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Being engaged when resources are low: A multi-source study of selective optimization with compensation at work

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... Baltes & Baltes, 1990;Riediger, Li, & Lindenberger, 2006), whereas, for example, Venz and Sonnentag (2015) showed that SOC might not necessarily be needed when other resources are high. ...
... Although this may appear as merely an empirical argument at first glance, studying daily SOC also is of high practical importance (see Moghimi et al., 2016). Specifically, whereas research has demonstrated the principal benefits of SOC at the person level (e.g., Demerouti et al., 2014;Venz & Sonnentag, 2015;Weigl et al., 2014), SOC use very likely is also effortful. Thus, knowing when (i.e., on which days) exactly the use of SOC is needed, and hence the related investment of effort is actually beneficial, is of high value-knowledge that between-person research hardly provides. ...
... In sum, SOC at work can be viewed as a set of individual goaldirected strategies that enable employees to regulate themselves toward attaining their work goals (Abraham & Hansson, 1995). As such, SOC represents a resource (Schmitt et al., 2012) that, plausibly, just as other resources, relates to work engagement (Venz & Sonnentag, 2015;Weigl et al., 2014)-particularly because SOC helps to obtain, retain, and protect resources (Hobfoll, 2002), and engagement is a result of constant resource gain (S. Chen et al., 2009). ...
Article
This diary study addresses the benefits of employees' daily use of selective optimization with compensation (SOC) for state work engagement. We hypothesized that day-level SOC not only directly fosters work engagement but that SOC also reveals its beneficial effects for work engagement in interaction with both external and internal resources. Specifically, we proposed SOC substitutes for job control, role clarity, and state of being recovered, thus helping employees manage low daily levels of these resources. We tested our hypotheses with a sample of 138 employees who completed two daily surveys over a total of 545 workdays. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that SOC benefits work engagement in both proposed ways. First, day-level SOC was positively related to state work engagement. Additionally, day-level role clarity and state of being recovered predicted state work engagement, but day-level job control did not. Second, SOC benefitted state work engagement by offsetting low levels of role clarity and being recovered, and by boosting job control in their respective relationships with work engagement. The results suggest that by using SOC at work, employees can actively enhance their own work engagement on a given workday. This knowledge provides promising starting points for the development of interventions.
... Additional person antecedents that have been linked theoretically to SOC strategy use are subjective physical health, energy level, future time perspective, and promotion focus (B. B. Baltes, Wynne, Sirabian, Krenn, & Lange, 2014;Müller, De Lange, Weigl, Oxfart, & Van der Heijden, 2013;Venz & Sonnentag, 2015). The reason for assuming relationships between these factors and SOC strategy use is that employees should be more likely to use, and benefit from, SOC strategies when their personal resources are limited. ...
... The theoretical rationales for assuming positive links between these contextual antecedents and SOC strategy use are that these factors should either necessitate or facilitate engagement in goal selection and strategies for effective goal pursuit. and, if necessary, compensating for lost resources presumably leads to the achievement of work goals and, consequently, to increased job performance and occupational well-being ( Figure 1; Bajor & Baltes, 2003;Venz & Sonnentag, 2015). Employees who use SOC strategies should perform better on the job because they adapt to high demands and deliberately invest their limited resources in an optimal way to achieve their work goals. ...
... Müller, Weigl, Heiden, Glaser, & Angerer, 2012; r = .21, Young et al., 2007), nonsignificant (Abraham & Hansson, 1995;Baethge, Müller, & Rigotti, 2015;Bajor & Baltes, 2003;Schmitt et al., 2012;Venz & Sonnentag, 2015;von Bonsdorff et al., 2014;Weigl et al., 2013;Weigl et al., 2014;Zacher & Frese, 2011), or varied by the specific SOC component (r = .08 for selection and rs = À.13 for both optimization and compensation, Bal et al., 2013; r = .11 ...
Article
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Over the past two decades, the selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) model has been applied in the work context to investigate antecedents and outcomes of employees’ use of action regulation strategies. We systematically review, meta-analyze, and critically discuss the literature on SOC strategy use at work and outline directions for future research and practice. The systematic review illustrates the breadth of constructs that have been studied in relation to SOC strategy use, and that SOC strategy use can mediate and moderate relationships of person and contextual antecedents with work outcomes. Results of the meta-analysis show that SOC strategy use is positively related to age (rc = .04), job autonomy (rc = .17), self-reported job performance (rc = .23), non-self-reported job performance (rc = .21), job satisfaction (rc = .25), and job engagement (rc = .38), whereas SOC strategy use is not significantly related to job tenure, job demands, and job strain. Overall, our findings underline the importance of the SOC model for the work context, but they also suggest that its measurement and reporting standards need to be improved to become a reliable guide for future research and organizational practice.
... Fortunately, lacking a particular resource is not necessarily detrimental if the person has other resources to replace or substitute the deficient resource with (e.g., Venz et al., 2018;Venz & Sonnentag, 2015;Xanthopoulou et al., 2013). Put differently, when two resources independently predict a certain outcome, if one of these resources is lacking yet the other resource is available, the outcome still can appear. ...
... From a COR theory perspective (Hobfoll, 2001), service employees who are low in positive affectivity can be considered low in a personal resource needed for deep acting (Kammeyer-Mueller et al., 2013). However, compensating for a lacking resource by drawing on another resource is possible (e.g., Venz & Sonnentag, 2015). Applying this notion of resource compensation (Hobfoll & Leiberman, 1987) to dynamic emotional labor processes, we suggest that service employees who are low in positive affectivity will be in special need of morning being recovered to engage in more deep acting. ...
Article
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Emotional labor is ubiquitous in service work, but little is known about what enables service employees to use desirable strategies such as deep acting. Applying conservation of resources theory, we hypothesized that being recovered is a crucial resource for deep acting, especially for employees with low customer orientation and low positive affectivity, and even needed for surface acting when employees have high negative affectivity. Sixty-five service employees answered 298 daily surveys. Multilevel analysis showed that morning being recovered predicts daily deep acting, but not surface acting. When being recovered, employees with low customer orientation engaged more in deep acting, whereas employees with high negative affectivity engaged more in surface acting. The findings highlight the role of different resources for emotional labor.
... The SOC model is a life span model that theorises how people can age successfully through the use of selection, optimisation, and compensation strategies [1], and it has been applied when studying successful ageing at work, e.g., [2][3][4]. The use of selection, optimisation, and compensation (SOC) strategies [1] has been found to be positively associated with important work-related outcomes such as workability [5][6][7][8][9][10], wellbeing [11][12][13][14], work engagement [15][16][17], job performance [18,19], and job satisfaction [20,21]. The use of SOC strategies may thus support a long and healthy work life. ...
... 14 In my group, we usually encourage each other to use the technical assistive devices that are available to ensure safety and health. 15 In my group, we share new work related knowledge with each other. Compensation 16 If someone in the group has troubles causing difficulties in performing some of his/her work tasks, a colleague will help carrying out the tasks. ...
Article
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This study is the first to develop a questionnaire to measure employees’ perceptions of the use of the action strategies selection, optimisation, and compensation (SOC) beyond the individual level, which has so far been lacking in research and practice. The study thus contributes an important tool for research into the role of SOC strategies at the leadership, group, and individual levels for long and healthy working lives. It may also be used by practitioners as a tool to provide input when developing targeted interventions to support long and healthy working lives. The development of the questionnaire was based on SOC theory, qualitative and cognitive interviews, and existing SOC questionnaires. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were tested on data from a cross-sectional survey with responses from 785 nurses and 244 dairy workers. Results from confirmatory factor analyses supported the theoretically expected nine-factor structure of the questionnaire in both study populations (nurses and dairy workers). Furthermore, the results largely supported the criterion validity and internal reliability of the scales in the questionnaire. Nevertheless, further validation across additional occupational groups is needed.
