Article

What are you printing? Ambivalent emancipation by 3D printing

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Abstract

Purpose – The purposes of this paper are to study how entry-level 3D printers are currently being used in several shared machine shops (FabLabs, hackerspaces, etc.) and to examine the ambivalent emancipation often offered by 3D printing, when users prefer the fascinated passivity of replicating rather than the action of repairing. Based on a field study and on a large online survey, this paper offers to examine different practices with entry-level 3D printers, observed in several shared machine shops (FabLabs, hackerspaces, etc.). The recent evolution of additive manufacturing and the shift from high-end additive technologies to consumer’s entry-level 3D printing is taken as an entry point. Indeed, digital fabrication has recently received extensive media coverage and the maker movement has become a trendy subject for numerous influential publications. In the makerspaces that were taken for this field survey, 3D printers were very often used for demonstration, provoking fascination and encouraging a passive attitude. Design/methodology/approach – As part of the work for a PhD research on personal digital fabrication as practiced in FabLabs, hackerspaces and makerspaces, since 2012, a large-scale field survey at the heart of these workshops was carried out. Particular attention has been paid to the relationships established between the inhabitants of these places and their machines, observing the logic of developing projects and the reactions or techniques used to counter unforeseen obstacles – that shall be demonstrated to be an essential occurrence for these moments of production. From Paris to Amsterdam, Barcelona, Rome, Lyngen (Norway), San Francisco, New York, Boston, Tokyo, Kamakura (Japan) to Dakar, a means of observing at the heart of more than 30 makerspaces (FabLabs, hackerspaces) has been created, with the aim of looking beyond the speeches relayed by the media and to constitute an observatory of these places. The field observations are confirmed by a quantitative study, based on a survey submitted online to 170 users, coming from 30 different makerspaces in more than ten countries in the world and reached through social networks or mailing lists. This survey offers a rigorous insight on the uses of 3D printing and leads to the consideration of the types of attention applied to 3D printing and the part played by the “default” or “trivial” productions used for their demonstrations or performances. Findings – Based on both the observations and the quantitative survey, it can be discussed how the question of so-called “user-friendliness” is challenged by practices of repairing, fixing and adjusting, more than that of replicating. Indeed, it is claimed that this offers a possible meaning for 3D printing practices. In the description and analysis of the behaviours with 3D printers, this leads to privilege the idea of “disengaging” and the notion of “acting” rather than simply passively using. Originality/value – 3D printing is just one of the many options in the wide range available for personal digital fabrication. As a part of the same arsenal as laser cutters or numerical milling machines, 3D printing shares with these machines the possibility of creating objects from designs or models produced by a computer. These machines execute the instructions of operators whose practices – or behaviours – have yet to be qualified. These emerging technical situations pose a series of questions: who are those who use these 3D printers? What are they printing? What are the techniques, the gestures or the rituals imposed or offered by these machines?

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... There is lively discussion in the literature on 3D printing as a tool for creating and modifying products to fit end-consumers' preferences in the popular press (e.g., Anderson, 2012), whereas the topic appears to be scarcer in academic circles (Waller and Fawcett, 2014;Bosqué, 2015). In contrast to studies on firms' research and development activities, recent innovation literature suggests that end-users or consumers represent an important source of innovation (cf. ...
... Oddly enough, the scholarly literature on personal fabrication using 3D printing is still in its infancy with regard to how it is shaping end-user behaviour (Bosqué, 2015). In this literature, user innovation represents a relevant theoretical lens for looking at and explaining end-user motivations and behaviours. ...
... Despite a lack of scholarly attention to personal fabrication with 3D printing as the main tool, the popular press frequently address the issue (cf. Bosqué, 2015). Akin to von notion of the democratisation of innovation, Anderson (2012) highlights the opportunities for innovation and fabrication with the use of 3D printing, arguing that the collaborative nature of the maker movement will lead to a bottom-up transformation of manufacturing. ...
... Due to their high-cost, small industries are not able to afford this machine. CJP has acquired less cost as compared to other AM technologies like DMLS (Bosque, 2015). ...
... 5.11 Lack of information: -A significant number of customers do not have proper knowledge about 3D printing technologies and available machines. They do not understand its capability applications, input material and types of products that can be printed through them and the same is also true for the Colour-Jet machine, and thus lack of proper information becomes a barrier (Bosque, 2015;Javaid and haleem, 2019d) 5.12 Skilled Manpower: Highly skilled workforce, who possess sound knowledge of the software, selection of material, part processing, etc. are required to operate these machines (Bosque, 2015). 5.13 Binder: -Liquid binder is dispensed through a print head, and sprayed on the core material through jets of the print head. ...
... 5.11 Lack of information: -A significant number of customers do not have proper knowledge about 3D printing technologies and available machines. They do not understand its capability applications, input material and types of products that can be printed through them and the same is also true for the Colour-Jet machine, and thus lack of proper information becomes a barrier (Bosque, 2015;Javaid and haleem, 2019d) 5.12 Skilled Manpower: Highly skilled workforce, who possess sound knowledge of the software, selection of material, part processing, etc. are required to operate these machines (Bosque, 2015). 5.13 Binder: -Liquid binder is dispensed through a print head, and sprayed on the core material through jets of the print head. ...
Article
Colour-Jet 3D printing (CJP) technology-based machines are now being developed, and there is a need to identify the successful adoption of this technology for Additive Manufacturing (AM). Extensive literature review complemented with experts advice utilised systematically helped in the identification of twelve Critical factors for the effective adoption of Colour-Jet Printing technology. A hierarchical structural model is developed using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) and analysed using Matriced Impacts Croise's Multiplication Appliquée a UN Classement (MICMAC). Identified Software and the machine cost as the primary drivers for this Colour-Jet 3D Printing machines (technology). The value of this technology is to provide the product at a lower cost and give useful applications in the area of medical, engineering and concept building. There is a need for developing better quality core material & post-processing material further supported by enabling machine hardware & software. Accuracy and colour texture of the part produced are essential to provide a technological advantage over existing technologies. Post-processing assists in a big way in imparting necessary properties to the part produced. Presently the infiltrate/post-processing materials are limited, and for large-scale acceptability, one needs extensive multidisciplinary research & development. This research provides a structural model towards the adoption of Colour-Jet 3D printing technology, which can also help users in evaluating this technology in broader AM framework.
... In the past decade, we have witnessed that 3D printing technology -introduced in the late 1980s as a prototyping technology -is now rapidly transforming into a mainstream manufacturing technology (Bosqué, 2015). Over the years, the promises of 3D printing have been successfully realized and presented in an enormous number of applications, from customized car and aircraft parts to complex medical applications such as implants and dental crowns (Bosqué, 2015). ...
... In the past decade, we have witnessed that 3D printing technology -introduced in the late 1980s as a prototyping technology -is now rapidly transforming into a mainstream manufacturing technology (Bosqué, 2015). Over the years, the promises of 3D printing have been successfully realized and presented in an enormous number of applications, from customized car and aircraft parts to complex medical applications such as implants and dental crowns (Bosqué, 2015). While most of the companies and research institutions were pushing the boundaries of this technology and its potential, several companies were working on the development of affordable and accessible 3D printing machines for home use. ...
... While most of the companies and research institutions were pushing the boundaries of this technology and its potential, several companies were working on the development of affordable and accessible 3D printing machines for home use. In less than 30 years, the technology known as high-end industrial prototyping technology has become an entry-level desktop technology (Bosqué, 2015) and allowed a wide range of people to call themselves makers. ...
Thesis
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The advances in 3D printing technology have an enormous potential to impact how designers learn and develop practical knowledge during the design process. The purpose of this research study was to investigate the potential of 3D printing as a tool for meaning making. Through investigation of handmade objects and their qualities, this study set out to determine how designers can invent 3D printed objects that make sense to stand alongside handmade objects. Data for the study was obtained using both ethnographic and design research methods, including: an observation, experimental studies and a survey. Results showed that 3D printing has a potential not only to develop meaningful outcomes, but also to drive design processes that make sense to designers. Through engagement and understanding of 3D printing machine, designers can develop not only practical knowledge, but also an understanding of the meaning of their making.
... hearing aids, dummy cadaver, and prosthetic) [6][7][8][9][10][11][12], educational objects [13][14][15], fashion items (e.g., cloth, shoes, and jewelry) [16][17][18][19][20], foodstuffs (e.g., pizza, chocolate, crackers, and pasta) [21-23], construction objects (e.g., 3D printed house) [24][25][26], and items for preserving and restoring cultural heritage [27]. Small, affordable, and user-friendly AM machines (e.g., 3D printers) are now available for running small businesses, too [28][29][30]. ...
... AM is now applied to manufacture automotive parts [5], aerospace parts [2], biomedical products (e.g., dental braces, artificial tissues, cloth, shoes, and jewelry) [16][17][18][19][20], foodstuffs (e.g., pizza, chocolate, crackers, and pasta) [21][22][23], construction objects (e.g., 3D printed house) [24][25][26], and items for preserving and restoring cultural heritage [27]. Small, affordable, and user-friendly AM machines (e.g., 3D printers) are now available for running small businesses, too [28][29][30]. ...
