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Development of eLearning is connected to development, technical improvement and also better affordability of computers. New programs were created not only to teach, but also to allow the communication between the teacher and the student. This new system corresponded already with the today's one, but it got its name just in 1999. The initial concept of eLearning was related with issues in contemporary essays primarily of a technical nature. All essays from initial period repeatedly emphasize the modernity of the device and the first educational outcomes associated with it.
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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 191 ( 2015 ) 1187 – 1190
Available online at
1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of WCES 2014
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.594
WCES 2014
History And Perspectives Of Elearning
Sarka Hubackova a
aUniversity of Hradec Kralove, Rokitanskeho 62, 50003 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
Development of eLearning is connected to development, technical improvement and also better affordability of computers. New
programs were created not only to teach, but also to allow the communication between the teacher and the student. This new
system corresponded already with the today´s one, but it got its name just in 1999. The initial concept of eLearning was related
with issues in contemporary essays primarily of a technical nature. All essays from initial period repeatedly emphasize the
modernity of the device and the first educational outcomes associated with it.
© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of WCES 2014.
Keywords: Computer-Based Training, eLearning, Web- Based Training, history;
1. History of eLearning in the World
Development of eLearning is connected to development, technical improvement and also better affordability of
computers. Already in the late eighties and the nineties of the last century the first form of electronic education-
Computer-Based Training (CBT) was born. This is considered as the cornerstone of today´s eLearning (Eger, 2005).
The CBT system requires connection of personal computer to some other multimedia, for example CD-ROM. The
system itself meant a tremendous progress, although it´s content was not that thoroughly elaborated and it was still
missing some later features of eLearning like no limitation by time or place. In parallel with the development of
CBT was the technology developed, that at the end lead into the rise of internet and creation of the web system. Also
this time the roots of origin and its technical base were in the United States. Technology had its progress. At the
very beginning the information could be delivered only in text format, but in the early nineties there were created
browsers, which enabled users to enrich the text by graphics. Internet spread quickly, its price declined and so it was
Sarka Hubackova. Tel.:+420 493 332302
E-mail address:
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of WCES 2014
1188 Sarka Hubackova / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 191 ( 2015 ) 1187 – 1190
more affordable also for the middle class. The web system was improved into the now well-known and widespread
www (world wide web). The publication Introduction to eLearning (Kveton, 2003), which was written and
published on the occasion of tenth anniversary of this learning method, explains its forming and connects it with the
web adjustment to the resource of information, which is stored here and is offered to all users via Internet
connection. The new Web- Based Training (WBT) was formed. This era is well described by Baresova (2003).
New programs were created not only to teach, but also to allow the communication between the teacher and the
student. This new system corresponded already with the today´s one, but it got its name just in 1999 (Kopecky,
2006). The WBT system was spreading quickly was improving and so were also the connected programs. “Together
with the pedagogical approach, which started in 2002 to be more and more enforced, with professional management,
blended learning and with clearly positive results of some universities and companies it shows, that eLearning has
its advantages and can be effectively used not only for the distance but also the for face to face education“ (Eger,
2005). These words are valid also for the initial phase of development. Meeting of the Council of the European
Union in 2002 mapped the current use of electronic forms of learning in Europe. Discussion about eLearning
programs for years 2002- 2006 started just next year. It´s main goal was to spread knowledge about new forms of
teaching, but especially improvement of education system. Meeting of the Council of the European Union in
Barcelona (2002) concretized the recommended amount of costs for eLearning development. This recommendation
applied for all member countries and significantly defined the material basis of enhancement of new forms of
teaching. The new wave of improvements in eLearning started- mainly in the content and form of new courses and
programs for universities. This trend intervened also to the state of using the electronic forms of education in Czech
Republic. The subproject ODL NET (Open and Distance Learning Network for Exchange Experiences) played a
great role in contact with other countries. This project was developed in the framework of the European program
Sokrates, which concentrates on propagation of distance education based on information and communication
technologies. This was not only to publish eLearning, but also to clarify its theoretical base. It was meant for
teachers, who started using these forms, for authors of new programs and also for students, who could benefit from
these news forms of learning in the first place. The purpose of this project was to exchange experiences among all
users of new forms of study. Its most important goals are considered: To improve the quality of on-line teaching by
using new learning and methodical approaches and to inform the academic society about technologic development
in area of education on internet. There were eight European countries involved in this project: Great Britain, Ireland,
Portugal, Spain, Greece, Finland, Cyprus and Czech Republic. (Czech Republic, represented by FIM UHK, was
involved as the only country from middle and east Europe). Following institutes took part in a project (since 2004):
Fundación Universidad-Empresa de Valencia, ADEIT, Spain coordinator of the project
University Hradec Kralove, Faculty of informatics and management, Czech Republic
University of Limerick, Ireland
University of Oulu, Finland
Portuguese Open University, Portugal
Centre of Higher Education in Theatre Studies, Greece
University of Hull, Great Britain
University of Cyprus, Cyprus
Look at the above list shows how different learning environment and how different educational groups and units
could be represented in the project.
