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Hunting for Trophies: Online Hunting Photographs Reveal Achievement Satisfaction with Large and Dangerous Prey

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Abstract

Despite its manifold implications, insight into what satisfactions hunters derive from trophy hunting has not been thoroughly investigated. We used a novel method to assess how common satisfaction might be from harvesting animals under different achievement contexts. We scored smile types—signals of emotion and satisfaction—in 2,791 online hunting photographs. We show that the odds of true “pleasure” smiles are greater when hunters pose: (a) with versus without prey, (b) with large versus small prey and, (c) with carnivores versus herbivores (among older men). We emerge with a generalizable achievement-oriented hypothesis to propose that the prospect of displaying large and/or dangerous prey at least in part underlies the behavior of many contemporary hunters. Given that achievement was also likely important among ancestral hunter-gatherers and remains so in contemporary cultural and commercial marketing contexts, management might benefit by increased attention to achievement satisfaction among hunters.

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... First, trophy keepsakes may directly enhance a person's sense of agency, which strongly contributes to their self-esteem (Wojciszke, Baryla, Parzuchowski, Szymkow, & Abele, 2011). Attracting a trophy partner resembles harvesting large or dangerous "trophy prey" (Child & Darimont, 2015), as both serve achievement-oriented satisfaction rather than affiliative satisfaction. In both cases, the aim is to win competitive displays among others, and in both cases the more the better; the number of trophies is meant to verify the skills and worth of the hunter . ...
... Accordingly, trophy keepsakes from past romantic relationships may be more important for men than for women, because these objects confirm men's efficacy in mating, and maintain or increase their sense of virility and achievement. Similar masculine-identity-related motives may be important for the overrepresentation of men in sport hunting (Child & Darimont, 2015). ...
... In other words, trophy keepsakes may be viewed as a coping resource that the collector uses in times of need. Finally, expanding the analogy between trophy prey (Child & Darimont, 2015) and narcissistic trophies from love conquests, it is worth investigating whether to increase a narcissistic individual's selfesteem requires an audience that admires their trophies or whether it is sufficient to use trophies as cues for their solitary reminiscence of their romantic successes. ...
Article
The common psychological core in grandiose and vulnerable narcissism is a sense of oneself being special and better than others. It has been shown that this need may be satisfied through relationships with attractive and successful partners. We propose that after dissolving romantic relationships, both grandiose and vulnerable narcissistic individuals may want to keep inanimate objects associated with their ex-partners as symbols of their mating success (i.e., trophies). Consistent with this hypothesis, the results of two cross-sectional correlational studies (N = 330 and N = 414) showed that while grandiose and vulnerable narcissism are not related to the nostalgic value of keepsakes from past relationships, they predict the perception of these objects as trophies. The effect holds when controlled for gender and self-esteem. We further discuss the mechanism by which “trophy keepsakes” may bolster positive self-views in both grandiose and vulnerable narcissistic individuals.
... This gap persists despite carnivores being subject to high kill rates and associated with conservation concern , competition with humans over food and space (Treves and Karanth 2003), and controversy among human stakeholders (Kellert et al. 1996). Additionally, carnivores possess ecological and behavioral characteristics that generally make them more difficult to kill than ungulates, which could influence associated hunter satisfaction levels (Child and Darimont 2015). ...
... Addressing these limitations, recent research has studied hunter satisfactions using an innovative data source: social media. For example, Child and Darimont (2015) investigated multiple satisfactions of trophy hunters by analyzing facial expressions of hunters when posing with their prey, using photos collected from online forums and other websites. Their results indicated that the odds of true "pleasure" smiles are greater when hunters pose 1) with versus without prey; 2) with large versus small prey; and 3) with carnivore versus ungulate targets (among older men). ...
... Their results indicated that the odds of true "pleasure" smiles are greater when hunters pose 1) with versus without prey; 2) with large versus small prey; and 3) with carnivore versus ungulate targets (among older men). Child and Darimont (2015) offered a generalizable achievement-oriented hypothesis, proposing that the prospect of displaying achievement associated with killing large and dangerous prey at least in part underlies the behavior of many contemporary hunters. ...
Article
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Understanding hunter satisfactions can lead to improved wildlife management policy and practice. Whereas previous work has suggested that hunters often seek multiple satisfactions (achievement, affiliation, appreciation), little is known about how satisfactions might vary with target species. Additionally, past research has mostly gathered data using interviews and surveys, which might limit scope as well as introduce strategic bias for potentially provocative subjects such as hunting. To address these gaps, we analyzed data from online hunting forums, which provide an open-access source of peer-to-peer discussion that is geographically and taxonomically broad. We used directed qualitative content analysis to analyze hunting narratives for satisfactions by coding 2,864 phrases across 455 hunting “stories,” and compared patterns of dominant (most frequent) and multiple satisfactions between target species type (ungulates and carnivores) using forums from 3 regions: British Columbia, Canada; Texas, USA; and North America-wide. We found that achievement was the dominant satisfaction in 81% of ungulate and 86% of carnivore stories. Appreciation was nearly absent as a dominant satisfaction in carnivore stories. We found that 62% of ungulate and 53% of carnivore stories had multiple satisfactions present, indicating that appreciation and affiliation play important secondary satisfaction roles even when achievement is dominant. If these data are broadly representative of hunters on a larger scale, management policy instruments that ignore achievement may not evoke change in hunter behavior, particularly involving carnivore target species. Despite limitations associated with online forums (e.g., nonrepresentative of all hunters), they provide a new and valuable resource for wildlife management research.
... The taking of the largest organism, whether fish or terrestrial wildlife, satisfies a portion of the human psyche far transcending ancestral demands for subsistence and rooted in a complex conglomeration of human self-image, social standing, and status (Shiffman et al. 2014;Child and Darimont 2015;Darimont et al. 2017). Many aspects of trophy hunting and fishing remain poorly investigated (Beattie 2020). ...
... Subtle details in photographs may also provide insight into trophy seeking. Child and Darimont (2015) found that the likelihood of true "pleasure" smiles (called "Duchenne smiles"; Ekman et al. 1990) as opposed to "false" or more perfunctory smiles was greater with large as opposed to small prey. Duchenne smile responses to dangerous carnivores versus nonthreatening species, even if both are large, may differ (Mihalik et al. 2019). ...
Article
In this paper, we use world record Paddlefish Polyodon spathula catches to exemplify the origins and management of trophy fisheries and the human motivations involved within a continually compressing timescape of advancing fish finding, harvest capability, and communication and information technologies. Conservation of long‐lived species such as Paddlefish, sturgeons (Acipenseridae), or other large species currently challenged by ecological change or habitat losses may be further challenged by the expansion of harvest power through advances in fishing technology in pursuit of trophy fish. Technological evolution may outpace the adaptive abilities of managers to safeguard these fisheries with sensible harvest regulations—often a multi‐year, bureaucratic process. Managers must maintain focus on understanding the ecological nuances of these species while proactively developing resilient harvest management frameworks capable of responding to such challenges in a meaningful and timely way. Our paper may be useful for other fisheries professionals involved in management of long‐lived, trophy fishes and fisheries.
... A study conducted with online terrestrial hunting photographs similarly revealed that prey size influenced emotional signals (i.e. smiles) of hunters; true smiles were 1.5 times greater when posing with large prey compared to small prey (Child and Darimont, 2015). This can be related to an activityspecific achievement satisfaction of hunters for harvesting a large and rare prey (Potter et al., 1973;Child and Darimont, 2015). ...
