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Health Benefits of Traditional Rice Varieties of Temperate Regions



Rice is the leading crop produced and consumed on a large scale in the state of J&K (India) that is it is a stable food of the inhabitants residing in the domical, and is variably rich in genetic diversity. Rice production is the principal activity and a major source of income for the State. Traditional rice varieties have an enhancing potential in wide range of neutraceutical and functional foods. Besides possessing medicinal and nutritional properties, the remaining by-products obtained from these rice varieties in various post harvest operations are equally valuable. Traditional healers and local farmers have been using these traditional varieties in ayurveda and in curing of various kinds of ailments, such as cooling the body in ayurvedic treatments, improving vocal clarity, curing of boils, swellings and skin blemishes. Extracts of brown rice are also used as energy drink in individuals, patients and in treatment of chronic gastric problems, jaundice, dysenteric complaints and to increase lactation and nutrition to Childs. Sticky glutinous rice has been reported in treatment of stomach upsets, nausea, heart-burn and indigestion. Brown rice extracts have been reported in treatments of breast and stomach cancer and warts
Research Article Open Access
Med Aromat Plants
ISSN: 2167-0412 MAP, an open access journal
Open Access
Review Article
Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
Bhat and Riar, Med Aromat Plants 2015, 4:3
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000198
*Corresponding author: Bhat FM, Research Scholar SLIET, Longowal, Sangrur,
Punjab, India, Tel: 919878313672; E-mail:
Received June 30, 2015; Accepted July 13, 2015; Published July 17, 2015
Citation: Bhat FM, Riar CS (2015) Health Benets of Traditional Rice Varieties of
Temperate Regions. Med Aromat Plants 4: 198. doi:10.4172/2167-0412.1000198
Copyright: © 2015 Bhat FM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
Health Benefits of Traditional Rice Varieties of Temperate Regions
Bhat FM* and Dr. Riar CS
SLIET, Longowal, Sangrur, Punjab, India
Keywords: Brown rice; Pigmented rice; Aromatic rice; Medicinal
properties; Future scope
Rice is a major source of staple food of more than two third of world
population. About 80% of world rice is produced from the cultivation
of Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) [1]. Agriculture is the mainstay of
more than 80% people in Jammu & Kashmir. In the state Jammu and
Kashmir, rice represent main source of staple food crop, particularly
those of Kashmir’s. e acreage under rice cultivation in the valley
constitutes about two-third of the total area under the crops in the
whole state (J&K). About 75% of states rice is grown in the Kashmir
valley. e land under rice cultivation in Jammu region is 159 thousand
acres while it is 374 thousand acres under rice cultivation in Kashmir
region. e paddy cultivation in the valley is known since ancient times
and is grown even at an altitude of 2500mtrs above sea level. Most of
the farmers are earning good amount of their produce in Kashmir
valley as well as in the Jammu region. Out of 14 districts of Kashmir
region, rice is cultivated in about 09 districts. Out of which 4 districts
come under high productivity group (yield more than 2,500 kg/ha) [2].
Rice productivity in the state is high (2.2 Tons/Ha) compared to
the national average productivity of about 1.9 Tons/Ha. Jammu and
Kashmir State is rich in rice culture from the ancient times. About 32
varieties of traditional rice are being cultivated in the valley and varied
from each other in various attribute such as, variation in dimensions,
color, aroma, stickiness and presence of inherited health benets etc.
During recent times, both at national level and international
levels, the land races are being preserved in the gene banks. e
scientists said that they were also checking these land races for some
such characteristics which were not available in the existing varieties
so as to incorporate the same in the present varieties [4]. e trend
toward hybrid from traditional varieties may be reversing as traditional
varieties are experiencing an increasing trend among consumers, due
to their incredible health benets for example the traditional varieties
possess low sugar content, making them pleasing choice for consumers
who are suering from diabetics, overweight, or regulating their sugar
intake. ey have higher amount of glutamic acid, ber and vitamins.
Some people also credit traditional varieties with other health benets,
such as giving sensations of cooling in the body, improves vocal clarity,
eyesight, fertility and mitigating rashes [5].