Sarka Hubackova / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 191 ( 2015 ) 1187 – 1190
Fig. 1. On-line course German at the University of Hradec Kralove
2. Past and Present of eLearning in the Czech Republic
With some advance eLearning was used first particularly by large companies, who did not mind the relatively
high initial financial demand. Its benefits, however, were quickly realized also by rectors and academic university
senates. With the help of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports they supported the creation of computer
networks at colleges that later could almost automatically connect to the Internet. The process was started in 1991,
by CTU (ČVUT). Since the beginning of this millennium the introduction of eLearning at universities has gained
rather fast pace, which has been preserved until now. The CTU was soon joined by other universities, including the
University of Hradec Kralove (UHK) represented in this case mainly the Faculty of Informatics and Management
(FIM). In recent years we have witnessed the penetration of eLearning to secondary and primary schools. The of use
of eLearning today is in tertiary education. Definitions of eLearning provide it primarily as a means of education
based on electronic resources, trying to capture the effectiveness of distance learning in many other fields.
Gradually, the importance of supporting eLearning is emphasized for face-to-face teaching, its processual page is
underlined, educational features are increasing. The initial concept of eLearning was related with issues in
contemporary essays primarily of a technical nature. All essays from initial period repeatedly emphasize the
modernity of the device and the first educational outcomes associated with it. They are evaluated fairly general, as
schematically, the enumerations of advantages and disadvantages of eLearning in contemporary interpretations are
essentially the same, usually not documented nor specific details about the positive or negative aspects of its
implementation. Evaluation is served rather as these features seem to students less often from the perspective of
1190 Sarka Hubackova / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 191 ( 2015 ) 1187 – 1190
teachers. Gradually, the concept of resource begins to fade from the literature, the didactic conception process using
specially adapted and formulated curriculum organized into appropriate programs or courses starts. With the
creation of these, there rise stronger demands to publish more educational aspects of creating courses. Schematic
evaluation of its use is disappearing, in its place is getting arguments based view on its benefits. Different
possibilities of its use for the different subjects were considered. It addresses the general question of what actually
constitutes a pedagogical dimension, but also the specific issues, questions of motivation and feedback. Ways of
usage were seen in combination with face-to-face teaching, the program development goals were submitted to the
needs of the student. First speculation about whether the process of eLearning would replace teachers occurred. The
concept of e-learning as a support to contact face-to-face teaching process, which is when accepting the essential
teaching principles and taking into account the learning styles of students that actually becomes a process, which
will result in a marked increase teaching effectiveness as a whole, was gradually adopted. The pioneer of this new
form of education became colleges. Traditional universities significantly influenced not only the smaller ones but
also private colleges. The result is that today in the Czech Republic there is not any higher education institution on
which this new form of teaching was not introduced.
