Book

Abstract

Examines the psychological processes involved in answering different types of survey questions. The book proposes a theory about how respondents answer questions in surveys, reviews the relevant psychological and survey literatures, and traces out the implications of the theories and findings for survey practice. Individual chapters cover the comprehension of questions, recall of autobiographical memories, event dating, questions about behavioral frequency, retrieval and judgment for attitude questions, the translation of judgments into responses, special processes relevant to the questions about sensitive topics, and models of data collection. The text is intended for: (1) social psychologists, political scientists, and others who study public opinion or who use data from public opinion surveys; (2) cognitive psychologists and other researchers who are interested in everyday memory and judgment processes; and (3) survey researchers, methodologists, and statisticians who are involved in designing and carrying out surveys. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... In survey research, sets of items are used to gather data for descriptive and inferential purposes. Items are complex linguistic constructions that trigger a set of interpretations, require a specific kind of action or response in a survey context, and, depending on their content, may appear as attitudinal, factual, time, date, or frequency questions (Tourangeau et al. 2000). A problem that arises with their use is that it is difficult to determine the accuracy of the elicited responses. ...
... Τo understand and map the response process, Tourangeau et al. (2000) have suggested that the formation of an item response involves four major components: (a) the comprehension of an item, comprising attention to and interpretation of an item, (b) the retrieval of relevant information and beliefs from long-term memory, (c) the judgment using relevant retrieval information that are assessed and integrated, and (d) the response, involving a configuration of the judgment to match a response option on the available response scale. Some of the processes are obligatory, while others are optional. ...
... Some of the processes are obligatory, while others are optional. Participants' responses, particularly to attitude questions, are vulnerable to response effects which can be manifested in each one of the four components as a result of the behavior of the respondent, the characteristics of an item, and/or the process of gathering information (Tourangeau et al., 2000;Weijters & Baumgartner, 2012). Such effects include careless responding (e.g., Podsakoff et al., 2003) and acquiescence, the tendency to respond affirmatively to the questions regardless of their content, which threatens the validity of the scores (e.g., Likert, 1932;Nunnally, 1967). ...
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The discrepancy of the scores on responses to negatively and positively worded items has led to hypotheses of inattention, confusion, difficulty, and differential processing of negatively worded items. The present study, utilizing eye-tracking methodology, aimed to fill an explanatory gap regarding response behavior, providing observations on the item-level response process. It experimentally examined characteristics of the items (wording type, self-relevance) and characteristics of the respondents (neuroticism, verbal abilities, and mood) for their impact on response outcomes. A sample of 87 university students completed a computerized version of a questionnaire with items presented in four alternative wording types: positive, negative, negated positive, and negated negative; half of the items referred to attitudes toward the self and the other half to attitudes toward others. Participants’ eye movements during item completion were recorded with the Gazepoint-GP3-HD desk-mounted eye tracker. In linear mixed effects models, wording type and self-relevance were found to relate to response time, time of viewing and revisits to the body of the items and the response options, indicating that there were effects at the stages of comprehension and selection of response. Neuroticism was associated with differential item responses, suggesting a role in later levels of the response process, the retrieval, judgment, and response selection stages. Eye-tracking measures can enhance the examination of response tendencies with regards to item content, item wording, and person characteristics.
... When responding to self-report questions about behavior, participants have to understand the question, remember, add, average, and/or combine the information in order to provide a valid response (Tourangeau et al., 2000). All these comprehension, memory, and response processes create multiple opportunities for measurement error (see, Schwarz, 1999). ...
... The benefits of self-administration are usually explained by the respondents' increased sense of privacy and confidentiality in self-administered settings, compared to personal interview conditions where respondents have to report their behavior to a third person. On the other hand, responses on non-sensitive information are less affected by self-administration because there is no motivation to conceal (Tourangeau et al., 2000). These findings suggest that mode of administration effects result from a motivated process of respondents' editing their answers in a socially desirable way, mostly when they report their answers to a third person. ...
... Further, several studies noted that the benefits of self-administration in the reporting of sensitive behaviors tend to be larger for more recent time frames than for more distant ones (Tourangeau & McNeeley, 2003;Tourangeau et al., 2000;Tourangeau & Yan, in press). For example, in the studies carried out by Turner et al. (1992) and by Schober et al. (1992), the benefits of self-administration in the respondents' disclosure of drug use (i.e. higher reports of drug use in self-administered conditions) are lowest for lifetime, higher for past-year, and highest for past-month prevalence. ...
... Such effects are expected to be large in attitude surveys (Tourangeau et al., 2003). Various studies since the eighties have demonstrated that the size of question order effects may further depend on the topic of the questionnaire (Tourangeau et al., 2000), the respondents' characteristics (Tourangeau et al., 1989a(Tourangeau et al., , 1989b, or interviewer behavior (Snidero et al., 2009). Fewer studies, however, investigated how question order effects are related to the design features of a questionnaire. ...
... Classical experiments in the early eighties have investigated the role of preceding questions (Schuman et al., 1981;Schuman and Ludwig, 1983;Suchman and Presser, 1981). Earlier questions may shift responses for the later question, for instance, by priming a context (Tourangeau et al., 2000). As a result of priming, certain beliefs, values, and attitudes become more accessible when answering the following questions. ...
... On the other hand, when a general question comes first, and questions are redundant, respondents tend to exclude previously gathered information and refer to other aspects of the question (contrast effect). When questions are on a similar level (part-part), previous judgments may serve as standards for later comparisons (judgmental or perceptual contrast (Tourangeau et al., 2000)). Such biased comparisons have been found, for instance, in the study of Silber et al. (2016), where respondents' evaluated the European Union more positively, when it was not preceded by the evaluation of their home county (Germany). ...
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Question order effect refers to the phenomenon that previous questions may affect the cognitive response process and respondents’ answers. Previous questions generate a context or frame in which questions are interpreted. At the same time, in online surveys, the visual design may also shift responses. Past empirical research has yielded considerable evidence supporting the impact of question order on measurement, but few studies have investigated how question order effects vary with the visual design. Our main research question was whether question order effects are different on item-by-item formats compared to grid formats. The study uses data from an online survey experiment conducted on a non-probability-based online panel in Hungary, in 2019. We used the welfare-related questions of the 8’th wave of ESS. We manipulated the questionnaire by changing the position of a question that calls forth negative stereotypes about such social benefits and services. We further varied the visual design by presenting the questions in separate pages (item-by-item) or one grid. The results show that placing the priming questions right before the target item significantly changed respondents’ attitudes in a negative way, but the effect was significant only when questions were presented on separate pages. A possible reason behind this finding may be that respondents engage in a deeper cognition when questions are presented separately. On the other hand, the grid format was robust against question order, in addition, we found little evidence of stronger satisficing on grids. The findings highlight that mixing item-by-item and grids formats in online surveys may introduce measurement inequivalence, especially when question order effects are expected.
... Accurately responding to self-report questionnaires requires a great deal of cognitive effort. For each question, respondents are expected to identify its meaning, thoroughly search all relevant information from memory, integrate the retrieved information, and map their final judgment onto one of the provided response options (Schwarz & Knäuper, 2012;Tourangeau, Rips, & Rasinski, 2000). A widely recognized concern in psychological science is that some participants are not willing or able to adequately perform these mental steps and therefore fail to give precise and plausible answers. ...
... Relatedly, even though we used objective cognitive test scores in our analyses, we cannot say whether A c c e p t e d M a n u s c r i p t 19 specific cognitive functioning domains are more or less closely related to LQR. Given that completing a questionnaire is a complex cognitive task with multiple components that include question interpretation, retrieval and integration of relevant information from memory, and adapting responses to changing answer formats (Krosnick, 1991;Tourangeau et al., 2000), we speculate that LQR may be broadly related to multiple cognitive processes and domains. ...
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Background and Objectives It is widely recognized that survey satisficing, inattentive, or careless responding in questionnaires reduces the quality of self-report data. In this study, we propose that such low-quality responding (LQR) can carry substantive meaning at older ages. Completing questionnaires is a cognitively demanding task and LQR among older adults may reflect early signals of cognitive deficits and pathological aging. We hypothesized that older people displaying greater LQR would show faster cognitive decline and greater mortality risk. Research Design and Methods We analyzed data from 9,288 adults 65 years or older in the Health and Retirement Study. Indicators of LQR were derived from participants’ response patterns in 102 psychosocial questionnaire items administered in 2006-2008. Latent growth models examined whether LQR predicted initial status and change in cognitive functioning, assessed with the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, over the subsequent 10 years. Discrete-time survival models examined whether LQR was associated with mortality risk over the 10 years. We also examined evidence for indirect (mediated) effects in which LQR predicts mortality via cognitive trajectories. Results After adjusting for age, gender, race, marital status, education, health conditions, smoking status, physical activity, and depressive symptoms, greater LQR was cross-sectionally associated with poorer cognitive functioning, and prospectively associated with faster cognitive decline over the follow-up period. Furthermore, greater LQR was associated with increased mortality risk during follow-up, and this effect was partially accounted for by the associations between LQR and cognitive functioning. Discussion and Implications Self-report questionnaires are not formally designed as cognitive tasks but this study shows that LQR indicators derived from self-report measures provide objective, performance-based information about individuals’ cognitive functioning and survival. Self-report surveys are ubiquitous in social science, and indicators of LQR may be of broad relevance as predictors of cognitive and health trajectories in older people.
... Additionally, parenting constructs have particular elements that are vulnerable to the distortion inherent in self-report (Morsbach and Prinz, 2006). Many parenting items can be considered highly sensitive in nature which strengthens the chance that parents attempt to present their own parenting in a way that are more socially desirable rather than choosing the response reflective of their true behavior (Tourangeau et al., 2000). It is a cognitively difficult task to make estimates of potentially high-frequency behavior, such as conversations had with child, over longer periods of time which in turn could lead to less precise estimations of their behavior (Tourangeau et al., 2000). ...
