Article

Argan oil: Traditional uses, phytochemical, nutritional and pharmacological aspects

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The fruit of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels, a tree native to southern Morocco, is used to obtain argan oil, which has been traditionally used as food as well as a cosmetic ingredient. Studies on its traditional uses show that this oil is mainly known by its nutritional properties and beneficial effects in skin hydration delaying ageing, the appearance of skin wrinkles and other skin disorders. Phytochemical and pharmacological reports have revealed that argan oil exerts interesting properties in the fields of dermatology, diabetes, metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal disorders, which support its traditional uses to a certain extent and demonstrate the potential of the oil in human health. This paper reviews the research of last 15 years on argan oil reported in the literature indexed in PubMed and Web of Science. © 2014, CITA Publicaciones y Documentacion. All rights reserved.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
During menopause, the decrease of estrogenic secretion induces the disruption of skin functioning, thus causing the decline in skin elasticity characteristic of skin aging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin elasticity. Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group of 30 participants received dietary argan oil, the control group of 30 participants received olive oil, and both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a 60-day period. Assessments of skin elasticity parameters, ie, the three R-parameters (R2 or gross-elasticity of the skin, R5 or net elasticity of the skin, and R7 or biological elasticity), and the resonance running time (RRT) at both volar forearms of the two groups were performed during three visits: before starting oils consumption and application, after 30 days of oils consumption and application, and after 60 days of oils consumption and application. The consumption of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2) (P<0.001), net elasticity of the skin (R5) (P<0.001), biological elasticity (R7) (P<0.001), and a significant decrease of RRT (P=0.002). The application of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2) (P<0.001), net elasticity of the skin (R5) (P<0.001), biological elasticity (R7) (P=0.001), and a significant decrease of RRT (P<0.001). Our findings suggest that the daily consumption and/or topical application of argan oil have an anti-aging effect on the skin demonstrated by the improvement of skin elasticity, characterized by an increase of R-parameters (R2, R5, and R7) and a decrease of RRT.
Article
Full-text available
Given its advantages in skin application (eg, hydration, antiaging, and protection), argan oil could be used in both dermatological and cosmetic formulations. Therefore, the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) using argan oil as a liquid lipid is a promising technique, since the former constitute well-established systems for dermal delivery. The aim of this work was to develop a topical formulation of argan oil NLCs to improve skin hydration. Firstly an NLC dispersion was developed and characterized, and afterward an NLC-based hydrogel was prepared. The in vivo evaluation of the suitability of the prepared formulation for the proposed application was assessed in volunteers, by measuring different skin-surface parameters for 1 month. An argan oil NLC-based hydrogel formulation was successfully prepared and characterized. Moreover, the entrapment of the NLCs in the hydrogel net did not affect their colloidal sizes. Additionally, it was observed that this formulation precipitated an increase in skin hydration of healthy volunteers. Therefore, we concluded that the preparation of NLC systems using argan oil as the liquid lipid is a promising strategy, since a synergistic effect on the skin hydration was obtained (ie, NLC occlusion plus argan oil hydration).
Article
Full-text available
The argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels), an endemic tree in Morocco, is the most remarkable species in North Africa, due to its botanical and bioecologic interest as well as its social value. Argan oil is traditionally well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. This paper gives an overview of scientific literature available on nutritional and pharmacologic properties of argan oil. Owing to its unique organoleptic properties associated with its cardioprotective properties, argan oil has found, recently, its place in the highly competitive international edible oil market. This success is a very positive sign for the preservation of the argan tree, the argan forests and, therefore, in general, the biodiversity.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vegetable oil enrichment of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells on their biochemical and biophysical properties. For this, RPE cells were incubated with 4 different vegetables oils (olive oil, corn oil, argan oil, and camelina oil). The cytotoxicity of these vegetable oils was assessed in vivo on 8-week-old mice and in vitro by using the neutral red and YO-PRO-1 tests. Membrane fluidity was evaluated by fluorescence anisotropy using the fluorescent probe diphenylhexatriene, and membrane fatty acid composition was assessed by gas chromatography. None of the oils tested displayed cytotoxic effects. In vitro, omega-3 rich oils improved membrane fluidity by 47% compared with the control cells. The omega-3 PUFA content within membranes decreased by 38% to 55% when cells were incubated separately with olive oil, corn oil, or argan oil, and increased when cells were incubated with a mixture of those oils, or with camelina oil alone (50% and 103% increase, respectively). Our results show that the fatty acids in vegetable oil incorporate into retinal cells and increase the plasma membrane fluidity.