... smiles) of hunters; true smiles were 1.5 times greater when posing with large prey compared to small prey (Child and Darimont, 2015). This can be related to an activityspecific achievement satisfaction of hunters for harvesting a large and rare prey (Potter et al., 1973;Child and Darimont, 2015). Our results regarding spearfishers are in agreement with this view, but relate to social appreciation, rather than individual satisfaction as shown by the fisher himself or herself. ...
Article
We applied data mining on YouTube videos to better understand recreational fisheries targeting common dentex (Dentex dentex), an iconic species of Mediterranean fisheries. In Italy alone, from 2010 to 2016 spearfishers posted 1051 videos compared to 692 videos posted by anglers. The upload pattern of spearfishing videos followed a seasonal pattern with peaks in July, a trend not found for anglers. The average mass of the fish declared in angling videos (6.4 kg) was significantly larger than the one in spearfishing videos (4.5 kg). Videos posted by spear-fishers received significantly more likes and comments than those posted by anglers. Content analysis suggested that the differences in engagement can be related to appreciation of successful spearfishers necessitating relevant personal qualities for catching D. dentex. We also found that the mass of the fish positively predicted social engagement as well as the degree of positive evaluation only in spearfishing videos. This could be caused by the generally smaller odds of catching large D. dentex by spearfishing. Our case study demonstrates that data mining on YouTube can be a powerful tool to provide complementary data on controversial and data-poor aspects of recreational fisheries and contribute to understanding the social dimensions of recreational fishers.
... Nevertheless, the culture of hunting remains male dominant, and consumerism plays an important role in maintaining hunting's masculine aura (Holt & Thompson, 2004;Littlefield & Ozanne, 2011). Media is a particularly significant tool for upholding masculinity in hunting (Child & Darimont, 2015;Kalof & Fitzgerald, 2003;Simon, 2019). To be sure, "One hundred million USD are spent annually on hunting books, magazines, and DVDs" (US Department of the Interior, 2011 cited in Simon, 2019, p. 154). ...
... To be sure, "One hundred million USD are spent annually on hunting books, magazines, and DVDs" (US Department of the Interior, 2011 cited in Simon, 2019, p. 154). The images displayed predominantly feature white (presumably cisgender) men in poses that symbolically reflect dominating or possessing the animals they have killed as trophies (Child & Darimont, 2015;Kaloff & Fitzgerald, 2003;Simon, 2019). However, Kelly and Rule (2013) found that narratives in hunting magazines reflect mixed discourses of both "love" and "kill" and that many hunters may simultaneously respect and care for wildlife while also desiring to conquer it, demonstrating that conflicting values often exist in hunting. ...
Article
Understanding dynamics around the neoliberalization of conservation is an important direction within current scholarly research. In this paper, we contribute to these discussions by examining how companies within the hunting industry engage in practices that are reflective of neoliberal environmentality. We conduct a Foucaul-dian discourse analysis of four companies' websites to interrogate what discourses of technology companies promote to hunters and anglers, how they mobilize these discourses, and how these discourses function to reproduce wildlife conservation-minded subjects and maintain particular beliefs, identities, and practices about both wildlife conservation and conservationists that uphold state conservation objectives. Through our discourse analysis, we find that companies within the hunting industry construct hunter/angler wildlife conservation-minded subjects by educating consumers, legitimizing trophy animals, using identity politics, positioning technology as a conservation(ist's) tool, and through wearing camouflage. Subsequently, we argue these companies present a view of wildlife conservation that problematically privileges neoliberal values, trophy animals, and exclusionary politics, illustrating how discourses of technology function to obscure such issues. Examinations of environmentality must therefore more explicitly consider discursive absences and other hidden aspects of conservation as well as potential consequences of failing to address oversights.
... Furthermore, Child and Darimont (2015) analysed 2,791 online hunting photographs looking for signals of emotion and satisfaction in hunters' smiles. Their analysis revealed that trophy hunters' satisfaction was achievement-oriented, which increased by large versus small prey, with versus without prey and carnivore versus herbivore prey (Child & Darimont, 2015). ...
... Furthermore, Child and Darimont (2015) analysed 2,791 online hunting photographs looking for signals of emotion and satisfaction in hunters' smiles. Their analysis revealed that trophy hunters' satisfaction was achievement-oriented, which increased by large versus small prey, with versus without prey and carnivore versus herbivore prey (Child & Darimont, 2015). Another piece of literature, again based on observations of social media, argued that trophy hunting is a signalling behaviour involving show-off and display, amplified by social media, to achieve social status and prestige (Darimont et al., 2017). ...
Article
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1. Ethical concerns are at the heart of the ongoing debate on trophy hunting; however, so far, most studies have addressed the issue from a single ethical perspective. These studies, approaching the subject from different ethical perspectives, have reached different conclusions. For instance, those who support trophy hunting as a conservation strategy usually adopt a utilitarian perspective, while those who adopt a deontological perspective usually oppose it. 2. The analysis presented in this paper challenges the ethical justification of trophy hunting based on a utilitarian perspective, and it also suggests that trophy hunting is problematic from the perspectives of both deontology and virtue theory. 3. This paper supports a version of Bryan Norton's ‘convergence hypothesis’ (Norton, 1991). Although holism and anthropocentrism in environmental ethics are usually presented as fundamentally opposed views, Norton argued that their conclusions for policy converge, at least when a sufficiently broad and long-range view of human interests are considered. 4. Analogously, this paper proposes that, regarding trophy hunting, the implications of three major traditional perspectives in ethics (i.e. utilitarianism, deontology and virtue theory) may converge in opposition to the practice of trophy hunting. 5. The final section of this paper recommends some ways authorities and policymakers can address these ethical concerns and presents a view of the future.
... A study conducted with online terrestrial hunting photographs similarly revealed that prey size influenced emotional signals (i.e. smiles) of hunters; true smiles were 1.5 times greater when posing with large prey compared to small prey (Child and Darimont, 2015). This can be related to an activityspecific achievement satisfaction of hunters for harvesting a large and rare prey (Potter et al., 1973;Child and Darimont, 2015). ...
... smiles) of hunters; true smiles were 1.5 times greater when posing with large prey compared to small prey (Child and Darimont, 2015). This can be related to an activityspecific achievement satisfaction of hunters for harvesting a large and rare prey (Potter et al., 1973;Child and Darimont, 2015). Our results regarding spearfishers are in agreement with this view, but relate to social appreciation, rather than individual satisfaction as shown by the fisher himself or herself. ...