... The SOC model and its four self-regulative strategies have recently also attracted more attention in work contexts (Moghimi et al., 2017;Rudolph, 2016;Venz & Sonnentag, 2015;Yeung & Fung, 2009). This is a very welcome extension because the working population in industrialized countries is aging rapidly (Rudolph, 2016;Rudolph & McGonagle, 2019;Weber et al., 2019). ...
... Occupational well-being was operationalized via two commonly used indicators (job burnout, work engagement) that have been used in SOC studies conducted in work contexts (e.g., Moghimi et al., 2017;Venz & Sonnentag, 2015;Zacher et al., 2015). Job burnout is one of the health impairments and refers to a psychological syndrome in response to chronic job stressors (Maslach et al., 2001). ...
Article
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SOC-strategies (selection, optimization, and compensation) are crucial for well-being and adaptation throughout the life course. The workforce is aging rapidly, thus the age-conditional premises of SOC theory require attention. This study explored (1) whether older employees used SOC strategies more often (compared to younger employees), and (2) whether older employees benefited more from SOC strategies in relation to occupational well-being (job burnout, work engagement). The study was based on follow-up data including three occupational subsamples of different age (N = 1,020). There were no significant age-conditional differences in the take-up of SOC strategies. However, older (white-collar) employees benefited more from compensation and elective selection in relation to occupational well-being. Moreover, older employees also benefited more from using all SOC strategies concerning occupational well-being. Strengthening older employees' SOC strategies needs more attention as the workforce is aging.
... Fortunately, lacking a particular resource is not necessarily detrimental if the person has other resources to replace or substitute the deficient resource with (e.g., Venz et al., 2018;Venz & Sonnentag, 2015;Xanthopoulou et al., 2013). Put differently, when two resources independently predict a certain outcome, if one of these resources is lacking yet the other resource is available, the outcome still can appear. ...
... From a COR theory perspective (Hobfoll, 2001), service employees who are low in positive affectivity can be considered low in a personal resource needed for deep acting (Kammeyer-Mueller et al., 2013). However, compensating for a lacking resource by drawing on another resource is possible (e.g., Venz & Sonnentag, 2015). Applying this notion of resource compensation (Hobfoll & Leiberman, 1987) to dynamic emotional labor processes, we suggest that service employees who are low in positive affectivity will be in special need of morning being recovered to engage in more deep acting. ...
... 89). Venz and Sonnentag (2015) and one other article "aspects of a job or person that are instrumental to accomplish work-related goals, to deal with job demands, and to achieve personal development" (p. 97). ...
... Physical resources are the physical or functional ability (energy or health) to perform work. Physical resources appeared as personal energy in the morning (Venz & Sonnentag, 2015), being recovered in the morning (Kühnel, Sonnentag, & Bledow, 2012), sleep hygiene (Barber, Grawitch, & Munz, 2013), and work ability ( Airila et al., 2014). Personal energy ( Kühnel et al., 2012) and work ability ( Airila et al., 2014) positively predicted work engagement, and poor sleep decreased work engagement ( Barber et al., 2013). ...
Article
Research detailing employee engagement has reliably stated that resources are significant to fostering engagement. Notwithstanding, no previous work has attempted to make meaning of those resources through a review of the existing literature. To better understand how the engagement literature positions and defines resources, we reviewed the resources term across 137 articles. The results of our structured literature review revealed that 216 distinct resources were mentioned across literature streams, and five distinct categories from macro to micro levels could be identified. The categories include (a) organizational resources, (b) social resources, (c) job resources, (d) home resources, and (e) personal resources. In addition to detailing our method and each category of resources, we explore implications for human resource development theory and practice.
... Schmitt, Den Hartog, and Belschak (2016) defined organizational resources as characteristics, objects, conditions, or energies that are valued by the individual or form a means to reach valued goals. Venz and Sonnentag (2015) defined organizational resources as those aspects of a job or person that are instrumental to accomplish work-related goals, to deal with job demands, and to achieve personal development. Bakker and Xanthopoulou (2013) further defined organizational resources as those characteristics of the job that have the potential to reduce job demands and the associated costs. ...
Article
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Employees of different backgrounds are employed to help achieve corporate objectives. The complexities that exist among these employees are expected to be effectively managed through proper organizational political practices. As such, this study examines the relationship between organizational politics and employee's diversity in Akwa Ibom State Local Government Service Commission. Using a survey research design, 118 employees of the commission were examined and the findings revealed that scarcity of resources has positive and significant relationship with employees' diversity in Akwa Ibom State Local Government Service Commission (r = 0.614, p<0.000); and employee's Personality has positive and significant relationship with employees' diversity in Akwa Ibom State Local Government Service Commission (r = 0.662, p<0.000). It was concluded that organizational politics has positive and significant relationship with employees' diversity in Akwa Ibom State Local Government Service Commission. It was recommended that top level managers in the commission should encourage fair and equitable practices in the organization as this would help to lessen high political practices among the employees.
... We theoretically suggested that a possible explanation for lower internal workplace telepressure in older employees is that employees become better at self-management with increasing age, helping them to better deal with workplace demands (e.g., Scheibe & Zacher, 2013). Accordingly, future research might investigate the role of age-related self-management strategies, such as selective optimization with compensation (e.g., Schmitt et al., 2012;Venz & Sonnentag, 2015), in internal workplace telepressure and employees' reactions to ICT demands at and off work, for example, responsiveness (Sonnentag ...
Article
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This research challenges the technology-related age stereotype that older employees might be disadvantaged in dealing with work-related information communication technology (ICT) demands. Rather, we hypothesize an age advantage in this regard. Based on theorizing on aging at work, we suggest that older employees are better at psychologically detaching from work under high availability expectations and that they show more adaptive responsiveness to response expectations. We examined a potential age-related mechanism underlying this effect, namely internal workplace telepressure. We pursued a two-study approach. Study 1 examined data from 5,938 individuals who participated in a large-scale survey of employees in Germany just before the COVID-19 pandemic, testing age as moderator of the relationship between availability expectations and psychological detachment from work. Results supported the hypothesized age advantage effect showing that for older employees, availability expectations were less strongly related to impaired psychological detachment. Study 2, a diary study with 106 participants answering more than 500 daily surveys during the pandemic, supported lower telepressure as explanation for this age advantage effect. Study 2 further extended this finding to the relationship of response expectations with responsiveness, identifying both age and telepressure as predicted by age to moderate this relationship. This research shows age advantage effects in dealing with ICT demands, enhancing understanding of the intersection between age and technology use at work.
... We theoretically suggested that a possible explanation for lower internal workplace telepressure in older employees is that employees become better at self-management with increasing age, helping them to better deal with workplace demands (e.g., Scheibe & Zacher, 2013). Accordingly, future research might investigate the role of age-related self-management strategies, such as selective optimization with compensation (e.g., Schmitt, Zacher, & Frese, 2012;Venz & Sonnentag, 2015), in internal workplace telepressure and employees' reactions to ICT demands at and off work, for example responsiveness , ICT overload appraisal (Venz & Boettcher, 2022), technology-assisted supplemental work (Eichberger & Zacher, 2021), and work-stress recovery (Ďuranová & Ohly, 2015). ...