... Many parenting items can be considered highly sensitive in nature which strengthens the chance that parents attempt to present their own parenting in a way that are more socially desirable rather than choosing the response reflective of their true behavior (Tourangeau et al., 2000). It is a cognitively difficult task to make estimates of potentially high-frequency behavior, such as conversations had with child, over longer periods of time which in turn could lead to less precise estimations of their behavior (Tourangeau et al., 2000). There is also an uncertainty to the degree of consensus in the general population about the interpretations of certain parenting items, such as time-out (Clayman and Wissow, 2004). ...
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Background Emerging evidence suggests that overprotective and controlling parenting, often referred to as “helicopter parenting” may have negative implications on the child's mental health such as anxiety and depression. However, no systematic review on the topic exists. Objective Conducting a systematic review to identify all studies where the relationship between helicopter parenting and symptoms of anxiety and/or depression have been investigated. Method A systematic literature search conducted the 3rd of November 2021 yielded 38 eligible studies. Since helicopter parenting is a fairly new construct, this review considered parental control and overprotective parenting to be dimensions of helicopter parenting and thus, eligible for the study. Study quality was assessed in accordance with Campbells Validity Typology. Results The majority of the studies included in this review found a direct relationship between helicopter parenting and symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, validity problems undermine these findings with regarding to assessing the causal relationship between helicopter parenting and these symptoms. There were no longitudinal studies of sufficient quality to determine if helicopter parenting precedes the outcome of anxiety and depression. Conclusion Even though the majority of the studies included in this systematic review found a relationship between helicopter parenting and anxiety and depression, the evidence for this relationship is insufficient and must be investigated further. Findings suggest that it is important to include both maternal and paternal parenting style in future studies as they could affect the outcome of anxiety and depression differently. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO 2020 CRD42020167465, https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=167465 .
... A crucial assumption made by MTMM designs is that respondents' first answer to a particular question does not affect their second answer to it. To put it differently, it is assumed that even if respondents recall the question, they do not recall their initial answer when receiving the question again, but accomplish the information retrieval anew (Tourangeau et al. 2000). However, if respondents use their first answer when processing the second one (e.g., trying to be consistent), then the measures obtained from the repeated questions are not independent of each other, which, in turn, may foster the occurrence of memory effects (van Meurs and Saris 1990). ...
... Finally, Rettig and Blom (2021) proposed a conceptual framework of how later given answers can be influenced by respondents' memory of their previously given answers. The authors propose an extension of the cognitive response process model by Tourangeau et al. (2000), introducing the influence of memory effects. Specifically, they argued that memory effects can either lead to a dependent response (consistency model) or to a repeated response (satisficing model). ...
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A large body of studies estimate the measurement quality of survey questions using multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) experiments. In these experiments, respondents are asked (nearly) identical questions at least twice. Most commonly, this is done within the same survey by, for instance, changing the response scale characteristics. However, it has frequently been argued that the estimates from these experiments might be biased when respondents recall their first answer and base their second answer on the initial one. So far, only little is known about the impact of memory effects on the estimates of measurement quality. In this study, we conducted a MTMM experiment in the probability-based German Internet Panel (N = 4,401) to investigate whether and to what extent measurement quality estimates differ across respondent groups varying in terms of recall. For this purpose, we use a survey question on trust in the German parliament that was asked with three different response scales. The results reveal that the recall of answers and memory effects vary significantly depending on the scales used for the trust in the parliament question. We also found significant differences in measurement quality across different recall groups. However, more refined research is necessary to better understand the association between answer recall and measurement quality estimates.
... A movement to define and understand the cognitive aspects of survey methodology set out response process models that could explain how and why measurement errors arise (Jabine et al., 1984) and could be empirically tested. For surveys of individuals, these models were further developed and described by Tourangeau, Rips and Rasinski (2000). As a result of these initiatives and related research, much is now known about the roles played by questionnaire designers, interviewers, respondents and coders and the interaction between them in shaping the bias and variance of survey estimates. ...
... In the 1960s and 1970s, the cognitive aspects of the response process were not fully recognised -unless a questionnaire is developed to fit two or more modes measurement problems will occur. The cognitive response process (Tourangeau, Rips and Rasinski, 2000) is different depending on mode and mix of modes. Examples of cognitive phenomena include social desirability bias in interview surveys, acquiescence (the tendency for respondents to agree with statements), interviewer errors including fabrication of data, the order of response alternatives, memory and recall, visual aids, and the presence of others during an interview. ...
Chapter
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Using different modes of data collection within or between countries in a cross-national social survey has the potential to introduce methodological artefacts into the data (Martin, 2011). This means that analysts may appear to find no differences in the data or find differences that reflect the mix of data collection modes used rather than the real-world situation. The literature has shown that mode effects are likely to vary by topic, question type and country context, and are therefore hard to predict (Martin and Lynn, 2011). At the same time, methods to measure and control for mode effects are difficult and costly to implement and, in many respects, still in their infancy in terms of development (Olson et al., 2020). This means that, when modes are mixed, great care should be taken in the design and analysis stages to take account of the impact that different modes can have on the data collected. This chapter starts by providing an overview of the ESS before moving on to discuss the challenges faced by cross-national surveys in respect of data collection, focusing on increased costs, decreasing response rates and a contraction in interviewer capacity. We then introduce different mixed-mode designs and summarise the experiments conducted to assess the feasibility and the impact of mixed-mode data collection in the ESS and more recent experiments conducted by the European Values Study (EVS). We continue with a description of the first cross-national, input-harmonised, probability-based web panel, CRONOS, which has been implemented in three countries. In the last section of the chapter, we discuss some of the lessons learned and introduce CRONOS-2, a 12-country web panel currently under construction by the ESS. The chapter concludes by considering the possible implications of this experimental work on data collection mode conducted by the ESS for EU-SILC.
... The study also drew on a predominantly female sample of recent college graduate Latina/os primarily residing in the As with most survey research, our results may also be susceptible to measurement error (Fowler, 2009;Porter, 2013). In spite of our best efforts to attend to respondents' cognition process (Tourangeau et al., 2000), respondents may have overestimated their civic engagement. Respondents may also have experienced recalling errors associated with retrieving events that took place in the past (Fowler, 2009). ...
Article
This study sought to examine how Latina/o1 college graduates engage civically. Through a four-step quantitative design, we found that Latina/o college graduates vote, volunteer, advocate, donate money, serve as cultural and political resources, and run for elected office. We also identified five typologies, or classes, of civically engaged Latina/o college graduates: Activistas, Mentores, Politicos, Votantes, and Indiferentes. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
... Researchers have usually sought to overcome the impossibility of collecting household or individual baseline data during conflict periods by conducting surveys after the events, asking participants to recall their health and living standards before the onset of, or during, conflict [7]. Although potentially useful, these questions may introduce important biases due to recall error, which have been studied in the psychometric literature [3,[23][24][25]. Whilst some of these concerns can be considered relatively standard for any analyses relying on recall survey questions, other issues pertain more specifically to the case of health research undertaken in conflict or humanitarian settings, where trauma may further influence recall. ...
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Background Much applied research on the consequences of conflicts for health suffers from data limitations, particularly the absence of longitudinal data spanning pre-, during- and post-conflict periods for affected individuals. Such limitations often hinder reliable measurement of the causal effects of conflict and their pathways, hampering also the design of effective post-conflict health policies. Researchers have sought to overcome these data limitations by conducting ex-post surveys, asking participants to recall their health and living standards before (or during) conflict. These questions may introduce important analytical biases due to recall error and misreporting. Methods We investigate how to implement ex-post health surveys that collect recall data, for conflict-affected populations, which is reliable for empirical analysis via standard quantitative methods. We propose two complementary strategies based on methods developed in the psychology and psychometric literatures—the Flashbulb and test-retest approaches—to identify and address recall bias in ex-post health survey data. We apply these strategies to the case study of a large-scale health survey which we implemented in Colombia in the post-peace agreement period, but that included recall questions referring to the conflict period. Results We demonstrate how adapted versions of the Flashbulb and test-retest strategies can be used to test for recall bias in (post-)conflict survey responses. We also show how these test strategies can be incorporated into post-conflict health surveys in their design phase, accompanied by further ex-ante mitigation strategies for recall bias, to increase the reliability of survey data analysis—including by identifying the survey modules, and sub-populations, for which empirical analysis is likely to yield more reliable causal inference about the health consequences of conflict. Conclusions Our study makes a novel contribution to the field of applied health research in humanitarian settings, by providing practical methodological guidance for the implementation of data collection efforts in humanitarian contexts where recall information, collected from primary surveys, is required to allow assessments of changes in health and wellbeing. Key lessons include the importance of embedding appropriate strategies to test and address recall bias into the design of any relevant data collection tools in post-conflict or humanitarian contexts.
... There is a general consensus among survey researchers that motivated respondents are more likely to participate in surveys and provide higher quality responses to survey questions than reluctant or uninterested respondents (e.g., Brüggen & Dholakia, 2010;Groves & Couper, 1998;Kaminska et al., 2010;Tourangeau et al., 2000). Satisficing theory (Krosnick, 1991;Krosnick & Alwin, 1987) predicts three conditions, motivation, task difficulty, and ability, interact to promote undesirable respondent behaviors, such as not reading questions carefully, giving random responses, or leaving questions blank, which reflect failure to devote sufficient cognitive effort to the survey-taking task. ...
