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Health Benefits of Traditional Rice Varieties of Temperate Regions

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Abstract

Rice is the leading crop produced and consumed on a large scale in the state of J&K (India) that is it is a stable food of the inhabitants residing in the domical, and is variably rich in genetic diversity. Rice production is the principal activity and a major source of income for the State. Traditional rice varieties have an enhancing potential in wide range of neutraceutical and functional foods. Besides possessing medicinal and nutritional properties, the remaining by-products obtained from these rice varieties in various post harvest operations are equally valuable. Traditional healers and local farmers have been using these traditional varieties in ayurveda and in curing of various kinds of ailments, such as cooling the body in ayurvedic treatments, improving vocal clarity, curing of boils, swellings and skin blemishes. Extracts of brown rice are also used as energy drink in individuals, patients and in treatment of chronic gastric problems, jaundice, dysenteric complaints and to increase lactation and nutrition to Childs. Sticky glutinous rice has been reported in treatment of stomach upsets, nausea, heart-burn and indigestion. Brown rice extracts have been reported in treatments of breast and stomach cancer and warts
Research Article Open Access
Med Aromat Plants
ISSN: 2167-0412 MAP, an open access journal
Open Access
Review Article
Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
Bhat and Riar, Med Aromat Plants 2015, 4:3
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2167-0412.1000198
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000198
*Corresponding author: Bhat FM, Research Scholar SLIET, Longowal, Sangrur,
Punjab, India, Tel: 919878313672; E-mail: Farhanbhat999@gmail.com
Received June 30, 2015; Accepted July 13, 2015; Published July 17, 2015
Citation: Bhat FM, Riar CS (2015) Health Benets of Traditional Rice Varieties of
Temperate Regions. Med Aromat Plants 4: 198. doi:10.4172/2167-0412.1000198
Copyright: © 2015 Bhat FM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
Health Benefits of Traditional Rice Varieties of Temperate Regions
Bhat FM* and Dr. Riar CS
SLIET, Longowal, Sangrur, Punjab, India
Keywords: Brown rice; Pigmented rice; Aromatic rice; Medicinal
properties; Future scope
Introduction
Rice is a major source of staple food of more than two third of world
population. About 80% of world rice is produced from the cultivation
of Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) [1]. Agriculture is the mainstay of
more than 80% people in Jammu & Kashmir. In the state Jammu and
Kashmir, rice represent main source of staple food crop, particularly
those of Kashmir’s. e acreage under rice cultivation in the valley
constitutes about two-third of the total area under the crops in the
whole state (J&K). About 75% of states rice is grown in the Kashmir
valley. e land under rice cultivation in Jammu region is 159 thousand
acres while it is 374 thousand acres under rice cultivation in Kashmir
region. e paddy cultivation in the valley is known since ancient times
and is grown even at an altitude of 2500mtrs above sea level. Most of
the farmers are earning good amount of their produce in Kashmir
valley as well as in the Jammu region. Out of 14 districts of Kashmir
region, rice is cultivated in about 09 districts. Out of which 4 districts
come under high productivity group (yield more than 2,500 kg/ha) [2].
Rice productivity in the state is high (2.2 Tons/Ha) compared to
the national average productivity of about 1.9 Tons/Ha. Jammu and
Kashmir State is rich in rice culture from the ancient times. About 32
varieties of traditional rice are being cultivated in the valley and varied
from each other in various attribute such as, variation in dimensions,
color, aroma, stickiness and presence of inherited health benets etc.
[3].
During recent times, both at national level and international
levels, the land races are being preserved in the gene banks. e
scientists said that they were also checking these land races for some
such characteristics which were not available in the existing varieties
so as to incorporate the same in the present varieties [4]. e trend
toward hybrid from traditional varieties may be reversing as traditional
varieties are experiencing an increasing trend among consumers, due
to their incredible health benets for example the traditional varieties
possess low sugar content, making them pleasing choice for consumers
who are suering from diabetics, overweight, or regulating their sugar
intake. ey have higher amount of glutamic acid, ber and vitamins.
Some people also credit traditional varieties with other health benets,
such as giving sensations of cooling in the body, improves vocal clarity,
eyesight, fertility and mitigating rashes [5].
