the sheer volume of requests, it is necessary to filter reports and select those of high priority for decision making. Little is known about how the two phases should be smoothly integrated. In this paper we report the use of social media during a simulated crisis and crisis response process, the ASU Crisis Response Game. Its main objective is to creat a training capability to understand how to use social media in crisis. We report lessons learned from this exercise that may benefit first responders and NGOs who use social media to manage relief efforts during the disaster.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Smartphones are being used for a wide range of activities including messaging, social networking, calendar and contact management as well as location and context-aware applications. The ubiquity of handheld computing technology has been found to be especially useful in disaster management and relief operations. Our focus is to enable developers to quickly deploy applications that take advantage of key sources that are fundamental for today's networked citizens, including Twitter feeds, Facebook posts, current news releases, and government data. These applications will also have the capability of empowering citizens involved in crisis situations to contribute via crowdsourcing, and to communicate up-to-date information to others. We will leverage several technologies to develop this application framework, namely (i) Linked Data principles for structured data, (ii) existing data sources and ontologies for disaster management, and (iii) App Inventor, which is a mobile application development framework for non-programmers. In this paper, we describe our motivating use cases, our architecture, and our prototype implementation.