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This study aimed at evaluating the learning process using e-learning and finding the changes in learning patterns in Indonesian university students’ during Covid-19 pandemic. Researcher has found out that students have changed their learning patterns during the Pandemic. Students who are initially accustomed to direct learning inevitably have to learn online to prevent transmission of the coronavirus. If we are aware of the positive side changing the learning paradigm in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is more directed at efforts to improve the quality of teachers and students in the learning process.Keywords: Learning patterns, Covid-19 Pandemic.
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ان الهدف الاساسي لهذه الدراسة هو استكشاف طبيعة العلاقة بين متغير استراتيجيات إدارة أزمة التعلم بأبعاده المتمثلة بـ(الاستراتيجية الاستباقية؛ استراتيجية الاستجابة؛ الاستراتيجية التفاعلية) ومتغير فاعلية التعليم الإلكتروني بأبعاده (الاداء؛ الرضا؛ الدعم؛ التقنيات؛ مواجهة التحديات) من أجل استمرار العملية التعليمية ومواكبة التطورات التكنولوجية في جامعة الكوفة. فضلاً عن ذلك إن أهمية الدراسة الحالية تكمن في معالجة مشكلة واقعية تؤثر بصورة مباشرة على الجامعة وهي توقف العملية التعليمية نتيجة وباء Covid-19 الذي ظهر بصورة مفاجئة. اذ افترضت الدراسة فرضيات رئيسة وفرعية، وتم اختبارها باستخدام مجموعة من البرامج الإحصائية لمعالجة البيانات التي تم الحصول عليها من خلال اجابات القيادات العليا وحملة الالقاب العلمية بدرجة استاذ واستاذ مساعد في جامعة الكوفة وكلياتها. ولتحديد حجم العينة بصورة صحيحة تم الاستعانه بالجداول الاحصائية لمجتمع الدراسة والذي بلغ (859) تدريسياً وتبين أن حجم العينة الامثل هو (265) تدريسياً، وعلى أساسه تم توزيع الاستبانه، إذ إن هناك (14) استبانة لم يتم استلامها، و(4) استبانة غير مكتملة الأجابة، وعلية تم اعتماد (247) استبانة صالحة للتحليل الأحصائي وبمعدل إستجابه (93%)، ولتحقيق أهداف الدراسة تم تطبيق التحليل الاحصائي لبيانات محل الدراسة باستخدام الاختبارات الاحصائية في برنامج SPSS v.24 و AMOS v.24 المتمثل بـ(مقاييس النزعة المركزية؛ ومعامل الفا كرونباخ؛ وانموذج المعادلات الهيكلية). وقد تبين من نتائج الدراسة أن استراتيجيات إدارة أزمة التعلم لها علاقة تأثير ذي دلالة معنوية وطردية في فاعلية التعليم الالكتروني. وعلى هذا الاساس تم تقديم بعض من التوصيات، على الجامعات جعل التخطيط لإدارة أزمة التعلم جزءاً من التخطيط الاستراتيجي، والاهتمام بتعزيز فاعلية التعليم الإلكتروني في الجامعة، فضلاً عن نشر ثقافة التعليم الإلكتروني بين الطلبة من أجل تحقيق أكبر قدر ممكن من التفاعل مع مثل هذا النوع من التعليم، والقيام بإجراء العديد من الدراسات والبحوث وعقد المزيد من المؤتمرات والندوات لتعزيز فاعلية التعليم الإلكتروني والنهوض به في المستقبل.
Online education is a process where learners encompass various subject areas, disciplines, and degree programs via an internet connection rather than in person. Online learning has become an essential part of delivering flexibility in education. The objective of the book chapter is to create and improve the motivational environment during online classes. It guides students who lack the motivation to achieve their degrees and educational objectives through online education. Students often need more motivation to succeed in the online and face-to-face teaching process. This chapter will focus on identifying the motivational factors, including intrinsic and extrinsic, that are essential for improving students' participation in online education which enables them to understand the importance and necessity of motivation for achieving their goals and desired degrees in any mode of instruction. This chapter will provide them techniques and technology that researchers have proved to be effective and improve the self-motivation factor for students to succeed in all modalities.