Article
This research challenges technology-related age stereotypes by hypothesizing an age advantage in dealing with work-related information communication technology (ICT). Based on theorizing on aging at work, we suggest that older employees are better at psychologically detaching from work under high availability expectations and that they show more adaptive responsiveness to response expectations. We examined a potential age-related mechanism underlying this effect, namely internal workplace telepressure. We pursued a two-study approach. Study 1 examined data from 5,938 individuals who participated in a large-scale survey of employees in Germany. We tested age as moderator of the relationship between availability expectations and psychological detachment from work. Results supported the hypothesized age advantage effect showing that for older employees, availability expectations were less strongly related to impaired psychological detachment. Study 2, a diary study with 106 participants answering more than 500 daily surveys, supported lower telepressure as explanation for this age advantage effect. Study 2 further extended this finding to the relationship between response expectations and responsiveness, identifying both age and telepressure as predicted by age to moderate this relationship. This research shows age advantage effects in dealing with ICT demands, enhancing the understanding of the intersection between age and technology use at work.
... Future studies may want to assess some of the study variables by using ratings from other sources (e.g. co-workers; Venz & Sonnentag, 2015). However, this approach has some limitations in itself because most of our study constructs (e.g. ...
Article
Unwinding and recovering from everyday work is important for sustaining employees’ well-being, motivation, and job performance. Accordingly, research on work recovery has grown tremendously in the past few decades. This article summarizes research on recovery during work breaks, leisure-time evenings, weekends, and vacations. Focusing on day-level and longitudinal field studies, the article describes predictors as well as outcomes of recovery in different recovery settings and addresses potential between-group and cross-cultural differences. It presents findings from intervention research demonstrating that recovery processes can be improved by deliberate training programs. The article then discusses how future recovery research can address emerging themes relevant to the future of work—changing boundaries between work and nonwork life, increased reliance on teams and technology, and changes in employment arrangements. We conclude with an overall summary, open research questions, directions for methodological improvements, and practical implications. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Volume 9 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Previous studies [13,59,60] proposed that SOC strategies act as mediators. Nevertheless, there is evidence [61][62][63][64] that the use of SOC could also serve as a meaningful buffer (moderator). We assumed that using SOC strategies acts as a mediator between health resources and well-being and found empirical confirmation within the 372 surveyed middle-aged and elderly samples. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aging and health issues continue to receive attention, especially under the global health challenge of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. It is important to understand how people adapt their lifespan development to face the gains and losses of resources. The purpose of this study was to test the relationships between health resources, selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategies and well-being with aging; to examine the impact of SOC strategies on health resources and well-being, and the link between health resources and well-being. Using structural equation modeling to analyze our hypotheses, a sample survey of 372 adults was conducted. The results showed that health resources were positively and significantly related to SOC and well-being. SOC strategies were positively and significantly related to well-being and SOC strategies partially mediated the link between health resources and well-being. The findings contribute to the literature by establishing a model and providing practical implications for individual behavior, as well as better understanding of the theoretical and practical implications of aging and health. A friendly community and organization may help people’s well-being in terms of physiology, psychology, society, and environment.
... Future studies may want to assess some of the study variables by using ratings from other sources (e.g. co-workers; Venz & Sonnentag, 2015). However, this approach has some limitations in itself because most of our study constructs (e.g. ...
Article
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Studies have shown that positive work reflection during evening leisure time is related to short‐term affective benefits at bedtime and in the next morning. This study examines whether the favourable outcomes of positive work reflection persist into the next workday and tests mediating processes between evening positive work reflection and next‐day work engagement. Based on daily survey data from 152 employees (total of 687 days), we found that positive work reflection predicted next morning perceived work meaningfulness, next morning psychological availability, and next‐day co‐worker support. Perceived work meaningfulness and co‐worker support, but not psychological availability, in turn, predicted afternoon work engagement. Work engagement predicted subsequent positive work reflection. This study demonstrates that positively thinking about work‐related issues during leisure time is associated with positive outcomes during the next workday, which prompt subsequent positive work reflection. Practitioner points Employees should be encouraged to reflect positively about their day at work during after‐work hours; instead of striving for full mental disengagement from work, employees could develop habits of positively reflecting about their workday during evening hours. Being fully engaged during the day at work may support positive work reflection during the evening; accordingly, employees may focus on work experiences characterized by high vigour, dedication, and absorption. Being aware of one’s work meaningfulness and receiving co‐worker support is helpful for translating positive work reflection into work engagement; accordingly, mental exercises that emphasize meaningfulness and acts that facilitate co‐worker support might be effective tools for increasing work engagement.
... Moreover, SOC strategy use was also suggested to mediate and moderate the relations of person and contextual characteristics to work outcomes. For instance, research showed that SOC strategy use moderated the relation between personal energy and work engagement, such that employees who used SOC strategies at work showed higher work engagement, even when their energy level was low (Venz & Sonnentag, 2015). ...
Chapter
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Decreasing fertility rates and increasing life expectancy have led to an aging population across the globe (Roberts, 2011). In addition, employment rates of people between 55 and 64 years old have been increasing in the last two decades in many countries (OECD, 2017). As individuals are staying longer in the workforce, successfully managing late career and retirement processes represents an important challenge for a growing number of individuals. Moreover, organizations need to increasingly engage older workers and foster successful aging at work to maintain their competitiveness (Hertel & Zacher, 2018; Zacher, Kooij, & Beier, 2018). Despite its many challenges, an increasing life span and longer work involvement provide many opportunities for increased productivity, well-being, and meaning in older age (Hertel & Zacher, 2018). The growing number of older workers necessitates that career development research and practice address the needs of an aging society and workforce. However, historically, vocational choice and development theories and related research have largely neglected the vocational needs of older workers and retirees, focusing primarily on students and workers in early or mid-career (Lytle, Foley, & Cotter, 2015). It is thus timely and important to focus on the careers of older workers and retirees. The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on late career development, successful aging at work, and retirement transition to inform career research and practice focusing on this increasingly relevant segment of the working population.
... Sonnentag and Kühnel (2016), however, found that day-specific reattachment was a significant predictor of day-specific work engagement, even when controlling for psychological detachment from work during the previous night. Future research might want to reduce common method bias by including data from other sources, such as assessments of work engagement through coworkers (Venz & Sonnentag, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Reattachment to work (i.e., rebuilding a mental connection to work) before actually starting work is important for work engagement during the day. Building on motivated action theory, this study examines anticipated task focus, positive affect, and job resources (job control and social support) as mediators that translate reattachment in the morning into work engagement during the day. We collected daily-survey data from 151 employees (total of 620 days) and analyzed these data with a multilevel path model. We found that day-level reattachment to work in the morning predicted anticipated task focus, positive affect, social support, and job control through goal activation and that anticipated task focus, positive affect, social support, and job control predicted work engagement during the day. This study points to the important role of reattachment to work in employee experiences and behaviors throughout the workday and specifically highlights the benefits of such initial mental boundary crossing between life domains for employee engagement at work.
... When exhaustion is low, however, a person has enough energy resources available. For such a person, protecting resources or even gaining further resources should be less important (Hobfoll 2002;Venz and Sonnentag 2015). Thus, lunch breaks that satisfy the preferences of an employee low on exhaustion should still be a pleasurable experience, but should be less influential for this employee's well-being. ...
Article
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In this study, we examined lunch breaks from a person-environment fit perspective and hypothesized that employees who perceive high general person-break fit report lower negative and higher positive post-break affect than employees with low person-break fit. Further, we hypothesized that lunch break autonomy positively predicts perceived person-break fit and that chronic exhaustion moderates the relationship between person-break fit and post-break affect, such that the relationship is stronger when chronic exhaustion is high. Data from 227 participants surveyed at two measurement points showed that person-break fit was negatively related to post-break negative affect, with this relationship being stronger for participants experiencing high chronic exhaustion. Person-break fit was only positively associated with post-break positive affect for employees low on exhaustion. Break autonomy positively predicted employees’ perception of person-break fit. This study contributes to literature on well-being at work by highlighting the importance of fit between an employee’s general break-related needs and his or her actual breaks.