Owing to several health-promoting impacts associated with
anthocyanins, such as anti-oxidative, anti-inammatory and
anticarcinogenic eects [6], colored rice is considered as a functional
food and food ingredient in many Asian countries [7]. e functional
properties of anthocyanins in red and black rice varieties have been
veried in numerous nutritional cases [8].
e day to day concern about the side eects of synthetic
antioxidants like butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated
hydroxytoluene (BHT) [9,10] has increased the interest among
researchers and nutritionists in exploration of antioxidants from
natural sources, which are both economically and physiologically
justied. It has been validated by researchers that changing the dieting
habits from articially processed to an naturally providing foods
having high content of bioactive components including antioxidants
like tocopherols, tocotrienols, oryzenols, polyphenols, avonoids
,vitamin-C, play an important role in defending the body from attack of
chronic diseases. Pigmented along with aromatic rice varieties besides
having pleasant taste and odour are also associated with numerous
health benets. Pigmented rice possesses pigmented componds such as
Cyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside in abundant content [11], which
is associated with diverse functional properties such as, protection
against cytotoxicity [12], antineurodegenerative activity [7], inhibition
of glycogen phosphorylase [13], and possessing antioxidant and
scavenging activity higher than white rices and hybrid rice varieties
[14].
Abstract
Rice is the leading crop produced and consumed on a large scale in the state of J&K (India) that is it is a
stable food of the inhabitants residing in the domical, and is variably rich in genetic diversity. Rice production
is the principal activity and a major source of income for the State. Traditional rice varieties have an enhancing
potential in wide range of neutraceutical and functional foods. Besides possessing medicinal and nutritional
properties, the remaining by-products obtained from these rice varieties in various post harvest operations are
equally valuable. Traditional healers and local farmers have been using these traditional varieties in ayurveda
and in curing of various kinds of ailments, such as cooling the body in ayurvedic treatments, improving vocal
clarity, curing of boils, swellings and skin blemishes. Extracts of brown rice are also used as energy drink in
individuals, patients and in treatment of chronic gastric problems, jaundice, dysenteric complaints and to increase
lactation and nutrition to Childs. Sticky glutinous rice has been reported in treatment of stomach upsets, nausea,
heart-burn and indigestion. Brown rice extracts have been reported in treatments of breast and stomach cancer
and warts.
Citation: Bhat FM, Riar CS (2015) Health Benets of Traditional Rice Varieties of Temperate Regions. Med Aromat Plants 4: 198. doi:10.4172/2167-
0412.1000198
Page 2 of 3
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000198
Med Aromat Plants
ISSN: 2167-0412 MAP, an open access journal
Nutritional facts about traditional rice
Traditional cultivars of Rice have nutritive value higher than hybrid
rice varieties. Besides serving as an important source of carbohydrate
for more than two-thirds of the world’s population and almost whole
of inhabitants residing in the Kashmir valley, having rice as their staple
food. is is having the vital function of acting as fuel for the body to
carry on its vital activities. ese traditional Rice varieties have lesser
content of fat and good amount of oryzenol content as compared to
hybrids and thus prevent the body from building up cholesterol levels.
at ensures it as excellent source of food to be included as balanced diet
in their routine dieting habits. ese traditionally grown rice cultivars
are good sources of minerals and vitamins such as niacin, thiamine,
iron, riboavin, vitamin D, calcium, and possess higher ber and lesser
amount of sugar content, making it an appealing choice for consumers
suering from diabetic complications. Rice does not contain gluten
proteins (present in wheat), thereby making it an essential alternative
for persons having requirements of gluten free diets such as patients
suering from celiac diseases. ese varieties are non allergic due to
absence of any additives, because these do not require excessive fertilizer
and pesticide applications during their developmental and growth
stages. ese Rice varieties possess higher amylose content and are rich
in resistant starch that cannot be hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal
tract and serves as a substrate for bacterial fermentation. ese cultivars
ensure several health benets such as reducing the risk of developing
type II diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases by lowering the
glycemic and insulin responses. Brown rice contains high amounts
of insoluble ber, which is reported by scientists to protect the body
against a variety of cancers. ese are also valuable sources of food for
those suering from hypertension due to its low sodium content and
are also a fair source of protein containing all eight amino acids [15].