Various efforts and forms to provide effective e-learning during the COVID-19 crisis forced teachers during this period to re-examine what form learning and teaching can take in the long term and what role e-learning can play when institutions reopen. This transaction from face-to-face learning to distance learning is gradually developing and leading the world towards a fully digital world and with the proliferation of technology and the information and communication technology (ICT) revolution. The field of e-learning has now become a new epitome widely used, accessed, and implemented by institutions. The main objective of the chapter is to shed light on the transition from face-to-face to online learning. The authors define traditional learning after giving an overview of the so-called new pedagogy and comparing it to traditional pedagogy. Then they define the different types of e-learning by proposing examples each time. Towards the end, they specify the different models and methods of e-learning.
This chapter discusses how the way instruction was delivered during the pandemic has influenced or changed the way teaching takes place today and what conclusions can be drawn regarding student preferences for both online/offline/blended instruction and activities delivered during instruction. Another reason for adapting the way instruction takes place is to implement the direction set by Education 4.0 and the OECD Future of Education and Skills 2030 and to find educational techniques that can achieve the skills needed in the changing labour market. This chapter also discusses the benefits of using different technologies and different types of activities to achieve active learning in lectures. A case study of a broad-based course is presented in which teaching methods were adapted by transferring the knowledge acquired in recent years and adapting the course to the current format of face-to-face teaching as well as online teaching.
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The foreign language teaching using e-learning usually catches on more slowly than the teaching of sciences or technological subjects. We therefore consider the most suitable method of language teaching the blended learning; i.e. the combination of the traditional, face-to-face and on-line teaching.For the foreign language teaching we have prepared both the courses using the blended learning and the courses for a distance education. We also have some experience in the teaching of interuniversity studies, but only distance on-line teaching. At our faculty we have now prepared some on-line German and English courses for beginners and for advanced students. We also offer the courses of general, business and banking English and German. The foreign language on-line courses enable to practise individually, for example, some grammar phenomena with the use of a key as a feedback. Moreover, they help to enlarge the vocabulary, give the possibility of using the listening texts and working with a foreign language text. We consider the use of modern technologies very useful. The on-line courses are also useful in the foreign language teaching.
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Teachers are all the time looking for different ways of increasing the quality of their teaching. At present the use of computers and new technologies has become an important aspect of education. They have enabled the teaching community to redefine some of the strategies and concepts of teaching and learning. In this climate computer-based distance learning courses have emerged. One of the supports of the distance learning is e-learning, which is widely used at the University of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. The article attempts to examine how the traditional role of a teacher in the e-courses changes and what preconditions are pivotal for the tutoring of such courses. In addition to that, it describes a creation of e-learning courses from the pedagogical point of view. Finally, a few problems of practical e-tutoring run at a university level in the Czech Republic are depicted.
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There is still a great deal of opportunity for research on contextual interactive immersion in virtual heritage environments. The general failure of virtual environment technology to create engaging and educational experiences may be attributable not just to deficiencies in technology or in visual fidelity, but also to a lack of contextual and performative-based interaction, such as that found in games. This thesis will suggest improvements will result from more research on the below issues: 1. PlaceversusCyberspace:Whatcreatesasensationofplace(asacultural site) in a virtual environment in contradistinction to a sensation of a virtual environment as a collection of objects and spaces? 2. CulturalPresenceversusSocialPresenceandPresence:Whichfactorshelp immerse people spatially and thematically into a cultural learning experience? 3. RealismversusInterpretation:Doesanattempttoperfectfidelitytosources and to realism improve or hinder the cultural learning experience? 4. EducationversusEntertainment:Doesanattempttomaketheexperience engaging improve or hinder the cultural learning experience? This doctoral thesis outlines a theoretical definition of place, culture, and presence that may become a matrix for virtual environment design as well as a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of appropriating game-style interaction to enhance engagement. A virtual environment was built using Adobe Atmosphere to test whether cultural understanding and engagement can be linked to the type of interaction offered. The thesis also includes a survey of evaluation mechanisms that may be specifically suitable for virtual heritage environments. In its review of appropriate methodology, the thesis suggests new terms and criteria to assess the contextual appropriateness of various evaluation methods, and provides seven schematic examples of game-style plot devices that lend themselves to evaluation. The test-bed is the evaluation of a virtual archaeology project in Palenqué Mexico using theories of cultural immersion as well as computer game technology and techniques. The case study of Palenqué involved five types of evaluation specifically chosen to assess cultural awareness and understanding gained from different forms of interaction in a virtual heritage environment.