... As has been shown above in the lifespan context, SOC strategies are assumed to counteract these losses and help to maintain occupational performance and subjective well-being. Apart from a focus on older workers, SOC-at-work research has covered topics such as antecedents of SOC (Abraham & Hansson, 1995;Venz & Sonnentag, 2015;Wiese et al., 2000), general occupational well-being in terms of job satisfaction and job engagement (Demerouti, Bakker, & Leiter, 2014), work performance (Bajor & Baltes, 2003;von Bonsdorff et al., 2014;Yeung & Fung, 2009), career development (Abele & Wiese, 2008), and work-life conflict (Baltes & Heydens-Gahir, 2003;B. B. Baltes et al., 2011; for a meta-analysis see Moghimi, Zacher, Scheibe, & Van Yperen, 2016). ...
... Since trait affectivity has been found to impact innovative behavior (Baron & Tang, 2011) and is widely accepted as an important control for mood-related research (Madrid Cabezas et al., 2014;Uy, Sun, & Foo, 2017), it was justified as a control variable in the present study (Bernerth & Aguinis, 2016). Furthermore, previous research indicates that gender (Brody & Smith-Lovin, 1995;Robinson & Clore, 2002), nationality (De Dreu, 2010;Elfenbein & Ambady, 2003), age (Venz & Sonnentag, 2015), and self-efficacy (Frese, Garst, & Fay, 2007;Parker, Williams, & Turner, 2006) all heterogeneously influence day-level mood and entrepreneurial behaviors. ...
Article
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This study investigates the antecedents of an entrepreneur’s day-level innovative behavior. Drawing on 2,420 data points from a 10-day experience sampling study with 121 entrepreneurs, we find that sleep quality is a precursor to an entrepreneur’s subsequent innovative behavior, in accordance with the effort-recovery model. Moreover, sleep quality is positively related to high-activation positive moods (e.g., enthusiastic, inspired) and negatively related to high-activation negative moods (e.g., tension, anxiety). Our multilevel structural equation model indicates that high-activation positive moods mediate the relationship between sleep quality and innovative behavior on a given day. These results are relevant for managing entrepreneurial performance.
... Since trait affectivity has been found to impact innovative behavior (Baron & Tang, 2011) and is widely accepted as an important control for mood-related research (Madrid et al., 2014;Uy, Sun, & Foo, 2017), it was justified as a control variable in the present study (Bernerth & Aguinis, 2016). Furthermore, previous research indicates that gender (Brody & Smith-Lovin, 1995;Robinson & Clore, 2002), nationality (De Dreu, 2010;Elfenbein & Ambady, 2003), age (Venz & Sonnentag, 2015), and self-efficacy (Frese, Garst, & Fay, 2007;Parker, Williams, & Turner, 2006) all heterogeneously influence day-level mood and entrepreneurial behaviors. ...
Conference Paper
This paper theorises that innovation by entrepreneurs is influenced by affective activation and valence. State affect (moods and emotions) has a proven link with behavioural and cognitive performance, yet evidence on this issue is seemingly fragmented, and further lacking from the entrepreneurship and innovation literatures. This article utilises the circumplex model of affect to reconcile these inconsistencies. High activating affect, both positively (inspired, excited) and negatively (worried, tense) valanced, is expected to correlate strongly with entrepreneurs’ daily innovative behaviours. Furthermore, personality and affective depositions are argued to moderate the strength of this relationship. Additionally, the role that mood regulation via sleep quality plays as a construct between mood and innovative work behaviour is explored. This leads to practical implications for entrepreneurs. Key measures are presented to help test four sets of propositions via a two week twice-daily experience sampling methodology with an entrepreneurial sample, and a conceptual model is presented.
... Future studies may want to assess some of the study variables by using ratings from other sources (e.g. co-workers; Venz & Sonnentag, 2015). However, this approach has some limitations in itself because most of our study constructs (e.g. ...
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Well-being refers to a person’s hedonic experience of feeling good and to the eudaimonic experience of fulfillment and purpose. Employee well-being is influenced by experiences at work and, in turn, has an effect on behavior at work such as task performance and other on-the-job behaviors. In this article, I describe well-being as a dynamic construct that changes over time and fluctuates within a person. I review and integrate longitudinal, experience-sampling, and related research on well-being change and variability. I address the role of job stressors, job resources, the interpersonal environment, personal resources, the work–home interface, and performance. I discuss questions of affect symmetry, homology of the between-person and within-person level, and reciprocity between well-being and other variables. The article concludes with suggestions for future research.
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The working conditions in which many social workers practice their profession make it very likely that they will experience high strain and burnout and low engagement. Previous research has identified different risk and protective factors of burnout and engagement. This article attempts to: (i) analyse the relationship of burnout and engagement with two job demands (role conflict and role clarity) and three personal resources (recovery experiences, problem-focused coping, and emotion-focused coping); (ii) examine whether these personal resources moderate the association of job demands with burnout and engagement. Participants were 448 Spanish graduate social workers. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that burnout was positively predicted by role conflict and emotion-focused coping, and was negatively predicted by role clarity and recovery experiences; overall, the inverse pattern of results was found for engagement. Furthermore, problem-focused coping and recovery moderated the association of role conflict with burnout; problem-focused coping also moderated the relationship of role conflict with engagement. These findings support individual and organisational interventions that enhance the application of personal resources and the reduction of job demands to lessen burnout and increase engagement.
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There has been a significant increase in studies on personal energy at work. Yet, research efforts are fragmented, given that scholars employ a diversity of related concepts. To bring clarity, we executed a two-fold systematic literature review. We crafted a definition of personal energy at work and a theoretical framework, outlining the dimensions, antecedents and boundary conditions. The theoretical implication of the framework is that it allows one to explain why—given similar work—some employees feel energized whereas others do not. The difference depends on the context that the employer offers, the personal characteristics of employees and the processes of strain and recovery. The paper concludes with a discussion of how future research can build on the proposed framework to advance the theoretical depth and empirical investigation of personal energy at work.
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We draw on affective event theory (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) to explore the association between experienced compassion and prosocial behavior with the mediating role of state optimism among nurses of public sector hospitals in Pakistan. We collected data in three time lags from 406 nurses and their colleagues using self-administered questionnaire survey. Findings indicate that experienced compassion results inprosocial behavior among nurses. However, this association is partially mediated by state optimism.Albeit, our findings are is in line with earlier studies which maintained that experienced compassion at workplace trigger positive emotions in employees which ultimately translate into positive attitudes and behaviors, however, linking of compassion with prosocial behavior, and identification of distinct positive emotional state i.e., state optimism as a mediator are the novel theoretical contributions of our study. The strengths, limitations, implications, and future research directions are highlighted.