Owing to several health-promoting impacts associated with
anthocyanins, such as anti-oxidative, anti-inammatory and
anticarcinogenic eects [6], colored rice is considered as a functional
food and food ingredient in many Asian countries [7]. e functional
properties of anthocyanins in red and black rice varieties have been
veried in numerous nutritional cases [8].
e day to day concern about the side eects of synthetic
antioxidants like butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated
hydroxytoluene (BHT) [9,10] has increased the interest among
researchers and nutritionists in exploration of antioxidants from
natural sources, which are both economically and physiologically
justied. It has been validated by researchers that changing the dieting
habits from articially processed to an naturally providing foods
having high content of bioactive components including antioxidants
like tocopherols, tocotrienols, oryzenols, polyphenols, avonoids
,vitamin-C, play an important role in defending the body from attack of
chronic diseases. Pigmented along with aromatic rice varieties besides
having pleasant taste and odour are also associated with numerous
health benets. Pigmented rice possesses pigmented componds such as
Cyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside in abundant content [11], which
is associated with diverse functional properties such as, protection
against cytotoxicity [12], antineurodegenerative activity [7], inhibition
of glycogen phosphorylase [13], and possessing antioxidant and
scavenging activity higher than white rices and hybrid rice varieties
Rice is the leading crop produced and consumed on a large scale in the state of J&K (India) that is it is a
stable food of the inhabitants residing in the domical, and is variably rich in genetic diversity. Rice production
is the principal activity and a major source of income for the State. Traditional rice varieties have an enhancing
potential in wide range of neutraceutical and functional foods. Besides possessing medicinal and nutritional
properties, the remaining by-products obtained from these rice varieties in various post harvest operations are
equally valuable. Traditional healers and local farmers have been using these traditional varieties in ayurveda
and in curing of various kinds of ailments, such as cooling the body in ayurvedic treatments, improving vocal
clarity, curing of boils, swellings and skin blemishes. Extracts of brown rice are also used as energy drink in
individuals, patients and in treatment of chronic gastric problems, jaundice, dysenteric complaints and to increase
lactation and nutrition to Childs. Sticky glutinous rice has been reported in treatment of stomach upsets, nausea,
heart-burn and indigestion. Brown rice extracts have been reported in treatments of breast and stomach cancer
and warts.
Citation: Bhat FM, Riar CS (2015) Health Benets of Traditional Rice Varieties of Temperate Regions. Med Aromat Plants 4: 198. doi:10.4172/2167-
Page 2 of 3
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000198
Med Aromat Plants
ISSN: 2167-0412 MAP, an open access journal
Nutritional facts about traditional rice
Traditional cultivars of Rice have nutritive value higher than hybrid
rice varieties. Besides serving as an important source of carbohydrate
for more than two-thirds of the world’s population and almost whole
of inhabitants residing in the Kashmir valley, having rice as their staple
food. is is having the vital function of acting as fuel for the body to
carry on its vital activities. ese traditional Rice varieties have lesser
content of fat and good amount of oryzenol content as compared to
hybrids and thus prevent the body from building up cholesterol levels.
at ensures it as excellent source of food to be included as balanced diet
in their routine dieting habits. ese traditionally grown rice cultivars
are good sources of minerals and vitamins such as niacin, thiamine,
iron, riboavin, vitamin D, calcium, and possess higher ber and lesser
amount of sugar content, making it an appealing choice for consumers
suering from diabetic complications. Rice does not contain gluten
proteins (present in wheat), thereby making it an essential alternative
for persons having requirements of gluten free diets such as patients
suering from celiac diseases. ese varieties are non allergic due to
absence of any additives, because these do not require excessive fertilizer
and pesticide applications during their developmental and growth
stages. ese Rice varieties possess higher amylose content and are rich
in resistant starch that cannot be hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal
tract and serves as a substrate for bacterial fermentation. ese cultivars
ensure several health benets such as reducing the risk of developing
type II diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases by lowering the
glycemic and insulin responses. Brown rice contains high amounts
of insoluble ber, which is reported by scientists to protect the body
against a variety of cancers. ese are also valuable sources of food for
those suering from hypertension due to its low sodium content and
are also a fair source of protein containing all eight amino acids [15].