... Comprehension by itself (understanding of the survey questions), is quite an extensive concern in survey methodology (e.g. Sudman et al., 1996;Tourangeau et al., 2000). ...
Article
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Pediatric intelligence tests, such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, are commonly used diagnostic tools used in the process of diagnosing learning and behavior disabilities. Decisions concerning treatment are made based on the results of these tests and they are frequently used in educational and vocational contexts for important decisions that impact persons’ academic or professional lives. Research has however shown that important errors may occur despite the application of validation processes and adherence to quality criteria for psychometric tests. At the same time this evidence seems not to be pervasively acknowledged in psychological practice and research. In this article, I will showcase research that places attention on sources of measurement error in pediatric intelligence testing, discuss a process-performance approach to measurement in intelligence testing, and propose the “pretest methods,” methods stemming from the field of survey methodology commonly used in questionnaire construction, as a method to help address the problem of sources of measurement error in pediatric intelligence testing and improve the development of these intelligence tests.
... These examples above are just some among many MCS applications that collect both the sensor data generated by the mobile phone and the subjective data generated by users. However, normal (non-expert) users might provide an incorrect report or annotations due to the users' response biases, cognitive bias, carelessness [6,7], and even malicious behavior. Moreover, these MCS systems cannot detect whether the information given by the users are correct or not, while the correctness of the user's input is important to the MCS applications or systems, especially the ones that using machine learning algorithms in the back-end. ...
Article
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Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS) is a novel IoT paradigm where sensor data, as collected by the user’s mobile devices, are integrated with user-generated content, e.g., annotations, self-reports, or images. While providing many advantages, the human involvement also brings big challenges, where the most critical is possibly the poor quality of human-provided content, most often due to the inaccurate input from non-expert users. In this paper, we propose Skeptical Learning, an interactive machine learning algorithm where the machine checks the quality of the user feedback and tries to fix it when a problem arises. In this context, the user feedback consists of answers to machine generated questions, at times defined by the machine. The main idea is to integrate three core elements, which are (i) sensor data , (ii) user answers, and (iii) existing prior knowledge of the world, and to enable a second round of validation with the user any time these three types of information jointly generate an inconsistency. The proposed solution is evaluated in a project focusing on a university student life scenario. The main goal of the project is to recognize the locations and transportation modes of the students. The results highlight an unexpectedly high pervasiveness of user mistakes in the university students life project. The results also shows the advantages provided by Skeptical Learning in dealing with the mislabeling issues in an interactive way and improving the prediction performance.
... A typical rating task entails a multicomponential sequence of cognitive tasks which drive raters to provide their response by selecting one of the possible response categories [1]. It is well-accepted that mining the raters' response process can provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying rating choices [2,3]. To this end, fuzzy set theory has been widely applied in modeling the non-random and subjective components of the rating response (for a recent review, see [4]). ...
Article
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In several research areas, ratings data and response times have been successfully used to unfold the stagewise process through which human raters provide their responses to questionnaires and social surveys. A limitation of the standard approach to analyze this type of data is that it requires the use of independent statistical models. Although this provides an effective way to simplify the data analysis, it could potentially involve difficulties with regard to statistical inference and interpretation. In this sense, a joint analysis could be more effective. In this research article, we describe a way to jointly analyze ratings and response times by means of fuzzy numbers. A probabilistic tree model framework has been adopted to fuzzify ratings data and four-parameters triangular fuzzy numbers have been used in order to integrate crisp responses and times. Finally, a real case study on psychometric data is discussed in order to illustrate the proposed methodology. Overall, we provide initial findings to the problem of using fuzzy numbers as abstract models for representing ratings data with additional information (i.e., response times). The results indicate that using fuzzy numbers leads to theoretically sound and more parsimonious data analysis methods, which limit some statistical issues that may occur with standard data analysis procedures.
... These items scored 0 for "none," 25 for "rather little," 50 for "average," 75 for "rather a lot," and 100 for "very much" on a 0-100 scale for ease of interpretation and comparison, without distorting the linear property of rating. The random dispersion in the survey was used to minimize interference from immediately preceding items (Tourangeau et al., 2000). Chinese identification in the recent week and last year were each measured as the average of five items, such as "Identifying yourself as a Chinese person" and "being proud to be a Chinese person" (Hakim et al., 2015). ...
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National and local identifications among the youth are likely to increase and reduce, respectively, following personal and societal losses experienced due to the localist riot. The localist riot occurs as an opposition to the nation or its regional government, such as that in Hong Kong. According to exchange theory, such riot losses are likely to change the identifications. With the aim to clarify this likelihood, this study surveys 2,000 Hong Kong Chinese youths aged 18–29 years. The survey measured the youth identifications in 2020 and 2019 and riot losses in early 2020 to predict national or local identifications. Results first demonstrate the inverse relationship between national (i.e., Chinese) and local (i.e., Hongkonger) identifications. Essentially, national identification increased with societal riot loss experienced unconditionally and personal riot loss experienced conditionally on prior national identification. Conversely, local identification decreased with personal and societal riot losses experienced conditionally on prior local identification. Results imply that the youth identifications can change due to the riot loss experienced.
... For example, we also provided other design strategies to further mitigate common method bias. As suggested by Tourangeau et al. (2000), considerable effort was taken to ensure that the scale questions were clear, unambiguous, simple, concise, and not double-barreled which also helps mitigate problems related to common method bias. ...
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Archival research reports that managers often use the FIN 48 uncertain tax liability accrual to manage earnings. To assess solutions to this problem, we deconstruct the ethical and psychological reasoning that leads to FIN 48 opportunistic behavior. Hence, we employ a survey of seasoned accounting managers to assess the influences of cynicism, two measures of moral disengagement, and pressure from a CFO on the propensity to engage in FIN 48 earnings management. Specifically, we manipulate the influence of the study scenario supervisory CFO as either a latent bully or a transformational leader. While the CFO bully main effect condition enhances FIN 48 earnings management, the CFO transformational leader condition interacts with less cynical accounting managers to reduce FIN 48 earnings management. We also find that both dispositional trait and situational state moral disengagement factors independently mediate the relationship between the cynicism model antecedent and FIN 48 earnings management. Collectively, study findings provide implications for both theory and practice.
... To our knowledge, there is no dedicated theoretical research on this kind of careless responding. Nevertheless, Tourangeau's et al. (2000) model of survey responding suggests that production of a seemingly arbitrary or haphazard responses may be a viable strategy for respondents with motivation or skills too low to engage in a high-attention responding process. Moreover, available research on the cognitive processes of random number sequence generation strongly suggests that people show a tendency to Gottfried et al., Autocorrelation Screening Method introduce a structure into their answers even when they are tasked to choose numbers at random. ...
Article
Valid data are essential for making correct theoretical and practical implications. Hence, efficient methods for detecting and excluding data with dubious validity are highly valuable in any field of science. This paper introduces the idea of applying autocorrelation analysis on self-report questionnaires with single-choice numbered, preferably Likert-type, scales in order to screen out potentially invalid data, specifically repetitive response patterns. We explain mathematical principles of autocorrelation in a simple manner and illustrate how to efficiently perform detection of invalid data and how to correctly interpret the results. We conclude that autocorrelation screening could be a valuable screening tool for assessing the quality of self-report questionnaire data. We present a summary of the method’s biggest strengths and weaknesses, together with functional tools to allow for an easy execution of autocorrelation screening by researchers, and even practitioners or the broad public. Our conclusions are limited by the current absence of empirical evidence about the practical usefulness of this method.
... The reason that we made this change is that context effects are known to influence responses in both traditional and online surveys (e.g., Reips, 2002;Smyth et al., 2009;Tourangeau et al., 2000), including surveys of inflation expectations (Niu & Harvey, 2021). Our concern here is that people's responses to survey questions eliciting density forecasts may be influenced by their earlier responses to survey questions eliciting point (or interval) forecasts. ...
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There are three main ways in which judgmental predictions are expressed: point forecasts; interval forecasts; probability density forecasts. Do these approaches differ solely in terms of their simplicity of elicitation and the detail they provide? We examined error in values of the central tendency extracted from these three types of forecast in a domain in which all of them are used: lay forecasts of inflation. A first experiment using a between‐participant design showed that the mean level of forecasts and the bias in them are unaffected by the type of forecast but that judgment noise (and, hence, overall error) is higher in point forecasts than in interval or density forecasts. A second experiment replicated the difference between point and interval forecasts in a within‐participant design (of the sort used in inflation surveys) and showed no effect of the order in which different types of forecast are made but revealed that people are more overconfident in interval than in point forecasts. A third experiment showed that volatility in past data increases bias in point but not interval forecasts, and that taking the average of two point forecasts made by an individual reduces judgment noise to the level found in interval forecasting.
... Some methodological limitations need to be discussed. Notably, survey data can be influenced by different biases and social desirability effects (Tourangeau, Rips, & Rasinski, 2000). The current study only captures forensic self-reported attitudes and experiences conducting interpreter-mediated child interviews. ...
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Background Legal practitioners have expressed concerns regarding the quality of interpreter-mediated forensic interviews with child witnesses. Objective This mixed-methods study aimed to examine Swedish forensic interviewers' experiences of conducting child interviews via a language interpreter. Participants and setting Forty-one forensic interviewers from the Swedish Police Authority with experience conducting interpreter-mediated child interviews participated in a digital survey. Methods Their responses were analyzed using both qualitative (thematic and content analyses) and quantitative (descriptive and inferential statistics) approaches. Results The forensic interviewers' general experiences of conducting interpreter-mediated child interviews were negative. Limited access to authorized legal interpreters and doubts regarding the accuracy of interpretation were described as major obstacles in these investigations. The presence of an interpreter could negatively impact children's disclosure process and limit their chances of expressing their views during legal proceedings. Conclusions According to Swedish forensic interviewers, the quality of interpreter-mediated child interviews urgently needs to be addressed. Our results are consistent with previous surveys from Australia and the United States, highlighting the international relevance of these topics. Future improvements are vital to ensure that all children are provided an equal right to be heard during criminal investigations, regardless of the native language.