Preprint
Data about recreational fisheries are scarce in many areas of the world. In the absence of monitoring data collected in situ, alternative data sources, such as digital applications and social media platforms, have the potential to produce valuable insights. Yet, the potential of social media for drawing insights about recreational fisheries is still underexplored. In this study, we applied data mining on YouTube videos to better understand recreational fisheries targeting common dentex (Dentex dentex), an iconic species of Mediterranean recreational fisheries. We chose this model species because of ongoing controversies about the relative impact of recreational angling and recreational spearfishing on its conservation status. In Italy alone, from 2010 to 2016 recreational spearfishers posted 1051 videos compared to 692 videos posted by recreational anglers. Only the upload pattern of spearfishing videos followed a seasonal pattern with peaks in July, suggesting seasonality of spearfishing catches of D. dentex – a trend not found for anglers. The average mass of the fish declared in recreational angling videos (6.43 kg) was significantly larger than the one in spearfishing videos (4.50 kg). Videos posted by recreational spearfishers received significantly more likes and comments than those posted by recreational anglers, suggesting that the social engagement among recreational spearfishers was stronger than in anglers. We also found that the mass of the fish positively predicted social engagement in recreational spearfishing videos, but not in videos posted by recreational anglers. This could be caused by the generally smaller odds of catching large D. dentex by spearfishing, possibly explaining why posting videos with particularly large specimen triggered larger social engagement by recreational spearfishers. Our case study demonstrates that data mining on YouTube can be a powerful tool to provide complementary data on controversial and data-poor aspects of recreational fisheries.
... Researchers categorized affiliation (with family or friends), appreciation (of nature), and achievement (of goals related to the activity) as three broad dimensions related to hunter satisfaction (Decker, Brown, Driver, & Brown, 1987). Other research differentiated between activitygeneral and activity-specific experiences (Child & Darimont, 2015;Hendee, 1974;Schroeder et al., 2017Schroeder et al., , 2018 and success-related aspects of hunting (Brunke & Hunt, 2007;Decker, Brown, & Gutierrez, 1980;Gigliotti, 2000). ...
... Other studies, however, have suggested that achievement-oriented and harvest-related experiences may relate to satisfaction far more than other (i.e., appreciative or affiliation) motivations because of the relative ease in satisfying the general outcomes of the hunting experience (Gigliotti, 2000;Miller & Graefe, 2001;Schroeder et al., 2006;Wynveen et al., 2005). Research has not clarified how harvest influences hunting satisfaction across different game species, characteristics within a species, participant populations, and specific hunting activities and situations (Child & Darimont, 2015;Frey, Conover, Borgo, & Messmer, 2003;Gigliotti, 2000;Heberlein & Kuentzel, 2002). Some research has suggested that achievement may be more, or less, important to hunters when characteristics of the setting or targeted game (i.e., large size, low density) make the probability of harvest low (Hayslette, Armstrong, & Mirarchi, 2001;Potter, Hendee, & Clark, 1973;Vaske et al., 1986). ...
Article
Full-text available
We present methods derived from customer satisfaction research that clarify factors influential to the satisfaction of recreation participants. We conducted mail surveys of Minnesota wild turkey hunters to explore differences between the explicit (i.e., stated) and implicit (i.e., derived from the relationship to satisfaction) importance of recreation experience preferences. Revised importance performance analysis, importance grid analysis, and penalty reward contrast analysis revealed differences between the explicit and implicit importance of recreation experiences and clarified how activity success may influence the relationship between experiences and satisfaction. We found some support for our hypothesis that experiences related to achievement (of goals for an activity) may more strongly relate to satisfaction than experiences related to appreciation (of nature) or affiliation (with family and friends). Our results emphasized the importance of activity-specific experiences over activity-general experiences for both successful and unsuccessful hunters and exposed a “motivation matching” process related to harvest success.
... Second, evidence for show-off behaviour appears clear. Trophy hunters commonly pose for photographs with their prey, with the heads, hides and ornamentation prepared for display [18]. Interestingly, similar costly display occurs in other taxa. ...
Article
Full-text available
The killing of Cecil the lion ( Panthera leo ) ignited enduring and increasingly global discussion about trophy hunting [[1][1]]. Yet, policy debate about its benefits and costs (e.g. [[2][2],[3][3]]) focuses only on the hunted species and biodiversity, not the unique behaviour of hunters. Some
... There is also a methodological bias in existing research which has epistemological implications: the vast majority of studies on hunters and their experiences are based on broad survey 'tick-box' data, which, while providing a large-scale description of hunters, often fail to capture their complex reasoning and mindsets in pursuing hunting and how they rationalise their pursuits in light of growing criticism against the trophy hunting industry in particular. The output of most of these survey studies is typically in the form of categorisations of hunters' motivations (for example, Decker and Connelly, 1989), dimensions for satisfaction and goal orientations (for example, Child and Darimont, 2015;Hayslette et al., 2001;Hendee, 1974). The present study instead engages with hunters on a discursive level, creating an alternative conceptualisation and reading of the tourist-hunter. ...
Chapter
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Tourism is a vital tool for political and economic change. Calls for boycotts by tourists of countries reflect the huge impact that tourist activity and the tourism industry has on political change.
... Satisfaction is defined as the similarity between expectations and outcomes measured after a period of reflection (Manning 1999), whereas hunt quality is measured immediately following the hunt with no prior expectations known and may be a strong predictor of satisfaction in waterfowl hunting (Hendee 1974, National Flyway Council 2006, Brunke and Hunt 2008. However, the importance of harvest on hunt quality might not be openly discussed in focus group studies or captured in surveys, even though it may be important to recruitment, retention and reactivation of waterfowl hunters (Vaske et al. 1986, Kaltenborn and Andersen 2009, Child and Darimont 2015. ...
Article
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Waterfowl hunters participate in hunting for appreciative-, affiliative-, and achievement-oriented reasons. To investigate the influence of achievement-oriented factors on hunt quality, we analyzed post-hunt surveys completed by waterfowl hunters at four Mississippi Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs), 2008–2015. We used these questions to calculate a hunt quality score for each participant and tested whether variation in hunt quality was best explained by total number of ducks harvested, number of mallards harvested, total bag weight, or palatability of ducks. Hunt quality increased with total number of ducks and mallards harvested. Hunt quality scores increased with an increasing number of ducks harvested up to six total ducks (i.e., the daily allowable bag) and number of mallards up to 3 ducks (i.e., 1 less than the daily allowable bag during study). Our results indicate that harvesting ducks, especially mallards, is important to hunters at Mississippi WMAs. The importance of duck harvest to hunters should be considered in developing waterfowl management plans in Mississippi and elsewhere in the southeastern United States where these ducks are common.
... This is a recurring factor that divides hunters, as well as most participants in serious leisure pursuits (Green and Jones, 2005) albeit with some variation. The newer the hunter, the more they are associated with trigger-happy dispositions and are seen to mellow as they mature (Child and Darimont, 2015;Eliason, 2004;Raija and Jarno, 2013). Swedish hunters self-report a maturing process into taking less chances and valuing the appreciative, affiliative and aesthetic dimensions of hunting as they age . ...
Article
Hunting is a social world in which members socially differentiate themselves into smaller social worlds on the basis of adhering to a particular method, aesthetic, or game. Such identity constitution has been understood as forming communities of practice of hunters. Importantly, these communities frequently take pride in their distinct identities and assert theirs is the ‘real’ way of hunting. In this paper, we canvass the diverse factors that make up hunter identities and examine them for patterns and meaning. Our analysis places the phenomenon of social differentiation as it currently takes place in hunting in the context of responses to modernization. On this analysis, hunter identities are found to be rooted in defensive localism, class competition over resources, gender and moral affiliation, and the protection of the social legitimacy of hunting before an increasingly critical society. Our work is at once a synthesis of recurring hunting profiles across literature and field sites in Europe and a critical analysis of the significance of hunting communities of practice in future research, including serious leisure studies, nature-based recreation, criminology and rural sociology.