Medicinal uses of traditional rice
Jammu And Kashmir State has been a rich source of medicinal
plants since ancient times, among these traditional rice varieties
have been used by local inhabitants in unani, Ayurvedic, system of
medicines since generations. In Ayurveda the medicinal Values of rice
have been described as acrid, tonic, aphrodisiac, oleaginous, diuretic,
fattening and useful in biliousness [5]. ese traditional varieties have
been regarded an energetic food for people and were recommended
by saints of having the medicinal values to keep juvenile and long life.
e extracted from the bran of these rice is used for curing neural
diseases and also used to cure body pain and eye disorders It is having
properties to rectify the basic ills aecting the circulatory respiratory
as well as digestive system. Dierent groups of rice aect the human
beings dierently, as they possess dierent inherent qualities to
alleviate the three doshas, (which according to ayurveda is considered
three principles of energy, believed to be circulating in the body and
govern physiological balance and activity). Ayurvedic practitioners
prescribe dierent rices for various ailments. e traditional doctors
(vaids) possess profound knowledge of dierent eects of rice and were
particular about their prescription [16].
In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medical system, colored rice has
been called shastikarice and claims that it can restore imbalances in the
human body. Pigmented rice is rich in antioxidants and polyphenols
and has two or three times as much zinc and iron as white rice [17]
which possess the desirable quality to boost, strengthen, regenerate and
energize the body [18]. It is also used as baby food and replaces white
rice on special occasion in the state. e red color, varying from light to
dark red, is conned to the bran layer. Red Rice (Zag, Tel Zag, Gull Zag,
Shel Kew, Kaw Quder) Keeps You Away From Obesity, Diabetes and
Cancer. Rice with a red bran layer is called red rice. Susruta (400 BC),
Charaka (700 BC), and Vagbhata (700 AD), the well-known vriddha
trayi (Trio of Elders) of Ayurveda, considered red rice (rakta shali) the
best among the other rice varieties, due to desirable property as they
had the power to redress the imbalance in the tridosha or humours
(the vata, the pitta, and the kapha – are collectively called the tridosha)
whose imbalance in the body causes various types of diseases. In recent
times, interest in red rices has been revived because of the presence
of antioxidants. e antioxidant and scavenging activity of red rice is
higher than that of white rice [19].
Ancient Ayurvedic treatises laud the red rice as a nutritive food
and medicine. ey are known to be inuential in the treatment of
various ailments such as diarrhea, vomiting, fever, hemorrhage, chest
pain, wounds, and burns [20]. Colored rice has been preferred in the
past for their special features such as medicinal value and exclusive
taste. A large number of these varieties are still grown in various parts
of the sate by tribal’s and small farmers who are deprived of modern
technologies and health care systems, where indigenous rice with their
nutritional and medicinal properties are a rich alternative for the same.
is indigenous rice variety in state and India seems to contribute
tremendously to the health of the women including adolescent girls,
lactating mothers and pregnant women [20]. Ayurvedic properties
of Raktasali (red rice) and their eect on human physiology. Red
rice (Raktasali) was the most ecacious in subduing deranged
humors [21,22]. It was considered good treatment for fevers and
ulcers, Improves eyesight, voice improver, semen enhancer, diuretic,
spermatophytic, refrigerant, cosmetic, and tonic and was antitoxic.
Pharmological and clinical trials with red rice has shown anti-
fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, ant-diarrheal, anti-inammatory,
antioxidant, antitumor, anti-thyroid and anti-hyper cholesterolemic
activities. It also stimulates protein secretion besides having radical
scavenging eects [14].
Aromatic rice provides most benets of health and nutrition. ese
are considered healthier as they possess more vitamin and ber in their
outer bran layers. Brown aromatic basmati rice contains 20% more
ber than other brown rice varieties, which prevents the formation
of cancerous cells in the body. According to Canadian diabetes
association, glycemic index of basmati aromatic rice is lower than
other rice varieties, and thus essential for those suering from diabetes.
