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Chronicle of the "Anglo-Yugoslav Children’s Hospital" in Sremska Kamenica

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As a peacetime work of Katherine S. Macphail (Glasgow, 1887- St. Andrews, 1974) MB ChB (Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery), the Anglo-Serbian Children’s Hospital in Belgrade was established after World War I, and the English-Yugoslav Children’s Hospital for Treatment of Osteoarticular Tuberculosis was founded in Sremska Kamenica in 1934. Situated on the Fruška Gora slope, the hospital-sanatorium was a well-equipped medical institution with an operating theatre and x-ray machine providing very advanced therapy, comparable to those in Switzerland and England: aero and heliotherapy, good quality nourishment, etc. In addition, school lessons were organized as well as several types of handwork as the work-therapy. It was a privately owned hospital but almost all the children were treated free of cost. The age for admission was up to 14. During the period from 1934 to 1937, around 458 children underwent hospital treatment, most of them with successful results. During the war years the Sanatorium was closed but after the war it was reactivated. In 1948 by the act of final nationalization of all medical institutions in the communist Yugoslavia, the hospital was transformed into a ward of orthopedic surgery under the supervision of the referent departments in Belgrade and Novi Sad. Today, hospital is out of work and deprived of its humanitarian mission. The building is neglected and in ruins although it has been proclaimed the national treasure by the Regional Institute for Protection of Monuments of Culture.
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Med Pregl 2015; LXVIII (7-8): 277-282. Novi Sad: juli-avgust. 277
Summary
As a peacetime work of Katherine S. Macphail (Glasgow, 1887-
St.Andrews, 1974) MB ChB (Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery),
the Anglo-Serbian Children’s Hospital in Belgrade was esta-
blished after World War I, and the English-Yugoslav Children’s
Hospital for Treatment of Osteoarticular Tuberculosis was foun-
ded in Sremska Kamenica in 1934. Situated on the Fruška Gora
slope, the hospital-sanatorium was a well-equipped medical in-
stitution with an operating theatre and x-ray machine providing
very advanced therapy, comparable to those in Switzerland and
England: aero and heliotherapy, good quality nourishment, etc.
In addition, school lessons were organized as well as several
types of handwork as the work-therapy. It was a privately owned
hospital but almost all the children were treated free of cost. The
age for admission was up to 14. During the period from 1934 to
1937, around 458 children underwent hospital treatment, most of
them with successful results. During the war years the Sanatori-
um was closed but after the war it was reactivated. In 1948 by the
act of final nationalization of all medical institutions in the co-
mmunist Yugoslavia, the hospital was transformed into a ward
of orthopedic surgery under the supervision of the referent de-
partments in Belgrade and Novi Sad. Today, hospital is out of
work and deprived of its humanitarian mission. The building is
neglected and in ruins although it has been proclaimed the nati-
onal treasure by the Regional Institute for Protection of Monu-
ments of Culture.
Key words: History of Medicine; Hospitals, Pediatric; Famous
Persons; Great Britain; Yugoslavia; History, 20th Century; Tu-
berculosis, Osteoarticular; Health Resorts; Female
Sažetak
Posle završetka Prvog svetskog rata misija dr Ketrin Makfejl
(Glazgov, 1887. Sveti Andrej, 1974.), MB ChB (bečelor medicine
i hirurgije), bila je osnivač Englesko-srpske dečje bolnice u Be-
ogradu, a zatim 1934. godine Englesko-jugoslovenske dečje bol-
nice za lečenje osteoartikularne tuberkuloze u Sremskoj Kame-
nici. Bolnica-sanatorijum bila je izgrađena na padini Fruške gore
i ispunjavala sve uslove za najsavremenije lečenje ove bolesti po
ugledu na švajcarske i engleske sanatorijume: imala je operaci-
onu salu, rendgensku dijagnostiku, aero i helioterapiju, koja se
primenjivala uz odgovarajući higijensko-dijetetski režim. Školska
nastava i drugi oblici radne terapije bili su značajni za svakog
malog bolesnika. Iako je bolnica bila privatno vlasništvo, većina
dece čiji je uzrast bio do 14 godina bila je lečena besplatno. To-
kom vremenskog perioda 1934-1937. godine oko 458 dece bilo
je podvrgnuto bolničkom lečenju, većina sa zadovoljavajućim
rezultatom. Tokom Drugog svetskog rata bolnica nije radila, ali
je počela odmah posle oslobođenja. Godine 1948., sa procesom
nacionalizacije svih medicinskih ustanova u komunističkoj Ju-
goslaviji, bolnica postaje ortopedsko odeljenje uz stručni nadzor
prvo beogradske a zatim novosadske ortopedije i rehabilitacije.