... While these explanations are speculative, they generally align with previous research that has found North American hunters display evidence of 'achievement satisfaction' (congruence of goals and outcomes regarding performance) more commonly when sharing information about carnivore hunts compared to herbivore hunts. For example, men posing with carnivores of any size in hunting photographs have higher odds of displaying a 'true smile', an honest signal of pleasure, compared to pictures with herbivore prey [54]. Additionally, in online discussion forums about hunting, men express achievement-oriented phrases more frequently when describing carnivore hunts compared to ungulate hunts [55]. ...
Article
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Hunters often target species that require resource investment disproportionate to associated nutritional rewards. Costly signalling theory provides a potential explanation, proposing that hunters target species that impose high costs (e.g. higher failure and injury risks, lower consumptive returns) because it signals an ability to absorb costly behaviour. If costly signalling is relevant to contemporary 'big game' hunters, we would expect hunters to pay higher prices to hunt taxa with higher perceived costs. Accordingly, we hypothesized that hunt prices would be higher for taxa that are larger-bodied, rarer, carnivorous, or described as dangerous or difficult to hunt. In a dataset on 721 guided hunts for 15 North American large mammals, prices listed online increased with body size in carnivores (from approximately $550 to $1800 USD/day across the observed range). This pattern suggests that elements of costly signals may persist among contemporary non-subsistence hunters. Persistence might simply relate to deception, given that signal honesty and fitness benefits are unlikely in such different conditions compared with ancestral environments in which hunting behaviour evolved. If larger-bodied carnivores are generally more desirable to hunters, then conservation and management strategies should consider not only the ecology of the hunted but also the motivations of hunters.
... This finding might relate to the psychology of hunting. A study that analysed photos of hunters posing with their prey found that levels of achievement satisfaction displayed by the hunter were greater when posing with larger and more dangerous prey [83]. Humans may believe it is more acceptable-and satisfactory-to kill species that are more dangerous, possibly because of the potential threat they pose to humans. ...
Article
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Simple Summary: With the general goal of increasing knowledge about how individuals perceive and evaluate different animals, we provide normative data on an extensive set of open-source animal images, spanning a total of 12 biological categories (e.g., mammals, insects, reptiles, arachnids), on 11 evaluative dimensions (e.g., valence, cuteness, capacity to think, acceptability to kill for human consumption). We found that animal evaluations were affected by individual characteristics of the perceiver, particularly gender, diet and companion animal ownership. Moral attitudes towards animals were predominantly predicted by ratings of cuteness, edibility, capacity to feel and familiarity. We hope this free resource may help advance research into the many different ways we relate to animals. Abstract: There has been increasing interest in the study of human-animal relations. This contrasts with the lack of normative resources and materials for research purposes. We present subjective norms for a set of 120 open-source colour images of animals spanning a total of 12 biological categories (e.g., mammals, insects, reptiles, arachnids). Participants (N = 509, 55.2% female, M Age = 28.05, SD = 9.84) were asked to evaluate a randomly selected subset of 12 animals on valence, arousal, familiarity, cuteness, dangerousness, edibility, similarity to humans, capacity to think, capacity to feel, acceptability to kill for human consumption and feelings of care and protection. Animal evaluations were affected by individual characteristics of the perceiver, particularly gender, diet and companion animal ownership. Moral attitudes towards animals were predominantly predicted by ratings of cuteness, edibility, capacity to feel and familiarity. The Animal Images Database (Animal.ID) is the largest open-source database of rated images of animals; the stimuli set and item-level data are freely available online.
... Social media data have a high potential for providing novel insights on human-nature interactions for conservation, for example, through analysing species' popularity and associated sentiment, monitoring wildlife trade online or assessing nature-based recreational preferences (Correia et al., 2021). Online hunting photos from social media were, for instance, used to assess the factors that drive satisfaction from trophy hunting (Child & Darimont, 2015). Retka et al. (2019) used photographs from the social media platform Flickr to map cultural ecosystem hotspots in a marine-protected area. ...
Article
Global change is causing ecosystems to change at unprecedented rates and the urgency to quantify ecological change is high. We therefore need all possible sources of ecological data to address key knowledge gaps. Ground‐based photos are a form of remote sensing and an unconventional data source with a high potential to improve our understanding of ecological change. They can provide invaluable information on ecological conditions in the past and present at relevant spatiotemporal scales that is very difficult to obtain with other approaches. Here we review the use of ground‐based photos in a set of relevant ecological research topics, such as biodiversity and community ecology, phenology, global change ecology and landscape ecology. We highlight three main photo‐based methods in ecological research (repeat photography, time‐lapse photography and public archives), alongside which we discuss three case studies to demonstrate novel applications of these methods, to answer fundamental ecological questions. Synthesis: Photos can significantly support ecological research to improve our understanding of biotic responses in a rapidly changing world. Photos cover relatively large temporal and spatial scales, and can provide large amounts of information with limited time investment. To exploit their full potential, we need to invest not only in technological advances to compile, process and analyze images but also in proper data management.
... It may also explain why respondents called for more photos documenting the entirety of the hunting experience, but ultimately conceded this may be too personal to be a big draw on the covers of magazines. Nevertheless, this study has uncovered profound external, social, affiliative, and even representational sides of hunting photos (Child & Darimont, 2015). They no longer resonate merely within the individual, but communicate with other hunters, and increasingly with the non-hunting public. ...
Article
Hunting trophies are shown to be undergoing socialization in photos. They are no longer personal souvenirs that serve a purely introspective function for the individual. Hunting photos are discussed, critiqued, and conspicuously displayed across online and print platforms. They are shared between hunters and lately also between hunters and the public. Criteria for good hunting photos reflect the changing modality and times in which photos are shared. The ways hunters stage, compose, and manipulate their hunting tableaux evolve to address external and internal pressures regarding their representation. This evolution is illustrated in qualitative interviews with hunting magazine editors and hunting photographers in Sweden, as well as review of 320 hunting magazine covers from 1960s to today. To this new class of hunter-artists, the presentation of the quarry as object or sovereign wildlife changes the hunting tableau and also responds to contested ideals of authenticity in nature.
... The point here is not so much to establish some fundamental truth about motives, but rather to observe that obtaining a grizzly bear trophy is almost certainly a common motive starkly evident in trophy shots easily accessed by a simple Google search (for example, Darimont & Child 2014, Child & Darimont 2015. These public displays are relevant simply because most adults in the United Statessomewhere between 65 and 70%-do not support trophy hunting or even object to trophy hunting on ethical grounds (Kellert 1980, Heberlein & Willebrand 1998, Remington Research Group 2016, The Economist/YouGov 2018. ...
Technical Report
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This recently released report by The Grizzly Bear Recovery Project focuses on the likely effects of a grizzly bear sport hunt on both bears and people in the Northern Rockies. The report, entitled “Efficacies and Effects of Sport Hunting Grizzly Bears,” addresses a number of issues central to debates surrounding whether or not to start hunting grizzly bears if and when Endangered Species Act protections are removed. The report starts by setting the ecological and management stage, then addresses potential impacts on bear populations, likely effects on human safety and human-bear conflicts, and, finally, examines claims that hunting grizzly bears will build social acceptance. The report concludes that sport hunting will create substantial risks for grizzly bear populations in the contiguous United States, and not reduce conflicts, improve human safety, or foster increased acceptance of grizzlies in rural landscapes. Instead, non-lethal approaches are much more likely to foster grizzly bear conservation and improve human-bear coexistence, especially when coupled with authoritative processes that involve people with divergent interests in making management decisions.