Ayurveda supports its properties and proved it to be a great healing
food. Traditional scented rice varieties have been revealed by scientists
to possess higher amount of Fe and Zn and helps in the bioavailability
of iron [23]. e need of the day is to commercialize these varieties
and promote them through public awareness about their important
Present research and future scope
Currently, rice is regarded as a neutraceutical and functional food
besides being a staple source of food and primary source of carbohydrate
or starch. Its role of having low glycemic index in comparison to
other genetically modied rice varieties, which containing complex
carbohydrates and regarded as high glycemic index food provides
a better novel substitute for diabetic patients. Presence of valuable
mineral content, excellent starch characteristics. Antioxidant and anti
inammatory activity represent these unique among cereals sources
(wheat, maize etc).starch of these rice is almost completely absorbed by
human body [24]. Scientically, it have been proved, that Amino acids
possessed by these varieties have high biological value, high content
of essential fatty acids and selenium, and have anti-hypertension
Citation: Bhat FM, Riar CS (2015) Health Benets of Traditional Rice Varieties of Temperate Regions. Med Aromat Plants 4: 198. doi:10.4172/2167-
Page 3 of 3
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000198
Med Aromat Plants
ISSN: 2167-0412 MAP, an open access journal
eect. Hence, rice is now regarded as a functional food. Rice extracts
have been validated in inhibiting chloride channels in human body
and thus reduce intestinal losses’ in acute diarrhea, thereby serving
as oral rehydration solutions (ORS) [25]. ese rice based ORS are
now preferred than glucose based ORS, as reported by World Health
Organization programmes [26]. Rice due to its least allergic properties
are recommended for patients suering from irritable bowl syndrome.
Colored rice varieties have been reported to possess antioxidant
properties [27] and considered more nutritious, being rich in iron
(Fe), Zinc (Zn), and minerals. ese rices have been found to reduce
atherosclerotic plaque by 50% more than white rice in rabbits [28]
clinical trials conducted in USA have concluded that red rice yeast
reduces cholesterol and total triglycerides, providing a novel food
based approach to lowering cholesterol [29-32]. Rice thus meet most
of the requirements of a good and healthy food and is the only cereal
that is eaten as whole grain, which according to Ayurvedic texts is more
easily digestible than our.
e temperate regions in north India have been an abode of
traditional rice varieties since prehistoric times and were used
recommended for medical uses by traditional healers and local
farmers. eses varieties thus t into the description of healthy
and functional foods. Due to emergence of high yielding varieties
these have been replaced at a large pace and are posing the threat of
extinction. us these varieties need to be conserved and promote
them by commercialize and through general public awareness about
their medicinal benets. Considering the presence of avonoid and
anthocyanin content together with highest radical scavenging activity
due to the presence of polyphenols in these varieties. ese favors the
health conscious consumers. Clinical validation of these varieties is
mandatory, so that these excel in the international market (like the red
rice yeast of china having worldwide demand).
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Citation: Bhat FM, Riar CS (2015) Health Benets of Traditional Rice
Varieties of Temperate Regions. Med Aromat Plants 4: 198. doi:10.4172/2167-
... Sticky glutinous rice had been reported in treatment of stomach upsets, nausea, heart-burn and indigestion. Brown rice extracts had been reported in treatments of breast and stomach cancer and warts (Bhat and Riar, 2015). ...
... Antioxidant and anti inflammatory activity represent these unique among cereals sources (wheat, maize etc). Starch of this rice was almost completely absorbed by human body (Bhat and Riar, 2015). ...