Danas, u svojoj osamdesetoj godini bolnica je bez pacijenata i
misije, oronula i zapuštena iako je od Pokrajinskog zavoda za
zaštitu spomenika Vojvodine proglašena za spomenik od nacio-
nalnog značaja.
Ključne reči: Istorija medicine; Pedijatrijska bolnica; Poznate
ličnosti; Velika Britanija; Jugoslavija; Istorija 20. veka; Osteo-
artikularna tuberkuloza; Sanatorijumi; Žena
Introduction
During the war (1915-1918) and the post-war ye-
ars in Serbia, Katherine Macphail, being an expe-
rienced medicine woman, noticed that a perennial
poverty and hunger induced an increased number
of chronic tuberculosis patients: “After many years
of working with children in this country, I realized
that there is a need for a special hospital for the
children whom long-time treatment is necessary,
especially for children suffering of the tuberculosis
HISTORY OF MEDICINE
ISTORIJA MEDICINE
University of Novi Sad History of medicine
Faculty od Medicine1 Istorija medicine
Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, Novi Sad UDK 616-051:929 Macphail K.
Department of Pathology2 UDK 616.71/.72-002.5-053.2-08:614.2(497.113 Sremska Kamenica)(091
DOI: 10.2298/MPNS1508277D
CHRONICLE OF THE «ANGLO -YUGOSLAV CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL»
IN SREMSKA KAMENICA
ISTORIJAT ANGLO-JUGOSLOVENSKE DEČJE BOLNICE U SREMSKOJ KAMENICI
Dušanka DOBANOVAČKI1, Želimir MIK1 and Nada VUČKOVIĆ1,2
Corresponding Author: Prof. dr Dušanka Dobanovački, 21000 Novi Sad, Lukijana Mušickog 12, E-mail: dudob@yahoo.com
---------------------------
This article was written to commemorate the humane and selfless
work of people who had been devoted to helping others.
278
of bones and joints, as well as for children with
various other deformities. There would be provided
adequate medical care, fresh air and good food for
a longer period of time, possible treatment and reha-
bilitation, healing and correction, or at least stop
further progression of their deformity”.
In the early thirties of the XX century, Katheri-
ne Macphail started to look for a suitable place for
the hospital building that would meet modern dia-
gnostic and therapeutic conditions for its purpose.
At the same time, it would be the memorial of Bri-
tish women’s work in Serbia during and after World
War I. Assisted by friends, she found such a place
which was old orchards and vineyards stretching
over Čardak, a hill in Sremska Kamenica. The se-
lected field was located on a hill in an open country
with a lot of fresh air and sunshine required for the
tuberculosis treatment, and it was easily accessible
(Figure 1).
1933
The Land Registry Cadastre of the municipality of
Sremska Kamenica has an entry under the number
1341 stating that the three plots on the hill Čardak
became the property of Macphail Katherine, a doctor
from Belgrade. According to the plan, the Katherine
Macphail architect‘s draft consisted of three-wing bu-
ilding with a courtyard and a terrace along the wings
so that children could be exposed to the sun. The pro-
ject was approved by the Administration of the Danu-
be Banovina in Novi Sad in September 1933 and bu-
ilding permits were obtained. Queen Maria Karadjor-
djević was the sponsor of the entire action. Late in the
summer, the first works started and developed well.
1934
In the spring, construction work on the new hos-
pital was over, the equipment was ordered, and the
lists of patients for admission were created. The
Royal Commission of Banovina government gave
permission to the English-Yugoslav children’s sa-
natorium to be opened and start working: “The
hospital building is built on the slope that goes down
to village Sremska Kamenica. Hospital is exposed
to abundant and beneficial effects of the sun and
air. The building consists of a main frontal part and
two symmetrically placed wings. In the main part
there are three hospital departments, out-patients
department, operating theatre, imaging and radio-
therapy department, pharmacy department, sterili-
zing instruments and room for isolation of the pa-
tients with childhood infectious diseases. There are
also office for administration, storehouse for medi-
caments and instruments. In the wings of the buil-
ding are kitchen with pantry and dining room for
children. On the top f loor are four bedroom-apar-
tments for doctors and nurses. There are four hygi-
enic bathrooms and lavatories that are arranged in
the wings of the building. The hospital was built
according to the plan for therapy and long stay pa-
tients. In front of the southern and western fronts
terraces are built. The whole yard is fenced and
looks like a park, there is an orchard and vineyard
(Figure 2).”