... First, there is mounting evidence that student self-reported survey data to measure diversity experiences have limited content, construct, and criterion validity (Bowman, 2011;Kuklinski, 2006;Porter, 2011;Porter, 2013). Survey methodology research posits a four-step process to ensure valid responses: comprehension, retrieval of information, judgement, and response mapping (Tourangeau et al., 2000). Difficulties at each step manifest in lack of common understanding of vague quantifiers (e.g., Likert scales), fading recall with passage of time, telescoping distant events, social desirability bias, halo effect from general perception, and response accuracy variation by student ability, to name lingering concerns (Clayson & Sheffet, 2006;Pike, 1999;Porter, 2011;Porter, 2013). ...
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To address the mounting concern about the validity of student self-reported data, this study relies on official matriculation records to gauge the effect of classroom diversity on student dropout risk. Using panel data to track the 4-year dropout risk of a cohort of new first-year students (N = 3545) at a public research university, we employ a discrete-time-to-event history model to estimate the marginal effect of classroom ethnic-racial composition while controlling for both time-variant and time-invariant student-level and classroom-level factors on demographics, precollege preparation, college academic experience, campus living arrangement, and financial aid support. The study finds: 1) The effect of classroom ethnic-racial composition during a student’s enrollment spell varies across student ethnic-racial identity, first-generation status, and level of academic preparation of classroom peers; exposure to Asian classmates is associated with a lower dropout risk for Black students, while exposure to underrepresented minority classmates (excluding Asians) is associated with lower dropout risk for Hispanic, Native American, multi-ethic, and first-generation students. 2) Semester-to-semester rise in exposure to Asian classmates is associated with a lower dropout risk for Black students. 3) Observed effects of classroom ethnic-racial composition do not vary significantly with enrollment in diversity-focused courses. 4) Estimated effect sizes of ethnic-racial classroom composition are very small in comparison to effects of student academic engagement and success. Thus, the nexus between diversity and academic persistence is moderated by a host of factors, both time variant and invariant, and is difficult to leverage operationally due to observed small effects and student discretionary behavior.
... Theories of the process of answering questions, and the various rules for the design of good questionnaires, have developed significantly since the mid-20th century (e.g. Bradburn et al. 2004;Saris & Gallhofer 2007;Tourangeau et al. 2000). However, the main body of research has been developed in surveys for adult populations and in studies that do not involve comparisons over time or across countries. ...
Chapter
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In the Nordic countries, the Internet is widely understood as a resource that young people can access to engage with and participate in digital culture and society (Helsper, Kalmus, Hasebrink, Sagvari & de Haan 2013). Recent research from Norway, for example, indicates that 96 % of children aged 9–17 have their own mobile phone. Norwegian children also spend on average a little under four hours per day on the Internet (Staksrud & Ólafsson 2019). Similar findings are reported across the Nordic region (Kupiainen, Suoninen & Nikunen 2011; Svenskarna och internet 2018). Can we therefore assume that all Nordic children and young people enjoy equal access to the Internet and to the opportunities for participation in the digital culture that such access facilitates? In order to answer this question, I invite you to think about what equal access means for you. Do you think that all Nordic children should have equal access to opportunities to express their culture and identities, regardless of which language or languages they use? In this chapter I consider these questions and the implications of their answers for Sámi youth and young adults. I present interview material gathered during 18 months between 2012 and 2014 with four young Sámi women and three young Sámi men (aged 20–35 years). The interviews explore how these young adults use social media to create new opportunities for communication in their languages. By engaging in this socially innovative media use, these young adults negotiate access to digital media both for themselves and for other young Sámi-language users. The interview data introduce some of the ways in which these Sámi young adults experience inequality of access to the devices, applications, and infrastructures that constitute the Internet. I submit that this inequality relates to opportunities to communicate through Sámi languages and to aspects of Sámi culture and identity.
... The next step is to put in place the hypothetical market of WTD. Visitors have the option of being able to write their answers to reduce interviewer bias (Tourangeau et al., 2007) or the interviewer can be asked to write them down. Some respondents, especially elderly visitors and those caring for children or toddlers, ask interviewers to read questions and fill answers on their behalf. ...
Article
A person may contribute to the conservation of species through donations. The willingness to donate (WTD) to conserve endangered species can depend on many factors. This research aims to determine the willingness of visitors to Indonesia's zoos and safari parks to make a donation for species conservation and identify the determinants of their WTD through preferences toward certain species. This research focused on 12 priority endangered mammals. The study began with a preliminary survey of 110 respondents in January 2020, followed by data collection in February 2020 involving 1011 adult visitors to zoos and safari parks in Java and Bali. Specifically, descriptive statistics in the form of percentages ere used to analyze the influence of preferences toward species conservation and amount of donation while considering individual characteristics such as gender, age, place of residence, occupation, and level of education. Our results confirmed that mammals, mega-herbivores and large carnivores are very popular among young adult visitors. Overall, the results demonstrated that visitors placed rhino, elephant and tiger as the three priority species to be conserved in terms of donation given. It is clear that these three charismatic species have a very high conservation value in the eyes of the people. Furthermore, the characteristics of species and the knowledge and psychological preferences of the visitors can contribute to the determination of the preference for the number of donations to certain wildlife species. Key words: charismatic species, conservation institutions, demographic characteristics, Indonesia, primate
... They draw inferences from the structure or order of the response options, have some difficulties with numerical categories and rating scales and thus use a number of strategies to simplify the task of mapping their judgments onto an acceptable answer. Additionally, despite respondents' tendency to distribute their responses among all the response categories, they show some reluctance to use the extreme categories or endpoints of the response scale, i.e. they tend to cluster their opinions around a central response option (Tourangeau et al., 2000). ...
Chapter
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Surveys of public perception of science are the main tool for analysing the relationship between science and society. The origins are public opinion polls and, therefore, they tend to be designed from the perspective of what can be defined as a “sociological paradigm”. It is based on two central premises: 1) the questions must be formulated as neutral statements so as not to influence the minds of the respondents and skew their answers, 2) to be valid, the data must come from a representative sample of the population. From a research perspective, it can be said that the surveys thus designed are equivalent to working under ideal and controlled conditions in a laboratory. But research can and should also be done in real or natural conditions. This chapter describes the image of science in a sample obtained under natural conditions through a marketing campaign on Facebook. They show that despite the fact that in the “traditional” surveys of public perception of science in Spain (for example, the latest Eurobarometer on science and technology) there seems to be 41% of the population very interested in the subject and 45% moderately interested, only 2% (at best) of people contacted via Facebook were interested enough to click on an ad asking them to answer a survey to know their image of science. As a result, we obtained a sample of science "advocates": people who are very interested in it but from a critical perspective: they believe that science and technology bring great benefits, but also risks. On the other hand, in their role as "defenders" they tend to disagree with the public participating in decision-making on scientific and technological issues.
... Theoretical approaches to explaining partial non-response are essentially related to a cognitive model and to a rational choice model. The former maintains that partial non-response can occur when knowledge or cognitive effort is required of the person interviewed and they do not want to assume it at that time (Tourangeau et al. 2000). This situation is more likely when the survey taps into issues with which the interviewee is not familiar or that are complex to understand due to the high level of knowledge required (Krosnick 1991). ...
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This paper provides empirical evidence on the prevalence and explanation of partial non-response in surveys conducted among political elites. We use data from the Parliamentary Elites of Latin America (PELA) project, a face-to-face survey conducted in each Latin American country for each legislative period over the last 25 years. Given the scarce literature on partial non-response in relation to elites, we use some of the explanations found in citizen survey studies as a starting point. Taking into account the multilevel nature of the data (parliamentarians grouped into countries and legislative periods or waves), we have estimated a multilevel Poisson model with two levels. First level (individual) variables are: gender, age, education level, and legislative experience. Second level (contextual) variables are: country and survey wave. In a second model, we also included the gender of the research team as a control variable. Results show that variables explaining a higher rate of partial non-response in elites are, as with studies among the general population, the age and gender of the interviewee. Older representatives and female legislators tend to indicate ‘don’t know’ or ‘no answer’ more frequently than younger and male representatives. Furthermore, part of the variation in non-response rates can be attributed to the country and survey wave.
... All of the improved or newly integrated concepts and instruments regarding determinants of migration status and discrimination were cognitively pre-tested [56][57][58] to assure a common understanding in German and in five further languages (i.e., Arabic, Croatian, Italian, Polish, and Turkish). Instruments were further adapted at points where the cognitive pretesting revealed serious discrepancies in understanding [53]. ...
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Germany is a country of immigration; 27% of the population are people with a migration background (PMB). As other countries, Germany faces difficulties in adequately including hard-to-survey populations like PMB into national public health monitoring. The IMIRA project was initiated to develop strategies to adequately include PMB into public health monitoring and to represent diversity in public health reporting. Here, we aim to synthesize the lessons learned for diversity-oriented public health monitoring and reporting in Germany. We also aim to derive recommendations for further research on migration and health. We conducted two feasibility studies (interview and examination surveys) to improve the inclusion of PMB. Study materials were developed in focus groups with PMB. A systematic review investigated the usability of the concept of acculturation. A scoping review was conducted on discrimination as a health determinant. Furthermore, core indicators were defined for public health reporting on PMB. The translated questionnaires were well accepted among the different migrant groups. Home visits increased the participation of hard-to-survey populations. In examination surveys, multilingual explanation videos and video-interpretation services were effective. Instead of using the concept of acculturation, we derived several dimensions to capture the effects of migration status on health, which were more differentiated. We also developed an instrument to measure subjectively perceived discrimination. For future public health reporting, a set of 25 core indicators was defined to report on the health of PMB. A diversity-oriented public health monitoring should include the following: (1) multilingual, diversity-sensitive materials, and tools; (2) different modes of administration; (3) diversity-sensitive concepts; (4) increase the participation of PMB; and (5) continuous public health reporting, including constant reflection and development of concepts and methods.