Full-text available
Rice was one of the most important field crop grown by farmers in different geographies in the World. It was grown due to its different unique with climatic, water, soil, genetic diversity, climatic - weather variance, dietary typical unique importance, cultural and rituals on food behavior among the growers. Rice is the major food energy source but on the other hand also meet the expectation of different valuable nutritive sources with unique nutritive qualities for different health benefit with essentials nutrients, vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrate, protein and fat etc. Rice was used by the different tribal people with their unique knowledge with respect to the traditional varieties those were being cultivated over a decade with very good understanding of the varieties with respect to ecological adoptability, seasonal suitability, cultivation and management practices, rice grain, farm produces, grain and grains by product with different unique health benefit and culturally adopted with different dices and preparations due to different health benefit and remedies. All the traditional rice cultivar was to be found very unique due to their unique qualitative identity found in the knowledge domain of the indigenous farmers and people. The traditional cultivars was the own self, it unique identity due natural or farmers selection process and consumer preparation consumption prefer ability in brief. Cultivation of traditional cultivar, it ecological adaptiveness with respect to biological traits and genes on the other hand availability of different quality traits like, medicinal, aromatic, puffing, glutinous, kernel elongation, richness with protein, Zn, Fe, antioxidants and vitamins etc. A few leading traditional rice were popular among farmers in the region, Tulaipanji, Gobindabhog, Paijam, Kalonunia, Tulsibhog, Pioli, Aghoni, Aghoni Bora, Bora, Bao, PioJoha, Jasua, Kalojira, Bhadui, Kalirai, Ramtulsi, Magusal, Jhingasal, Musisal, Rabansal, Motichur, Parijat, Agar, Ganga, Kuajoli, Nagraikalam, Chenga, Sasimahan, Binni Dhan, Dudheswar, Radhatilak, Soni Bhadui, Murisal, Balabhat, Brahmabalak, Sitabhog, Kalo Khasa, Khasa, Ponha, Khegurchori, Begun Bichi, Kotki, Kamal, Sada Nunia and Boka Kamol etc.
... d Dadhyodanam (name continues in all five states): Curd, the predominant ingredient of the dish is a known source of calcium and probiotics [35]. e Tirukannamadai (or) Tirukannamadu (TN), Nei Payasam (KL)/Aravani (KA, AP): The dish possesses many health benefits since red rice is proven to have antioxidant, antidiabetic and antiproliferative activities [36][37][38]. Similarly molasses is also proven to possess antioxidant, anti obesity, anti microbial and anti cancer potentials [39]. The dry fruits used for garnishing the dish brings an additional neutraceutical property to the dish viz., cashew being rich in magnesium and calcium is known to support healthy muscles and gums, while raisins being rich in calcium and boron is known to aid in maintenance of bone, eye and dental health [42]. ...
Full-text available
South Indian cultures are diverse and unique amongst Indian traditions. In spite of many changes in Indian traditions over generations, South Indian states seem to have maintained a great extent of similarity with reference to vegetarian ethnic food habits and the reason behind is not convincingly known. Hindu traditional texts have extensive mention of the ethnic origins of many cultural practices prevailing in India and the present review aims to explore the different vegetarian ethnic foods of South India and also look into the influential role of food related ideologies mentioned in the traditional texts. Ethnographic study data about the prevailing vegetarian foods of the states were generated using multiple tools and presented. It is observed that there is a great extent of similarity amongst the varieties of vegetarian foods being prepared in Hindu communities of South India. Our study also highlights the strong influential role of tradition in evolution of vegetarian foods prevailing even today in South India.
... The emphasis on breeding of rice grains has always stood on increasing produce through put; however, significant prominence has been always worked on enhancing grain geometrical properties such as appearance, shape, size and content of amylose and amylopectin (Tsuda, 2012). Even though the nutritional content of food produced by certain ancient inbred lines has been demonstrated to be greater in comparison to rice made by standard, modern-day rice cultivars, this is primarily due to the fact that they deposit bioactive secondary metabolites somewhat more effectively (Bhat and Riar, 2015). 7.2 Bioactives in pigmented cereals ...
... The traditional varieties are a viable source of various agricultural properties as well as sources of many bioactive non-vital nutrients. Traditional rice varieties are rich in nutrients such as vitamin D, calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, glutamic acids, and high in fiber (Bhat and Riar, 2015;Verma et al., 2018). They are low in fat, sugar, gluten, and contain oryzanol, a molecule that reduces fat production in the body, making them a great diet for diabetics and hypertensive people. ...