... Even the classic children's teddy bear is suggested to have been born from U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt's hunting trip, becoming a symbol of the sublime that reverses the ethos of hunters and conquering wilderness to providing a comfort to children (Varga 2009, King 2012). On the other hand, hunting bears has been argued to vary between representing a manifestation of human ego, vanity, or pride to reflecting culturally important practices or subsistence lifestyles (Knight 2000, Child andDarimont 2015). ...
Article
Throughout history and across their geographic distribution, bear species (Ursidae) have been portrayed and valued for their beauty, physical power, or ecological significance, while concurrently disliked and feared for their ferocity, negative economic impacts, and safety risks they can pose to people. How bear species are depicted in stories—including myths, legends, fables, or tales—can influence how people come to value bears and act toward them. It is our belief that reviewing the stories people tell about bears can be useful in understanding people's proclivity to conservation action, given that stories told about bears can be a powerful demonstration of how local culture influences human relations with wildlife. We conducted a review of English-language literature for stories about bears across their global range, to better understand how these stories reflect human thought and imagination, experiences, and behaviors concerning bears. We identify 4 themes about bears as told through different narratives—including kinship, utilitarianism, threat, and political bears—and illustrate how understanding stories told about the wild animals that share our lives can provide important insights into developing conservation policy and action.
... Although we are not aware of formal research exploring personalities among different hunting groups or hunters with different motivations, trophy hunting certainly maintains the least socially acceptable form of hunting in most studies (Batavia et al., 2019;Peterson, 2004). Trophy hunting has long been more associated with competitive displays than social cohesion aspects of hunting (Child & Darimont, 2015;Hawkes & Bliege Bird, 2002), and this may explain trophy motivated hunters' tendency to value hunter education aspects focused on being conscientious of social concerns and norms (e.g., firearm safety and ethics) less than other groups. ...
Article
Hunter education classes are a compulsory education tool for all hunters in North America, Europe and some other regions. However, little research focuses on hunter education. We surveyed Swedish hunters, examining how they valued key aspects of hunter education, and identifying socio-demographic predictors for those preferences. Learning about dog handling and making friends in the hunting community were the least important aspects of hunter education. Information about firearms was most important followed by information about hunting ethics, hunting laws, and wildlife ecology. Agerelated positively to valuing most aspects of hunter education. Duration huntingrelated negatively to valuing those aspects. Hunters motivated by social interactions valued hunting ethics content more, and hunters motivated by obtaining trophies valued hunting ethics less than their counterparts. Hunter education in Sweden would benefit from changes aimed at highlighting aspects of hunting that students’ value most.
... 43 Indeed, much of the incentive can be traced to its colonial heritage as an elitist sport, but a sense of accomplishment in terms of skill and physical endurance in conquest of nature red in tooth and claw feature strongly. 43,44 There is still limited direct research on why certain people engage in hunting for amusement, the ''thrill of the chase,'' or a ''sense of achievement.'' 45 Overall, the ethical debates about recreational hunting in conservation science literature have been mostly dominated, implicitly or explicitly, by a set of western-normative ethical perspectives (e.g., deontology, utilitarianism/consequentialism). ...
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The widespread activity of recreational hunting is proposed as a means of conserving nature and supporting livelihoods. However, recreational hunting-especially trophy hunting-has come under increasing scrutiny based on ethical concerns and the arguments that it can threaten species and fail to contribute meaningfully to local livelihoods. We provide an overview of the peer-reviewed literature on recreational hunting of terrestrial birds and mammals between 1953 and 2020 (>1,000 papers). The most-studied species are large mammals from North America, Europe, and Africa. While there is extensive research on spe-cies' ecology to inform sustainable hunting practices, there is comparably little research on the role of local perceptions and institutions in determining socioeconomic and conservation outcomes. Evidence is lacking to answer the pressing questions of where and how hunting contributes to just and sustainable conservation efforts. We outline an agenda to build this evidence base through research that recognizes diverse social-ecological contexts.
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Hunters are accustomed to a degree of “freedom with responsibility” and exemption from having to justify their practices to the general public. But the time for sovereignty may be over. Hunters increasingly have to justify their hunting forms, their shooting practices, the way they talk about wildlife and killing generally to the general public, which demands transparency about the ethical principles that guide interaction with wildlife—a public good. Such principles have always existed tacitly among hunters, but the community now observes a need to explicate them, in part, to justify the mantra of freedom with responsibility. In this study, hunting media across six decades past examined as to its evolving ethics talk. Hunting magazines, social media forum, and online pages are searched for the contours of ethics talk. Ten interviews with hunting journalists, six of whom editors of hunting magazines, relay the climate of ethics talk and the relative willingness or reluctance of hunters to engage in such discussions. It is shown that there are stronger calls to self-criticize and reflect on hunting ethics and across new nodes. The evolving nature of ethics discussions further reflects the historical modality (and context) in which they take place. Ethics talk is shown, for example, to be shaped by Sweden’s ascension into the EU, the rise of rapidly spreading potentially incriminating trophy shots across social media and a reaction toward processes of globalization. Among other things, discernible from the ethics talk is a re-activation of nationalist traditions around “jägarmässighet’ and Swedish propriety in the face of outside threat to identity.
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This article argues that trophy hunting is not an ahistorical phenomenon. Hunting for sport became popular among US elites in the late 1800s. Since this time, in addition to animal trophies being displayed as evidence of one’s economic and cultural capital, these commodities have served as symbolic evidence of their owner’s courage, skill, and fortitude. Currently, the hunting industry (i.e. sporting goods retailers, weapons manufacturers, and advertising supported media) seeks to perpetuate and expand these perceptions. Displaying animal trophies is unlike many other forms of competitive consumption, such as displaying expensive jewelry, in that the hunting industry has attempted to create the often false perception that these commodities required their owners to conquer dangerous and cunning opponents. Trophy hunting is unlike many other sports, in that economic resources, as opposed to skill, are often the primary factor in determining one’s success. Therefore, the use values of animal trophies are fetishized.
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This article extends a previous comparative analysis (Vaske, Donnelly, Heberlein, & Shelby, 198259. Vaske , J. J. , Donnelly , M. P. , Heberlein , T. A. and Shelby , B. 1982. Differences in reported satisfaction ratings by consumptive and nonconsumptive recreationists. Journal of Leisure Research, 14: 195–206. [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references) by analyzing differences in overall satisfaction by consumptive and nonconsumptive recreationists over a 30-year period. Based on theory and previous research, two hypotheses were advanced: (a) consumptive recreationists will report significantly lower satisfaction than will nonconsumptive recreationists and (b) this pattern will remain consistent over time. Data were obtained from published and unpublished studies in 57 consumptive (e.g., hunters) and 45 nonconsumptive (e.g., kayakers) recreation contexts. Each study used the same overall satisfaction question (i.e., “overall, how would you rate your experience”). Following Vaske et al. (198259. Vaske , J. J. , Donnelly , M. P. , Heberlein , T. A. and Shelby , B. 1982. Differences in reported satisfaction ratings by consumptive and nonconsumptive recreationists. Journal of Leisure Research, 14: 195–206. [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references), responses were collapsed into three categories (i.e., “poor/fair,” “good/very good,” “excellent/perfect”). The independent variables were activity type and year. Consistent with the hypotheses, consumptive recreationists reported lower satisfaction than did nonconsumptive recreationists, and this pattern of findings generally remained consistent over time.