Technical Report
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The purpose of this Technical Report is to provide information about a questionnaire developed to assess selection, optimization, and compensation. The questionnaire was developed within the context of projects conducted at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin (P. B. Baltes & A. M. Freund) and the Free University of Beriin (M. M. Baltes & F. R. Lang) aimed at empirically investigating the model of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) proposed by P. B. Baltes & M. M. Baltes (1990). SOC is a metatheory. Its specification varies by the domain of functioning considered and by the particular theoretical approach. Table 1 illustrates the meaning of the three components taking an action-theoretical approach. In this framework, SOC can be conceptualized in the following way: The limitation of resources (e.g., time, energy) inherent to human existence necessitates selection of goals (domains of functioning) because not all opportunities can be pursued. To reach optimal levels of functioning in the selected (goal-)domains, one needs to acquire, allocate, and refine internal or external resources (optimization). Finally, to maintain a given level of functioning when confronted with loss or decline in goal-relevant means, compensatory processes are needed. The prototypical instances of selection, optimization, and compensation listed in Table I also provided the frarnework for formulating the items included in the SOC questionnaire. In the following, we will present the questionnaire and its psychometric properties based on data stemming from two studies: (l) ALLEE Successful Aging Study (M. M. Baltes, & Lang, 1998), and (2) Berlin Aging Study (BASE; A. M. Freund & P. B. Baltes, 1998). More detailed information about the SOC model, the sampie, design and results of the studies on which the data reported here are based, can be found in the respective articles in the list of references at the end of the report.
Article
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The life-span model of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) provides a valuable theoretical framework for understanding organizational behaviour related to coping with age-related changes. Although previous research has demonstrated that SOC strategies at work contribute positively to individual outcomes, the role of workplace characteristics has been insufficiently addressed. This study investigated direct and indirect effects of SOC strategies at work and two important job resources (i.e., learning and developmental opportunities and autonomy at work) in predicting work engagement. All variables were assessed through employee self-reports based on standardized survey measures. Data collected from 118 flight attendants showed that SOC strategies were positively associated with work engagement (r = 0.28, p < 0.05). Learning and developmental opportunities (r = 0.35, p < 0.01) and job control (r = 0.31, p < 0.01) were also related to work engagement. Additionally, we found meaningful mediation effects, such that positive associations of job resources with work engagement were significantly mediated through SOC use. These findings suggest that the application of successful aging strategies and enhanced job resources are conducive to engagement at work. Theoretical and practical implications regarding the joint effects of SOC strategies and job resources for successful aging in the workplace are discussed.
Article
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The theory of selective optimization with compensation (SOC) proposes that the " orchestrated " use of three distinct action regulation strategies (selection, optimization, and compensation) leads to positive employee outcomes. Previous research examined overall scores and additive models (i.e., main effects) of SOC strategies instead of interaction models in which SOC strategies mutually enhance each other's effects. Thus, a central assumption of SOC theory remains untested. In addition, most research on SOC strategies has been cross-sectional, assuming that employees' use of SOC strategies is stable over time. We conducted a quantitative diary study across nine work days (N = 77; 514 daily entries) to investigate interactive effects of daily SOC strategies on daily work engagement. Results showed that optimization and compensation, but not selection, had positive main effects on work engagement. Moreover, a significant three-way interaction effect indicated that the relationship between selection and work engagement was positive only when both optimization and compensation were high, whereas the relationship was negative when optimization was low and compensation was high. We discuss implications for future research and practice regarding the use of SOC strategies at work.
Article
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This study examines the role of three personal resources (i.e., proactive behaviour, reflective behaviour and self-efficacy) in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in order to predict self and other ratings of performance. The sample consisted of 860 Dutch veterinary professionals and 170 colleagues. We hypothesized and found that work engagement (partially) mediates the relationship between job as well as personal resources and extra-role performance and that personal resources partially mediate the relationship between job resources and work engagement. Although hypothesized, we found no support for the mediating role of exhaustion in the relationship between job demands as well as personal resources and in-role performance. Moreover personal resources were directly related to in- and extra-role performance. In conclusion, the study expands the JD-R model by integrating personal resources at a behavioural level and performance measures in the model, and shows that personal resources have a mediating and initiating role in explaining work engagement and performance in young veterinary professionals.
Article
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Work ability describes employees' capability to carry out their work with respect to physical and psychological job demands. This study investigated direct and interactive effects of age, job control, and the use of successful aging strategies called selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) in predicting work ability. We assessed SOC strategies and job control by using employee self-reports, and we measured employees' work ability using supervisor ratings. Data collected from 173 health-care employees showed that job control was positively associated with work ability. Additionally, we found a three-way interaction effect of age, job control, and use of SOC strategies on work ability. Specifically, the negative relationship between age and work ability was weakest for employees with high job control and high use of SOC strategies. These results suggest that the use of successful aging strategies and enhanced control at work are conducive to maintaining the work ability of aging employees. We discuss theoretical and practical implications regarding the beneficial role of the use of SOC strategies utilized by older employees and enhanced contextual resources at work for aging employees. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
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The present study aims to explain why research thus far has found only low to moderate associations between burnout and performance. We argue that employees use adaptive strategies that help them to maintain their performance (i.e., task performance, adaptivity to change) at acceptable levels despite experiencing burnout (i.e., exhaustion, disengagement). We focus on the strategies included in the selective optimization with compensation model. Using a sample of 294 employees and their supervisors, we found that compensation is the most successful strategy in buffering the negative associations of disengagement with supervisor-rated task performance and both disengagement and exhaustion with supervisor-rated adaptivity to change. In contrast, selection exacerbates the negative relationship of exhaustion with supervisor-rated adaptivity to change. In total, 42% of the hypothesized interactions proved to be significant. Our study uncovers successful and unsuccessful strategies that people use to deal with their burnout symptoms in order to achieve satisfactory job performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Many theories in management, psychology, and other disciplines rely on moderating variables: those which affect the strength or nature of the relationship between two other variables. Despite the near-ubiquitous nature of such effects, the methods for testing and interpreting them are not always well understood. This article introduces the concept of moderation and describes how moderator effects are tested and interpreted for a series of model types, beginning with straightforward two-way interactions with Normal outcomes, moving to three-way and curvilinear interactions, and then to models with non-Normal outcomes including binary logistic regression and Poisson regression. In particular, methods of interpreting and probing these latter model types, such as simple slope analysis and slope difference tests, are described. It then gives answers to twelve frequently asked questions about testing and interpreting moderator effects.
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The concept of focus on opportunities describes how many new goals, options, and possibilities employees believe to have in their personal future at work. In this multi-sample, multi-method study, the authors investigated relationships between focus on opportunities and general and daily work engagement and the moderating role of focus on opportunities on between- and within-person relationships between job control and work engagement. Based on a social cognitive theory framework on the motivating potential of a future temporal focus, it was hypothesized that focus on opportunities is positively related to work engagement. Further, consistent with the notion of compensatory resources, it was expected that job control is not related to work engagement among employees with a high focus on opportunities, whereas job control, as an external resource of the work environment, is positively related to work engagement among employees with a low focus on opportunities. Both a cross-sectional survey study (N=174) and a daily diary study (N=64) supported the hypotheses. The study contributes to research on the job demands-resources model as it emphasizes the role of focus on opportunities as a motivational factor in the relationship between job control and work engagement.
Article
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Life-span models and their emphasis on individual differences in aging and development fit perfectly with industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology's underlying theoretical assumptions. Furthermore, certain life-span metatheories can provide an overarching framework from which to understand various I-O research areas. This article attempts to demonstrate how a specific life-span model of successful aging-selective optimization with compensation (SOC)-can be used as a metatheory for 3 specific areas of I-O psychology: work-family conflict, leadership, and organization-level functioning. Finally, methodological issues that researchers should consider when using the SOC model in the I-O arena are also discussed.