Article
Full-text available
Argan (Argania spinosa L.) oil has been used for centuries in Morocco as cosmetic oil to maintain a fair complexion and to cure skin pimples and chicken pox pustules scars. Although it is popular, the scientific basis for its effect on the skin has not yet been established. Here, the melanogenesis regulatory effect of argan oil was evaluated using B16 murine melanoma cells. Results of melanin assay using B16 cells treated with different concentrations of argan oil showed a dose-dependent decrease in melanin content. Western blot results showed that the expression levels of tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) proteins were decreased. In addition, there was an increase in the activation of MITF and ERK1/2. Real-time PCR results revealed a downregulation of Tyr, Trp1, Dct, and Mitf mRNA expressions. Argan oil treatment causes MITF phosphorylation which subsequently inhibited the transcription of melanogenic enzymes, TYR and DCT. The inhibitory effect of argan oil on melanin biosynthesis may be attributed to tocopherols as well as the synergistic effect of its components. The results of this study provide the scientific basis for the traditionally established benefits of argan oil and present its therapeutic potential against hyperpigmentation disorders.
Article
Full-text available
It is now established that patients with hyperlipidemia have a high risk of atherosclerosis and thrombotic complications, which are two important events responsible for the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. In the context of managing dyslipidemia by means of dietary advice based on the consumption of argan oil, we wanted to investigate the effect of virgin argan oil on plasma lipids, and for the first time, on the platelet hyperactivation and oxidative status associated with dyslipidemia. This study concerns patients recruited in the area of Rabat in Morocco. 39 dyslipidemic (79% women) patients were recruited for our study in the area of Rabat in Morocco. They were randomly assigned to the two following groups: the argan group, in which the subjects consumed 25 mL/day of argan oil at breakfast for 3 weeks, and the control group in which argan oil was replaced by butter. After a 3-week consumption period, blood total cholesterol was significantly lower in the argan oil group, as was LDL cholesterol (23.8% and 25.6% lower, respectively). However, the HDL cholesterol level had increased by 26% at the end of the intervention period compared to baseline. Interestingly, in the argan oil group thrombin-induced platelet aggregation was lower, and oxidative status was enhanced as a result of lower platelet MDA and higher GPx activity, respectively. In conclusion, our results, even if it is not representative of the Moroccan population, show that argan oil can prevent the prothrombotic complications associated with dyslipidemia, which are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to assess the effect of virgin argan oil (VAO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVO) on the hormonal profile of androgens and anthropometric parameters among healthy adult Moroccan men during a controlled nutritional intervention. The study was carried out on 60 young and healthy male volunteers aged between 23 and 40 years old. During a stabilization period of 2 weeks they consumed butter. The group was then randomized into two categories, the first one consuming VAO and the second EVO for 3 weeks. Testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) serum concentrations were measured at the beginning of the study and at the end of each period. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the two groups (VAO and EVO) during each step of the study. Differences in androgens and anthropometric parameters between the baseline and after 3 weeks of the diet in the VAO and EVO groups were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. T and LH serum concentrations significantly increased after the intervention period. T levels increased by 19.9% and 17.4% (p < 0.0001), and LH levels by 18.5% (p < 0.007) and 42.6% (p < 0.0001), respectively, for VAO and EVO (p < 0.0001). However, DHEAS serum concentrations, body weight, body mass index, arterial pressure and daily energetic intake did not show any significant variation after the intervention with either argan or olive oils. The results suggest that consumption of AVO and EVO might be the origin of a positive action on the androgen hormonal profile of men.
Article
Full-text available
Vitamin E supplements could be beneficial for postmenopausal women. To evaluate the effect of edible argan oil consumption on the antioxidant status of postmenopausal women, the vitamin E serum level of 151 menopausal women consuming either olive or argan oil was determined. Serum level of vitamin E was increased in the argan oil consumer group. Therefore, an argan oil-enriched diet can be recommended to help prevent some postmenopausal disorders. Keywords: Argan oil, Postmenopausal women, Antioxidant, Vitamin E.
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally hand-pressed argan oil, obtained from Argania spinosa seeds, is eaten raw in south-west Morocco; its rich composition of tocopherols, MUFA and PUFA make a study of its actions on risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension, interesting. The effects of 7 weeks of treatment with argan oil (10ml/kg) on the blood pressure and endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar–Kyoto rats were investigated. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured every week by the tail-cuff method and endothelial function was assessed by carbachol (10−8 to 10−4m)-induced relaxations of aortic rings and small mesenteric arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Argan-oil administration reduced the mean blood pressure of SHR after the fifth week of treatment (P<0·05) and increased (P<0·01) the endothelial responses of arteries from SHR. The NO synthase inhibitor, l-N-ω-nitroarginine (3×10−5m) revealed a greater participation of NO in the relaxant effect after the treatment. When cyclooxygenase (COX) was blocked with indomethacin (10−5m), an involvement of COX products in the endothelium-dependent response was characterized. Enzyme immunoassay of thromboxane B2 showed a significant decrease (P<0·05) in the release of thromboxane A2 in both aorta and small mesenteric artery after argan-oil treatment of SHR. Experiments in the presence of the thromboxane A2–prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist ICI 192, 605 (10−5m) confirmed this result. Results after incubation with the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase suggested that a decreased oxidative stress might contribute to explain the beneficial effects of argan-oil treatment.