Rice (Oryza sativa L) is one of the vital cereals with easy digestibility and therapeutic properties. Especially traditional rice is rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds to protect against lifestyle disorders. The antioxidant potential of some medicinal rice such as Kattuyanam, Mapillai samba, Navara, Karunguruvai, Kavuni, Kichadi samba, Illupaipoo samba, Kalanamak, Karudan samba, and Seeraga samba can treat human ailments, and it causes various physiological changes in the human body. Unpolished traditional rice has additional properties compared to ordinary polished rice since the bran layers contain high bioactive components like polyphenols, phytochemicals, antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals. These components can control several biological diseases such as carcinoma, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorder, nephrological disorder, and diabetes. Malnutrition is one of the significant problems in developing countries, so the consumption of traditional rice to cure nutritional related deficiencies like PEM (Protein-Energy Malnutrition), and the presence of zinc, iron, folate, and vitamins are beneficial. Therefore, the present study reviews the nutritional significance, therapeutic properties, and physiological effects of Indian rice varieties on the human body.
... These three polymers are associated together in building up lignocellulosic biomass. [4,5] Lignin is the hardest component to be extracted from agricultural biomass. Thus, evaluating the lignin content is essential to derive cellulose with high purity. ...
Ultrasonication is an important step which influences the disintegration of cellulose fibers. Ultrasonic energy is generally applied to disperse the nanoparticles. Cavitation bubbles develop and grow when high‐intensity ultrasound is applied. During the collapse of these bubbles, a considerable amount of energy is released. This creates a mechanical shock wave effect thus leads to the disruption of agglomerated particles. In this research, initially cellulose is derived from locally available rice straw varieties through a three step chemical extraction and purification process. Then, high‐intensity ultrasonication process is applied for 90 min on the chemically extracted cellulose fibers at 15 min time interval and the disintegration of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) is studied. From the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, it is noticed that the high‐intensity ultrasonication process had significant effect on the disintegration of cellulose fibers. After 90 min treatment, fibrils with diameter in nanometer range are obtained whereas the lengths of the fibers are observed to be in micrometer range. Structural and thermal properties of disintegrated CNFs are also determined. From this study, it is evident that the sonication time had a greater impact on the efficiency of the disintegration of chemically extracted cellulose fibers.
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Important dietary components known as nutraceuticals have both therapeutic and nutritional impacts. The active ingredients in these foods, including such carotenoids, collagen hydrolysate, and dietary fibers, are what provide them their health benefits. Nutraceuticals have been shown to have a good impact on immunological and cardiovascular health, as well as play a part in the prevention of infections and cancer. Depending on its nature and manner of action, nutraceuticals can be divided into many types. Various nutraceutical categories and their therapeutic potential effects, including anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-lipid activity in disease, will be examined in this study. In addition, the many ways in which these accepted methods and structures, their application, and human safety would be covered, along with recent trends and nutraceuticals’ potential for the development.
Biochar is a charred organic material that has a wide application in soil improvement and crop yield. It is significant to refurbish the traditional rice variants which belong to south india variety. This study efforts to relatively analyze the morphological characteristics of rice varieties Kattuyanam (traditional variety) and Andhra Ponni (Modern variety) exposed to varied conditions of biochar and its influence on soil fertility. The growth of the seedlings in both varieties was monitored in different conditions (only vermicompost, only biochar, vermicompost, and biochar together, without water and with water) during two different season (Spring and Winter) the biometric parameters of each were measured to determine the effect of conditions in their growth. The seedling's whole height, stem height, root height, leaf height, number of leaves, number of roots, number of auricles, and number of ligules were taken into consideration. These parameters were measured and compared with seedlings in each block of different conditions. The absolute growth rate was calculated for the parameters which are taken before four days of transplantation. The weight of the seedlings of each block was considered and the difference between the weight of the rice varieties was analyzed. Thus this work encourages a dual concept of utilizing waste to produce biochar and evaluate its soil enrichment property on traditional rice variety cultivation.