Medicinal uses of traditional rice
Jammu And Kashmir State has been a rich source of medicinal
plants since ancient times, among these traditional rice varieties
have been used by local inhabitants in unani, Ayurvedic, system of
medicines since generations. In Ayurveda the medicinal Values of rice
have been described as acrid, tonic, aphrodisiac, oleaginous, diuretic,
fattening and useful in biliousness [5]. ese traditional varieties have
been regarded an energetic food for people and were recommended
by saints of having the medicinal values to keep juvenile and long life.
e extracted from the bran of these rice is used for curing neural
diseases and also used to cure body pain and eye disorders It is having
properties to rectify the basic ills aecting the circulatory respiratory
as well as digestive system. Dierent groups of rice aect the human
beings dierently, as they possess dierent inherent qualities to
alleviate the three doshas, (which according to ayurveda is considered
three principles of energy, believed to be circulating in the body and
govern physiological balance and activity). Ayurvedic practitioners
prescribe dierent rices for various ailments. e traditional doctors
(vaids) possess profound knowledge of dierent eects of rice and were
particular about their prescription [16].
In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medical system, colored rice has
been called shastikarice and claims that it can restore imbalances in the
human body. Pigmented rice is rich in antioxidants and polyphenols
and has two or three times as much zinc and iron as white rice [17]
which possess the desirable quality to boost, strengthen, regenerate and
energize the body [18]. It is also used as baby food and replaces white
rice on special occasion in the state. e red color, varying from light to
dark red, is conned to the bran layer. Red Rice (Zag, Tel Zag, Gull Zag,
Shel Kew, Kaw Quder) Keeps You Away From Obesity, Diabetes and
Cancer. Rice with a red bran layer is called red rice. Susruta (400 BC),
Charaka (700 BC), and Vagbhata (700 AD), the well-known vriddha
trayi (Trio of Elders) of Ayurveda, considered red rice (rakta shali) the
best among the other rice varieties, due to desirable property as they
had the power to redress the imbalance in the tridosha or humours
(the vata, the pitta, and the kapha – are collectively called the tridosha)
whose imbalance in the body causes various types of diseases. In recent
times, interest in red rices has been revived because of the presence
of antioxidants. e antioxidant and scavenging activity of red rice is
higher than that of white rice [19].
Ancient Ayurvedic treatises laud the red rice as a nutritive food
and medicine. ey are known to be inuential in the treatment of
various ailments such as diarrhea, vomiting, fever, hemorrhage, chest
pain, wounds, and burns [20]. Colored rice has been preferred in the
past for their special features such as medicinal value and exclusive
taste. A large number of these varieties are still grown in various parts
of the sate by tribal’s and small farmers who are deprived of modern
technologies and health care systems, where indigenous rice with their
nutritional and medicinal properties are a rich alternative for the same.
is indigenous rice variety in state and India seems to contribute
tremendously to the health of the women including adolescent girls,
lactating mothers and pregnant women [20]. Ayurvedic properties
of Raktasali (red rice) and their eect on human physiology. Red
rice (Raktasali) was the most ecacious in subduing deranged
humors [21,22]. It was considered good treatment for fevers and
ulcers, Improves eyesight, voice improver, semen enhancer, diuretic,
spermatophytic, refrigerant, cosmetic, and tonic and was antitoxic.
Pharmological and clinical trials with red rice has shown anti-
fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, ant-diarrheal, anti-inammatory,
antioxidant, antitumor, anti-thyroid and anti-hyper cholesterolemic
activities. It also stimulates protein secretion besides having radical
scavenging eects [14].
Aromatic rice provides most benets of health and nutrition. ese
are considered healthier as they possess more vitamin and ber in their
outer bran layers. Brown aromatic basmati rice contains 20% more
ber than other brown rice varieties, which prevents the formation
of cancerous cells in the body. According to Canadian diabetes
association, glycemic index of basmati aromatic rice is lower than
other rice varieties, and thus essential for those suering from diabetes.
Ayurveda supports its properties and proved it to be a great healing
food. Traditional scented rice varieties have been revealed by scientists
to possess higher amount of Fe and Zn and helps in the bioavailability
of iron [23]. e need of the day is to commercialize these varieties
and promote them through public awareness about their important
characteristics.