... See [10,11,[31][32][33][34][35] [16][17][18][19][20], foodstuffs (e.g., pizza, chocolate, crackers, and pasta) [21][22][23], construction objects (e.g., 3D printed house) [24][25][26], and items for preserving and restoring cultural heritage [27]. Small, affordable, and user-friendly AM machines (e.g., 3D printers) are now available for running small businesses, too [28][29][30]. As schematically illustrated in Figure 1, a typical AM operation consists of the following five steps: (1) creation of a 3D computer-aided design (CAD) model of the desired object (virtual model); (2) triangulation of the CAD model (known as STL data); (3) slicing of triangulated CAD model; (4) execution of AM process; and (5) surface finishing of the physical model [1,2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Point-cloud is a valuable piece of information for geometric modeling and additive manufacturing of different types of objects. In most cases, a point-cloud is obtained by using the 3D scanners or by using image processing. Alternatively, one can rely on an analytical approach for creating the required point-cloud. In this study, we develop an analytical method that uses both equation and algorithm-based approaches for creating a point-cloud for modeling a given object (or shape). The analytically created point-cloud can then be processed by using a commercially available CAD package to create a virtual model (or solid CAD model) of the object. Finally, the virtual model can be used to create a physical model (or replica) of the underlying object using a commercially available additive manufacturing device (e.g., a 3D printer). The abovementioned procedure of analytical point-cloud based geometric modeling for additive manufacturing can be applied to preserve artifacts having cultural significance. In particular, we consider the Ainu motifs that represent the cultural heritage of Ainus living in the northern part of Japan (Hokkaido). We first classify the motifs and then model them in the form of a point-clouds using both equations and a recursive process (algorithm) proposed in this study. Finally, we create the CAD model and physical models of the artifacts having Ainu motifs on them. This way, we show the effectiveness of the analytical point-cloud based geometric modeling for additive manufacturing.
... Following with the resulting themes from the literature analysis, 20% of the publications were focused on the technological implications of digital fabrication on users and consumers' lives, experiences and capabilities (see "End User/Consumer" category in Table 3). On this topic Bosqué (2015) carried out a large-scale field survey on personal digital fabrication as practiced in more than 30 FabLabs, hackerspaces and makerspaces from all over the world. A general picture of the limits and promises of the adoption of entry-level 3D printers by FabLabs and their user-friendliness was obtained [12]. ...
... On this topic Bosqué (2015) carried out a large-scale field survey on personal digital fabrication as practiced in more than 30 FabLabs, hackerspaces and makerspaces from all over the world. A general picture of the limits and promises of the adoption of entry-level 3D printers by FabLabs and their user-friendliness was obtained [12]. Moreover, Katterfeldt et al. (2015) by building on principles rooted in constructionist learning tradition, explore the growing demand and need of learning environments for digital fabrication. ...
Conference Paper
Digital fabrication is contributing to the paradigm shift that is determining a new way to design, produce and consume goods and services. In order to understand the role of FabLabs, networked platforms for the dissemination of digital culture through the sharing of technological tools and knowledge, this paper explores the main research themes and methods associated with this new business model. Through a systematic literature analysis, it provides an assessment of the state of art of the past and current literature about FabLabs from a service perspective. Based on research papers published exclusively on scholarly journals, the study describes the emergence of this research area and characterize its current status. A critical analysis of the existing research as well as some recommendations for future studies in this field are also offered.
... Making in educational settings is the active production of objects within a learning process that focuses on 'hands-on' experiences (Honey & Kanter 2013, 4), 'creative production in art, science, and engineering' (Sheridan et al. 2014, 505), combining 'computation, tinkering, and engineering' (Blikstein 2013, 7), and 'designing, building, modifying, and/or repurposing material objects, for playful or useful ends, oriented toward making a "product" of some sort that can be used, interacted with, or demonstrated' (Martin 2015, 31). Despite the many benefits AM systems bring to the maker movement, however, research has posited that, while the spectacle of the printing process often attracts users to this technology, these users may maintain only a superficial interest (Bosque 2015). ...
... Research has shown that makerspaces are the leading location where most of entry-level AM instruction occurs (Bosque 2015). Similar to artists' studios, makerspaces are informal spaces where sharing, connecting and 'thinking through materials' (Guyotte et al. 2014) are fundamental. ...
Article
Combining the excitement from the maker movement and the novel creation of deployable makerspaces, we review the development of the Mobile Atelier for Kinaesthetic Education (MAKE) 3D. MAKE 3D is a mobile makerspace platform that can be deployed anywhere there is electricity to create a curricular spectacle of digital fabrication in particular additive manufacturing or what is more commonly referred to as 3D printing. Our project combines this notion of curricular spectacle and a mobile makerspace platform, to develop strategies in how to meet the novice user almost anywhere and to entice them into a series of hands‐on activities that would give them a range of knowledge and aptitude for additive techniques in digital fabrication. We review the component parts of our Material to Form curriculum and explore thematic connections between the maker movement and art education including STEAM and interdisciplinarity; design thinking and kinaesthetic learning; and place‐based education and the mobile platform. Informal practices in art education and the mobile makerspace advances forms of place and kinaesthetic learning. Similar curricular setups are therefore encouraged to reinforce and expand prior knowledge, broaden participation and provide an adaptable learning space for STEAM initiatives.
... In general, it is defined as unused capacity or production potential and can be measured in several ways: tons of production, available hours of manufacturing, etc. The management of the idle capacity 1 ...
... Investigation of dimensional capability of FDM machines and the influence of geometrical accuracy based on process parameters is currently done by many researchers and practitioners. In fact, printing to tune the printer or printing quality is found to be one of the most common reasons for printing among selfclaimed expert users [1]. Multiple benchmarking objects that have been promoted for quantitative research do also exist [2,3]. ...
... These techniques are, on their own, also gaining interest in many engineering areas, from material sciences and manufacturing, to those related to the performance assessment of such 3D printed parts. Among others, the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is interesting for its capability of creating somehow complex geometries at a relatively low cost (Schumacher et al. 2015, Bosqué 2015. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research in metamaterials has recently gained interest in the field of noise and vibration control. The ability of creating band gap zones with minimum added mass is the main feature behind its success. In addition, the use of 3D printed parts, particularly the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), offers a practical solution for manufacturing parts with intricate shapes that are challenging for standard manufacturing processes, which is the case of many structural metamaterials. The combination of this concept with smart materials can further improve performance, providing the means to overcome typical issues. From a design perspective, the problem with coupling rises, as both the mechanical and electrical responses relies on the load circuit and on the mechanical properties of the smart elements. Therefore, the modeling of such structures is a rather complex task, for it involves multiphysical simulations of systems with complex geometries and typically a high number of degrees of freedom. Hence, this paper presents a direct approach for modeling and simulating smart metamaterials using a state-space formulation, which allows the modular coupling of electromechanical resonators manufactured by FDM. The numerical results are compared to experimental data obtained with unit cells prototypes embedded with piezoelectric elements and connected with a tunable shunt electric circuit. The good agreement between test and simulated data validates the design procedure.
... This project attracted significant interest globally from members of the Maker movement. The combination of this project and the rise of crowdfunding platforms such as Kickstarter and Indiegogo has enabled numerous entrepreneurial ventures to launch onto the market (Bosqué, 2015;West and Kuk, 2016). ...
Working Paper
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A revised version of this article was accepted for publication in "Additive Manufacturing" in October 2018. This revised article can be found here: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328573664_Invited_Review_Article_Where_and_how_3D_printing_is_used_in_teaching_and_education
... Understandably, some micro companies can be reluctant to share their innovative ideas, however, such flexibles and creative environments provide access to a vast range of technical skills and knowledge across various fields and domains. They also encourage the development of problem solving methods [12] and push people into acting rather than behaving, thus adopting an active attitudes towards the technology [13]. ...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the results from a survey of emerging and micro SMEs, along with entrepreneurs, creative practitioners, and the new group of ‘makers’, who are beginning to adopt (or consider adopting) the newer entry-level emergent technologies such as 3D printing. A number of key findings are discussed: including, the prevalence of ‘self-taught’ users of these technologies; major business activity in the creative industry space; the importance of shared equipment usage by micro organisations in comparison to small companies using external bureau services. Unsurprisingly cost is still cited as a factor for poor uptake of emergent technologies, closely followed by a low awareness of 3D printing and its capabilities, and 3D printing supply chains. Skill levels reported by the participants for each technology highlighted that 3D printing had the most pro-users, which may highlight the increased access to such technologies for micro enterprises, typically reserved for incumbent organisations.
... Las posibilidades de integración con el mundo físico a través de las capacidades de manufactura que ofrece la «Fabricación Digital» permiten aprovechar las ventajas que el co-diseño global brinda a través del conocimiento global para la producción local (Kostakis & Papachristou, 2014) llegando a ser considerada como una verdadera revolución industrial (Anderson, 2012;Gershenfeld, 2012;Rifkin, 2012) apoyada en los procesos de Fabricación Digital orientados al prototipado rápido, entendiendo esto como la capacidad de las compañías para generar directamente objetos de forma rápida (Gontar, 2015) a partir de datos gráficos manipulados desde un computador para la construcción de modelos y prototipos funcionales (Bosqué, 2015), generando nuevas oportunidades de negocio a medida que se incrementa la relevancia de estos procesos (Krannich, Robben, & Wilske, 2012). ...
Article
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La difusión de la cultura open source –nacida en el campo del software- a otros ámbitos como la electrónica, la maquinaria bajo control numérico e incluso a otros bienes de consumo, combinada con una reducción significativa del coste de muchos de estos elementos han traído aparejadas nuevas tendencias que conjugan la democratización del diseño, producción y gestión del ciclo de vida de los objetos industriales, permitiendo la entrada de nuevos actores y comunidades de usuarios, facilitada por el desarrollo de internet y la estandarización de formatos. El presente trabajo pretende dibujar un mapa de las numerosas comunidades y movimientos nacidos a raíz de estas tendencias, basándonos en el concepto de ecología colaborativa que intenta definir aquellas comunidades y espacios, atendiendo a su grado de apertura al público, definición de objetivos y metas, procesos e intercambio de conocimiento y recursos entre sus usuarios y con otros agentes sociales.