Article
Full-text available
The argan tree is a slow growing tree exclusively endemic in the dry lowlands of Southwest Morocco. The argan forest constitutes a long time ignored specific biotope that has been declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1998. The argan forest is particularly fragile to climate change. Forecasts show annual precipitation levels and prolonged drought periods that could severely threaten the future of the argan forest. In some places, the argan forest is already damaged, resulting in the retreat of the argan tree and the subsequent desert encroachment. An acceleration of this trend would have devastating consequences. In response, some twenty years ago, an ambitious, unique in Northern-Africa, and government-supported program was initiated in Morocco to rescue the argan tree via the sustainable development of the argan forest. Because in the late 1980s, sustainable development in developing countries was often considered as a utopia, the argan forest case represents a sign of progress, as it is also an interesting and unique experience in Africa. This review analyses the process followed, the measures taken, the pitfalls encountered, and the results obtained during the last two decades. It also points out the measures that still need to be taken before declaring the argan forest rescue mission is accomplished.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we investigate the effect of argan oil consumption on serum lipids, apolipoproteins (AI and B), CRP, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients which are known to have a high level of cardiovascular risk due to lipid abnormalities and lipid peroxidation. For that, 86 type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia were randomized to one group consuming 25 mL/day of argan oil during 3 weeks and control group consuming 20 g/day of butter in breakfast. After argan oil intervention, serum triglycerides decreased by 11.84%, (P = 0.001), total chol by 9.13%, (P = 0.01), and LDL-chol by 11.81%, (P = 0.02). However, HDL-chol and Apo AI increased (10.51%, P = 0.01 and 9.40%,  P = 0.045, resp.). Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by increasing of 20.95%, (P = 0.038) in lag phase after argan oil consumption. In conclusion, we show for the first time that consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving lipids, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in type 2 diabetes patients with dyslipidemia, and can therefore be recommended in the nutritional management of type 2 diabetes.
Article
Full-text available
Limited - though increasing - evidence suggests that argan oil might be endowed with potential healthful properties, mostly in the areas of CVD and prostate cancer. We sought to comprehensively determine the effects of argan oil supplementation on the plasma lipid profile and antioxidant status of a group of healthy Algerian subjects, compared with matched controls. A total of twenty healthy subjects consumed 15 g/d of argan oil - with toasted bread - for breakfast, during 4 weeks (intervention group), whereas twenty matched controls followed their habitual diet, but did not consume argan oil. The study lasted 30 d. At the end of the study, argan oil-supplemented subjects exhibited higher plasma vitamin E concentrations, lower total and LDL-cholesterol, lower TAG and improved plasma and cellular antioxidant profile, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we showed that Algerian argan oil is able to positively modulate some surrogate markers of CVD, through mechanisms which warrant further investigation.
Article
Full-text available
Four triterpene acetates, alpha-amyrin acetate (1a), beta-amyrin acetate (2a), lupeol acetate (3a), and butyrospermol acetate (4a), and four triterpene cinnamates, alpha-amyrin cinnamate (1c), beta-amyrin cinnamate (2c), lupeol cinnamate (3c), and butyrospermol cinnamate (4c), were isolated from the kernel fat (n-hexane extract) of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae). Upon evaluation of these eight triterpene esters for inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1 microg/ear) in mice, all of the compounds tested exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity, with ID50 values in the range of 0.15-0.75 micromol/ear, and among which compound 3c showed the highest activity with ID(50) of 0.15 micromol/ear. Compound 3c (10 mg/kg) further exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on rat hind paw edema induced by carrageenan, with the percentage of inflammation at 1, 3, and 5 h of 35.4, 41.5, and 45.5%, respectively. The eight triterpene esters were then evaluated for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) in Raji cells as a primary screening test for inhibitors of tumor promoters. All the compounds showed moderate inhibitory effects. Furthermore, compound 3c exhibited inhibitory effect on skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test using 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. The biological activities of triterpene acetate and cinnamate esters, together with the exceptionally high levels of these triterpenes in shea fat, indicate that shea nuts and shea fat (shea butter) constitute a significant source of anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor promoting compounds.