Present research and future scope
Currently, rice is regarded as a neutraceutical and functional food
besides being a staple source of food and primary source of carbohydrate
or starch. Its role of having low glycemic index in comparison to
other genetically modied rice varieties, which containing complex
carbohydrates and regarded as high glycemic index food provides
a better novel substitute for diabetic patients. Presence of valuable
mineral content, excellent starch characteristics. Antioxidant and anti
inammatory activity represent these unique among cereals sources
(wheat, maize etc).starch of these rice is almost completely absorbed by
human body [24]. Scientically, it have been proved, that Amino acids
possessed by these varieties have high biological value, high content
of essential fatty acids and selenium, and have anti-hypertension
Citation: Bhat FM, Riar CS (2015) Health Benets of Traditional Rice Varieties of Temperate Regions. Med Aromat Plants 4: 198. doi:10.4172/2167-
0412.1000198
Page 3 of 3
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000198
Med Aromat Plants
ISSN: 2167-0412 MAP, an open access journal
eect. Hence, rice is now regarded as a functional food. Rice extracts
have been validated in inhibiting chloride channels in human body
and thus reduce intestinal losses’ in acute diarrhea, thereby serving
as oral rehydration solutions (ORS) [25]. ese rice based ORS are
now preferred than glucose based ORS, as reported by World Health
Organization programmes [26]. Rice due to its least allergic properties
are recommended for patients suering from irritable bowl syndrome.
Colored rice varieties have been reported to possess antioxidant
properties [27] and considered more nutritious, being rich in iron
(Fe), Zinc (Zn), and minerals. ese rices have been found to reduce
atherosclerotic plaque by 50% more than white rice in rabbits [28]
clinical trials conducted in USA have concluded that red rice yeast
reduces cholesterol and total triglycerides, providing a novel food
based approach to lowering cholesterol [29-32]. Rice thus meet most
of the requirements of a good and healthy food and is the only cereal
that is eaten as whole grain, which according to Ayurvedic texts is more
easily digestible than our.
Conclusion
e temperate regions in north India have been an abode of
traditional rice varieties since prehistoric times and were used
recommended for medical uses by traditional healers and local
farmers. eses varieties thus t into the description of healthy
and functional foods. Due to emergence of high yielding varieties
these have been replaced at a large pace and are posing the threat of
extinction. us these varieties need to be conserved and promote
them by commercialize and through general public awareness about
their medicinal benets. Considering the presence of avonoid and
anthocyanin content together with highest radical scavenging activity
due to the presence of polyphenols in these varieties. ese favors the
health conscious consumers. Clinical validation of these varieties is
mandatory, so that these excel in the international market (like the red
rice yeast of china having worldwide demand).
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Citation: Bhat FM, Riar CS (2015) Health Benets of Traditional Rice
Varieties of Temperate Regions. Med Aromat Plants 4: 198. doi:10.4172/2167-
0412.1000198
... Sticky glutinous rice had been reported in treatment of stomach upsets, nausea, heart-burn and indigestion. Brown rice extracts had been reported in treatments of breast and stomach cancer and warts (Bhat and Riar, 2015). ...
... Antioxidant and anti inflammatory activity represent these unique among cereals sources (wheat, maize etc). Starch of this rice was almost completely absorbed by human body (Bhat and Riar, 2015). ...
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The Western Himalayan region of India possesses rich genetic diversity of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice landraces having withstood the rigors of biotic and abiotic stresses, suit to the local conditions of farms and reflect socio-cultural preferences can still be found in crop fields located distantly in rural and tribal areas. This region is known for growing World fame basmati in the foot hills and many varieties of red rices grown at higher elevations, known for cold tolerance and medicinal properties. Genetic resources of rice were collected for about 8years (1999–2006) and 1069 germplasm accessions including 154 named landraces were collected. Prominent landraces such as Begumi, Ramjwain, Thapachini, Naurang, Hansraj, Tilakchandan, Lalsati, Jhini, Mushakbudji, Jattoo, Barpasso, Qadirbeigh, Safedbrez, Shahie known for their special quality attributes were collected. The change in land use, cropping patterns and aggressive introduction of modern varieties in the region has resulted in the loss of a large number of landraces especially from irrigated lands. The present paper looks at the status of rice genetic resources, genetic variability, genetic erosion and future strategies to conserve rice germplasm on farm and to maximize its use in rice breeding.