... This becomes especially evident relating to nursing home residents (NHRs), where cognitive impairment (CI), physical limitations or limited audio-visual abilities are rather common [10][11][12]. Given these population-based constraints, the question-answer processes [13,14] might be challenging especially for older respondents and introduce specific threats to survey data quality [1,14,15]. Here, interviewers play a crucial role, may influence respondents' provided answers and are a decisive factor for the quality of the collected data [16,17]. ...
Article
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Introduction Face-to-face surveys are applied frequently when conducting research in older populations. Interviewers play a decisive role in data quality, may affect measurement and influence results. This study uses survey data about pain in nursing home residents and analyses, whether affiliation-of-interviewer (internal vs. external to nursing home) and gender-of-interviewer affect residents’ responses in terms of interviewer variance and systematically varying pain reports. Methods Overall, 258 nursing home residents with up to moderate cognitive impairment were examined by 61 interviewers about pain intensity and interference applying the Brief Pain Inventory. Interviewer variance was measured using intra-interviewer correlation coefficients (ρ). Two-factorial covariance analysis was applied to analyse whether pain intensity and interference scores differ by interviewer characteristics. Results Interviewer heterogeneity accounts for almost one quarter of total variance on average. Interviewer variance is higher for internal and male interviewers than for external and female interviewers. Covariance analyses show significant effects of interviewer characteristics on pain reports. Average pain intensity and interference scores vary considerably by interviewer gender and affiliation. Highest pain intensity was reported towards female internal and male external interviewers; highest pain interference was reported towards male external interviewers. Conclusion Residents’ answers substantially differ in relation to who is assessing pain. There is a risk of imprecise and biased survey estimates on sensitive topics like pain in nursing homes. Interviewer gender and affiliation seem to evoke gender-specific and status-related expectations and attributions which influence residents’ response process. Interviewer effects pose a considerable threat to survey data quality in institutionalised older populations. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afac008
... When interpreting these results, it is important to bear in mind the inherent limitations with survey data, including social desirability effects and difficulties estimating past experiences (Tourangeau et al., 2000). The current study only captures police interviewers' self-described interviewing practices. ...
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Research‐based interviewing techniques typically rely upon suspects being, at least partially, responsive and engaged in the conversation. To date, the scientific literature is more limited regarding situations where suspects exercise their legal right to silence. The present study aimed to examine Swedish police officers' self‐reported strategies when interviewing suspects who decline to answer questions. A total of 289 police officers responded to a national survey that included questions about handling silence. The participants worked with a wide range of criminal cases, including financial crimes, fraud, violent offences, domestic abuse, volume crime and traffic violations. We used content analysis to examine their written responses to the open‐ended question: ‘What, if any, strategies do you use when interviewing suspects who speak very little or not at all?’ Four main categories were identified relating to (1) question strategies (e.g. asking the questions anyway, using silence), (2) information strategies (e.g. emphasizing the benefits of cooperating and informing about their legal right to silence), (3) supportive strategies (e.g. being friendly and asking about reasons for silence) and (4) procedural strategies (e.g. changing interviewers and conducting multiple interviews). Practitioners working with violent crimes reported meeting silent suspects more frequently compared with practitioners working with other criminal offences. The results provide an initial exploration into the various strategies used by police interviewers when questioning suspects who decline to answer questions. Further research is necessary for understanding and evaluating the ethics and effectiveness of such strategies.
... Theories of the process of answering questions, and the various rules for the design of good questionnaires, have developed significantly since the mid-20th century (e.g. Bradburn et al. 2004;Saris & Gallhofer 2007;Tourangeau et al. 2000). However, the main body of research has been developed in surveys for adult populations and in studies that do not involve comparisons over time or across countries. ...
Book
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This is a research anthology about children’s and young people’s leisure cultures in the Nordic countries. Children’s and young people’s practices take centre stage in this book for the purpose of exploring culture from within their own practices, focusing on what they do. In this book, this is expressed through, how leisure culture creates social mobility, how children move between and multitask digital technologies and platforms, and how they on a regular basis are engaged and active in multiple cultural activities such as going to the theatre, singing, or online gaming. It also engages with leisure culture in terms of venues where people, objects, ideas, imaginations, and pleasures move in and out of one another. The concept of culture is in constant motion through the chapters entangling social processes with cultural processes, cultural heritage with popular and digital culture, doing and making in practice with place, and markets with cultural policies. This collection demonstrates that leisure culture gets its meanings in and through social relations and is not solely the expressions of individual identity work.
... When analyzing survey data, many researchers follow (intentionally or unintentionally) the assumption that respondents provide the best possible answers to survey questions and thus, produce unbiased responses. Ideally, respondents undergo four different stages of cognitive processing when generating an answer to any type of survey question (Tourangeau et al., 2000): (1) comprehension of the question, (2) retrieval of relevant information from memory, (3) formation of a judgement, and eventually, (4) reporting the final answer to the question. If respondents carry out all four stages carefully and comprehensively, they provide optimized responses to a survey question (Krosnick, 1991). ...
Preprint
Satisficing response behavior can be a threat to the quality of survey responses. Past research has provided broad empirical evidence on the existence of satisficing and its consequences on data quality, however, relatively little is known about the extent of satisficing over the course of a panel study and its impact on response quality in later waves. Drawing on panel conditioning research, we use question design experiments to investigate whether learning effects across waves of a panel study cause changes in the extent of satisficing and if so, whether general survey experience (process learning) or familiarity with specific question content (content learning) accounts for those changes. We use data from a longitudinal survey experiment comprising six panel waves administered within a German non-probability online access panel. To investigate the underlying mechanism of possible learning effects, the experimental study randomly assigned respondents to different frequencies of receiving identical question content over the six panel waves. Our results show the existence of satisficing in every panel wave, which is in its magnitude similar to the extent of satisficing in the probability-based GESIS Panel that we use as a benchmark study. However, we did not find changes in the extent of satisficing across panel waves, nor did we find moderation effects of the interval between the waves, respondents’ cognitive ability, or motivation. Additional validity analyses showed that satisficing does not only affect the distribution of individual estimates by 15 percent or more but also can have an effect on associations between variables.
... Critically however, we rely on survey questions using these response options to minimize cognitive burden from survey participants and because our primary interest is less in whether "often" means the same thing to 2 different doctors than to the same doctor at multiple points in time which is less subject to the noted limitation. 41 Next, while there are several practice-level factors which could influence telehealth adoption, our survey of physicians was unable to capture practice level characteristics. As such, exploring the impact of practice-level measures on telehealth use by primary care physicians is an important direction for future research. ...
Article
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Introduction Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, telehealth utilization was growing slowly and steadily, although differentially across medical specialties in the United States. The pandemic dramatically expanded physician use of telehealth, but our understanding of how much telehealth use has changed in primary care in the United States, the correlates of physician telehealth uptake, and the frequency with which primary care physicians intend to use telehealth after the pandemic are unknown. This paper is designed to assess these important questions. Methods Using data from an original national survey of 625 primary care physicians conducted from May 14 to May 25, 2021, we investigate the frequency of physician telehealth use before and during the pandemic and intended use after the pandemic. We also assess the correlates of changes in telehealth use by physicians, comparing telehealth use before the pandemic to use during and after the pandemic. Results The proportion of primary care physicians using telehealth often, jumped from 5.3% (95% CI 3.5, 7.0) before the pandemic to 46.2% (95% CI 42.3, 50.2) during the pandemic. More importantly, over 70% of physicians intended to use telehealth at least occasionally after the pandemic compared to just 18.7% before, with younger physicians, physicians without telehealth training in medical school, and Asian physicians most likely to increase their telehealth use long-term. Discussion The COVID-19 pandemic has spurred expansion in telehealth use by primary care physicians that will continue to shape care delivery well beyond the pandemic. Policy change could be needed to facilitate this growth of telehealth long-term.
... After excluding the most common reasons for not responding to the survey (e.g., vague, sensitive or difficult questions, absence of survey relevance and its length, time burden, irreverent treatment, survey saturation, security concerns) as proposed by Tourangeau et al. (2000) and Gideon (2012) owing to their improbability, we hypothesise that no answer situation in the presented case is predominantly the consequence of an absence of clear personal opinions about the specific topic in question. ...
Article
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The role of lay employees in the Catholic Church has grown over the past few decades. As a consequence, the overall quality of human resources management (HRM), which includes the process of hiring, has become crucial within Church organisations. After an overview of the general theoretical findings about the process of hiring, we continue by presenting a survey executed among members of the Slovenian Bishops' Conference about value orientations concerning the hiring of lay persons within the Slovenian dioceses. The survey results were unexpected. We attempt to explain them within the scope of possible differences between the general HRM theory findings and research focused exclusively on the Church. Our conclusion is that, as a rule, Church practice does not follow the principle of creating a large pool of possible candidates for the job. Rather, it depends on more personal, individual invitations communicated to previously selected applicants.
... In a survey, the respondents must understand and answer the questions correctly to produce accurate and valuable results. Cognitive psychology provides a theoretical framework to understand how respondents answer survey questions (4,5). The four steps needed to answer a question are (a) comprehension of the questions, (b) retrieval of the information asked for, (c) judgment of the information, and (d) response. ...