Article
Full-text available
Alpha-Tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol are the two major forms of vitamin E in human plasma and the primary lipid soluble antioxidants. The dietary intake of gamma-tocopherol is generally higher than that of alpha-tocopherol. However, alpha-tocopherol plasma levels are about four fold higher than those of gamma-tocopherol. Among other factors, a preferential cellular uptake of gamma-tocopherol over alpha-tocopherol could contribute to the observed higher plasma alpha-tocopherol levels. In this investigation, we studied the uptake and depletion of both alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol (separately and together) in cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages. Similar studies were performed with alpha-tocopheryl quinone and gamma-tocopheryl quinone, which are oxidation products of tocopherols. RAW 264.7 macrophages showed a greater uptake of gamma-tocopherol compared to alpha-tocopherol (with uptake being defined as the net difference between tocopherol transported into the cells and loss due to catabolism and/or in vitro oxidation). Surprisingly, we also found that the presence of gamma-tocopherol promoted the cellular uptake of alpha-tocopherol. Mass balance considerations suggest that products other than quinone were formed during the incubation of tocopherols with macrophages. Our data suggests that gamma-tocopherol could play a significant role in modulating intracellular antioxidant defence mechanisms. Moreover, we found the presence of gamma-tocopherol dramatically influenced the cellular accumulation of alpha-tocopherol, i.e., gamma-tocopherol promoted the accumulation of alpha-tocopherol. If these results could be extrapolated to in vivo conditions they suggest that gamma-tocopherol is selectively taken up by cells and removed from plasma more rapidly than alpha-tocopherol. This could, in part, contribute to the selective maintenance of alpha-tocopherol in plasma compared to gamma-tocopherol.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene, sterols and phenolic antioxidants in three types of argan oil (Moroccan food, Moroccan aesthetic and a French commercial variety) along with a basic comparison with extra virgin olive and sunflower oil. The fatty acid profiles in the argan oils were very similar, with oleic acid (43%) and linoleic acid (36%) and their respective monoacylglycerols predominating. The major vitamer identified was -tocopherol with a mean of 483+/-11 mg/kg, in contrast to -tocopherol, which is the major vitamer in olive (190+/-1 mg/kg) and sunflower oil (532+/-6 mg/kg). The squalene content of the argan oils was very similar with a mean of 313+/-4 mg/100 g, which is lower than that of the olive oil (499 mg/100 g) but significantly higher than in the sunflower oil (6 mg/100 g). In contrast to olive and sunflower oils in which -sitosterol is predominant, the major sterols detected in the argan oils were schottenol (mean 147+/-10 mg/kg) and spinasterol (mean 122+/-10 mg/kg). The only phenolic compounds other than the tocopherol vitamers which could be readily detected and quantitated were vanillic, syringic and ferulic (probably conjugated to glucose) acids along with tyrosol. In contrast to the extra virgin olive oil (793 mg/kg), the concentration of total phenolic compounds is extremely low (<5.0 mg/kg). Nevertheless, argan oil with its high content of the vitamer -tocopherol, squalene and oleic acid is likely to enhance the cancer prevention effects of the Moroccan diet.
Article
Full-text available
Virgin argan oil is of interest in cardiovascular risk prevention due to its fat composition and antioxidant compounds. We investigated with Moroccan subjects the effect of regular virgin argan oil consumption on lipid profile and antioxidant status and the in vitro effect of argan oil minor compounds (tocopherols, sterols and polyphenols) on LDL peroxidation. Healthy subjects (20 men, 76 women) were studied. Sixty-two were regular consumers of argan oil and 34 were non-consumers. Fasting plasma lipids, antioxidant vitamins and LDL oxidation susceptibility were analyzed. In vitro LDL oxidation by phenolic and apolar compounds of virgin argan oil were performed. Diet composition of argan oil consumers has a higher significant content of polyunsaturated fatty acids than that of non-consumers (8.8 +/- 1.0 vs. 6.6 +/- 0.9 g, P < 0.05). Subjects consuming argan oil have lower levels of plasma LDL cholesterol (12.7%, P < 0.05) and Lp(a) (25.3%, P < 0.05) compared with the non-consumers. In argan oil consumers, plasma lipoperoxides were lower (58.3%, P < 0.01) and molar ratio alpha-tocopherol/total cholesterol (21.6%, P < 0.05) and alpha-tocopherol concentration (13.4%, P < 0.05) were higher compared with the non-consumers group. In spite of higher levels of plasma antioxidant and lower levels of lipoperoxides in argan oil consumers, LDL oxidation susceptibility remained fairly similar. A strong positive correlation was observed between increasing phenolic extract, sterol and tocopherol concentrations and the LDL-Lag phase (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest for the first time that regular consumption of virgin argan oil induces a lowering of LDL cholesterol and has antioxidant properties. This oil offers an additional natural food to reducing cardiovascular risk.