The hospital - sanatorium was officially opened
on September 23, 1934 under the auspices of Her
Majesty Queen Maria Karadjordjevic.
The first patients were transferred from a Belgra-
de hospital on August 1. Treatment of patients was
Dobanovački D, et al. Chronicle of hospital
Figure 1. Katherine S. Macphail (1915)
Slika 1. Katerin S. Makfejl (1915)
Figure 2. Sanatorium in Sremska Kamenica (1936)
Slika 2. Sanatorijum u Sremskoj Kamenici (1936)
Abbreviations
UNRA – United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation
Administration
---------------------------
Katherine S. Macphail, MD, MB ChB (Glasgow, 1887 - St.Andrews,
1974) was born into a wealthy medical family. She studied medicine
and surgery at the University of Glasgow, Scotland and graduated in
1911. During the World War I, she joined the team of Scottish
Women’s Hospital for Foreign Service, and as a volunteer came to
Serbia in January 1915 (Fig. 1.). After the war, she continued the
humanitarian work and founded the Anglo - Serbian Children’s
Hospital”, the first school for nurses in Belgrade, and the children’s
sanatorium «Anglo -Yugoslav Children’s Hospital» for bone and
joint tuberculosis treatment in Sremska Kamenica in 1934. She re-
presents an imposing figure among the many British women who
were committed to supporting Serbia during the difficult wars and
post-war days. Her resume reflects the timeless dimension of a he-
roin and humanist.
Med Pregl 2015; LXVIII (7-8): 277-282. Novi Sad: juli-avgust. 279
focused on the children who suffered from tuberculo-
sis of bones and joints, polio, rickets and so on. Trea-
tment consisted of fresh air, exposure to the sun, good
food, extensions, rest, massage, immobilization in a
cast, and surgery if necessary. The hospital admitted
children up to 14 years of age. There were 50 children
during summer, and 32 in winter (Figure 3). The Chi-
ef of hospital was Katherine Macphail, the surgeon
Svetislav Stojanovic, primarius and a doctor in Gene-
ral State Hospital in Belgrade, the head nurse was
Agnes Hardy, and Alice Murphy was a secretary. Two
nurses, one teacher and support staff were also em-
ployed.
The main problem was the financing of hospital
because children were predominantly treated free
of charge. The costs were covered by many donors.
The hospital received grants from the Ministry of
Social Affairs and Public Health of the Royal Re-
gional Administration of the Danube Banovina, and
the Fund to rescue the children, as well as various
other donations. All this was not enough to cover
the expenses of the hospital and Katherine Macp-
hail always had to lead fundraising campaign.
1936
At the end of the year, the report on the two-
year work of the hospital was submitted stating that
115 patients had been hospitalized (hospitalization
in some patients lasted up to 24 months) and 160
children were treated as outpatients, 25 surgical
procedures, 194 punctures and 113 X-rays were per-
formed and 84 plaster apparatus were put on. Fifty-
two children were discharged from the hospital as
successfully treated, 12 children had improved he-
alth status at discharge, and the rest were kept for
further treatment. The conclusion was that the Yu-
goslav – English hospital fulfilled all the tasks in
those two years despite limited funds and a small
number of beds.
In the hospital, Katherine Macphail strictly en-
forced the verified method of treatment introduced
by Dr. A. Rolijea, who had a famous resort in Lie-
zen in the Swiss Alps, and she described it all later
in the scientific article published in 1960. The prin-
ciple of treatment of bone and joint tuberculosis in
those days before the discovery of antibiotics and
antituberculotics consisted in raising the general
resistance of the patient hygienic-dietary regime,
fresh air therapy, heliotherapy (natural sunshine
during the day, artificial light during winter days)
(Figure 4), immobilization and a variety of surgical
procedures. Special attention was paid to hygiene
in the hospital. Kindergarten curriculum was taught
to pre-school children. School-age children attended
daily classes appropriate to their age and the curri-
culum, and they received certificate at the end of
the school year. The hospital also organized occu-
pational therapy including art lessons with han-
dwork for the children. Once a week an orthodox
priest from Kamenica village came to the hospital
for religious instruction. The hospital had a library
with lots of children’s and educational book, as well
as a large number of toys. Each day of those small
patients was fulfilled with work, learning and fun.