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This article reports on the development of a short questionnaire to measure work engagement—a positive work-related state of fulfillment that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Data were collected in 10 different countries (N = 14,521), and results indicated that the original 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) can be shortened to 9 items (UWES-9). The factorial validity of the UWES-9 was demonstrated using confirmatory factor analyses, and the three scale scores have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Furthermore, a two-factor model with a reduced Burnout factor (including exhaustion and cynicism) and an expanded Engagement factor (including vigor, dedication, absorption, and professional efficacy) fit best to the data. These results confirm that work engagement may be conceived as the positive antipode of burnout. It is concluded that the UWES-9 scores has acceptable psychometric properties and that the instrument can be used in studies on positive organizational behavior.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article discusses the concept of work engagement and summarizes research on its most important antecedents. The authors formulate 10 key questions and shape a research agenda for engagement. In addition to the conceptual development and measurement of enduring work engagement, the authors discuss the importance of state work engagement. Further, they argue that the social context is crucial and may set the stage for a climate for engagement with an important role for management. Engaged employees conserve their own engagement through a process of job crafting. After discussing possible dark sides of engagement and the relationship between engagement and health, the article closes with a discussion of organizational interventions to increase work engagement.
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Psychology has increasingly turned to the study of psychosocial resources in the examination of well-being. How resources are being studied and resource models that have been proffered are considered, and an attempt is made to examine elements that bridge across models. As resource models span health, community, cognitive, and clinical psychology, the question is raised of whether there is overuse of the resource metaphor or whether there exists some underlying principles that can be gleaned and incorporated to advance research. The contribution of resources for understanding multicultural and pan-historical adaptation in the face of challenge is considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Positive psychology is the study of the conditions and processes that contribute to the flourishing or optimal functioning of people, groups, and institutions. In this brief introduction, the authors give examples of current work in positive psychology and try to explain why the positive psychology movement has grown so quickly in just 5 years. They suggest that it filled a need: It guided researchers to understudied phenomena. The authors close by addressing some criticisms and shortcomings of positive psychology, such as the relative lack of progress in studying positive institutions.
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Previous research has demonstrated that the use of general behaviors specified by a life-management strategy entitled Selection, Optimization, and Compensation (SOC) reduces, if only to a small extent, the perceived amounts of the main antecedents (i.e., job/family stressors) of work-family conflict. The results of the current study demonstrate that several variables that impact the amount of resources demanded of, or resources available to, an individual (e.g., supervisor support) moderate the relationship between SOC behaviors and job/family stressors. Specifically, SOC strategies are more effective than previously thought at reducing job/family stressors for precisely those individuals in the most demanding situations.
Article
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Drawing on Conservation of Resources Theory and previous research on work engagement, the present study investigates gain spirals between employees' engagement and their task, social, and personal resources. It focuses on the key resources of job control, positive work relationships, and active coping behavior. In a three-wave design, work engagement (T2) is suggested to function both as an outcome and antecedent of these resources, so that engagement mediates indirect longitudinal effects of initial (T1) on subsequent (T3) resources. Item-level structural equation modeling supported our hypotheses in a three-wave panel (N = 416) of hospital physicians with measurement intervals of 14 and 19 months. Connections between engagement research and other evolving perspectives in organizational research are highlighted. Unique contributions of the present study and their implications for further research and practice are discussed.
Article
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The present cross-lagged panel study aimed to investigate the energizing power of job resources and related gain spirals. Drawing on Hobfoll’s Conservation of Resources (COR) theory’s rarely tested assumptions of cumulative resource gains and gain spirals a reciprocal process was expected: (1) job resources lead to work engagement and work engagement leads to personal initiative (PI), which, in turn, has a positive impact on work-unit innovativeness, and (2) work-unit innovativeness leads to PI, which has a positive impact on work engagement, which finally predicts future job resources. The study was based on a two-wave 3-year panel design among 2555 Finnish dentists. Structural equation modeling was employed to study cross-lagged associations. The results mainly confirmed our hypotheses: positive and reciprocal cross-lagged associations were found between job resources and work engagement and between work engagement and PI. In addition, PI had a positive impact on work-unit innovativeness over time.
Article
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This study tested the hypothesis that the relationship between conscientiousness and job performance is mediated by resource allocation strategies specific to a meta-theory called selective optimization with compensation (SOC). Data were collected from employees at a large, Midwestern financial institution. In general, results lend some support to the role of SOC as a mediator. Specifically, results indicated that especially for positions with larger amounts of autonomy and responsibility (i.e., managerial), highly conscientious individuals are more likely to report using strategies of loss-based selection and compensation and that these strategies in turn lead to higher levels of performance. However, the strategies of loss-based selection and compensation did not fully mediate the conscientious-performance relationship. Nevertheless, these strategies did contribute unique variance of their own in predicting work place performance. In fact, these strategies accounted for almost as much unique variance as conscientiousness and support the role of SOC as a unique predictor of job performance.
Article
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This study investigated within-person relationships between daily problem solving demands, selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategy use, job satisfaction, and fatigue at work. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that high SOC strategy use boosts the positive relationship between problem solving demands and job satisfaction, and buffers the positive relationship between problem solving demands and fatigue. Using a daily diary study design, data were collected from 64 administrative employees who completed a general questionnaire and two daily online questionnaires over four work days. Multilevel analyses showed that problem solving demands were positively related to fatigue, but unrelated to job satisfaction. SOC strategy use was positively related to job satisfaction, but unrelated to fatigue. A buffering effect of high SOC strategy use on the demands-fatigue relationship was found, but no booster effect on the demands-satisfaction relationship. The results suggest that high SOC strategy use is a resource that protects employees from the negative effects of high problem solving demands.
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Many researchers have concerns about work engagement's distinction from other constructs and its theoretical merit. The goals of this study were to identify an agreed-upon definition of engagement, to investigate its uniqueness, and to clarify its nomological network of constructs. Using a conceptual framework based on Macey and Schneider (2008; Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3-30), we found that engagement exhibits discriminant validity from, and criterion related validity over, job attitudes. We also found that engagement is related to several key antecedents and consequences. Finally, we used meta-analytic path modeling to test the role of engagement as a mediator of the relation between distal antecedents and job performance, finding support for our conceptual framework. In sum, our results suggest that work engagement is a useful construct that deserves further attention. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Personnel Psychology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of a recovery training program on recovery experiences (psychological detachment from work, relaxation, mastery experiences, and control during off-job time), recovery-related self-efficacy, and well-being outcomes. The training comprised two sessions held one week apart. Recovery experiences, recovery-related self-efficacy, and well-being outcomes were measured before the training (T1) and one week (T2) and three weeks (T3) after the training. A training group consisting of 48 individuals and a waitlist control group of 47 individuals were compared (N = 95). Analyses of covariance revealed an increase in recovery experiences at T2 and T3 (for mastery only at T2). Recovery-related self-efficacy and sleep quality increased at T2 and T3, perceived stress and state negative affect decreased at T3. No training effects were found for emotional exhaustion.