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally hand-pressed argan oil, obtained from Argania spinosa seeds, is eaten raw in south-west Morocco; its rich composition of tocopherols, MUFA and PUFA make a study of its actions on risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension, interesting. The effects of 7 weeks of treatment with argan oil (10 ml/kg) on the blood pressure and endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were investigated. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured every week by the tail-cuff method and endothelial function was assessed by carbachol (10(-8) to 10(-4) M)-induced relaxations of aortic rings and small mesenteric arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Argan-oil administration reduced the mean blood pressure of SHR after the fifth week of treatment (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.01) the endothelial responses of arteries from SHR. The NO synthase inhibitor, L-N-omega-nitroarginine (3 x 10(-5) M) revealed a greater participation of NO in the relaxant effect after the treatment. When cyclooxygenase (COX) was blocked with indomethacin (10(-5) M), an involvement of COX products in the endothelium-dependent response was characterized. Enzyme immunoassay of thromboxane B2 showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the release of thromboxane A2 in both aorta and small mesenteric artery after argan-oil treatment of SHR. Experiments in the presence of the thromboxane A2-prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist ICI 192,605 (10(-5) M) confirmed this result. Results after incubation with the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase suggested that a decreased oxidative stress might contribute to explain the beneficial effects of argan-oil treatment.
Article
Full-text available
Argan oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherol and phenolic compounds. These protective molecules make further study of its cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) action interesting. Furthermore, no previous study has explored the antioxidant activity of argan oil in comparison with olive oil. The present study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial properties of Virgin argan oil phenolic extracts (VAO-PE) towards CVD by: (A) protecting human (low-density lipoprotein, LDL) against lipid peroxidation and (B) promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. Human LDLs were oxidized by incubation with CuSO(4) in the presence of different concentrations of VAO-PE (0-320mug/ml). LDL lipid peroxidation was evaluated by conjugated diene and MDA formation as well as Vitamin E disappearance. Incubation of LDL with VAO-PE significantly prolonged the lag-phase and lowered the progression rate of lipid peroxidation (P<0.01) and reduced the disappearance of Vitamin E in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of HDL with VAO-PE significantly increased the fluidity of the HDL phospholipidic bilayer (P=0.0004) and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages. These results suggest that Virgin argan oil provides a source of dietary phenolic antioxidants, which prevent cardiovascular diseases by inhibiting LDL-oxidation and enhancing reverse cholesterol transport. These properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL.
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate whether the consumption of virgin argan oil (VAO) is associated with a change in serum lipids and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy Moroccans. Sixty volunteers consumed butter (25 g/day) during 2 weeks (stabilization period) and were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group received 25 g/day of VAO during 3 weeks (intervention period), and the control group received 25 g/day of extra virgin olive oil (EVO). Throughout the study, weight, blood pressure, and daily food intake were measured. Serum total cholesterol and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured at the end of each diet period. Analysis of food intake showed that the daily diet is isocaloric for the butter regimen (2,537 +/- 244 kcal/day) as well as for the VAO and EVO regimens (2,561+/- 246 and 2,560 +/- 253 kcal/day, respectively). Analysis of the lipid intake showed a reduction in saturated fatty acids with VAO and EVO regimens (27 +/- 1.4 and 26.4 +/- 3.4%, respectively) as compared with the stabilization period (41.6 +/- 2.4%). The analysis of serum lipids showed a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I in both VAO group (8.4%, p = 0.012, and 5.2%, p = 0.027, respectively) and EVO group (17.3%, p = 0.001, and 5.9%, p = 0.036, respectively). However, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (13.8%, p = 0.037, and 7.8%, p = 0.039, respectively) decreased significantly only in EVO group as compared with the stabilization period, while triglycerides decreased significantly by 17.5% (p = 0.039) only in VAO group. These results confirm the cholesterol-lowering effect of EVO and show for the first time the triglyceride-lowering effect of VAO in men.
Article
Full-text available
The argan oil, extracted from argan-tree fruits, has been known for its various pharmacological properties and used as a natural remedy since several centuries. In this review, we present a summary of the results obtained from a survey of the literature on argan oil. Various studies conducted in vitro or on human and animal models suggest that argan oil could play a beneficial role in cardiovascular diseases prevention and its consumption could protect against atherosclerosis and cancer via a variety of biological mechanisms. Argan oil reduces cardiovascular risk and may be used as anti-atherogenic oil.
Article
The argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels) is native to Morocco, where after the Holly oak it constitutes the second most common tree in the country. Recent studies suggest that dietary argan oil, an endemic seed oil from argan fruits, may have a relevant role in disease prevention, and its consumption could protect against atherosclerosis and cancer. Unfortunately, in less than a century, more than a third of the forest has disappeared. It is therefore imperative to improve the tree's production potential so that it can regain its key position in the agricultural systems of the region. On the basis of ethnobotanical knowledge, researchers are screening metabolites of this rare plant to identify bioactive compounds for the development of new therapeutic agents and food supplements. This includes studies on secondary metabolites with chemopreventive activities. In this review, a complete outline of components (triglycerides, unsaponifiable, phenolic antioxidants and aroma constituents) are described. Finally, a discussion of the biological functions of the polar and non-polar A. spinosa products which have been evaluated using a range of in vitro bioassays are described.