... É vigente o uso da manufatura aditiva (impressoras 3D) na fabricação direta de produtos comerciais, e isto é devido aos avanços e popularização de programas computacionais de desenho (CAD), bem como das impressoras 3D, em especial nos últimos dez anos (Bosqué, 2015). Várias são as técnicas de adição de material disponíveis na presente tecnologia. ...
... The capacity of 3D printing to quickly and accurately manufacture parts positions it well as a key element in learning through making. Indeed, research has shown that makerspaces are the dominant location where the majority of entry-level 3D printing occurs (Bosque, 2015). Public schools and libraries are exploring forms of maker inquiry and problem solving that is associated with its environs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Artist educators work in a great diversity of locations from informal community spaces to formal learning spaces in schools and museums. Art educators are exploring modes of transdisciplinary curriculum connecting art to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEAM) to meet the diverse challenges of making and learning. One of the roadblocks to maker forms of education is access to digital fabrication technologies such as 3D printers. To bring digital fabrication to a wider range of arts learning contexts, I designed a mini mobile makerspace that focused on 3D printing that I am calling a DigiFab Kit. As an extension of the concept of the FabLab Classroom model, I share my design decisions and experience of 3D printing in a mobile framework. My development of DigiFab Kits is an exploration of curated object collections that deploy as mobile makerspaces with adaptable curricular concepts appropriate to technology that can be used anywhere there is electricity.
... É vigente o uso da manufatura aditiva (impressoras 3D) na fabricação direta de produtos comerciais, e isto é devido aos avanços e popularização de programas computacionais de desenho (CAD), bem como das impressoras 3D, em especial nos últimos dez anos (Bosqué, 2015). Várias são as técnicas de adição de material disponíveis na presente tecnologia. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) é o mais difundido processo de manufatura aditiva, atualmente aplicada na fabricação direta de produtos, porém, apresenta forte característica anisotrópica. O presente trabalho objetiva o estudo da anisotropia sob tração e compressão de peças fabricadas por FDM. Para isso, corpos de prova foram manufaturados seguindo diferentes direções preferenciais de deposição de filamento e comparados com a matéria prima "in natura". Sob tração, os corpos carregados na direção da deposição preferencial [0º/90] resistiram a 85% (32 MPa) do obtido para a matéria prima, nas direções opostas ao carregamento [90º], 40%, e na direção cruzada ao carregamento[45º/-45º], 78%. O caráter altamente anisotrópico teve no mecanismo de falha a prevalência pelo descolamento das camadas. Nos equipamentos com softwares autônomos, o controle da direção de deposição pode ser obtido pelo simples posicionamento da peça na plataforma de impressão e é fundamental para o sucesso do produto.
... É vigente o uso da manufatura aditiva (impressoras 3D) na fabricação direta de produtos comerciais, e isto é devido aos avanços e popularização de programas computacionais de desenho (CAD), bem como das impressoras 3D, em especial nos últimos dez anos (Bosqué, 2015). Várias são as técnicas de adição de material disponíveis na presente tecnologia. ...
Data
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Resumo: FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) é o mais difundido processo de manufatura aditiva, atualmente aplicada na fabricação direta de produtos, porém, apresenta forte característica anisotrópica. O presente trabalho objetiva o estudo da anisotropia sob tração e compressão de peças fabricadas por FDM. Para isso, corpos de prova foram manufaturados seguindo diferentes direções preferenciais de deposição de filamento e comparados com a matéria prima "in natura". Sob tração, os corpos carregados na direção da deposição preferencial [0º/90] resistiram a 85% (32 MPa) do obtido para a matéria prima, nas direções opostas ao carregamento [90º], 40%, e na direção cruzada ao carregamento[45º/-45º], 78%. O caráter altamente anisotrópico teve no mecanismo de falha a prevalência pelo descolamento das camadas. Nos equipamentos com softwares autônomos, o controle da direção de deposição pode ser obtido pelo simples posicionamento da peça na plataforma de impressão e é fundamental para o sucesso do produto. Palavras chave: manufatura aditiva, impressão 3D, anisotropia, FDM. 1. INTRODUÇÃO É vigente o uso da manufatura aditiva (impressoras 3D) na fabricação direta de produtos comerciais, e isto é devido aos avanços e popularização de programas computacionais de desenho (CAD), bem como das impressoras 3D, em especial nos últimos dez anos (Bosqué, 2015). Várias são as técnicas de adição de material disponíveis na presente tecnologia. O princípio básico de funcionamento de uma impressora 3D parte de um desenho computacional tridimensional que é convertido em elementos triangulares e então dividido em camadas por um software, em seguida a máquina adiciona material camada a camada até formar o produto equivalente ao desenho proposto (Ahn et al., 2002). Os dispositivos de Prototipagem Rápida mais comuns e difundidos pelo mundo são os que utilizam a tecnologia Modelagem por Deposição de Material Fundido, conhecida pela sigla em inglês FDM. O processo tipicamente se inicia pela extrusão de filamentos de material, a partir de um cabeçote extrusor, sobre uma plataforma de construção, formando a primeira camada do componente em fabricação. Após esse processo a plataforma é rebaixada na medida da espessura de camada da peça, então é depositada uma nova camada de material que se une com a anterior recém depositada. O procedimento se repete até o fim da construção do produto (Almeida, 2007; Ziemian et al. 2015). O processo FDM também pode utilizar um material de suporte que é depositado formando uma estrutura parcialmente aderida à peça, a fim de proporcionar maior apoio, estabilidade e precisão geométrica à construção. Esse material de suporte é retirado mecanicamente ou quimicamente após a fabricação. A ilustração da Fig. (1) mostra a fabricação por FDM. Figura 1. Princípio do processo FDM. Adaptado de Volpato (2007).
... AM's capacity to quickly and accurately manufacture parts of nearly unlimited complexity with minimal manual user input positions it well as a key element in learning through making. Indeed, research has shown that makerspaces are the dominant location where the majority of entry-level AM occurs [3]. However, the same research discusses that, while the spectacle of the printing process often lures users to the various systems, users may maintain only a superficial or passing interest in the technology, if not encouraged to experiment with the complex relationships between the AM process and the designs that can be manufactured with it. ...
Conference Paper
Additive Manufacturing (AM) has played an integral part in the growth of makerspaces as democratization of manufacturing continues to evolve. AM has also shown potential in enabling the successful amalgamation of art (A) with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, giving new possibilities to STEAM subjects and its implementation. This paper presents the conceptual design and development of a deployable, mobile makerspace curriculum focused on AM education for a diverse range of participant backgrounds, ages, and locations. The aim is to identify effective means of informal learning to broaden participation and increase engagement with STEAM subjects through the context of AM. The curriculum is envisioned as “material-to-form,” offering separate modules that present opportunities for self-directed learning through all the stages of design, material use, and manufacturing associated with AM. Pilot studies of the curriculum were performed to identify potential changes to improve the effectiveness of the mobile makerspace.
... Code sample texts of coded segments 1 aesthetic "a formal and aesthetic language", "architecture expression", "beauty of structures" (Tibuzzi, 2018) beauty expression 2 art "design principles of stereotomy", "artistic expression", "art of stereotomic stone" (Boddeti, 2020) (Diles, 2018) stereotomy artistic 3 characteristi c "customization of the products ", "maker style learning ", "different conceptual aspiration" (Gamerro, Bocquet, & Weinand, 2020) identity variety style concept customizati on subjective subjectivity 4 creativity "unique product designs" (Gamerro, Bocquet, & Weinand, 2020) create creative unique 5 craft "hand crafted", "craftsmen", "artifacts of artistic interest" artifact artefact 6 freeform "freeform thrust surfaces", "freedom of shape", "organic structural morphology" complex freedom organic irregular 7 sensory "the perception that the shell is floating", " the sensory experience of a space" (Bosqué, 2015). intuition intuitive feel perception experience 8 Form(al) "formal language", "tectonic qualities", "geometrical configuration" (Chilton & Chuang, 2017) composition tectonic geometry form The contents of the groups resulting from the classification and the context of the phrases within the text to explain the structure of review are explained in detail below: ...
Article
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New production techniques and digital design tools allow new possibilities in architecture and digital fabrication laboratories provide an environment for these new opportunities. In addition to its potential in terms of science and technology, digital fabrication creates many opportunities for artistic aspects of architecture. Therefore we aimed to make a theoretical discussion and try to provide a new perspective for an evaluation of the phenomenon in the context of artistic and poetic aspects. From this perspective, to clarify the artistic aspects of architecture in the context of digital fabrication technologies and to understand how the subject is covered in the literature clearly, a comprehensive literature review has been made. Initially, the literature review was limited to the themes of digital fabrication and architecture to extract from out-of-context articles and 197 peer review journals written in the last 10 years were examined. Then, a pre-coding schema was prepared from two authors and extended after a detail literature review. The extended coding schema was grouped in terms of their semantic distance and these groups were used to make an assumption about papers. The software MAXQDA, which is commonly used in the social science, assist us to identify the semantic codes related to the research context without any omission. Articles were investigated with the keywords created after precoding. The remaining 51 articles on the field of Architecture were analysed through these codes. Our aim is not to prove if there is sufficient paper that discuss the artistic aspects of digital fabrication. However this methodology helps us to understand the focus of the papers and the tendencies as an approach in this context. In general, the subject of digital fabrication in architecture is studied more about materials, structures, processes, technology and how to use digital fabrication tools instead of why it was examined in the literature. From perspective of artistic dimension, the reviewed papers mainly emphasize ‘characteristic, identity, variety, style, concept, customization, subjective, subjectivity, formal, composition, tectonic, geometry, form’. On the other hand, ‘aesthetic, beauty, expression, art, stereotomy, craft, artifact, are less discusses codes. Words directly related to art and craft are not discussed in the articles and there is less discussion on the aesthetic values of digital fabrication. ‘Sense, experience, perception, intuition’ are also less discussed codes even if these are strong relationship with architectural context. Although not included in the academic literature, the issue of digital fabrication has begun to be discussed in the context of experience, through art installations in 1:1 scale produced by digital fabrication tools. In a nutshell, the issue of art is at least as valuable as the most frequently asked question of how in digital fabrication, and this aspect should be given more place in scientific research.