Article
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The concept of focus on opportunities describes how many new goals, options, and possibilities employees believe to have in their personal future at work. This study investigated the specific and shared effects of age, job complexity, and the use of successful aging strategies called selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) in predicting focus on opportunities. Results of data collected from 133 employees of one company (mean age=38 years, SD=13, range 1665 years) showed that age was negatively, and job complexity and use of SOC strategies were positively related to focus on opportunities. In addition, older employees in high-complexity jobs and older employees in low-complexity jobs with high use of SOC strategies were better able to maintain a focus on opportunities than older employees in low-complexity jobs with low use of SOC strategies. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
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The bulk of personality research has been built from self-report measures of personality. However, collecting personality ratings from other-raters, such as family, friends, and even strangers, is a dramatically underutilized method that allows better explanation and prediction of personality's role in many domains of psychology. Drawing hypotheses from D. C. Funder's (1995) realistic accuracy model about trait and information moderators of accuracy, we offer 3 meta-analyses to help researchers and applied psychologists understand and interpret both consistencies and unique insights afforded by other-ratings of personality. These meta-analyses integrate findings based on 44,178 target individuals rated across 263 independent samples. Each meta-analysis assessed the accuracy of observer ratings, as indexed by interrater consensus/reliability (Study 1), self-other correlations (Study 2), and predictions of behavior (Study 3). The results show that although increased frequency of interacting with targets does improve accuracy in rating personality, informants' interpersonal intimacy with the target is necessary for substantial increases in other-rating accuracy. Interpersonal intimacy improved accuracy especially for traits low in visibility (e.g., Emotional Stability) but only minimally for traits high in evaluativeness (e.g., Agreeableness). In addition, observer ratings were strong predictors of behaviors. When the criterion was academic achievement or job performance, other-ratings yielded predictive validities substantially greater than and incremental to self-ratings. These findings indicate that extraordinary value can gained by using other-reports to measure personality, and these findings provide guidelines toward enriching personality theory. Various subfields of psychology in which personality variables are systematically assessed and utilized in research and practice can benefit tremendously from use of others' ratings to measure personality variables.
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This study examined the role of three personal resources (self-efficacy, organizational-based self-esteem, and optimism) in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. The authors hypothesized that personal resources (1) moderate the relationship between job demands and exhaustion, (2) mediate the relationship between job resources and work engagement, and (3) relate to how employees perceive their work environment and well-being. Hypotheses were tested among 714 Dutch employees. Results showed that personal resources did not offset the relationship between job demands and exhaustion. Instead, personal resources mediated the relationship between job resources and engagement/exhaustion and influenced the perception of job resources. The implications of these findings for the JD-R model are discussed.
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Mentally distancing oneself from work during nonwork time can help restore resources lost because of work demands. In this study, we examined possible outcomes of such psychological detachment from work, specifically well-being and job performance. Although employees may need to mentally detach from work to restore their well-being, high levels of detachment may require a longer time to get back into "working mode," which may be negatively associated with job performance. Our results indicate that higher levels of self-reported detachment were associated with higher levels of significant other-reported life satisfaction as well as lower levels of emotional exhaustion. In addition, we found curvilinear relationships between psychological detachment and coworker reported job performance (task performance and proactive behavior). Thus, although high psychological detachment may enhance employee well-being, it seems that medium levels of detachment are most beneficial for job performance.
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We refine and extend the job demands-resources model with theory regarding appraisal of stressors to account for inconsistencies in relationships between demands and engagement, and we test the revised theory using meta-analytic structural modeling. Results indicate support for the refined and updated theory. First, demands and burnout were positively associated, whereas resources and burnout were negatively associated. Second, whereas relationships among resources and engagement were consistently positive, relationships among demands and engagement were highly dependent on the nature of the demand. Demands that employees tend to appraise as hindrances were negatively associated with engagement, and demands that employees tend to appraise as challenges were positively associated with engagement. Implications for future research are discussed.
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This study of 62 dyads of employees (N = 124) examined the crossover of work engagement-a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. We hypothesized that work engagement crosses over from an employee (the actor) to his or her colleague (the partner) on a daily basis. The frequency of daily communication was expected to moderate the crossover of daily work engagement, which in turn would relate to colleagues' daily performance. Participants first filled in a general questionnaire and then completed a diary study over 5 consecutive workdays. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analyses, using an actor-partner interdependence model. Results confirmed the crossover of daily work engagement, but only on days when employees within a dyad interacted more frequently than usual. Moreover, we found that actor's work engagement (particularly vigor), when frequently communicated, had a positive indirect relationship with partner's performance through partner's work engagement. Finally, results showed that actor's vigor was negatively related to partner's performance when communication was low. However, this negative effect was counteracted when mediated by the vigor of the partner.
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This meta-analysis explores agreement in self- and supervisory ratings of job performance (k = 128 independent samples). It suggests a 3-stage model of the rating process and reviews the empirical evidence for the relevance of each of these 3 stages to an understanding of agreement in ratings. The proposed 3-stage model serves as the guiding rationale for the examination of an extensive set of variables that moderate rater agreement. Results are reported for 2 indicators of rater agreement (correlational and mean-level agreement). Self-supervisor ratings yielded an overall correlation of .22 (rho = .34; k = 115; n = 37,752). Position characteristics and the use of nonjudgmental performance indicators were the main moderators. Leniency in self-ratings is indicated by higher mean levels of self-ratings compared with supervisory ratings. Within Western samples, performance self-ratings showed leniency (d = 0.32, Delta = .49; k = 89; n = 35,417) dependent on contextual features, scale format, and scale content.
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Major perspectives concerning stress are presented with the goal of clarifying the nature of what has proved to be a heuristic but vague construct. Current conceptualizations of stress are challenged as being too phenomenological and ambiguous, and consequently, not given to direct empirical testing. Indeed, it is argued that researchers have tended to avoid the problem of defining stress, choosing to study stress without reference to a clear framework. A new stress model called the model of conservation of resources is presented as an alternative. This resource-oriented model is based on the supposition that people strive to retain, project, and build resources and that what is threatening to them is the potential or actual loss of these valued resources. Implications of the model of conservation of resources for new research directions are discussed.
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The job demands-resources (JD-R) model proposes that working conditions can be categorized into 2 broad categories, job demands and job resources. that are differentially related to specific outcomes. A series of LISREL analyses using self-reports as well as observer ratings of the working conditions provided strong evidence for the JD-R model: Job demands are primarily related to the exhaustion component of burnout, whereas (lack of) job resources are primarily related to disengagement. Highly similar patterns were observed in each of 3 occupational groups: human services, industry, and transport (total N = 374). In addition, results confirmed the 2-factor structure (exhaustion and disengagement) of a new burnout instrument--the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory--and suggested that this structure is essentially invariant across occupational groups.
Article
Psychology has increasingly turned to the study of psychosocial resources in the examination of well-being. How resources are being studied and resource models that have been proffered are considered, and an attempt is made to examine elements that bridge across models. As resource models span health, community, cognitive, and clinical psychology, the question is raised of whether there is overuse of the resource metaphor or whether there exists some underlying principles that can be gleaned and incorporated to advance research. The contribution of resources for understanding multicultural and pan-historical adaptation in the face of challenge is considered.
Article
This article introduces JOOP’s special section on expanding the boundaries of resource theories in Occupational and Organizational Psychology. After an introduction of the most relevant resource theories and their current application in Occupational and Organizational Psychology – Key resource theories, Conservation of Resources Theory, Resource Theory of Social exchange, and Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory – the opportunities and challenges for future research are outlined, as well as the innovative trends emerging from the contributions in this special section.
Article
Simple slopes, regions of significance, and confidence bands are commonly used to evaluate interactions in multiple linear regression (MLR) models, and the use of these techniques has recently been extended to multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and latent curve analysis (LCA). However, conducting these tests and plotting the conditional relations is often a tedious and error-prone task. This article provides an overview of methods used to probe interaction effects and describes a unified collection of freely available online resources that researchers can use to obtain significance tests for simple slopes, compute regions of significance, and obtain confidence bands for simple slopes across the range of the moderator in the MLR, HLM, and LCA contexts. Plotting capabilities are also provided.
Chapter
The conceptual framework of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) is a valuable meta-theoretical tool for integrating research on life span development across functional domains, life periods, and levels of analysis. Its explicit focus on selection, optimization, and compensation as a three key mechanism of developmental resource generation and allocation effectively counteracts the fragmentation of knowledge that characterizes much of the work in child development and aging. This chapter reviews empirical findings on adaptive resource allocation in adulthood and old age, primarily from a SOC perspective. Special emphasis is given to two research domains: motivation-volition, and cognitive-sensorimotor functioning. The development, expression, and function of diverse developmental phenomena such as goal selection, pursuit, and performance in cognitive-sensorimotor dual tasks can be regarded as specific implementations of the component processes of selection, optimization, or compensation. New research directions within the SOC framework are also delineated.