Article
Antioxidant micronutrients may have chemopreventive effects. The authors examined the associations between prediagnostic blood levels of micronutrients and prostate cancer risk in two nested case-control studies of 9,804 and 10,456 male residents of Washington County, Maryland, who donated blood in 1974 (CLUE I) and 1989 (CLUE II), respectively. Until 1996, 182 men for whom adequate serum remained for assays in the CLUE I cohort and 142 men in the CLUE II cohort developed prostate cancer. Each case was matched with two controls by age, gender, race, and date of blood donation. In both cohorts, cases and controls had similar concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, total carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, retinol, and ascorbic acid; serum α-tocopherol was weakly associated with prostate cancer risk. Higher retinyl palmitate concentrations were associated with a lower risk in CLUE I but not CLUE II. In CLUE I, cases had lower concentrations of γ-tocopherol than did controls (p = 0.02), but no dose-response trend was observed. A strong inverse association between γ-tocopherol and prostate cancer risk was observed in CLUE II. Findings do not replicate previous reports of a protective association between lycopene and prostate cancer, but they suggest potential chemopreventive effects of γ-tocopherol on prostate cancer.
Article
Obesity is a multi-factorial disorder which is of worldwide concern. In addition to calorie control, some specific dietary components might help resolving some of the complication of obesity, by providing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the effect of argan oil supplementation on plasma lipid profile and oxidant-antioxidant status of rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity compared with rats fed a normal diet (ND). We used an animal model of high fat diet-induced obesity to study the metabolic effects of argan oil and we measured several markers lipid and redox statuses. Consumption of a high-fat diet led to an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triacylglycerols (TAG) concentrations; however, argan oil blunted the increases of TC, LDL-C and TG, glucose, and insulin. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, erythrocyte catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower, whereas plasma hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, and susceptibility of LDL to copper-induced oxidation were higher in obese rats compared with normal rats. Administration of argan oil ameliorated all these indices of redox status. Proper diet and lifestyle should be foremost implemented to reduce the lipoprotein metabolism and oxidant/antioxidant status alterations brought about by obesity. In addition, argan oil reduces the metabolic effects of obesity and its use might be promoted within the context of a balanced diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.
Article
Sensory quality of edible oil is essential to get the consumer acceptance. Modifications during processing can alter edible oil sensory quality. The storage stability and sensory quality of argan oil prepared from (1) mechanically pressed unroasted kernels, (2) mechanically pressed roasted kernels, (3) hand-pressed roasted kernels, and (4) hand-pressed roasted kernels coming from goat-digested fruits was studied at room temperature and under accelerated conditions (60°C). The roasting process had a positive effect on storage stability of the resulting oils, while argan oil prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels provides the optimum storage stability. Oil from hand-pressed roasted kernels originating from goat-digested fruits was not suitable for human consumption because of the unpleasant taste and odoûr. Only oil from mechanically pressed roasted kernels did not produce negative sensory attributes like fusty or Roquefort cheese.
Article
Background: The goal of this study was to examine the effect of Virgin Argan Oil (VAO) obtained from the fruit of Argania spinosa in a model of type 2 diabetes and hypertensive rats. Neonatal diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (90 mg/kg) 2 days after birth. To induce NO-deficient hypertension, the adult diabetic animals were treated with l-nitroarginine methylester (l-NAME) (30 mg/kg/day) given orally for 21 days. Methods: Following treatment with VAO (21 days), the hyperglycemia decreased to 1.3 ± 0.07 g/l compared with 1.92 ± 0.09 g/l (p < 0.01) in the untreated diabetic-hypertensive rats. The simultaneous administration of VAO with l-NAME prevented the increase in blood pressure during the 3 weeks of treatment. Blood pressure remained constant at 131 ± 1 mm Hg after 21 days - vs 157 ± 0.64 mm Hg in untreated animals (p < 0.001). Results: The treatment with VAO to diabetic-hypertensive rats caused a significant increase of hepatic glycogen levels (13.3 ± 1.8 vs 6.34 ± 0.75 mg/g tissue in untreated diabetic-hypertensive control group; p < 0.01). Conclusions: In conclusion, the overall findings indicate that VAO possesses antidiabetic and antihypertensive activity in n-stz/l-NAME rats. This effect may be related to its high content of tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and unsaturated fatty acids.