Article
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Antimicrobial resistance is a complex topic requiring interdisciplinary solutions embedded in One Health thinking. Currently, many surveys are underway in low- and middle-income countries to study how antimicrobial use in the livestock sector is driving resistance. In a survey, the respondents must understand and answer the questions correctly to produce accurate and valuable results. Pretesting survey questions is therefore important but sometimes not performed due to limited time and resources. Cognitive interviewing is a pretesting method to give insights into the respondent's way of interpreting and mentally processing the survey questions to identify problems and finding ways to improve the questions. It has previously been suggested that cognitive interviews may be difficult to use in some cultural settings. This study aimed to use cognitive interviews in a respondent-adjusted way to study how survey questions related to antimicrobial use are understood and answered by 12 small-scale farmers in Kenya and Uganda. The results show that even a small number of interviews and using interviewers with limited knowledge of cognitive interviewing can identify many problems in survey questions and the survey tool. Cognitive interviews may provide a feasible and affordable way of pretesting questionnaires in situations where time and resources are limited, for example, during a disease outbreak.
... The study adopted a longitudinal approach based on real-time data collection during the Covid-19 pandemic. Real-time data collection has the advantage of avoiding retrospective bias (Hassett and Paavilainen-Mäntymäki, 2013) caused by cognitive constraints associated to memory and 8 reconstruction of past events (Tourangeau et al., 2000). Thus, it is particularly adequate when dealing with a disruptive event of long duration. ...
Article
Purpose The present study used a process approach to examine how a small entrepreneurial family business in the tourism industry evolved during different stages of the Covid-19 pandemic and across different dimensions of resilience. Design/methodology/approach The research strategy consisted of a real-time longitudinal case study during the Covid-19 pandemic in Brazil, based on interviews conducted with the founders of the business. Findings The results show how the firm responded to the pandemic and moved through different stages – interruption, loss, resumption, and recovery – as the crisis evolved. During each stage, there were manifestations of different dimensions of organizational resilience: anticipation/awareness, coping and adaptation. The entrepreneurs mobilized several capabilities – emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and relational – during the different stages and across different dimensions to face and respond to the pandemic. Originality/value The contributions of the study stem from the lack of research on how small entrepreneurial family businesses in the tourism industry are impacted by disruptive events of long duration and multiple cycles. Specifically, the study contributes to the understanding of how this type of firm responds to these crises, mobilizing different capabilities at different stages and across different dimensions of organizational resilience.
... In addition, if questionnaires are allowed to be completed on mobile devices, the number and magnitude of environmental distractions can be more severe, including completion of the questionnaire in bars or restaurants, at sporting events, or in any number of highly distracting locations outside of the home. As described by Tourangeau, Rips, and Rasinski (2000) environmental distractions can result in respondents who do not adequately engage in one or more of a number of fundamental stages of cognitive processing: (1) accurately interpreting the meaning of the survey item; (2) searching memory for the relevant information; (3) summarizing this information into a unified judgment; and (4) conveying that judgment in the most accurate way, given the available response options. ...
Article
Methodology used in sensory and consumer research has changed rapidly over the past several decades, and consumer research is now frequently executed online. This comes with advantages, but also with the potential for poor quality data due to uncontrolled elements of survey administration and execution. Published papers that utilize online data rarely report metrics of data quality or note precautions that were taken to ensure valid data. The aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the factors that influence online data quality. This is achieved by 1) identifying factors that can impact the reliability and validity of consumer data obtained with online questionnaires, 2) highlighting indices of online questionnaire data quality that can be used by researchers to assess the likelihood that their data are of poor quality, and 3) recommending a number of indices, counter-measures and best practices that can be used by sensory and consumer researchers to assess online questionnaire data quality and to ensure the highest degree of reliability and validity of their data. By making researchers aware of these sources of invalidity and by presenting available remedies and good practices, it is our intention that sensory and consumer scientists will adopt these measures and report them as a routine part of publishing online questionnaire data. Specific suggestions are offered regarding the important elements of data quality that should be included in scientific manuscripts.
... Second, the survey responses may reflect some level of social desirability bias. Individuals, especially those who are low-income and those with low educational attainment, as may be the case with persons experiencing homelessness, tend to respond favorably regardless of content [41,42]. Our research team constituted persons, who had experiences with homelessness either directly or indirectly; having individuals who could identify with the participants' background may have attenuated but not eliminated participants' tendency to give favorable responses. ...
Article
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Background Smoking rates among populations experiencing homelessness are three times higher than in the general population. Developing smoking cessation interventions for people experiencing homelessness is often challenging. Understanding participant perceptions of such interventions may provide valuable insights for intervention development and implementation. We assessed participants’ satisfaction and preferences for the Power to Quit (PTQ) program. Methods PTQ was a 26-week community-based smoking-cessation RCT among people experiencing homelessness. A total of 315 of the 430 enrolled participants completed the 26 week-study feedback survey. Overall program satisfaction was measured on a 5-point Likert scale by asking the question “Overall, how satisfied were you with the Power to Quit Program?” Analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with overall program satisfaction. Results Participants were mostly male (74.9%), African American (59.0%), 40 years and older (78.2%), and not married or living with a partner (94.9%). Visa gift cards were the most preferred incentive followed by bus tokens and Subway restaurant coupons. The patch and counseling were the top-ranked intervention component, 55.3% rated the patch as very helpful; 59.4% felt counseling sessions was very helpful; 48.6% found reminder phone calls or messages most helpful for appointment reminders. Majority (78.7%) said they were very satisfied overall, 80.0% were very satisfied with the program schedule, and 85.4% were very satisfied with program staff. Race and age at smoking initiation were predictors of overall program satisfaction. African American/Black participants were 1.9 times more likely to be satisfied with the program compared to White participants. Conclusion Majority of the participants of PTQ were satisfied with the program. This study supports the acceptability of a smoking cessation program implemented in a population experiencing homelessness. The high rate of satisfaction among African American participants may be in part because of race concordance between participants, study staff, and community advisory board. Including staff that have a shared lived experience with participants in a smoking cessation study may improve the participant satisfaction within such studies.
... First, regarding the survey of training effectiveness, all statements and motivations on intended behavioural changes after the training were self-reported here. Thus, results may be biased by social desirability issues [50]. However, since the repeated measurement of the survey items occurred in a time frame of six weeks, it is unlikely that respondents were able to recall their initial responses to the same questions. ...
Article
Background: Rapidly changing stressful working conditions put new challenges on mental health in future work, especially for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) which need to be addressed on an organisational level. To promote, secure and sustain a healthy workforce in the long run, primary prevention of psychosocial risks is needed. Still, 70% of EU companies and over 85% of German SMEs lack the legally required implementation of psychosocial risk assessment (PRA) in their occupational safety and health (OSH) management. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the digital training PsyHealth worXs! as a suitable approach to teach OSH stakeholders how to conduct PRA. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal evaluation study with two measurement times in the first and last week of the digital training based on N = 312 questionnaires. Results: After the training, participants' knowledge of the PRA process was significantly higher, and they felt significantly more competent to derive OSH interventions. Overall, the process of PRA and the involvement of stakeholders were perceived as significantly easier. Conclusion: Results suggest that the digital training provides an easily accessible opportunity for SMEs to successfully enable their OSH management to implement PRA strategies. Future research will have to evaluate the overall long-term implementation increase of PRA in German SME companies.
... Applying verbal probing and think-aloud technique, we conducted semi-structured cognitive interviews. The aim was to assess the underlying cognitive mechanisms in item processing according to Tourangeau et al. [26]: comprehension, information retrieval, judgement and response behaviour. At first, patients were asked to verbalize their thoughts when answering the questions. ...
Article
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Background Patients with multiple long-term conditions often face a variety of challenges arising from the requirements of their health care. Knowledge of perceived treatment burden is crucial for optimizing treatment. In this study, we aimed to create a German version of the Multimorbidity Treatment Burden Questionnaire (MTBQ) and to evaluate its validity. Methods The steps to translate the MTBQ included forward/back translation, cognitive interviews ( n = 6) and a pilot test ( n = 7). Psychometric properties of the scale were assessed in a cross-sectional survey with primary care patients aged 65 and older with at least 3 long-term conditions ( n = 344). We examined the distribution of responses, dimensionality, internal reliability and construct validity. Results Cognitive interviewing and piloting led to minor modifications and showed overall good face validity and acceptability. As expected, we observed a positively skewed response distribution for all items. Reliability was acceptable with McDonald’s omega = 0.71. Factor analysis suggested one common factor while model fit indices were inconclusive. Predefined hypotheses regarding the construct validity were supported by negative associations between treatment burden and health-related quality of life, self-rated health, social support, patient activation and medication adherence, and positive associations between treatment burden and number of comorbidities. Treatment burden was found to be higher in female participants ( Mdn 1 = 6.82, Mdn 2 = 4.55; U = 11,729, p = 0.001) and participants with mental health diagnoses ( Mdn 1 = 9.10, Mdn 2 = 4.55; U = 3172, p = 0.024). Conclusions The German MTBQ exhibited good psychometric properties and can be used to assess the perceived treatment burden of patients with multimorbidity.
... We constructed three response quality indicators capturing three response patterns which indicate low response quality: (1) item non-response, (2) occurrence of primacy effects and (3) non-differentiation (Krosnick, 1991;Lugtig & Toepoel, 2016;Tourangeau et al., 2000). We chose these response quality indicators because they were the most suitable ones given the questions asked in CRONOS wave zero. ...