... This project attracted significant interest globally from members of the Maker movement. The combination of this project and the rise of crowdfunding platforms such as Kickstarter and Indiegogo has enabled numerous entrepreneurial ventures to launch onto the market (Bosqué, 2015;West and Kuk, 2016). ...
Working Paper
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A revised version of this article was accepted for publication in "Additive Manufacturing" in October 2018. This revised article can be found here: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328573664_Invited_Review_Article_Where_and_how_3D_printing_is_used_in_teaching_and_education
... Son varias las iniciativas dedicadas a combinar el uso de la impresión 3D en el campo de la innovación educativa, tanto a nivel de educación pre-universitaria como universitaria (Bosqué 2015;Bull et al., 2015;Beltrán y Rodríguez, 2017;Moeck et al., 2019). Así, por ejemplo, en Dahle (2018) y Dahle et al. (2019) se presentan varias iniciativas en las que se utiliza esta tecnología en la docencia sobre fabricación y simulación de dispositivos MEMs. ...
Article
En la actualidad, la impresión 3D se ha convertido en una tecnología que ha creado un nuevo paradigma de comunidades de aprendizaje, constituyendo una cultura o subcultura contemporánea, denominada coloquialmente como “cultura maker”, la cual puede considerarse como una extensión de la cultura DIY (Do It Yourself o hágalo usted mismo). Se trata de una nueva cultura basada en la tecnología y en el uso de herramientas que ha tenido gran aceptación en campos diversos como la ingeniería, medicina, arquitectura y artesanía. El presente artículo muestra una experiencia de integración de aprendizaje de Impresión 3D con electrónica dentro del currículo de la titulación de Ingeniería Industrial, especialidad en Mecánica. Para ello se ha utilizado la metodología de Aprendizaje Basado en Servicio. Se ha localizado una posible necesidad social y, a partir de esta necesidad se ha propuesto el diseño de una solución por parte de los alumnos. El ejemplo seleccionado ha sido el desarrollo de una mano robótica capaz de comunicarse mediante el lenguaje de signos. Con este trabajo los alumnos han reforzado sus conocimientos de modelado 3D utilizando el software de modelado Solid Works, así como sus conocimientos de electrónica, teniendo que desarrollar el sistema de control de los motores de las articulaciones de la mano usando un sistema basado en el popular microcontrolador Arduino.
... Es una tecnología "verde" que no genera desperdicio de material y puede reciclar el mismo para crear nuevo filamento. La impresión 3D ha logrado grandes avances en varios campos de la ingeniería, medicina, diseño, tecnología y la creación de productos de consumo, que mejorarán la calidad y estilo de vida en un futuro cercano (Bosqué, 2015). ...
Conference Paper
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Se trata de una investigación donde se revisa la situación actual del uso de impresoras 3D en el ámbito educativo, centrándose en la educación secundaria, a nivel de bachillerato, principalmente en materias de Diseño y Tecnología. Se realiza un estudio de las técnicas que se utilizan para la fabricación aditiva, específicamente la impresión 3D, y su evolución con ejemplos actuales documentados, con aplicaciones para diferentes niveles de educación formal. Concretamente se analizan opciones que puede ser utilizadas por parte de docentes y estudiantes, en las aulas del sistema educativo medio o secundario y sus aplicaciones en distintas materias, específicamente en el área de Diseño y Tecnología. Al final, se analiza la influencia de esta tecnología en la educación actualmente, y se plantean recomendaciones de como se debe enfrentar a futuro el uso de estas herramientas tecnológicas para estudiantes, docentes e instituciones educativas, en vista de dar nuevas propuestas educativas que incluyan la tecnología de fabricación aditiva en la enseñanza de diseño y tecnología a nivel medio.
... According to many researchers, people in everyday life will now prepare food, shape, size, flavour, quality and specific demands that they deserve with use of 3D prints. Besides, when examining the global industry analysis reports, it is predicted that 3D printing technology will have an average economy of $ 3 billion in 2018 [38]. Statistical reports show that 3D technology will have a significant future consumption. ...
Article
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ZET 3 boyutlu (3B) yazıcılar ilk olarak 1980'lerde polimer, seramik ve metal gibi sert malzemelerin üretiminde kullanılmıştır. Takiben bu teknoloji tıp, eczacılık, gıda alanlarında kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Gıda marketi Dünya ekonomisini ilk sıralarda etkileyen sektörlerden biridir. Bugün 3B yazıcılar karmaşık işlem koşullarına sahip çeşitli gıda ürünlerinin üretiminde başarıyla kullanılmaktadır. Gıda işleme basamaklarından ötürü gıdalarda bazı önemli bileşenlerin kaybı söz konusudur. 3B yazıcıların ise bu kayıpları önemli oranda azalttığı görülmektedir. 3B yazıcıların gıda ürünlerinde kullanımı ile gıda üretimini tek basamakta yapılmakta ve gıdaya kaliteli bir dizayn kazandırmaktadır. Bu teknoloji gıdanın tüketicinin istediği dizaynda, lezzette ve görünüşte olması sağlamaktadır. 2000'lerin başından beri çikolata, peynir, bazı tahıl ürünleri, jeller, hamur ve şekerli gıdalar 3B yazıcılar ile üretilmektedir. Diğer taraftan güvenli ve sağlıklı gıdaların bu teknik ile üretildiği görülmüştür. 3B yazıcılar 2015'te 3.7 milyar dolarlık bir paya sahip iken bu rakamın 2019 senesinde 6 milyar dolar dolaylarına ulaşması beklenmektedir. Bu çalışmada, gıda sanayindeki 3B yazıcıların şuan ki durumu, kullanım alanları ve en fazla tercih edilen yazıcı çeşitleri tartışılacaktır. ABSTRACT 3-Dimentional (3D) printers were first used in the early 1980's for the production of rigid materials such as polymers, ceramics and metals. Subsequently, this technology has started to be used in the fields of medicine, food and pharmacy. The food market is one of the most important sectors affecting the world economy in the first place. Nowadays, 3D printer has been successfully used in production of food products with complex production conditions. Important food components are lost due to the food processing technologies. 3D printers seem to have potential to prevent such losses in food products at high rates. Using 3D printers in foodstuffs, in addition to the production of 3D food in just one step, brings a different design quality to food. This technology has the ability to develop food in appearance, design, taste and structure as the consumer desires. Since the early 2000's, a wide sort of food products including chocolate, cheese, some cereal products, gels, dough and candies have been successfully produced by using 3D printers. On the other hand, it is also seen that safe and healthy foods can be produced with this technology. In the future it is clear that this technology will have a significant share in the economy market. It is predicted that 3D printers worldwide market shares of $ 3.7 billion in 2015 will exceed $6 billion by 2019. In this research, the current status of the 3D printer in the food industry and its future, the areas of use and the most commonly used printer types will be discussed.
... In a process for using AM, it starts with the digitization of the product in a CAD file based on the internet [26], the printing occurs through a machine that can be used privately or shared -as in the case of the makerspace initiatives, FabLabs, hackerspaces and makerspaces, they are open-source production environments, technologically equipped and fertile to share knowledge and lengthen discussions in the Maker community [29] [30]. One of the main open source technologies used by Makers is Arduino [29] and, in addition to 3D printing machines, laser cutters are quite common in creative spaces [31]. ...
... The RepRap community (http://www.reprap.org) is an open hardware community that has given birth to over 60 "official" models of 3D printers, and has been an inspiration to countless more, including most models of the "desktop 3D printer" market leaders (such as MakerBot and Ultimaker). For more details, seeBosqué (2015);West and Kuk (2016) ...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to critically assess the effect of 3D printing technologies on entrepreneurship. While 3D printing technologies (also known as ‘additive manufacturing’) have been considered as highly transformative technologies, they have been so far (despite over 30 years of existence) restricted to niche markets, and until recently, it seemed that only the largest firms were able to take advantage of those technologies. However, the cost of use of such technologies has sharply decreased over the past few years, and an increasing number of service companies offer both offline (Fab Labs, makerspaces, bureaus) and online (3D printing platforms) access to 3D printing capacities, enabling to “bridge the gap” and provide access to 3D printing technologies to everyone. In this context, using a case-based exploratory methodology, this research aims to explore the benefits of 3D printing technologies for entrepreneurs and new ventures, in particular in relation to overcoming specific challenges these smaller and younger structures face. After identifying the key types of hurdle faced by entrepreneurs – NPD issues, technical issues, market issues, financial issues, and business model issues – this article investigates the manner in which different forms of usage of 3D printing technologies – prototyping, tooling, direct manufacturing, distributed and localised manufacturing – can help alleviate each of those types of barrier. The results of this research indicate that 3D printing technologies are indeed likely to enable entrepreneurs to overcome the five main types of barriers they generally face. Furthermore, because of the very particular situation of entrepreneurs and new ventures and the specific challenges they face in terms of scale, access to markets, and lack of financial resources, 3D printing may in fact be more transformative for smaller and younger structures, than for larger and well-established corporations. However, this research also indicates that benefits for entrepreneurs derived from the use of 3D printing may depend on the degree of involvement of 3D printing in the overall productive process – the more the merrier – and that using 3D printing only at design and tooling stage, although helpful to some extent, may not be so impactful.