Article
During the last two decades, the argan tree has been the subject of intensive phytochemical investigation. If argan oil is the most known argan derivative, argan saponins are frequently considered as molecules presenting a strong economic potential. This review presents an update of the current research efforts on argan saponins from around the world. Research evidence suggests that arganine C can be considered as a lead compound for new antivirals.
Article
In recent years, diverse nanoemulsion vehicles (NEs) have been developed with vast potential for improving therapeutic index of clinically approved and experimental drugs. Using oils rich in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), several promising nanoemulsion formulations have been developed recently for oral and systemic administration. The aim of our present work is to successfully develop and characterize optimized nanoemulsion platform, using the PUFA-rich argan oil that contain several important anti-inflammatory and antimitotic natural components. Using various emulsifying mixtures of polyethoxylated solutol HS-15 and polyethyleneglucol Vitamin E succinyl ester (TPGS), to form different NEs showing extended shelf-life stability. The physicochemical properties of prototype argan NEs were analyzed and utilizing a 32 full factorial design, followed by biocompatibility screen, using normal vascular myocytes and areolar fibroblasts. While 90-180 day stability of NEs correlated with TPGS:solutol surfactant blend ratios, adverse effects on integrity of test cultures were only noted at high TPGS content in the emulsifier system, exceeding 80%. Finally, the anti-proliferative efficacy of selected stable and acceptably biocompatible nanoscale TPGS-emulsified argan oil formulations was investigated using murine breast and colon carcinoma cells. The IC50 values of the combination of argan oil and TPGS (40-80% wt of emulsifiers) were 5-9 folds lower compared to TPGS-free and argan-oil free control NEs. Argan oil NE, stabilized with Vitamin E TPGS and solutol HS mixtures, demonstrated significant pro-apoptotic effect on both test cancer cell lines, indicating built-in anticancer properties for such NE platform, potentially enhancing overall antineoplastic effects of incorporated candidate chemotherapeutic agents.
Article
Argan oil is of food or cosmetic (INCI name: Argania spinosa kernel oil) grade. During the past 15 years cosmetic argan oil, as beauty oil or cosmetic ingredient, has become one of the major actors in the dermocosmetic field. Beauty argan oil is produced by cold-pressing argan-fruit kernels. As a cosmetic ingredient, argan oil is produced by solvent-assisted extraction of the finely crushed kernels. Enriched-argan oil which is produced by distillation of cosmetic argan oil can be supplemented with antioxidants. Hence, it presents an even better cosmetic potential. Argan fruit pulp and argan leaves also contain proteins, peptides, saponins and other chemicals presenting highly interesting dermocosmetics. Therefore, the argan tree (A. spinosa) is sometimes nicknamed A. cosmetosa. We comprehensively review the current knowledge (literature and patent) related to argan oil and argan tree products in the dermocosmetic domain.
Article
This review compiles recently published scientific reports on the bioactive compounds present in virgin argan oil along with their possible beneficial effects on human health, which could justify consideration of this oil as a new functional food. Virgin argan oil is characterized by high levels of linoleic and oleic acids, tocopherols (especially γ-tocopherol), and minor compounds such as sterols, carotenoids, and squalene. The total antioxidant capacity of virgin argan oil is higher than that of other vegetable oils. Recent studies suggest that this edible oil, as a functional food, may play a role in disease prevention. For example, some authors have found it to have hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive effects as well as a possible role in cancer prevention. This review demonstrates the need for further studies in order to fully characterize argan oil from bromatological, nutritional, culinary, and technological perspectives. In particular, the scarcity of clinical data hampers relevant conclusions from being drawn regarding the therapeutic effects of virgin argan oil.
Article
It has recently been shown that high-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a technique which can provide valuable information about the acyl distribution and acyl positional distribution (1,3-acyl and 2-acyl) of glycerol tri-esters of different vegetable oils. It has also been observed that many of the carbon atoms of α- and β- acyl chains in tri-acyl-glycerol show different 13C NMR chemical shifts. However, previous assignments of 13C NMR spectra are either tentative or incomplete. Thus, through a series of INADEQUATE experiments, we made a full assignment of all 13C resonances of glycerol tri-esters. We also noticed a strong concentration dependence of the shifts of all resonances. Thus, in vegetable oils, the full assignment of 13C resonances must be made by progressive addition of known glycerol tri-esters. Following this method, we report a full assignment of the 13C spectra of seed and olive oils obtaining an accurate analysis of the acyl positional distribution (1,3-acyl and 2-acyl) of glycerol tri-esters. From the knowledge of the acyl positional distribution (1,3-acyl and 2-acyl) of glycerol tri-esters interesting biochemical information can be achieved.