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Large carnivores face serious threats and are experiencing massive declines in their populations and geographic ranges around the world. We highlight how these threats have affected the conservation status and ecological functioning of the 31 largest mammalian carnivores on Earth. Consistent with theory, empirical studies increasingly show that large carnivores have substantial effects on the structure and function of diverse ecosystems. Significant cascading trophic interactions, mediated by their prey or sympatric mesopredators, arise when some of these carnivores are extirpated from or repatriated to ecosystems. Unexpected effects of trophic cascades on various taxa and processes include changes to bird, mammal, invertebrate, and herpetofauna abundance or richness; subsidies to scavengers; altered disease dynamics; carbon sequestration; modified stream morphology; and crop damage. Promoting tolerance and coexistence with large carnivores is a crucial societal challenge that will ultimately determine the fate of Earth’s largest carnivores and all that depends upon them, including humans.
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Long-term data (1974–2011) from harvested bighorn rams (Ovis canadensis) in Alberta, Canada, suggested a reduction in horn size and in the proportion of trophy rams in the provincial population over time. Age at harvest increased over time, suggesting slower horn growth. Rams that experienced favorable environmental conditions early in life had rapid horn growth and were harvested at a younger age than rams with slower horn growth. Guided nonresident hunters did not harvest larger rams than residents, suggesting that few large rams were available. Resident hunter success declined in recent years. Despite an apparently stable population, successive cohorts produced a decreasing harvest of trophy rams. We suggest that unrestricted harvest based on a threshold horn size led to a decline in the availability of trophy rams. That decline is partly an inevitable consequence of selective hunting that removes larger rams. Although our analysis does not establish that evolution of smaller horns caused the observed decline in both horn size and harvest of trophy rams, we suggest that intensive trophy hunting may have artificially selected for a decrease in horn growth rate. © 2013 The Wildlife Society.
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Antler characteristics are a measure of phenotypic quality and are used by wildlife managers and hunters to assess herd characteristics of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A single metric for antler quality would benefit scientists, wildlife managers, and the hunting public by providing a common gauge. Total antler volume or mass may be the most accurate measure of antler development, but is not practical to obtain from most hunter-harvested animals. The most accepted single measure of antler size is Boone & Crockett (B&C) score. We confirmed the efficacy of gross B&C scores as a predictor of antler mass (g) using antler measurements from 159 captive deer from the Mississippi State University Rusty Dawkins Memorial Deer Unit taken during 1986–1997. Gross B&C score explained 78% of variation in antler mass and was the best 1-variable predictive model. However, calculation of gross B&C score may require >=11 measurements for most harvested adult males. To test the possibility of deriving a simple model to predict gross B&C score from a reduced number of measurements, we used data from 3,532 deer in the Mississippi Magnolia Records Program to examine regression models using inside spread, number of antler points, basal circumference, and main beam length as explanatory variables, because these are the most common antler measurements recorded by wildlife managers. A simple model using total number of points >=2.5 cm and length of main beams explained 77% of variability in gross B&C scores. This model should enable hunters to provide accurate information to biologists regarding antler development in adult age classes, and its relative simplicity may encourage use.
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Photographs of trophy animals in 14 popular hunting magazines were analysed to explore the visual representations of dead animal bodies. We found multifaceted messages about the relationships between humans and other animals grounded in narratives of gender, race and embodiment. The visual representations of dead animal bodies are embedded in the taken-for- granted stories of love and affection for nature and wildlife that frame the contemporary hunting agenda, including the assumption that trophy displays memorialize the beauty of nature and natural animals. Disentangling ourselves from that dominant notion of what it means to display dead trophy animals was revelatory. Instead of love and respect for nature and wildlife, we found extreme objectification and marginalization of animal bodies. While we observed some elaborate displays of reassembled and carefully positioned dead bodies to appear as if still alive, a number of trophy exhibits hid the animal body behind or beneath weapons and other hunting equipment. The vast majority of the hunters in the images were white males, and when women or men of colour were included in the photographs their representations were usually consistent with gender and race stereotypes. Of these race/gender stereotypes the most interesting (and most symbolic of the patriarchal nature of the hunting discourse) was that neither women nor men of colour ever held a weapon when they appeared in photographs with white men.
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This work examined some assumptions that underpin the conflict between hunters and anti-hunting movement. The moral contradictions of anti-hunting activism are positioned in the complex context of consumer culture, managed environmental protection, and industrial food production. The assumption that environmental groups are by definition opposed to hunting is investigated. Given that both hunters and environmental groups are interested in land conservation, and given the rapid habitat loss around the globe, the question is asked whether joint conservation efforts would prove beneficial not only to both groups' interests, but also to the fragile North American ecosystems and the species that reside in them.
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Review of the book, Neil R. Carlson, William Buskist, Michael E. Enzle, and C. Donald Heth (authors) Psychology: The Science of Behaviour. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Education Canada Ltd., 2002, 701 pp., ISBN 0-13-0393606-6. Reviewed by: George Alder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this study, three distinct segments of German anglers differing with respect to degree of catch orientation as the main fishing motive were identified in a nationwide telephone survey (N ¼ 474). Noncatch aspects of the fishing experience played a major role in the motivations of anglers: about 80% of the sample was classified as anglers with a low, or minimal, catch orientation. Angler satisfaction and its determinants were examined across degrees of catch orientation to improve understanding of the link between angler motivation and satisfaction. Highly catch-oriented anglers were significantly less satisfied with the previous angling season than were minimally catch-oriented anglers. An exclusivity of activity-specific, mainly catch-related, satisfaction components as predictors of overall angling year satisfaction was found in all angler segments, irrespective of catch orientation. Satisfaction was unrelated to actual catch or harvest rates, and no significant differences in catch and harvest were found across the three catch orientation groups. This suggested that catch expectation was the primary driver of angler satisfaction. This study revealed that there are anglers, most often the majority within the population, who can be characterized as attaching relatively little importance to catch motives but whose satisfaction is still mainly catch dependent. It is not warranted to conclude that there is a striking disconnect in this finding. The reasons for the apparently striking inconsistency between motivation and satisfaction are related to (1) the fundamental conceptual differences in meaning and definition of motivation and satisfaction and (2) the differential ease in satisfying activity-general and activity-specific aspects of the fishing experience. Care must be taken not to draw overly simplified management implications from motivational information. However, by knowing the determinants of angler satisfaction, the manager's ability to plan