1937
Svetislav Stojanovic presented the data on trea-
tment during the first three years of the hospital
work at the first Yugoslav Congress of Pediatrics in
Belgrade: “During this period, 458 children of both
sexes aged 1 to 13 years were treated in hospital.
The average length of treatment was 2 years and 3
months. Many of them were discharged from the
hospital healthy and with corrected spine and limbs.
We believe that the results of treatment are satisfac-
tory and encouraging, bearing in mind that most of
the cases were severe and neglected forms of the
disease with deformities and fistula collections.”
1939
The sanatorium in Sremska Kamenica worked
very well and gained the great reputation. Headed
by Katherine Macphail, the staff worked diligently
and efficiently. Despite financial troubles, there was
always a surplus of food that was distributed to the
homeless and day laborers from the village.
Figure 3. The hospital’s interior (1934-35)
Slika 3. Pogled u unutrašnjost bolnice (1934-35)
Figure 4. West terrace of the hospital where the children
were exposed to the sun (1936−1937)
Slika 4. Zapadna terasa bolnice gde su deca bila izlo-
žena suncu (1936−1937)
280
1940
The war clouds appeared over Europe. The situ-
ation became more serious in the region and staff
in sanatorium started with military preparations
against the enemy attack.
1941
In January, the traditional event usually held on
the birthday of Prince Tomislav Karadjordjevic was
organized in good atmosphere and gifts were given
to all children. In February, Catherine had plan for
timely evacuation of children. Three weeks before
the outbreak of war, all the children were sent to
their homes. The complete hospital equipment was
packed and removed to the basement where it was
protected from possible bombing. The social situa-
tion was getting very serious and the British emba-
ssy advised all British people to leave the country.
So, Katherine Macphail and Alice Murphy handed
the hospital keys over to some confidential people,
and went. Soon afterwards, an anti-aircraft battery
with 120 soldiers was settled in the building.
1941-44
A local hospital was soon organized in the buil-
ding. The staff sympathized with the partisan move-
ment in Fruska Gora and often gave them medicati-
on and food, which was the reason why the hospital
was attacked and the building was abandoned and
devastated. During the war years, the hospital was
occasionally used by enemy forces for their soldiers.
1945
Katherine Macphail came to Belgrade with the
UNRA mission (United Nations Relief and Rehabi-
litation Administration - Management of the United
Nations Relief and Reconstruction) for Yugoslavia
and units of the Childrens Rescue Fund, and visited
Sremska Kamenica. She found the hospital building,
which was desolate and without doors and windows,
electric, plumbing and medical equipment.
At this time the Children’s Rescue Fund in Lon-
don collected funds and Katherine began negotia-
tions in July to re-open the hospital in Sremska
Kamenica. The Minister of Public Health of the
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia gave the permissi-
on to start work from the 15th of August. Katherine
Macphail undertook with the trained staff, provide
foreign medical supplies and other items necessary
for surgery. From the UNRE and charities in Cana-
da and the United Kingdom, beddings and blankets
were purchased for the hospital.
The complete operating room equipment was
found in a military hospital in Karlovac and retur-
ned. Katherine received 46 crates of clothing and
bedding for children from a friend and supplied not
only the hospital and staff employed, but also the
poor children in the village. Complete repair of hos-
pital was funded by the Government of Autonomo-
us Province of Vojvodina and it started to work on
December 19, 1945. The harsh winter weather con-
ditions and snowdrifts made it almost impossible to
provide daily supplies to the hospital.
1946
During the war, the number of children suffering
from tuberculosis increased. The hospital worked
now with the capacity of 75 beds and was constantly
full. Working conditions were very difficult due to
shortage of everything because it was difficult to
supply the hospital with equipment and food. Howe-
ver, the orchards and vineyards surrounding the
hospital yielded a good crop which contributed to
the small hospital economy. Weather conditions
were excellent: the air was fresh and the sun was
strong for healing. Soon, life and work in the hos-
pital continued.