... 3D printing's relative speed and accessibility positions it well as a key element in learning through making. Indeed, research has shown that makerspaces are the dominant location where the majority of entry-level 3D printing occurs [4]. The 'wow factor' of the printing process often lures users to the various systems [5,6] and encourages them to experiment with the complex relationships between the 3D printing process and the designs that can be manufactured with it. ...
Preprint
3D printing technology has played an integral part in the growth of makerspaces, showing potential in enabling the integration of art (A) with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, giving new possibilities to STEAM implementation. This paper presents the effectiveness of a deployable mobile making platform and its curriculum, focused on 3D printing education. This setup, which draws inspiration from modern makerspaces, was deployed for 227 undergraduate students in Art and Engineering majors at multiple campuses of a large northeastern university and used in either a prearranged hour-long session or voluntary walk-in session. Self-reported surveys were created to measure participants' pre-and post-exposure awareness of 3D printing, design, and STEAM quantified through their (1) familiarity, (2) attitude, (3) interest, and (4) self-efficacy. Additionally, observations on participant engagement and use of the space were made. Statistically significant increases in awareness of 3D printing technology were observed in the participants from both Art and Engineering majors, as well as at different campus locations, irrespective of their initial differences. Observations also show a difference in engagement between prearranged sessions and walk-in sessions, which indicates that different session formats may promote specific engagement with different participant types. Ultimately, this research demonstrates two key findings: (1) though they may gravitate to different elements of 3D printing and design, a single makerspace can be used to engage both Art and Engineering students and (2) by introducing mobility to the traditional idea of a makerspace, participants with different initial levels of AM awareness can be brought to similar final awareness. This second finding is especially essential given the disparities in modern student access to 3D printing technology.
Research
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Globalized networks of suppliers and manufacturing hubs may fail in the face of high impact and unpredictable events such as Hurricane Katrina, the 9/11 terrorist attack, the Fukushima disaster and the COVID-19 pandemic-known as black swan events. I examine how 3-D printing, a now widespread and powerful technology, may be relevant in this context. I show 3-D printing in the manufacturing sector will simplify complex and globalized networks thereby making them more resilient to black swan events. The findings of this review article are important for managers and chief supply chain officers in that they can better simplify the chains through the adoption of 3-D printing infrastructure, thereby insulating their businesses from the cascading effects of black swan events. I find support for the hypothesis that the adoption of 3-D printing infrastructure in manufacturing supply chain infrastructure leads to simplification of the networks. It facilitates simplification through economies of scale, customization, co-production, better demand prediction, freedom in shape design, allowance for manufacturing postponement, fewer nodes and integration of functionalities to reduce steps in the chain. These contribute to improved resilience through a variety of mechanisms.
Article
Purpose Company pressure for manufacturers is mounting from two angles: increasing pressure of global competition, and rapid advancements in technology such as additive manufacturing (AM) that are altering the way that goods are manufactured. The purpose of this paper is to explore the adoption process of AM within a manufacturing system and its business impact. Design/methodology/approach Research was conducted to collect empirical data at two manufacturing case companies in the North West England. Both cases are located in areas of industrial recovery using AM engineering innovation for value creation. Findings Early findings showed that the implementation of AM caused a shift in value propositions and the creation of additional value streams (VSs) for the case study companies. AM was shown to compliment and strengthen traditional manufacturing VSs rather than replacing them. Research limitations/implications Limitations include the generalizability due to the number and location of case companies included in this research. Practical implications It is worthwhile to explore the opportunities that AM brings with the existing customer base as it has the potential to add unexplored and untapped value. However, managers need to be mindful of the capability and resources required to put the VS into practice. Social implications Both cases resulted in skill retainment and development due to the implementation of AM. Hence, the innovation contributed to regional economic recovery and business survival. Originality/value This empirical research is one of the early field explorations focussing on the impact of AM on VS structures. Hence, this paper contributes to the area of technology enhanced manufacturing systems.
Chapter
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Resumo • Um protótipo é todo modelo (físico ou não) que contemple um ou mais aspectos de uma oportunidade em desenvolvimento, que pode ser um bem, serviço, processo ou o próprio negócio. • Protótipos são construídos com o objetivo de gerar aprendizado e quebrar incertezas no processo de inovação. • A prototipagem se dá por meio de ciclos de design-construção-teste de protótipos. • Sete diferentes campos de discussão foram selecionados para se trazer insights sobre a definição e aplicação da prototipagem, desde a clássica gestão de desenvolvimento de produtos até o empreendedorismo de base tecnológica. • Os ciclos de prototipagem na gestão de desenvolvimento de produtos (GDP) são a espinha dorsal do processo, determinando o ritmo de avanço dos projetos. • Na GDP protótipos amadurecem paulatinamente em direção ao produto final, gerando oportunidades de integração das equipes de desenvolvimento e validando desde o conceito inicial até o processo produtivo em larga escala. • No campo da prototipagem virtual e prototipagem rápida, ganham atenção as modernas tecnologias de modelagem e teste de protótipos por meio de modelos computacionais, impressão 3D e CNC. • Makerspaces são espaços para a produção criativa. O acesso e manuseio facilitado de tecnologias de design e construção de artefatos tem impulsionado a difusão destes espaços onde pessoas podem criar seus próprios produtos. • Operações de serviços são marcadas por intangibilidade, perecibilidade, fornecimento de insumos pelo consumidor, simultaneidade entre produção e consumo, etc. Isso implica em diversas particularidades para a prototipagem. • No desenvolvimento de softwares a prototipagem pode ocorrer tanto na engenharia de requisitos quanto no design e interface com o usuário. • É comum no campo de desenvolvimento de softwares valer-se de uma versão preliminar (beta) para disponibilizar antecipadamente a usuários que aceitem utilizar aquela versão e fornecer feedback aos desenvolvedores. • O Design Thinking traz para o desenvolvimento de inovações o mindset típico do designer, colocando a experiência do usuário no centro da análise. O Storyboarding é uma técnica de prototipagem de destaque nesta abordagem. • No Design Thinking privilegia-se o “falhe muitas vezes para ter sucesso mais cedo”, o que motiva fazer muitos protótipos rudimentares, de baixo custo e de rápida construção. • A abordagem da Startup Enxuta é central no campo do empreendedorismo tecnológico. Nesta, o conceito de Produto Mínimo Viável (MVP) é proposto para se testar hipóteses fundamentais do negócio. • O MPV consiste na versão do produto que permite uma volta completa no ciclo construir-avaliar-aprender, com o mínimo esforço e tempo. • Cada uma das arenas de debate e aplicação da prototipagem oferece uma visão complementar que pode inspirar a caminhada do empreendedor.
Article
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Previous studies have reported that a recursive process called the point cloud creation algorithm (PCA) that generates a point cloud is useful for reverse engineering a planner shape. This study elucidates the characteristics of the parameters used in the recursive process as well as its ability in geometric modeling and 3D printing of 3D shapes. In the recursive process, three constants (center point, initial distance, and initial angle) and two variables (instantaneous distance and instantaneous rotational angle) are employed. The shape-modeling characteristics of the constants and variables are elucidated using some commonly used shapes (straight-line, circle, ellipses, spiral, astroid, S-shape, and leaf-shape). In addition, the shape-modeling capability of the recursive process as a whole is quantified using two parameters called the radius of curvature and aesthetic value. Moreover, an illustrative example that shows the ecacy of the recursive process in virtual and physical prototyping of a relatively complex 3D object is presented. The results show that reverse engineering performed by the recursive-process-created point cloud is free from computational complexity compared to reverse engineering performed by the 3D-scanner-created point cloud. As such, the outcomes of this study enrich the field of reverse engineering.