future management actions is improved, and satisfaction rather than motivation is the ultimate product of the fishing experience. Investigations of the motives that drive anglers to fish have been a frequent topic of research into the human dimension of recreational fisheries (Ditton 2004). Efforts to study angler motivations were stimulated by the assumption that providing quality fishing experiences to anglers (or influencing angler behavior and/or thinking) requires an understanding of what is important to the anglers (Fedler and Ditton 1994; Finn and Loomis 2001). The different experi-ences sought by recreational anglers can be viewed in terms of two sets of elements: those that are activity specific (unique to that activity), and those that are activity general (common to all outdoor recreation activities; Fisher 1997). Activity-specific elements include the species sought, size of fish, number of fish, setting in which fish are caught, disposition of the catch (e.g., releasing versus harvesting), pulling strength of the fish, and method by which the fish is caught. Activity-general elements are relaxation, asso-ciation with peers and friends, experiencing natural surroundings, ''escaping,'' and being outdoors, among other things (Fedler and Ditton 1994). Previous motivation research has revealed that recreational fishing constitutes a multifaceted outdoor experience in which people seek multiple benefits that are both catch and noncatch related (Hendee 1974; Driver and Knopf 1976; Driver and Cooksey 1977; Fedler and Ditton 1994). The importance of the catch along with noncatch experience preferences (synony-mously used in the literature with expected outcomes or motivations) has been shown to vary among angler segments (Bryan 1977; Fedler and Ditton 1986, 1994; Ditton et al. 1992; Aas and Kaltenborn 1995; Fisher 1997; Wilde et al. 1998). Many studies conducted on the relative importance of catch and noncatch motives found that catching fish was generally not as important to anglers as were noncatch motivations, and the primary motivations for fishing did not necessarily involve the catching or eating aspects of recreational angling (Driver and Knopf 1976; Fedler and Ditton 1994; Ditton 2004). The incorporation of this finding into fishery management has generated controversy between fish-ery managers and human dimensions researchers, and
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For wildlife conservation to succeed in developing countries, people who live in or near protected areas must receive benefits that offset the costs of their reduced access to natural resources. International trophy hunting is currently generating significant economic benefits for residents of game management areas in Zambia. This has been made possible through a revolving fund and an administrative program that direct revenues from trophy hunting to local wildlife management and community development projects. Benefits might be enhanced by better biological information for management, greater local participation in the allocation and operation of hunting concessions, and the promotion of ecological and ethical standards for trophy hunting. An international system of certification for trophy hunting operations could foster these improvements. Para el éxito de la conservación de la vida silvestre en países en desarrollo la gente que vive en o cerca de áreas protegidas debe recibir beneficios que compensen los costos de la reducción del acceso a los recursos naturales. Actualmente a nivel internacional la cacería deportiva genera beneficios económicos significativos para los residentes de las áreas de manejo recreativo en Zambia. Esto ha sido posible a través de fondos revolventes y un programa administrativo que dirige las ganacias de la cacería deportiva hacia proyectos de manejo de vida silvestre y desarrollo comunitario. Los beneficios podrían mejorar mediante información biológica para el manejo, mayor participatión local en la ubicación y operación de concesiones de caza y la promoción de estándares éticos para la cacería deportiva. Un sistema internacional de certificación de operaciones de cacería deportiva podría fortalecer esos avances.
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Knowledge of factors affecting participation in, and satisfactions gained from, hunting is important yet unstudied among mourning dove hunters. We tested the multiple-satisfactions model of hunting and investigated effects of motivational factors and sociocultural characteristics on development and maintenance of dove hunting behavior using a mail survey of hunters in Alabama. Most Alabama hunters appeared motivated by multiple, primarily nonsuccess-based, satisfactions. Dove hunters were more strongly motivated by nonsuccess-based satisfactions and less by obtaining a bag limit than were other types of hunters. Childhood socialization was important in developing hunting behavior among both dove and nondove hunters. Early initiation into hunting and family tradition and mentoring were particularly important in developing dove hunting behavior. Attrition from dove hunting was low ( Keywords: ALABAMA; HUNTING; MOTIVATION; MOURNING DOVE; SATISFACTION; SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES Document Type: Review Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/108712001317151930 Publication date: April 1, 2001 $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher In this Subject: Zoology , Ecology By this author: Hayslette, Steven E. ; Armstrong, James B. ; Mirarchi, Ralph E. GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
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Wildlifers seldom write about ethics, yet ethical issues are among the most intractable of wildlife management issues. Society's value orientations about wildlife have been changing slowly over the last several decades. An increasingly urbanized and educated population no longer unequivocally supports wildlife management programs that tend to regard wildlife as utilitarian objects. State wildlife agencies and their employees have been slow to acknowledge and respond to social changes and accommodate them into wildlife management programs. As a result, traditional wildlife management hunting and trapping practices increasingly have become subjects of ballot initiatives. Younger, more idealistic employees often embrace and reflect wildlife protection philosophies, bringing them into conflict with agency administrators and traditional clients. Forced to choose between loyalty to ideals and loyalty to authority, many exit. Resolving ethical issues requires ethics rooted in fundamental democratic values. Wildlife agencies will learn to manage issues of wildlife ethics when they rediscover democracy.
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Research into quality hunting experiences has, with few exceptions, employed quantitative assessment techniques. This study examines Idaho elk hunters’ own narrations, using a qualitative analysis procedure novel in the hunting literature, to describe the key characteristics of Idaho hunters’ quality rifle elk hunting experiences. Discernible patterns that emerged from the analysis resulted in 32 quality categories, supporting the contention that quality hunting experiences are made up of multiple factors. However, fewer salient factors per hunter were found. Although caution is advised against using frequencies for qualitative data as an indication of importance, the statistical sampling techniques used suggest that some confidence can be attributed to the relative degree of importance of the top ranked quality categories. They were, in order of frequency: seeing elk or elk sign, being in a natural setting, seeing few other hunters, seeing an abundance of elk, and harvesting an elk.
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This essay supposes that the question of what treatment of animals is morally acceptable cannot be decided in any straightforward way by appeals to ‘equal consideration of interests’ or to animal rights. Instead it seeks to survey a variety of proposals as to how we ought to adjudicate interspecific conflicts of interests ‐ proposals that are both ‘speciesist’ and ‘non‐speciesist’ in nature. In the end one proposal is defended as the most reasonable one, and is claimed to provide a partial basis for developing an adequate theory of interspecific justice. In the course of this argument the challenge posed by radical critics of current treatment of animals (e.g. Tom Regan and Peter Singer) is considered. The schema of a theory developed here partly supports and partly conflicts with positions they have defended. Regarding the latter point it proposes a non‐anthropocentric basis for discounting the interests of sentient animals.