However, the new government gradually grew dis-
trust of Katherine and her associates. The work in the
hospital was normal but uncertainty, mistrust and fear
prevailed in the atmosphere of insecurity. She suggested
to the Ministry of Health to turn the hospital into a
rehabilitation centre for disabled children, as well as for
the children handicapped due to tuberculosis or other
diseases where they would be eligible for various useful
work. She also planned to establish workshops and re-
cruit disabled adults to make orthopedic appliances.
1947
The new regime nationalized all hospitals, and
the English-Yugoslav children’s hospital was handed
to the Yugoslav authorities in autumn. Realizing
that nothing could stop the implementation of the
communist program, Katherine went to Scotland.
Having been nationalized, the hospital continu-
ed to exist as the State sanatorium for tuberculosis
of bones. During the following winter 82 children
were treated.
1948
The hospital in Sremska Kamenica was registe-
red as a national property and became a part of
Orthopedic Surgery Department of the Faculty of
Medicine in Belgrade headed by Professor Sveti-
slav Stojanovic MD, PhD. The number of patients
in hospital increased, the number of beds was 100,
and the patients were under 14 years of age. In ad-
dition to climatic, dietetic, hygienic measures, and
immobilization in an appropriate position, new me-
dications were used. The pharmacological achieve-
ments of the century in treatment of tuberculosis
were streptomycin and other antituberculotic drugs.
In some cases, surgery was necessary and it was
performed at the Clinic for Orthopedic Surgery and
Traumatology in Belgrade. Postoperative recovery
and rehabilitation were organized in Sremska Ka-
menica. Particular attention was paid to different
types of work therapy, as well as the education of
children. The hospital was working efficiently in
these difficult post-war years despite poverty and
other afflictions.
Dobanovački D, et al. Chronicle of hospital
Med Pregl 2015; LXVIII (7-8): 277-282. Novi Sad: juli-avgust. 281
1949
Katherine Macphail and Alice Murphy visited
the hospital and were welcomed warmly and frien-
dly: “The hospital looked nice, fresh painted, expo-
sed to the sun and surrounded by fertile vineyard.
Everything seemed as before: the children were in
school classes, in the outpatient department regular
work was conducted, the staff was in daily tasks in
the kitchen preparing meals, freshly washed laun-
dry flapping in the wind. “It seemed like it used to
be but the hospital was overcrowded with more than
a hundred children who were placed in the auxiliary
building, beds crammed, there was not enough me-
dical supplies or trained staff. The patients were
very pale because heliotherapy was not properly
implemented. The quality of life and work decrea-
sed since there was no support from abroad.
1954
The 22nd of September was celebrated to mark
the twenty years of hospital and in the entrance hall
of the hospital a memorial plaque was placed with
the inscription that Katherine Macphail was the
founder of the hospital which is a great monument
to the friendship of Great Britain and Yugoslavia.
The ceremony was also attended by Katherine Mac-
phail, and her associates Alice Murphy and Flora
Sands. She was very pleased to see that the hospi-
tal continued with work. She went to St Andrews
and continued her life of retirement.
1955
In June the sanatorium became the Department for
bone and joint tuberculosis treatment under the super-
vision of General hospital in Novi Sad. The profile of
work was not changed because the influx of children
with tuberculosis was great. However, years of inten-
sive work with a high number of patients without a
regular renewal and modernization of hospitals caused
considerable deterioration of the hospital and the buil-
ding itself looked neglected and ramshackle.
1959-60
The thorough renovation and repair of the main
hospital building was organized and implemented so
the professional work continued. Surgery was per-
formed at the Department of Orthopedics and Trau-
matology in General Hospital of Novi Sad. In the
following time period the number of patients who
were hospitalized decreased as a result of systematic
use of powerful new drugs – tuberculostatic drugs.
A new complex for tuberculosis treatment was
built in the vicinity of the hospital which became
the Institute for Tuberculosis of Vojvodina and had
800 beds and necessary medical equipment, all of
which resulted in significant improvements in the
struggle with this disease.