Book
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[English follow] L’impression 3D est remplie de promesses qu’elle ne saura tenir, mais également de transformations organisationnelles, économiques et sociales inattendues. Pour comprendre l’impression 3D, il faut l’étudier en lien avec son système technique numérique. Après un retour historique sur le développement des technologies d’impression 3D (partie 1), la partie 2 du rapport étudie les différentes technologies, matériaux, éléments de la chaîne numérique, en les détaillant et précisant leurs avantages, inconvénients et principaux secteurs d’applications. Dans la partie 3, les transformations organisationnelles sont présentées. On y traite de normalisation, de liens avec les formes d’organisation (collaboration, aplanissement des hiérarchies), de la diffusion de connaissances, de la transformation de la chaîne de production, de la conception à la production et au lien avec l’utilisateur. Ce qui permet la transformation des modèles d’affaires. La partie 4 fait un état des lieux économique de l’impression 3D, et examine les acteurs du secteur au Canada. On y traite également des modèles économiques liés à l’open source, et à la personnalisation de masse. Les impacts dans plusieurs secteurs d’activités économiques sont détaillés, notamment le secteur aéronautique, l’architecture et la construction, le design, l’art, la fabrication, le secteur médical et dentaire. La partie 5 traite des modifications liées à la société, notamment en matière de perspectives environnementales, d’apparition de nouveaux lieux sociaux tels les Fablab et Makerspace, et de nouvelles pratiques comme celles reliées à l’open source, les impacts sur la santé, et sur la pédagogie. À partir de cette étude, nous formulons plusieurs messages clés : 1. La formation à l’impression 3D et aux conditions la favorisant est essentielle. Par conditions la favorisant, nous entendons l’apprentissage et la reconnaissance des compétences humaines, sociales et organisationnelles nécessaires et rendues possibles par cette dernière, notamment (mais pas uniquement) l’autonomie en milieu professionnel, une culture d’échange et de partage professionnel, la sensibilisation aux principes de l’innovation ouverte et de l’open source. Il est essentiel de comprendre les nouvelles dynamiques sociales, organisationnelles et économiques touchant à l’impression 3D et la chaîne numérique, car elles sont à la base de l’économie du XXIe siècle, reposant sur les savoirs. Il nous semble essentiel d’investir dans ces formations et dans une meilleure compréhension de ces dynamiques. 2. L’innovation sociale et technologique (du type Fablabs et Makers) joue un rôle clé. À la fois dans l’imaginaire, mais également dans des pratiques d’entraide et d’échange numériques invisibles. Ici, les impacts sont significatifs et importants. On peut y voir émerger des modèles d’éducation citoyenne touchants tant des individus (de tout âge), mais également des professionnels. 3. Favoriser le maillage économique des entreprises pour la création d’un écosystème dense de l’impression 3D s’avère essentiel dans le but de permettre le renouvellement du tissu industriel canadien. Il semble important d’inventorier et de développer un ensemble d’écosystèmes multidisciplinaires, réunissant des acteurs privés, des chercheurs et des représentants du gouvernement autour des enjeux sociaux, organisationnels et économiques liés à l’impression 3D. 4. Assurer le suivi et l’accompagnement des entreprises – notamment les PME – pour les supporter dans la transition vers l’impression 3D et la chaîne numérique. Une politique fiscale favorisant l’investissement privé dans les infrastructures numériques de demain pourrait également être envisagée. 5. Concevoir un outil d’évaluation du degré de conscientisation des connaissances pour les organisations. Ces dernières ont besoin d’information sur les impacts potentiels de ces nouvelles technologies, tant au niveau du potentiel de la technologie comme telle, mais surtout sur les impacts de ces technologies sur les dimensions organisationnelles, économiques et sociales. À cet effet, il est fortement suggéré de réfléchir au développement d’un outil de diagnostic, lequel permettrait d’explorer et de valider le degré de conscientisation des organisations aux enjeux reliés à l’avènement de ces technologies. 6. Améliorer les connaissances portant sur les avantages et les risques pour la santé, pour l’environnement et sur les enjeux éthiques reliés spécifiquement à l’impression 3D. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Executive summary. 3D printing may make unachievable promises, but allows unexpected organizational, economic and social transformations. The understanding of 3D printing is linked to the study of the technical digital system. The first part of the report historically reviews the development of 3D printing technologies (part 1). The second part studies the different kinds of technologies, their pros and cons as well as their key areas of applications. The organizational transformations are presented, in the third part, through the standardization of the links between the different types of organizations (collaboration, level hierarchies), the dissemination of knowledge, the production line transformation from conception to production as well as its link to the user. Thus, this allows the transformation of business models. The fourth part of the report proposes a clearer picture of the 3D printing economics and investigates its Canadian stakeholders. Economic models associated with open source and mass customization concepts are also explored in this part of the report. The impacts of many areas of economic activities are detailed in aeronautics, architecture and construction, design, art, manufacturing, medical and dental sectors. The fifth part discusses social changes, namely regarding environmental perspectives, new social space appearances like Fab Labs and Makerspaces as well as emerging practices like the ones associated to open source or to health and educational impacts. This study will allow us to articulate a series of key messages: 1. 3D printing training and conditions favoring it are essential. What we mean by favorable conditions is the learning and the recognition of human, social and organizational skills needed and provided by 3D printing training, including but not limited to a professional autonomy, an exchanging and sharing culture in the professional environment as well as an awareness to open innovation and open source principles. A better understanding of new social, organizational and economic dynamics affecting the 3D printing and the digital chain is essential because they are at the core of the knowledge-based 21st-century economy. Therefore, we believe it is important to invest in this kind of training and to have a better understanding of its dynamics. 2. Social and technological innovation (i.e. Fab Labs and Makers) play a key role. Simultaneously, in the imagination and the mutual aid practices as well as in the invisible digital exchanges. Herewith, the impacts are important and meaningful. Civic education models are emerging and reaching individuals (of all ages) and professionals alike. 3. To promote the economic network of businesses to create a dense 3D printing ecosystem is essential to renew the Canadian industrial fabric. The inventory and the development of a set of multidisciplinary ecosystems bringing together private stakeholders, researchers and government representatives around social, organizational and economic issues linked to 3D printing seem important. 4. To ensure the tracking and support of businesses – in particular, SMEs – to support their transition to 3D printing and the digital chain. A tax policy could also encourage private investments in tomorrow’s digital infrastructures and should be considered. 5. To create an assessment tool to explore the level of knowledge awareness for organizations. These organizations need information on the potential impacts of these new technologies, on their technological potentials per se, but mainly on their technological impacts for organizational, economic and social dimensions. For this purpose, reflections on the development of a diagnostic tool are strongly advised - which could allow the exploration and validation of the organizations’ knowledge awareness towards the advent of these technologies. 6. To improve specific knowledge of 3D printing towards health, environmental and ethical benefits and risks.
Chapter
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a novel digital technology that has gathered momentum and public recognition over the past few years. In this chapter, I examine the sociocultural and political dimensions of 3D printing technologies. I begin with an overview of the third wave human-computer interaction (HCI) approach to digital technologies and contributions made by social and cultural theory that are relevant to understanding the broader contexts of 3D printing technologies and how they are represented, discussed and experienced. This is followed by a discussion of the sociotechnical imaginaries that animate speculations about their possibilities and the agential capacities identified by research investigating the lived experiences of those who have tried using these technologies. The chapter ends with some brief reflections on future research directions.
Article
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The digital transformation of manufacturing (a phenomenon also known as "Industry 4.0" or "Smart Manufacturing") is finding a growing interest both at practitioner and academic levels, but is still in its infancy and needs deeper investigation. Even though current and potential advantages of digital manufacturing are remarkable, in terms of improved efficiency, sustainability, customization, and flexibility, only a limited number of companies has already developed ad hoc strategies necessary to achieve a superior performance. Through a systematic review, this study aims at assessing the current state of the art of the academic literature regarding the paradigm shift occurring in the manufacturing settings, in order to provide definitions as well as point out recurring patterns and gaps to be addressed by future research. For the literature search, the most representative keywords, strict criteria, and classification schemes based on authoritative reference studies were used. The final sample of 156 primary publications was analyzed through a systematic coding process to identify theoretical and methodological approaches, together with other significant elements. This analysis allowed a mapping of the literature based on clusters of critical themes to synthesize the developments of different research streams and provide the most representative picture of its current state. Research areas, insights, and gaps resulting from this analysis contributed to create a schematic research agenda, which clearly indicates the space for future evolutions of the state of knowledge in this field.
Article
Cette contribution s’intéresse à la « production entre pairs sur la base de communs », à la fois pour son fonctionnement et la portée qu’elle peut avoir pour des aspects matériels des activités humaines. Elle vise à comprendre les pratiques et ressorts qui la rendent possible, mais aussi à mieux saisir ce que permettent les ressources rendues accessibles. Ce type de production peut en effet représenter une autre manière de parvenir à des réalisations collectives et d’envisager les moyens de satisfaire des besoins. Deux champs contrastés d’expérimentation sont, dans cette perspective, plus particulièrement examinés : l’un orienté vers la fabrication numérique et ayant permis de développer des projets d’imprimantes 3D (comme la RepRap), l’autre à vocation de production alimentaire à petite échelle (les « Incroyables comestibles »). L’analyse précise d’abord le cadre conceptuel de façon à montrer dans quelle mesure il offre aussi des appuis pour inclure plus nettement des aspects matériels. Avec une attention particulière pour la dimension productive, les deux types d’expérimentations sont ensuite étudiés dans leur genèse, leur mode de fonctionnement et leurs débouchés. Les tenants et aboutissants de cette forme de « faire ensemble » pouvant alors être mieux compris, sa portée est finalement discutée en mettant ces expérimentations en regard avec les conditions dont elles dépendent.
Article
This article focuses on ‘commons-based peer production’, in particular the way it operates and its potential for material contributions to human activities. The aim is to understand the practices and bases that make it possible, and to better understand which resources are made accessible. This type of production can be an alternative route to collective achievements and an innovative way to meet the needs of a community. From this perspective, two contrasting fields of experimentation are examined: one focused on digital manufacturing and the development of 3D printer projects (such as RepRap), and the other on small-scale food production (the Incredible Edible Network). The analysis begins by clarifying the conceptual framework. Then, the two types of experiments are studied with regard to their genesis, their mode of operation and their output. Finally, the scope of this model is discussed by linking these experiments to the conditions on which they depend.
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MIT-Fablab Norway was one of the first Fab Labs ever established, in northern Norway in 2002. Despite this auspicious beginning to a network that is rapidly growing, surprisingly little has been written about the genesis of the network or the Fab Lab itself. We therefore aim to contribute to this knowledge gap with a narrative account of our independent ethnographic research visits to the Lab. We combine our researcher perspectives, which are informed by, on the one hand, Aesthetics and a phenomenological understanding and, on the other, Science and Technology Studies, with Design Research bridging both. Our account aims to richly describe the Lab’s unique profile in the MIT Fab Lab network as a socially shaped entity and product of a particular time and place. Most salient in this narrative is the role of its charismatic founder, whose stories and metaphors become vehicles by which we come to understand how a Fab Lab forms its own identity, balancing the relationships with local stakeholders against those with the Fab Lab network; how it promotes certain principles and values of peer production; and how it represents itself to both maker insiders and outsiders. While situated and particular to this Lab, our interpretations may have implications for the trajectories of other Fab Labs and makerspaces, as well as our understanding of peer production as a new paradigm.