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Most conclusions from general assessments of angler motivations indicate that noncatch motives are more important to anglers than catch motives. Such research usually assesses the general motivation structure by anglers. To assess both general and more context-specific angler motivations, we surveyed the same anglers from northeastern Germany using two phases of a complementary survey design. First, a 1-year diary was used to collect trip-specific information; second, a personalized mail survey was used to elicit context-specific motivation information. Anglers selected their most important motives for their most frequent trip–target species combination (i.e., context) from a list of 10 salient fishing motives. Anglers frequently cited catch motives as the most important across a range of target species, large-bodied species such as northern pike Esox lucius being primarily associated with trophy fishing. Some species (such as small-bodied cyprinids) were targeted for noncatch reasons, while others (such as European perch [also known as Eurasian perch] Perca fluviatilis) attracted anglers seeking a multitude of psychological outcomes. Five distinct angler types were identified based on similarity of prime fishing motivation, namely, trophy-seeking anglers; nontrophy, challenge-seeking anglers; nature-oriented anglers; meal-sharing anglers; and social anglers. Members of these angler groups were similar in demographics and general angling behaviors but differed with respect to several indicators of angler specialization, indicating that committed anglers are more catch-oriented than previously assumed.Received November 12, 2010; accepted May 26, 2011
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Increasing reports of human/cougar conflicts may suggest that cougars are increasing in the Pacific Northwest. We determined minimum relative densities and average fecundity, survival, and growth rate of an apparently increasing cougar population in northeastern Washington, USA; northern Idaho, USA; and southern British Columbia, Canada, from 1998 to 2003. Minimum relative densities declined from 1.47 cougars/100 km2 to 0.85 cougars/100 km2. We estimated average litter size at 2.53 kittens, interbirth interval at 18 months, proportion of reproductively successful females at 75%, and age at first parturition at 18 months for a maternity rate of 1.27 kittens/adult female/yr. Average survival rate for all radiocollared cougars was 59%: 77% for adult females, 33% for adult males, 34% for yearlings, and 57% for kittens. Hunting accounted for 92% of mortalities of radiocollared cougars. The annual stochastic growth rate of this population was λ = 0.80 (95% CI = 0.11). Contrary to accepted belief, our findings suggest that cougars in the Pacific Northwest are currently declining. Increased conflicts between cougars and humans in this area could be the result of the 1) very young age structure of the population caused by heavy hunting, 2) increased human intrusion into cougar habitat, 3) low level of social acceptance of cougars in the area, or 4) habituation of cougars to humans. To help preserve this population, we recommend reduced levels of exploitation, particularly for adult females, continuous monitoring, and collaborative efforts of managers from adjacent states and provinces.
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1. Harvesting of large mammals is usually not random, and directional selection has been identified as the main cause of rapid evolution. However, selective harvesting in meat and recreational hunting cultures does not automatically imply directional selection for trait size. 2. Harvesting selectivity is more than a matter of hunter preference. Selection is influenced by management regulations, hunting methods, animal trait variance, behaviour and abundance. Most studies of hunter selection only report age- or sex-specific selection, or differences in trait size selection among hunting methods or groups of hunters, rather than trait size relative to the age-specific means required for directional selection. 3. Synthesis and applications. Managers aiming to avoid rapid evolution should not only consider directional selection and trophy hunting but also mitigate other important evolutionary forces such as harvesting intensity per se, and sexual selection processes that are affected by skewed sex ratios and age structures.
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There is a lack of consensus among conservationists as to whether trophy hunting represents a legitimate conservation tool in Africa. Hunting advocates stress that trophy hunting can create incentives for conservation where ecotourism is not possible. We assessed the hunting preferences of hunting clients who have hunted or plan to hunt in Africa (n=150), and the perception among African hunting operators (n=127) of client preferences at two US hunting conventions to determine whether this assertion is justified. Clients are most interested in hunting in well-known East and southern African hunting destinations, but some trophy species attract hunters to remote and unstable countries that might not otherwise derive revenues from hunting. Clients are willing to hunt in areas lacking high densities of wildlife or attractive scenery, and where people and livestock occur, stressing the potential for trophy hunting to generate revenues where ecotourism may not be viable. Hunting clients are more averse to hunting under conditions whereby conservation objectives are compromised than operators realize, suggesting that client preferences could potentially drive positive change in the hunting industry, to the benefit of conservation. However, the preferences and attitudes of some clients likely form the basis of some of the problems currently associated with the hunting industry in Africa, stressing the need for an effective regulatory framework.
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Theoretically based distinctions linked to measurable differences in appearance are described for three smiles: felt smiles (spontaneous expressions of positive emotion); false smiles (deliberate attempts to appear as if positive emotion is felt when it isn''t); and, miserable smiles (acknowledgements of feeling miserable but not intending to do much about it). Preliminary evidence supports some of the hypotheses about how these three kinds of smile differ.
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Between 1999 and 2004 we undertook an ecological study of African lions (Panthera leo) in Hwange National Park, western Zimbabwe to measure the impact of sport-hunting beyond the park on the lion population within the park, using radio-telemetry and direct observation. 34 of 62 tagged lions died during the study (of which 24 were shot by sport hunters: 13 adult males, 5 adult females, 6 sub-adult males). Sport hunters in the safari areas surrounding the park killed 72% of tagged adult males from the study area. Over 30% of all males shot were sub-adult (<4 years). Hunting off-take of male lions doubled during 2001–2003 compared to levels in the three preceding years, which caused a decline in numbers of adult males in the population (from an adult sex ratio of 1:3 to 1:6 in favour of adult females). Home ranges made vacant by removal of adult males were filled by immigration of males from the park core. Infanticide was observed when new males entered prides. The proportion of male cubs increased between 1999 and 2004, which may have occurred to compensate for high adult male mortality.
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This field study explored motivation and satisfaction dimensions of sightseeing tourists. For this purpose, 225 were tested for their motives before the day's tour and for their satisfactions after it. The data were collected on 10 different tour buses. The results indicated a considerable similarity between motivation and satisfaction dimensions, with knowledge seeking, social interaction, and escape emerging as important motive and satisfaction factors. This similarity led to a very high overall satisfaction with the tour. A group of tourists who came together by chance scored significantly higher on the knowledge-seeking motive and on five satisfaction dimensions than did the regular tour group and the convention group.RésuméLes visites guidées et la motivation et satisfaction des touristes. Cette enquête sur le terrain a étudié les éléments de motivation et satisfaction chez les touristes en visite guidée. Dans ce but, on a fait un sondage auprès de 225 touristes pour déterminer leur motivation avant la visite et leur satisfaction après. On a recueilli des informations dans dix cars touristiques. Les résultats ont indiqué qu'il y a un rapport considérable entre les éléments de motivation et satisfaction; la poursuite des connaissances culturelles, l'interaction sociale et l'évasion ont émergé comme des facteurs importants de motivation et de satisfaction. Cette ressemblance a mené à un haut niveau de satisfaction générale avec la visite. Un groupe de touristes qui s'est réuni par hasard accordait beaucoup plus d'importance à la recherche des connaissances culturelles et à cinq éléments de satisfaction que le groupe déjà constitué et le groupe du congrès.
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Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km(2) of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km(2) of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km(2) .
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Many species of animals face the continual problem of balancing the trade-off between reducing predation risks and maintaining or increasing their reproductive fitness. The terms of the trade-off are often asymmetric: each separate behavioral decision may lead to only a marginal increase in fitness, but may place the organism's entire future reproduction in jeopardy. Consequently, the organism's reproductive value is an important component of most antipredator decision problems. In this paper reproductive value is considered as an asset in need of protection. The “asset-protection principle” states that the larger the current reproductive asset, the more important it becomes to protect it. Because reproductive value is usually age and condition dependent, optimal antipredator behavior also often depends on these variables. I use a uniform modeling technique (dynamic programming) to address a variety of issues related to antipredator behavior
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In three experiments, we investigated the spontaneous attention of perceivers to the nature of targets' facial expressions, specifically whether they were displaying an enjoyment or a non-enjoyment smile. Further, we investigated the social functions of sensitivity to smile type and the consequences of such sensitivity for subsequent interactions. Results demonstrated that perceivers did indeed spontaneously attend to smile type, especially in situations where issues of trust or cooperation were made salient. Further, this sensitivity had an impact both on the evaluations of the target individuals and the cooperative behaviour of individuals towards those displaying enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles. Participants evaluated individuals displaying enjoyment smiles more positively than those displaying non-enjoyment smiles and had higher rates of cooperation with those displaying enjoyment smiles. These results are discussed in terms of the social functions of facial expressions.