Developing rice varieties with enhanced levels of functional bioactives is an important intervention for achieving food and nutritional security in Asia where rice is the staple food and Type II diabetes incidences are higher. The present study was aimed at dissecting out the molecular events underlying the accumulation of bio active compounds in pigmented traditional rice Kavuni. Comparative transcriptome profiling in the developing grains of Kavuni and a white rice variety ASD 16 generated 37.7 and 29.8 million reads respectively. Statistical analysis identified a total of 9177 exhibiting significant differential expression (DEGs) between the grains of Kavuni and ASD 16. Pathway mapping of DEGs revealed the preferential up-regulation of genes involved in the biosynthesis of amylose and dietary fibres in Kavuni accounting for its low glycemic index (GI). Transcripts involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic acids and phenylpropanoids were also found to be up-regulated in the grains of Kavuni. This study identified up-regulation of key transcripts involved in the accumulation of phenolic acids having potential for inhibiting major hydrolytic enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase and thus accounting for the slow digestibility leading to low GI. Overall, this study has identified molecular targets for the genetic manipulation of anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant traits in rice.
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This literature review paper highlights the dietary importance, arsenic toxicity, and nutritional value of brown, white, basmati and pigmented rice varieties. Rice is one of the most widely consumed cereals in the world rich in dietary fiber, bioactive compounds such as Melatonin, and Gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA). However, the edible brown rice is rarely consumed as the most human populations prefer the white polished rice for reasons connected to appearance, taste, palatability, ease of cooking, tradition, safety, and shorter shelf of brown rice which limits the market potential. Rice generally contains more arsenic than any other grains because of its anaerobic growing environment and unique physiology. Brown rice accumulates more arsenic than white rice because arsenic accumulates in the outer hard bran layer of the grain which is removed to make the white rice. Arsenic contamination is also reported in white rice. This also depends on the geographical location of the rice growing area. If the rice is grown in arsenic contaminated water with high arsenic levels, then brown rice accumulates high arsenic which is toxic to human health. Washing rice with water for 4 to 5 times before cooking could reduce arsenic levels in rice. Pigmented varieties of rice are considered valuable for their health benefits due to the presence of Melatonin but consumption is very less. India is the largest producer and exporter of basmati rice in the world. Basmati rice has a medicinal value and consumption is very high. Indian Basmati rice is a premium quality grain loved by people across the world. The chemical compound responsible for aroma in basmati rice is 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and hence unique among other aromatic long grained rice.
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The aim of the present study was to know about past and present cultivation and status of rice landraces in Kashmir province of Indian Himalayan state of Jammu and Kashmir. Tremendous genetic diversity has existed in past in paddy fields throughout Kashmir especially in remote high altitude areas and more than 4 dozen named landraces have been recorded in the literature. Elderly farmers in their sixties and beyond still fondly remember these landraces and often recall quality attributes in many of these genetic resources. Most of the landraces have now disappeared from the local production system and only few are presently being cultivated and that too in a very small area. The reasons as to why farmers lost interest in these genetic resources and why few landraces are still popular in farmer fields have been discussed. Our study has revealed that variability in paddy fields has now been drastically reduced to few high altitude areas where also it is seriously endangered. We argue that collection of well adapted traditional varieties from these 'last remnants of rice genetic diversity' in Kashmir is an important task especially under prevailing uncertain social and climatic conditions to ensure a sustainable environment. 32 germplasm accessions of some landraces have been collected during our survey in these areas. These have been deposited in National Seed Gene Bank at NBPGR, New Delhi for conservation and characterization.
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Rice is rich in genetic diversity, with thousands of varieties grown throughout the world. Rice cultivation is the principal activity and source of income for about 100 million households in Asia and Africa. Rice has potential in a wide range of food categories. Besides having nutritional and medicinal benefits, the by-products of rice are equally important and beneficial. By-products from growing rice create many valuable and worthwhile products. The unedible parts, that are discarded through the milling process, and the edible part could be transformed into some of the following suggested products. Rice can be used to treat skin conditions. The rice is boiled, drained and allowed to cool and mashed. The rice is made into a paste or moulded into balls and these can be applied to boils, sores, swellings and skin blemishes. Other herbs are sometimes added to the rice balls to increase their medicinal effects. Sticky glutinous rice is often taken to treat stomach upsets, heart-burn and indigestion. Extracts from brown rice have been used to treat breast and stomach cancer and warts. They have also been used to treat indigestion, nausea and diarrhoea.