Article
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Thirty years into its development, additive manufacturing has become a mainstream manufacturing process. Additive manufacturing build up parts by adding materials one layer at a time based on a computerized 3D solid model. It does not require the use of fixtures, cutting tools, coolants, and other auxiliary resources. It allows design optimization and the producing of customized parts on-demand. Its advantages over conventional manufacturing have captivated the imagination of the public, reflected in recent mainstream publications that call additive manufacturing “the third industrial revolution.” This paper reviews the societal impact of additive manufacturing from a technical perspective. Abundance of evidences were found to support the promises of additive manufacturing in the following areas: (1) customized healthcare products to improve population health and quality of life, (2) reduced environmental impact for manufacturing sustainability, and (3) simplified supply chain to increase efficiency and responsiveness in demand fulfillment. In the mean time, the review also identified the need for further research in the areas of life-cycle energy consumption evaluation and potential occupation hazard assessment for additive manufacturing.
Article
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Additive manufacturing techniques offer the potential to fabricate organized tissue constructs to repair or replace damaged or diseased human tissues and organs. Using these techniques, spatial variations of cells along multiple axes with high geometric complexity in combination with different biomaterials can be generated. The level of control offered by these computer-controlled technologies to design and fabricate tissues will accelerate our understanding of the governing factors of tissue formation and function. Moreover, it will provide a valuable tool to study the effect of anatomy on graft performance. In this review, we discuss the rationale for engineering tissues and organs by combining computer-aided design with additive manufacturing technologies that encompass the simultaneous deposition of cells and materials. Current strategies are presented, particularly with respect to limitations due to the lack of suitable polymers, and requirements to move the current concepts to practical application.
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En combinant des ressources issues de la sociologie de la traduction et de la sociologie de l'action, l'auteur propose dans cet article un certain nombre de concepts permettant l'analyse de l'action avec des dispositifs techniques. Celle-ci peut être envisagée selon trois modalités qui effectuent chacune le lien entre contenus techniques et compétences des acteurs : traduction, coopération, coordination. L'article débouche sur une analyse des conditions d'infélicité dans l'action avec les dispositifs techniques.
Article
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Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a solid freeform fabrication technique, developed by Carl Deckard for his master's thesis at the University of Texas, patented in 1989. SLS manufacturing is a technique that produces physical models through a selective solidification of a variety of fine powders. SLS technology is getting a great amount of attention in the clinical field. In this paper the characteristics features of SLS and the materials that have been developed for are reviewed together with a discussion on the principles of the above-mentioned manufacturing technique. The applications of SLS in tissue engineering, and at-large in the biomedical field, are reviewed and discussed.
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Purpose: Generation of graspable three-dimensional objects applied for surgical planning, prosthetics and related applications using 3D printing or rapid prototyping is summarized and evaluated. Materials and methods: Graspable 3D objects overcome the limitations of 3D visualizations which can only be displayed on flat screens. 3D objects can be produced based on CT or MRI volumetric medical images. Using dedicated post-processing algorithms, a spatial model can be extracted from image data sets and exported to machine-readable data. That spatial model data is utilized by special printers for generating the final rapid prototype model. Results: Patient-clinician interaction, surgical training, medical research and education may require graspable 3D objects. The limitations of rapid prototyping include cost and complexity, as well as the need for specialized equipment and consumables such as photoresist resins. Conclusions: Medical application of rapid prototyping is feasible for specialized surgical planning and prosthetics applications and has significant potential for development of new medical applications.
Article
For decades, U.S. companies have been outsourcing manufacturing in the belief that it held no competitive advantage. That's been a disaster, maintain Harvard professors Pisano and Shih, because today's low-value manufacturing operations hold the seeds of tomorrow's innovative new products. What those companies have been ceding is the country's industrial commons-that is, the collective operational capabilities that underpin new product and process development in the U.S. industrial sector. As a result, America has lost not only the ability to develop and manufacture high-tech products like televisions, memory chips, and laptops but also the expertise to produce emerging hot products like the Kindle e-reader, high-end servers, solar panels, and the batteries that will power the next generation of automobiles. To rebuild the commons and restore its wealth-generating machine will require government and industry in the United States to make two drastic changes: The government must change the way it supports basic and applied scientific research to promote the broad collaboration with business and academia needed to tackle society's big problems. Corporate management practices and governance structures must be overhauled so they no longer exaggerate the payoffs and discount the dangers of outsourcing production and cutting investments in R&D. Copyright © 2009 Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.
Book
Rapid Manufacturing is a new area of manufacturing developed from a family of technologies known as Rapid Prototyping. These processes have already had the effect of both improving products and reducing their development time; this in turn resulted in the development of the technology of Rapid Tooling, which implemented Rapid Prototyping techniques to improve its own processes. Rapid Manufacturing has developed as the next stage, in which the need for tooling is eliminated. It has been shown that it is economically feasible to use existing commercial Rapid Prototyping systems to manufacture series parts in quantities of up to 20,000 and customised parts in quantities of hundreds of thousands. This form of manufacturing can be incredibly cost-effective and the process is far more flexible than conventional manufacturing. Rapid Manufacturing: An Industrial Revolution for the Digital Age addresses the academic fundamentals of Rapid Manufacturing as well as focussing on case studies and applications across a wide range of industry sectors. As a technology that allows manufacturers to create products without tools, it enables previously impossible geometries to be made. This book is abundant with images depicting the fantastic array of products that are now being commercially manufactured using these technologies. Includes contributions from leading researchers working at the forefront of industry. Features detailed illustrations throughout. Rapid Manufacturing: An Industrial Revolution for the Digital Age is a groundbreaking text that provides excellent coverage of this fast emerging industry. It will interest manufacturing industry practitioners in research and development, product design and materials science, as well as having a theoretical appeal to researchers and post-graduate students in manufacturing engineering, product design, CAD/CAM and CIFM.
Article
In this paper a case study of an open source, home-built 3D printer called ‘Rep-rap’ serves as an entry point to the deskilling debate. This debate has centred on Harry Braverman's proposition that deskilling is a general trend, given the prevalence of capitalist relations of production, or, differently put, contractual employment relations. The origins of 3D printing can be traced back to numerically controlled (NC) and computerised numerically-controlled (CNC) machinery and can even be seen to incorporate ‘material traces’ of these. Both technologies are based on the same principle: guiding a machine tool with the help of software. NC and CNC machines were introduced in the midst of industrial conflicts and served as a touchstone in academic debates for and against the deskilling thesis during the 1970s. The open source, home-built 3D printer, in contrast, is being developed by a community of hobbyists. By definition, these hobbyists are located outside of contractual employment relations. Still, they are striving to make the 3D printer user-friendly, or, in other words, to deskill the user. Reflecting on this difference, this paper sets out to incorporate some of the critiques of the deskilling thesis in order to advance an updated, Bravermanian position on user-friendly technology.
Article
Occasional Papers in Science and Technology Policy provides a forum for invited authors to share research and offer thoughts on issues in this field. The Science and Technology Policy Institute developed the series at the request of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, part of the Executive Office of the President. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) chartered by Congress in 1991, the Science and Technology Policy Institute provides objective analyses on topics of interest to the Office of Science and Technology Policy and other Federal Government agencies, offices, and councils. The Institute is operated by the Institute for Defense Analyses, and its work for the Office of Science and Technology Policy is funded by the National Science Foundation. All papers published in this series reflect the views, opinions, and findings of the authors and do not represent the official positions of the Science and Technology Policy Institute, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Science Foundation, the Institute for Defense Analyses, or any institutions with which the authors are affiliated.
Book
"Wired" magazine editor and bestselling author Anderson takes readers to the front lines of a new industrial revolution as today's entrepreneurs, using open source design and 3-D printing, bring manufacturing to the desktop.
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A direct parallel can be made between the Modernist separation of form, structure and material and the more recent tripartite division in digital processes of modelling, analysis and fabrication, which has resulted in the predominance of geometric-driven form-generation. Today, though, design culture is experiencing a shift to a new level of material awareness. Inspired by nature's strategies where form-generation is driven by maximal performance with minimal resources through local material property variation, Neri Oxman investigates a novel design approach to digital fabrication that offers the potential to program physical matter. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This article assesses the use of ‘science fiction’ (SF) in visioning or prototyping the potential economic and social consequences of so-called 3D printing. What is becoming clear to many commentators as well as science fiction writers is how rapid prototyping, or 3D printing more generally, could permit many final objects to be made near to or even by consumers on just-in-time ‘printing’ machines. This revolution in making would have many implications for the economy-and-society in the future by seriously augmenting, or possibly replacing, current systems of manufactured production, long-distance transportation and consumption. These 3D technologies have featured in SF works, including Neal Stephenson's The Diamond Age, Ian McDonald's Brasyl, Charles Stross's Rule 34 and Cory Doctorow's Makers. The article reports on current research seeking to understand the implications of what may be a major new sociotechnical system in the making. Some creative uses of SF are presented in a professional workshop setting. As well the article documents the use of SF as a methodological prototype in forecasting alternative scenarios of the future. SF prototyping could be a powerful tool in the social science repertoire when put into action in forecasting possible technology and business futures.