Předložená nová publikace známého autora v oblasti e-learningu je zaměřena na aktuální problematiku mediální výchovy. Publikace utřiďuje základní poznatky a předává je čtivou formou tak, aby byla velmi vhodně využitelná v práci učitelů všech stupňů škol. Umožní čtenářům orientaci v problematice elektronické komunikace, a to zejména na internetu. Může být významnou pomůckou pro realizaci úkolů kurikulární reformy v zaměření na informační a komunikační technologie a již vzpomínanou mediální výchovu. V první kapitole nás autor stručně orientuje v základech komunikace a e-komunikace. Důležité je pojednání o netiketě, které je dále v publikaci rozvíjeno. S tím souvisí i vypracování vhodného základního přehledu o nebezpečných komunikačních praktikách. Druhá kapitola přináší přehled typů komunikace tak, že jistě většině čtenářů přinese základní přehled včetně informace o typech komunikace, které dnes dospělí často teprve objevují, ale jejich děti je již využívají. Ve třetí kapitole autor i s využitím příkladů prezentuje některé problémy v mediální komunikaci. S některými příklady může čtenář i nesouhlasit, ale tak to je a je nutné si to uvědomit jak pro výuku, tak i pro vlastní práci s informacemi v médiích a na internetu. Mnozí jistě oceníme kapitolu č. 4, která je zaměřena na jazyk v elektronické komunikaci a i na příkladech ukazuje, co se s naším jazykem děje díky „zkratkové“ komunikaci, slangu atd. Komunikační procesy a komunikační modely jsou popsány skutečně velmi stručně a zde čtenářům doporučujeme pro hlubší studium další odbornou literaturu. Problém je, že pohledy např. psychologů nebo odborníků na marketing uchopují téma ze svého úhlu. Publikaci uzavírají informace k portálům na internetu a k vlivu elektronické komunikace na děti a mládež. Následují přílohy s příklady, na které se autor odvolává v textu kapitol. Utřídění poznatků z e-komunikace a mediální výchovy při čtivosti textu z publikace činí text, který je možné doporučit doslova pro každou sborovnu a širokou veřejnost. Jeho prostudování nám umožňuje daleko lepší orientaci zejména v komunikaci na internetu. Specificky pro základní školy publikace přináší potřebné poznatky pro RVP – ŠVP.
Vyd. 2. Studentům pedagogiky, psychologie a sociálních oborů, posluchačům jiných vysokých škol, kteří si doplňují pedagogické vzdělání, učitelům a vychovatelům v praxi
3., přeprac. a aktualiz. vyd.
Pedagogická efektivita off-line learningu v celoživotnímvzdělávání in Konference Klady a zápory eLearningu na menších vysokých školách, ale nejen na nich
  • J Dostál
Dostál, J. (2008). Pedagogická efektivita off-line learningu v celoživotnímvzdělávání in Konference Klady a zápory eLearningu na menších vysokých školách, ale nejen na nich, Praha, 23. května 2008, Retrieved October 18, 2011 from
Sborník příspěvků konference. Praha : SVŠES, s. r. o., 2008. 273 s
  • Konference Klady A Zápory Elearningu Na Menších Vysokých Školách
  • Nejen Na Nich
Konference Klady a zápory eLearningu na menších vysokých školách, ale nejen na nich. (2008). Sborník příspěvků konference. Praha : SVŠES, s. r. o., 2008. 273 s., ISBN 978-80-86744-76-6.