1963-71
It was a period of great advances in the preventi-
on and treatment of tuberculosis and as the number
of patients with bone and joint tuberculosis declined,
the former Anglo-Yugoslav hospital changed the pro-
file of the work. It became a part of the Orthopedic
Department in Novi Sad and treated only adult pati-
ents who required prolonged orthopedic treatment,
postoperative recovery and rehabilitation.
In the separate building of the hospital, the De-
partment of Experimental Surgery was established
for surgical scientific research as well as practical
lessons for students of the Faculty of Medicine in
Novi Sad.
1975-78
In the main building of the former ‘’English hos-
pital’, conservative orthopedic treatment and long-
time care and rehabilitation of adult patients conti-
nued. Years of work without investing into the re-
pairs and modernization of the hospital resulted in
such great damage so that the hospital had to be
closed in the first months in 1976.
When the funds were raised, the reconstruction
and modernization of the entire hospital began and
it was finished by the end of 1977, when the hospi-
tal resumed its work.
1984
On October 28, a ceremony was held to mark
the fiftieth anniversary of the hospital and at the
entrance on the wall next to the previous memorial
plaque a new one was placed in memory of the fo-
under Katherine Macphail, thus expressing the gra-
titude to this great woman (Figure 5). The hospital
was renamed the Department of Orthopaedic Sur-
gery and Traumatology “Dr. Katherine Macphail”.
Figure 5. Memorial plagues (up 1954, down 1984).
Slika 5. Memorijalne ploče (gore 1954. dole 1984).
1988
On June 15, a monument to the great benefactor
of the Serbian people, Katherine Macphail was
erected in the front of the former British hospital
(Figure 6).
1990-92
Because of the breakup of Yugoslavia and the
next war that flared up the hospital in Sremska Ka-
menica once again offered accommodation to the
wounded and refugees from war-affected areas.
However, the hospital stopped working and was clo-
sed due to the difficult economic situation and the
subsequent crisis in Yugoslavia in 1992.
2014.
A street on Čardak hill, where the children’s hos-
pital used to be, is now named after Katherine Mac-
phail. The hospital itself is now a ruined building
without doors and windows. A passer-by who stops
and reads the text on the memorial plaque could ima-
gine the time when there was a place of charity and
self-sacrificing labor, suffering and triumph, coura-
ge and nobility, and embracing love. This monument
to the British-Yugoslav friendship now keeps only a
bust of the great woman and waits for better times
which are promised by the Regional Institute for Pro-
tection of Monuments of Culture.
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282 Dobanovački D, et al. Chronicle of hospital
Figure 6. The monument to great benefactor of the Ser-
bian people, Katherine Macphail (1988).
Slika 6. Spomenik velikom dobročinitelju srpskog naro-
da, Ketrin Mekfejl (1988)
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Uvek vaša: Život i delo dr Ketrin Makfeil. Novi Sad: Matica Srpska
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Mikić Ž. Uvek vaša: Život i delo dr Ketrin Makfeil. Novi Sad: Matica Srpska; 1998.
Helioterapija kod koštano-zglobne tuberkuloze dece
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Macphail K. Helioterapija kod koštano-zglobne tuberkuloze dece. Med Pregl. 1960;13:56.
Kliničko-statistički podaci na Odeljenju za OAT u Sremskoj Kamenici 1934-1958. godine
  • S Stojanović
  • P Simić
  • M Došen
Stojanović S, Simić P, Došen M. Kliničko-statistički podaci na Odeljenju za OAT u Sremskoj Kamenici 1934-1958. godine. Med Pregl. 1980;13:131-7.
Otkriven spomenik dr Ketrin Makfeil
  • Ž Mikić
Mikić Ž. Otkriven spomenik dr Ketrin Makfeil. Med Pregl. 1988;41:345-6.
Seventy years since the establishment of English -Yugoslav Children Hospital for treatment of tuberculosis of bones and joints in Sremska Kamenica
  • Z Mikic
  • A Lesić
Mikic Z, Lesić A. Seventy years since the establishment of English -Yugoslav Children Hospital for treatment of tuberculosis of bones and joints in Sremska Kamenica. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2004;132:469-73.
Chronicle of hospital Figure 6. The monument to great benefactor of the Serbian people
  • D Dobanovački
Dobanovački D, et al. Chronicle of hospital Figure 6. The monument to great benefactor of the Serbian people, Katherine Macphail (1988).