Article
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As ever more surveys are conducted, recruited respondents are more likely to already have previous survey experience. Furthermore, it has become more difficult to convince individuals to participate in surveys, and thus, incentives are increasingly used. Both previous survey experience and participation in surveys due to incentives have been discussed in terms of their links with response quality. This study aims to assess whether previous web survey experience and survey participation due to incentives are linked with three indicators of response quality: item non‐response, primacy effect and non‐differentiation. Analysing data of the probability‐based CROss‐National Online Survey panel covering Estonia, Slovenia and Great Britain, we found that previous web survey experience is not associated with item non‐response and the occurrence of a primacy effect but is associated with non‐differentiation. Participating due to the incentive is not associated with any of the three response quality indicators assessed. Hence, overall, we find little evidence that response quality is linked with either previous web survey experience or participating due to the incentive.
... EN and MA then used a content data analysis approach and index using Tourangeau's model of the response process (comprehension of questions, retrieval from memory, decision process, and response process). 32 All quotes were anonymized and included by type of respondent and unique identifying number (e.g. child 05). ...
Article
Background The Children’s Palliative Care Outcome Scale (C-POS) is the first measure developed for children with life-limiting and -threatening illness. It is essential to determine whether the measure addresses what matters to children, and if they can comprehend and respond to its items. Aim To determine the face and content validity, comprehensiveness, comprehensibility, acceptability and feasibility, and implementability of the C-POS. Design Mixed methods (1) Content validation: mapping C-POS items onto an evidence-based framework from prior evidence; (2) Comprehensiveness, comprehensibility, acceptability feasibility, and implementability: qualitative in-depth and cognitive interviews with a purposive sample of children and young people ( n = 6), family caregivers ( n = 16), and health workers ( n = 12) recruited from tertiary facilities in Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda. Results (1) C-POS content mapped on to palliative care domains for (a) children (i.e. physical (e.g. symptoms), social (e.g. play/socialize), psychological (e.g. happy)) and (b) families (i.e. psychological (e.g. worry), social (e.g. information), and help and advice). (2) C-POS items were well understood by children and their caregivers, acceptable, and relevant. Completion time was a median of 10 min, patients/caregivers and health workers reported that using the C-POS improved their communication with children and young people. Methodological and content issues included: (i) conceptual gap in the spiritual/existential domain; (ii) further consideration of developmental, age-appropriate items in the social and psychological domains, and (iii) linguistic complexity and difficulty in proxy rating. Conclusion C-POS items capture the core symptoms and concerns that matter to children and their families. C-POS is feasible, comprehensible, and acceptable for use in clinical settings; areas for further development and improvement are identified.
... In addition, we took several steps to ensure discriminant validity between our measure of transactive memory system and our moderators. First, potential ambiguity was reduced between the scales measuring our variables of interest as their wording was kept simple, and the language for each was very distinct (Tourangeau, Rips, & Rasinski, 2000). Second, to ensure these measures were tapping separate constructs, we followed Rönkkö and Cho (2022) to assess discriminant validity by conducting a confirmatory factor analysis and then examining the confidence intervals of the correlations between the latent constructs of interest against a specified threshold. ...
Article
The transactive memory system has been studied extensively, yet we still know little about how it influences the effectiveness of temporary teams. Additionally, little is known about the boundary conditions of the well-established benefits of transactive memory systems on team performance. Our primary goal in this study is to build and test a theory that investigates the influence of a transactive memory system on the performance of temporary teams while accounting for conditional effects of both task and relationship conflict. On the surface, a transactive memory systems perspective may seem incompatible with temporary teams. Transactive memory systems typically require time or team member familiarity to develop. However, team members on temporary teams often are selected because of their expertise, not team member familiarity, and often must quickly and effectively operate under time and outcome pressures. We present a theory that suggests transactive memory systems should have a meaningful influence on temporary teams, and its effect is accentuated in the presence of task conflict and attenuated in the presence of relationship conflict. We test our theory using a sample of 202 teams participating in the Global Game Jam, the world's largest hackathon devoted to designing and developing games within a 48-h period. In addition to implications for literatures on transactive memory systems and temporary teams, our study adds to a growing literature providing practical advice and insight regarding hackathons, a pervasive source of innovation and idea generation.
... It is well documented that mixing data collection modes can influence the quality of survey measurements (Ansolabehere & Schaffner, 2014;DeMaio, 1984;Dillman et al., 2009;Heerwegh & Loosveldt, 2011;Holbrook, Krosnick, Moore, & Tourangeau, 2007;Hope, Campanelli, Nicolaas, Lynn, & Jäckle, 2014;McClendon, 1991;Nicolaas, Campanelli, Hope, Jäckle, & Lynn, 2015;Revilla, 2015;Smyth, Olson, & Kasabian, 2014;Tourangeau, Rips, & Rasinski, 2000;Ye, Fulton, & Tourangeau, 2011). Specifically, there is a tendency for the same respondents to give different answers to the same questions posed in different modes. ...
Article
Many surveys collect data using a mixture of modes administered in sequential order. Although the impacts of mixed-mode designs on measurement quality have been extensively studied, their impacts on the measurement quality of unobservable (or latent) constructs is still an understudied area of research. In particular, it is unclear whether latent constructs derived from multi-item scales are measured equivalently across different sequentially-administered modes—an assumption that is often made by analysts, but rarely tested in practice. In this study, we assess the measurement equivalence of several commonly-used multi-item scales collected in a sequential mixed-mode (Web-telephone-face-to-face) survey: the Age 25 wave of the Next Steps cohort study. After controlling for selection via an extensive data-driven weighting procedure, a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess measurement equivalence across the three modes. We show that cross-mode measurement equivalence is achieved for nearly all scales, with partial equivalence established for the remaining. Although measurement equivalence was achieved, some differences in the latent means were observed between the modes, particularly between the interviewer-administered and selfadministered modes. We conclude with a discussion of these findings, their potential causes, and implications for survey practice.
... This was a qualitative, cross-sectional, non-interventional study consisting of one-on-one cognitive debriefing interviews. This approach to questionnaire evaluation is based in cognitive psychology and the Cognitive Aspects of Survey Methodology framework [26,27]. Within this framework, questionnaire respondents are assumed to handle a number of cognitive tasks: (1) understanding the question(s) they are being asked; (2) retrieving their answer from memory; (3) internally evaluating their response; and (4) matching their response to the response options available in the survey. ...
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Background The SF-6Dv2 classification system assesses health states in six domains—physical functioning, role function, bodily pain, vitality, social functioning, and mental health. Scores have previously been derived from the SF-36v2® Health Survey. We aimed to develop a six-item stand-alone SF-6Dv2 Health Utility Survey (SF-6Dv2 HUS) and evaluate its comprehensibility. Methods Two forms of a stand-alone SF-6Dv2 HUS were developed for evaluation. Form A had 6 questions with 5–6 response choices, while Form B used 6 headings and 5–6 statements describing the health levels within each domain. The two forms were evaluated by 40 participants, recruited from the general population. Participants were randomized to debrief one form of the stand-alone SF-6Dv2 HUS during a 75-min interview, using think-aloud techniques followed by an interviewer-led detailed review. Participants then reviewed the other form of SF-6Dv2 and determined which they preferred. Any issues or confusion with items was recorded, as was as overall preference. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and NVivo Software (v12). Results Participants were able to easily complete both forms. Participant feedback supported the comprehensibility of the SF-6Dv2 HUS. When comparing forms, 25/40 participants preferred Form A, finding it clearer and easier to answer when presented in question/response format. The numbered questions and underlining of key words in Form A fostered quick and easy comprehension and completion of the survey. However, despite an overall preference for Form A, almost half of participants (n = 19) preferred the physical functioning item in Form B, with more descriptive response choices. Conclusion The results support using Form A, with modifications to the physical functioning item, as the stand-alone SF-6Dv2 HUS. The stand-alone SF-6Dv2 HUS is brief, easy to administer, and comprehensible to the general population.
... Unfortunately, these types of indicators are not yet measured in household surveys such as MICS. Secondly, data on contraceptive use may have been compromised by interviewer or other contextual effects on reporting, especially for sensitive topics such as contraceptive use (Tourangeau et al., 2000). Existing literature indicates that women in couples use contraception without their partners' knowledge (Choiriyyah and Becker, 2018), as objection by husbands can be a reason for not using contraception (Ebrahim and Muhammed, 2011). ...
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Access to safe, effective, affordable, and acceptable contraceptive methods of choice is a basic right for displaced people. Yet displaced people are typically invisible in national sample surveys on population health, and quantitative evidence on their reproductive health outcomes is limited. This study focuses on the case of Iraq, a country with widespread displacement and where contraceptive use is a government policy priority. Using displacement screening questions in the Iraq 2018 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey questionnaires, I construct two displacement-related indicators based on reason for last move and previous household residence. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression are used to test associations between modern contraceptive use and displacement, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. Controlling for the variables in the models, factors significantly associated with modern contraceptive use among married women aged 15-49 in Iraq are Federal Iraq region (reference Kurdish Region of Iraq, OR 1.78), upper secondary and primary education (reference pre-primary or no education, OR 1.50 and 1.20, respectively), parity, age, and exposure to television. The association between displacement (reason for last move) and modern contraceptive use significantly depends on a woman's level of education and whether they live in an urban or rural area. Women who previously lived in a camp are almost half as likely to use modern contraception compared to other previous residence types. This paper highlights the methodological potential and substantive value of using national household surveys to analyse reproductive health outcomes through a displacement lens. It also critically examines the limitations of these data and measures, drawing on total survey error and feminist theory.