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Purpose – This paper aims to illustrate a number of instances where RP and associated technology has been successfully used for medical applications. Design/methodology/approach – A number of medical case studies are presented, illustrating different uses of RP technology. These studies have been analysed in terms of how the technology has been applied in order to solve related medical problems. Findings – It was found that RP has been helpful in a number of ways to solve medical problems. However, the technology has numerous limitations that have been analysed in order to establish how the technology should develop in the future. Practical implications – RP can help solve medical problems, but must evolve if it is to be used more widespread in this field. Originality/value – This paper has shown a number of new applications for RP, providing a holistic understanding how the technology can solve medical problems. It also identifies a number of ways in which the technology can improve in order to better solve such problems.
Article
This keynote paper presents an overview of new approaches in rapid product development from the design point of view. The evolution of the market has necessitated the reduction of time-to-market, mainly because the product life cycle is shorter, but also because it is very important to proceed more rapidly from an initial conception to a mass production object. As a result of newly evolved software environments, knowledge-based systems, and product data management, processes for integrated design and manufacturing for new products have emerged. Due to this evolution of rapid prototyping technologies, it has become possible today to obtain parts representative of mass production within a very short time. This keynote paper provides an overview of the actual trends in all the components that affect the speed and efficiency of product development, in particular all the possibilities available to the designer, from the earliest stages of a product's life cycle.
Article
The medical field is one in which the need for customization can be clear cut, as providing tailored devices and implants for unique physiologies can provide for a better overall treatment than the use of ‘off the shelf’ devices and implants. Customization in the production of medical products can be roughly divided into consideration of medical devices, and of implantable parts or systems. The present paper outlines the current state of the art in both of these areas, presents details of projects that are ongoing at the University of Leeds and outlines future research directions.
Article
Purpose – Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) has the potential to revolutionize manufacturing, even to allow individuals to invent, customize, and manufacture goods cost-effectively in their own homes. Commercial freeform fabrication systems – while successful in industrial settings – are costly, proprietary, and work with few, expensive, and proprietary materials, limiting the growth and advancement of the technology. The open-source Fab@Home Project has been created to promote SFF technology by placing it in the hands of hobbyists, inventors, and artists in a form which is simple, cheap, and without restrictions on experimentation. This paper aims to examine this. Design/methodology/approach – A simple, low-cost, user modifiable freeform fabrication system has been designed, called the Fab@Home Model 1, and the designs, documentation, software, and source code have been published on a user-editable “wiki” web site under the open-source BSD License. Six systems have been built, and three of them given away to interested users in return for feedback on the system and contributions to the web site. Findings – The Fab@Home Model 1 can build objects comprising multiple materials, with sub-millimeter-scale features, and overall dimensions larger than 20 cm. In its first six months of operation, the project has received more than 13 million web site hits, and media coverage by several international news and technology magazines, web sites, and programs. Model 1s are being used in a university engineering course, a Model 1 will be included in an exhibit on the history of plastics at the Science Museum London, UK, and kits can now be purchased commercially. Research limitations/implications – The ease of construction and operation of the Model 1 has not been well tested. The materials cost for construction (US$2,300) has prevented some interested people from building systems of their own. Practical implications – The energetic public response to the Fab@Home project confirms the broad appeal of personal freeform fabrication technology. The diversity of interests and desired applications expressed by the public suggests that the open-source approach to accelerating the expansion of SFF technology embodied in the Fab@Home project may well be successful. Originality/value – Fab@Home is unique in its goal of popularizing and advancing SFF technology for its own sake. The RepRap project in the UK predates Fab@Home, but aims to build machines which can make most of their own parts. The two projects are complementary in many respects, and fruitful exchanges of ideas and designs between them are expected.
Article
Medical imaging has been used to provide information for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The use of physical models provides added values in these applications. Rapid prototyping (RP) techniques have long been employed to build complex 3D models in medicine. However, publications regarding the dental application of RP technologies are still rare. This paper reviews and discusses the basics and applications of RP techniques in dentistry: (1) construction of a computer aided design (CAD) model, including data acquisition, data processing, and the corresponding machines and CAD packages, (2) typical RP systems and how to choose them, and (3) current and potential use of RP techniques in dentistry. Practical application examples of RP techniques in dentistry are provided.
Article
Repairing critical human skull injuries requires the production and use of customized cranial implants and involves the integration of computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD and CAM). The main causes for large cranial defects are trauma, cranial tumors, infected craniotomy bone flaps and external neurosurgical decompression. The success of reconstructive cranial surgery depends upon: the preoperative evaluation of the defect, the design and manufacturing of the implant, and the skill of the operating surgeon. Cranial implant design is usually carried out manually using CAD although this process is very time-consuming and the quality of the end product depends wholly upon the skill of the operator.This paper presents an alternative automated method for the design of custom-made cranial plates in a PHANToM®-based haptic environment, and their direct fabrication in biocompatible metal using electron beam melting (EBM) technology.
Article
Nous vivons une révolution silencieuse : la montée en puissance des amateurs, ces passionnés qui ne sont ni des novices, ni des professionnels, mais de brillants touche-à-tout ! Grâce à l'informatique et au web participatif, ils ont tous les aspects de la culture contemporaine. Foisonnantes, souvent pionnières, leurs pratiques ont bouleversé la manière de produire de la connaissance, de diffuser l'information, de créer des oeuvres, de militer. Cette démocratisation des compétences contrebalance l'élitisme de nos sociétés et prolonge la démocratisation politique et scolaire à l'oeuvre depuis deux siècles. Un nouveau règne s'annonce, qui brouille toutes les frontières : celui du pro-am (professionnel-amateur), expert autodidacte, citoyen-acteur, créateur à part entière.
Article
Purpose – Maxillofacial prosthetics is faced with increasing patient numbers and cost constraints leading to the need to explore whether computer‐aided techniques can increase efficiency. This need is addressed through a four‐year research project that identified quality, economic, technological and clinical implications of the application of digital technologies in maxillofacial prosthetics. The purpose of this paper is to address the aspects of this research that related to the application of rapid prototyping (RP). Design/methodology/approach – An action research approach is taken, utilising multiple case studies to evaluate the current capabilities of digital technologies in the preparation, design and manufacture of maxillofacial prostheses. Findings – The research indicates where RP has demonstrated potential clinical application and where further technical developments are required. The paper provides a technical specification towards which RP manufacturers can direct developments that would meet the needs of maxillofacial prosthetists. Originality/value – Whilst research studies have explored digital technologies in maxillofacial prosthetics, they have relied on individual studies applying a single RP technology to one particular aspect of a prosthesis. Consequently, conclusions on the wider implications have not been possible. This research explored the application of digital technologies to every aspect of the design and manufacture of a series of maxillofacial prostheses. Unlike previous research, the cases described here addressed the application of RP to the direct manufacture of substructures, retention components and texture. This research analyses prosthetic requirements to ascertain target technical specifications towards which RP processes should be developed.
Article
Recent decades have seen the emergence in much of the developed world of so-called post-industrial nations. These are nations that are making the transition from having manufacturing-based economies to having service based economies, and this transition has brought some big economic and social problems. Economic problems include a big balance of payments deficit, and a major social problem is that, while a few people in a service-based economy can get very rich, many more people become poorer. One possible solution is a renewal of manufacturing in post-industrial nations. However, renewal cannot be achieved by trying to bring back on-shore the industrial manufacturing that has been off-shored. This is because the necessary industrial manufacturing expertise no longer exists back on-shore. Moreover, industrial manufacturing involves centralised production and long-distance transportation, both of which have high environmental costs that are now being regulated against. Accordingly, post-industrial nations need to innovate in their renewal of manufacturing. This can be achieved by combining manufacturing and services in new ways. One way is to establish design and production services that enable ordinary people to create their own goods. Another way is the production of goods that have microelectronic functionalities that enable ordinary people to create their own services.
Article
Stereolithography is a solid freeform technique (SFF) that was introduced in the late 1980s. Although many other techniques have been developed since then, stereolithography remains one of the most powerful and versatile of all SFF techniques. It has the highest fabrication accuracy and an increasing number of materials that can be processed is becoming available. In this paper we discuss the characteristic features of the stereolithography technique and compare it to other SFF techniques. The biomedical applications of stereolithography are reviewed, as well as the biodegradable resin materials that have been developed for use with stereolithography. Finally, an overview of the application of stereolithography in preparing porous structures for tissue engineering is given.
Article
We describe state-of-the-art software and hardware requirements for the manufacture of high quality medical models manufactured using medical rapid prototyping. The limitations of medical models, the source of artefacts, and their physical appearance are illustrated along with remedies for their removal. Medical models were built using predominantly stereolithography and fused deposition modeling at both institutions over a period of 6 years. A combined total of 350 models have been produced for a range of maxillofacial, neurosurgical, and orthopedic applications. Stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, computerized numerical milling, and other technologies are described along with computer software requirements. A range of unwanted artefacts that create distortions on medical models have been identified. These include data import, computed tomography gantry distortion, metal, motion, surface roughness due to support structure removal or surface modeling, and image data thresholding. The source of the artefact has been related to the patient, imaging modality performance, or the modeling technology. Discussion as to the significance of the artefacts on clinical use is provided. It is recommended that models of human anatomy generated by medical rapid prototyping are subject to rigorous quality assurance at all stages of the manufacturing process. Clinicians should be aware of potential areas for inaccuracies within models and review the source images in cases where model integrity is in doubt.
The story of MIT-Fablab Norway: community embedding of peer production”, available at: http://peerproduction.net/issues/issue-5-shared-machine-shops/peer-reviewed-articles/the-story-of-mit-fablab-norway-community-embedding-of-peer-production
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DIY biologists as ‘makers’ of personal biologies: how MAKE magazine and Maker Faires contribute in constituting biology as a personal technology
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Patent lawyers: help! The evil makers won’t let us apply for bullshit 3D printing patents!”, Boing Boing
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The new Makerbot replicator might just change your world
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