Article
This article introduces JOOP's special section on expanding the boundaries of resource theories in occupational and organizational psychology. After an introduction of the most relevant resource theories and their current application in occupational and organizational psychology – key resource theories, conservation of resources theory, resource theory of social exchange, and selective optimization with compensation theory – the opportunities and challenges for future research are outlined, as well as the innovative trends emerging from the contributions in this special section.
Article
This quasi-experimental and longitudinal study assesses the effectiveness of a work stress intervention (i.e., Team Redesign) to increase job and personal resources and to consequently reduce job strain and increase employee psychosocial well-being in an enamel manufacturing company following the Resources-Experiences-Demands Model (RED Model) and within the Action-Research approach. The sample consisted of 108 employees at Time 1 and 72 employees at Time 2. Repeated-measures multivariable analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed that the Time × Intervention interaction had reliable, positive, and incremental effects on job resources (i.e., innovation climate), personal resources (i.e., professional self-efficacy and perceived competence), and motivational outcomes (i.e., work engagement, vigor, and dedication) on the intervention group (laboratory team, n = 9) when compared with the control group (n = 63 employees from different departments). Finally, we discuss the theoretical and practical implications based on the RED Model, including the feedback from Intervention (Action) to Theory (Research). © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
This study focuses on burnout and its positive antipode—engagement. A model is tested in which burnout and engagement have different predictors and different possible consequences. Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously analyze data from four independent occupational samples (total N = 1698). Results confirm the hypothesized model indicating that: (1) burnout and engagement are negatively related, sharing between 10 per cent and 25 per cent of their variances; (2) burnout is mainly predicted by job demands but also by lack of job resources, whereas engagement is exclusively predicted by available job resources; (3) burnout is related to health problems as well as to turnover intention, whereas engagement is related only to the latter; (4) burnout mediates the relationship between job demands and health problems, whereas engagement mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover intention. The fact that burnout and engagement exhibit different patterns of possible causes and consequences implies that different intervention strategies should be used when burnout is to be reduced or engagement is to be enhanced. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The present longitudinal survey among 201 telecom managers supports the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that postulates a health impairment process and a motivational process. As hypothesized, results of structural equation modeling analyses revealed that: (1) increases in job demands (i.e., overload, emotional demands, and work-home interference) and decreases in job resources (i.e., social support, autonomy, opportunities to learn, and feedback) predict burnout, (2) increases in job resources predict work engagement, and (3) burnout (positively) and engagement (negatively) predict registered sickness duration (“involuntary” absence) and frequency (“involuntary” absence), respectively. Finally, consistent with predictions results suggest a positive gain spiral: initial work engagement predicts an increase in job resources, which, in its turn, further increases work engagement. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A model is proposed that specifies the conditions under which individuals will become internally motivated to perform effectively on their jobs. The model focuses on the interaction among three classes of variables: (a) the psychological states of employees that must be present for internally motivated work behavior to develop; (b) the characteristics of jobs that can create these psychological states; and (c) the attributes of individuals that determine how positively a person will respond to a complex and challenging job. The model was tested for 658 employees who work on 62 different jobs in seven organizations, and results support its validity. A number of special features of the model are discussed (including its use as a basis for the diagnosis of jobs and the evaluation of job redesign projects), and the model is compared to other theories of job design.
Article
In a 3-year longitudinal study, we found in a sample of young professionals (N=82; 44% male; age range: 28 to 39 years) that self-reported behaviors reflecting selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) predicted global and work-specific subjective well-being (multiple correlations ranged from R=.22 to R=.44). In addition to optimization (i.e., implementing goal-relevant means), it was especially the degree of compensation (i.e., investing goal-relevant means to counteract losses) that predicted how emotionally balanced individuals felt and how satisfied they were with their work situation 3 years later. These longitudinal predictions were quite robust when controlling for personality variables (NEO). Results are consistent with previous cross-sectional findings and demonstrate how the SOC framework might be successfully applied to the domain of vocational behavior.
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This study examined longitudinal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. On the basis of Conservation of Resources theory, we hypothesized that job resources, personal resources, and work engagement are reciprocal over time. The study was conducted among 163 employees, who were followed-up over a period of 18 months on average. Results of structural equation modeling analyses supported our hypotheses. Specifically, we found that T1 job and personal resources related positively to T2 work engagement. Additionally, T1 work engagement related positively to T2 job and personal resources. The model that fit best was the reciprocal model, which showed that not only resources and work engagement but also job and personal resources were mutually related. These findings support the assumption of Conservation of Resources theory that various types of resources and well-being evolve into a cycle that determines employees’ successful adaptation to their work environments.
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Despite the concern that has been expressed about potential method biases, and the pervasiveness of research settings with the potential to produce them, there is disagreement about whether they really are a problem for researchers in the behavioral sciences. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore the current state of knowledge about method biases. First, we explore the meaning of the terms "method" and "method bias" and then we examine whether method biases influence all measures equally. Next, we review the evidence of the effects that method biases have on individual measures and on the covariation between different constructs. Following this, we evaluate the procedural and statistical remedies that have been used to control method biases and provide recommendations for minimizing method bias.
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This study examined the state of being recovered in the morning (i.e., feeling physically and mentally refreshed) as a predictor of daily job performance and daily compensatory effort at work. Ninety-nine employees from public service organizations completed a general survey and two daily surveys on pocket computers over the course of one workweek. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that being recovered in the morning was positively related to daily task performance, personal initiative, and organizational citizenship behavior and negatively related to daily compensatory effort at work. Relationships between the state of being recovered and day-specific job performance were moderated by job control. For persons with a high level of job control, the relationship between being recovered and daily performance was stronger.
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Previous research has suggested that psychological detachment from work during off-job time is important in order to recover from stress encountered at the job. Psychological detachment refers to an individual’s experience of being mentally away from work, to make a pause in thinking about work-related issues, thus to "switch off". This study examines job stressors, job involvement, and recovery-related self-efficacy as predictors of psychological detachment in a sample of 148 school teachers. Psychological detachment was assessed by self-reports and by ratings provided by family members. Multiple regression analysis showed that workload, job involvement, and recoveryrelated self-efficacy were significant predictors of both self-rated and familyrated psychological detachment. The study findings suggest that with respect to practical implications it is crucial to manage workload and to increase recovery-related self-efficacy.
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Self-regulation at work is conceived in terms of within-person processes that occur over time. These processes are proposed to occur within a hierarchical framework of negative feedback systems that operate at different levels of abstraction and with different time cycles. Negative feedback systems respond to discrepancies in a manner that reduces deviations from standards (i.e., goals). This is in contrast to positive feedback systems in which discrepancies are created, which can lead to instability. We organize our discussion around four hierarchical levels-self, achievement task, lower-level task action, and knowledge/working memory. We theorize that these levels are loosely connected by multiple constraints and that both automatic and more conscious processes are essential to self-regulation. Within- and cross-level affective and cognitive processes interact within this system to motivate goal-related behaviors while also accessing needed knowledge and protecting current intentions from interference. Complications common in the work setting (as well as other complex, real-life settings) such as the simultaneous pursuit of multiple goals, the importance of knowledge access and expertise, and team and multiperson processes are also discussed. Finally, we highlight the usefulness of newer research methodologies and data-analytic techniques for examining such hierarchical, dynamic, within-person processes.