... A large number of studies conducted in recent decades have quite clearly underlined that self-administered questionnaires are more appropriate than other modes of data collection for collecting reports on sensitive behaviors such as this one [66,68]. Indeed, responses to self-administered questionnaires, whether completed with pen and paper or via a laptop computer, appear more reliable, and are particularly suitable for reporting behaviors that may compromise the respondent in some way, such as intimate or painful feelings, or illegal behaviors [69,70]. This could be attributed to the absence of a direct, identifiable witness, which therefore ensures the respondent's anonymity and greater freedom of expression on personal topics such as this [71]. ...
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Background and objectives: Drug abuse has become a major worldwide health concern among all age groups. The present study analyses substance misuse and its social and personal consequences using a population-based internet survey in Spain. Materials and Methods: Screening for drug abuse (of alcohol, marijuana/hashish and psychostimulants) and its related risks and problems was performed using the Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble (CRAFFT) score. Socio-demographic factors, depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms as well as health habits were also evaluated. We used Linear regression methods to compare each variable’s individual contribution so as to determine which one best explains the results. Results: In this population-based study, 1224 people completed and returned the online survey. Of all participants, 57% reported consuming at least one substance based on the CRAFFT scale. While increasing age reduces the probability of personal and social consequences of consumption, people who smoke receive up to three times more (OR = 3.370) recommendations from family and friends to reduce their consumption. As for the type of substance, the consumption of marijuana increases the risk of forgetting (OR = 2.33) and the consumption of other psychostimulant substances almost triples the risk of consuming alone (OR = 2.965). Combining substances can increase the rate of driving a vehicle after consumption by 3.4 times. Conclusions: Although age, smoking and the type of substances used increase the risk of suffering from social and personal consequences of the use or abuse of substances, future studies are needed to determine the influence of new variables as a potential tool for treating and minimizing the adverse consequences of drug abuse.
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The rapid increase in smartphone surveys and technological developments open novel opportunities for collecting survey answers. One of these opportunities is the use of open‐ended questions with requests for oral instead of written answers, which may facilitate the answer process and result in more in‐depth and unfiltered information. Whereas it is now possible to collect oral answers on smartphones, we still lack studies on the impact of this novel answer format on the characteristics of respondents' answers. In this study, we compare the linguistic and content characteristics of written versus oral answers to political attitude questions. For this purpose, we conducted an experiment in a smartphone survey (N = 2402) and randomly assigned respondents to an answer format (written or oral). Oral answers were collected via the open source ‘SurveyVoice (SVoice)’ tool, whereas written answers were typed in via the smartphone keypad. Applying length analysis, lexical structure analysis, sentiment analysis and structural topic models, our results reveal that written and oral answers differ substantially from each other in terms of lengths, structures, sentiments and topics. We find evidence that written answers are characterized by an intentional and conscious answering, whereas oral answers are characterized by an intuitive and spontaneous answering.
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Aim: Measuring adherence to medication is complex due to the diversity of contexts in which medications are prescribed, dispensed, and used. The Timelines-Events-Objectives-Sources (TEOS) framework outlined a process to operationalize adherence. We aimed to develop practical recommendations for quantification of medication adherence using self-report (SR), electronic monitoring (EM), and electronic healthcare databases (EHD) consistent with the TEOS framework for adherence operationalization. Methods: An adherence methodology working group of the International Society for Medication Adherence (ESPACOMP) analysed implications of the process of medication adherence for all data sources and discussed considerations specific to SR, ED, and EHD regarding the information available on the prescribing, dispensing, recommended and actual use timelines, the four events relevant for distinguishing the adherence phases, the study objectives commonly addressed with each type of data, and the potential sources of measurement error and quality criteria applicable. Results: Four key implications for medication adherence measurement are common to all data sources: adherence is a comparison between two series of events (recommended and actual use); it refers to one or more specific medication(s); it applies to regular repeated events coinciding with known recommended dosing; and it requires separate measurement of the three adherence phases for a complete picture of patients' adherence. We propose recommendations deriving from these statements, and aspects to be considered in study design when measuring adherence with SR, EM and EHD using the TEOS framework. Conclusion: The quality of medication adherence estimates is the result of several design choices that may optimize the data available.
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Objective: This study assesses the concordance in migraine diagnosis between an online, self-administered, Computer-based, Diagnostic Engine (CDE) and semi-structured interview (SSI) by a headache specialist, both using International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (ICHD-3) criteria. Background: Delay in accurate diagnosis is a major barrier to headache care. Accurate computer-based algorithms may help reduce the need for SSI-based encounters to arrive at correct ICHD-3 diagnosis. Methods: Between March 2018 and August 2019, adult participants were recruited from three academic headache centers and the community via advertising to our cross-sectional study. Participants completed two evaluations: phone interview conducted by headache specialists using the SSI and a web-based expert questionnaire and analytics, CDE. Participants were randomly assigned to either the SSI followed by the web-based questionnaire or the web-based questionnaire followed by the SSI. Participants completed protocols a few minutes apart. The concordance in migraine/probable migraine (M/PM) diagnosis between SSI and CDE was measured using Cohen's kappa statistics. The diagnostic accuracy of CDE was assessed using the SSI as reference standard. Results: Of the 276 participants consented, 212 completed both SSI and CDE (study completion rate = 77%; median age = 32 years [interquartile range: 28-40], female:male ratio = 3:1). Concordance in M/PM diagnosis between SSI and CDE was: κ = 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75-0.91). CDE diagnostic accuracy: sensitivity = 90.1% (118/131), 95% CI: 83.6%-94.6%; specificity = 95.8% (68/71), 95% CI: 88.1%-99.1%. Positive and negative predictive values = 97.0% (95% CI: 91.3%-99.0%) and 86.6% (95% CI: 79.3%-91.5%), respectively, using identified migraine prevalence of 60%. Assuming a general migraine population prevalence of 10%, positive and negative predictive values were 70.3% (95% CI: 43.9%-87.8%) and 98.9% (95% CI: 98.1%-99.3%), respectively. Conclusion: The SSI and CDE have excellent concordance in diagnosing M/PM. Positive CDE helps rule in M/PM, through high specificity and positive likelihood ratio. A negative CDE helps rule out M/PM through high sensitivity and low negative likelihood ratio. CDE that mimics SSI logic is a valid tool for migraine diagnosis.
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We use representative longitudinal panel data from the Dutch European Values Survey (EVS) to study whether the COVID‐19 pandemic shifted opinions about how a woman's full‐time employment impacts family life. The data was collected before the COVID‐19 pandemic in 2017 and in May 2020. The analysis focuses on groups whose unpaid and paid work situation changed abruptly with the COVID‐19 pandemic: parents with coresident children, and those who experienced a change in paid workload that clashes with traditional gender role expectations, namely women whose workload increased and men whose workload decreased or who stopped working. We found that groups that faced an abrupt change in their paid and unpaid work routines that clashed with their previously held gender attitude changed their gender attitude in alignment with the new paid or unpaid work situation. For women in couple households with children, this meant that they saw a halt in their progression toward gender egalitarian attitudes. For those who experienced a change in paid workload that clashes with traditional gender role norms, it meant stronger progression toward gender egalitarian attitudes. The results are interpreted on the basis of cognitive dissonance theory and exposure theory and placed in the context of previous findings.
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Understanding preferences of key stakeholders including patients, clinicians and policymakers can inform clinical practice, workforce and policy. It also allows health services to evaluate existing clinical practices, policies and procedures. This commentary aims to introduce medical radiation professionals to health preference research by describing commonly used preference methodologies, with a particular focus on discrete choice experiments. Relevant examples of health preference research will be highlighted to demonstrate the application of health preference research in medical radiation sciences. This commentary aims to introduce medical radiation professionals to health preference research by describing commonly used preference methodologies, with a particular focus on discrete choice experiments.
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We propose a novel approach for measuring inflation expectations, which can alleviate the rounding number problem. Furthermore, we examine how consumers form inflation expectations. We find that consumers heterogeneously update their information sets on prices; 46% of the consumers collect information about the consumer price index at least once a quarter, while the remaining consumers less frequently or never obtain this information. We also find that forecast revisions are sensitive to a change in food prices. More than half of consumers are attentive only to a change in food prices and may form their inflation expectations using food price changes as a signal of fluctuations in the overall inflation rates. The existence of consumers who are inattentive to aggregate inflation casts doubt on the transmission of monetary policy through the management of expectations.
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Purpose: To develop a simplified Chinese version of the DISABKIDS chronic generic module-37 (DCGM-37), and to test the translated measures in children with cancer by employing a cognitive interviewing technique. Design and methods: The English version of DCGM-37 was translated forward and backward into simplified Chinese by bilingual translators, following the guidelines from its copyright holders, which also involved a cultural adaptation component. Twelve Chinese children aged 8-18 years and eight parents were cognitively interviewed. Results: The findings support the relevance, comprehensibility, and efficacy of the Chinese version. Consideration was given, and improvements were made, to the language, cultural concerns, and content, which improved functionality and increased validation. The patients/caregivers understood the instructions, questions, and answer choices. Some revisions, however, were made to address patient/caregiver feedback obtained through cognitive interviews. Conceptually and semantically, the simplified Chinese version of the DCGM-37 version was identical to the original. Conclusions The simplified Chinese version of the DCGM-37 was semantically and conceptually equivalent to the English version. Chinese children aged 8 to 18 years were able to comprehend this instrument. Conclusions: The simplified Chinese version of the DCGM-37 was semantically and conceptually equivalent to the English version. Chinese children aged 8 to 18 years were able to comprehend this instrument and express their experiences and feelings about their life. Practice implications: The simplified Chinese version of the DCGM-37 was translated, and cross-cultural adaptation and validation were performed. Chinese children found the tool easy to use and were able to express their experiences and feelings about their health-related quality of life.
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