Red rice Rakthashali (with red husk and grain) is the native staple food of Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka) and Kasaragod (Kerala) district. A study was conducted to collect and document information from the traditional and qualified practitioners on the use of red rice in various medications and therapies to find its applicability as a functional food especially in promoting lactation. Red rice was found beneficial to health in terms of its nutritional significance and its applicability in various medications like in allergies, skin ailments, uterus related problems, nerve disorders, gastro-intestinal problems, liver, kidney disorders, fever, infections and in promoting lactation.
Anthocyanin pigments in ten pigmented rice cultivars were isolated with cellulose thin-layer chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and further identified with conventional chromatographic techniques. Individual anthocyanins were then quantified by HPLC using a reversed ODS-5 column and detected at 280 nm. Ten rice varieties contained two major anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside. Total anthocyanin contents varied greatly in the range of 0-493 mg/100 g grain among varieties. Cyanidin 3-glucoside, an agent having important oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC), was most abundant in Suwon #415 variety (470 mg/100 g grain), while Jawangdo (10 mg/100 g grain) and Ilpumbyeo (not detected) had the smallest amount of anthocyanin among the samples examined. As for the distribution ratio of individual anthocyanin, Suwon #415 was characterized by a relatively high percentage of cyanidin 3-glucoside (95.3%); whereas, Suwon #425 and Heugjinmi were characterized by a relatively larger amount of peonidin 3-glucoside.
Antioxidative activity of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds was investigated. An ethanol extract prepared from the seed coat exhibited antioxidative activity as measured by the thiocyanate and thiobarbituric,acid (TEA) method, but there was no activity in the extract prepared from germ. The ethyl acetate extract prepared from seed coat had strong antioxidative activity. To determine antioxidative compounds in the seed coat chemically, preparative HPLC was carried out, then 2-hydroxy-3',4'-dihydroxyacetophenone (TAO), methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (TA1), 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetate (TA2), and (-)-epicatechin (TA3) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract and identified. TAO, TA1, and TA2 had-strong antioxidative activity in the linoleic acid autoxidation system as measured by the thiocyanate and TEA method as well as alpha-tocopherol. These results suggest that tamarind seed coat, a byproduct of tamarind gum industries, can be used-as a safe and low-cost source of antioxidants.
Anthocyanins have been suggested as promising dietary compounds with an important role in human health. They are the largest group of water-soluble pigments in the plants, which are responsible for the red, purple and blue hues evident in fruits, vegetables, flowers and grains. As natural compounds of vegetables, fruits and red wines, anthocyanins are estimated to be widely consumed by humans with the estimated daily intake about 12.5 mg/d in the United States. In-terest in anthocyanin-rich foods and extracts has intensified recently because of their possible health benefits. Anthocyan-ins have been shown to be potent antioxidants as well as anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic and having ocular effects among others. Findings of their beneficial health effects support their role as natural food colorants, functional foods and dietary supplements. The present article summarizes our knowledge on the bioavailability, antioxidant activity and health-enhancing components of anthocyanin-rich foods and extracts. In addition, their current and potential use as a natural food colorant, functional food and dietary supplement in the food and beverage industry is discussed.
The Western Himalayan region of India possesses rich genetic diversity of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice landraces having withstood the rigors of biotic and abiotic stresses, suit to the local conditions of farms and reflect socio-cultural preferences can still be found in crop fields located distantly in rural and tribal areas. This region is known for growing World fame basmati in the foot hills and many varieties of red rices grown at higher elevations, known for cold tolerance and medicinal properties. Genetic resources of rice were collected for about 8years (1999–2006) and 1069 germplasm accessions including 154 named landraces were collected. Prominent landraces such as Begumi, Ramjwain, Thapachini, Naurang, Hansraj, Tilakchandan, Lalsati, Jhini, Mushakbudji, Jattoo, Barpasso, Qadirbeigh, Safedbrez, Shahie known for their special quality attributes were collected. The change in land use, cropping patterns and aggressive introduction of modern varieties in the region has resulted in the loss of a large number of landraces especially from irrigated lands. The present paper looks at the status of rice genetic resources, genetic variability, genetic erosion and future strategies to conserve rice germplasm on farm and to maximize its use in rice breeding.