Article
Populations of the South-western part of Morocco traditionally use the fruits of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels to prepare an edible oil whose obtainment furnishes, as side product, a cake used to feed the cattle and complemented the forage furnished by the leaves and fruits of this same plant. However, the wood of A. spinosa is also used for fuel and the subsequent induced deforestation is nowadays accelerated since populations are generally eager to replace argan-groves by cultures of higher and immediate benefits. Recently, argan tree, that is particularly well adapted to grow in arid lands, has been proposed by several agencies to slow down the desert progress in Northern Africa. In order to promote argan tree reintroduction by the South-western Morocco dwellers, a program aimed to increase the industrial value of A. spinosa is currently carried out in Morocco. A phytochemical study is included in this program. Traditional knowledge as well as the most recent results concerning A. spinosa are described in this review.
Article
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modulates innate immunity through alteration of cytokine production by immune cells. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of exogenous conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and PPAR-γ agonist, rosiglitazone, on LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production by cultured whole blood from prepubertal Holstein heifers (mean age, 5.5 mo). Compared with unstimulated cells, addition of LPS (10 μg/mL) to the culture medium increased (P<0.03) peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation≤2.5-fold. Coincubation with interferon γ (5 ng/mL) further stimulated (P<0.01) the lymphoproliferative response to LPS. Lipopolysaccharide increased (P<0.01) TNF-α concentration in cultured whole blood in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The greatest TNF-α stimulation occurred after 12 h of exposure to 1 μg/mL LPS. Coincubation with trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer (100 μM) or rosiglitazone (10 μM), a PPAR-γ agonist, decreased (P<0.01) LPS-induced TNF-α production by 13% and 29%, respectively. Linoleic acid and cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer had no detectable effects on LPS-induced TNF-α production in cultured bovine blood. The PPAR-γ agonist-induced TNF-α attenuation was reversed when blood was treated with both rosiglitazone and GW9662, a selective PPAR-γ antagonist. Addition of rosiglitazone to the culture medium tended to reduce nuclear factor-κ Bp65 concentration in nuclear and cytosolic extracts isolated from cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results show that LPS is a potent inducer of TNF-α production in bovine blood cells and that trans-10, cis-12 CLA and PPAR-γ agonists may attenuate the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS in growing dairy heifers. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize the involvement of nuclear factor-κ B in LPS signaling in bovine blood cells.
Article
The argan tree plays an important socioeconomic and ecologic role in South Morocco. Moreover, there is much evidence for the beneficial effects of virgin argan oil (VAO) on human health. Thus, this study investigated whether administering VAO to rats can prevent the development of diabetes. VAO extracted by a traditional method from the almonds of Argania spinosa (2 mL/kg) was administered orally (for 7 consecutive days) to rats before and during intraperitoneal alloxan administration (75 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days). An alloxan diabetic-induced untreated group and treated by table oil were used as control groups. Body mass, blood glucose and hepatic glycogen were evaluated. In the present study, subchronic treatment with VAO at a dose of 2 mL/kg, before the experimental induction of diabetes, prevented the body mass loss, induced a significant reduction of blood glucose and a significant increase of hepatic glycogen level (p < 0.001) compared with the untreated diabetic group. In conclusion, the present study shows that argan oil should be further investigated in a human study to clarify its possible role in reducing weight loss in diabetics, and even in inhibiting the development or progression of diabetes. This antidiabetic effect could be due to the richness of VAO in tocopherols, phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids.
Article
New micro-vessels formation within synovium and macro-vessels endothelial damage with atheroma are two major features of rheumatoid arthritis, the former related to the articular involvement of the disease, the latter to its main systemic complication. The similarities between pannus development and solid tumors growth, and the efficacy of anti-angiogenic treatments in oncology, opened the perspective of directly targeting angiogenesis in arthritis. Nevertheless, despite the success of different anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategies in many arthritis experimental models, the application in human disease is still lacking. Recent data suggest that synovial neoangiogenesis and macro-vessels endothelial damage might be two linked phenomena. While synovial angiogenesis seems to be detrimental to endothelial damage repair, even anti-angiogenic treatments might paradoxically aggravate macro-vascular disease, especially in the context of uncontrolled inflammation. These elements induce to further explore the interconnections between inflammation and angiogenesis on one side and between micro- and macro-vascular diseases on the other, in order to establish the proper way to therapeutically target blood vessels in rheumatoid arthritis.
Article
Virgin argan oil, cosmetic or dietary grade, is prepared by cold-pressing the kernels of argan fruits. Both types of oil, traditionally used by the amazighs (the argan grove traditional dwellers), are now available on the shelves of the most-developed country stores. Argan oil contains a high level of oleic and linoleic acid and is also particularly rich in phenols. Since these metabolites are currently considered as essential to explain some of the protective effects against cancer and coronary heart disease attributed to other oils, similar effects can be expected from argan oil consumption as suggested by the amazigh medicine claims. Interestingly, argan oil content in gamma -tocopherol is much higher than that of any other oils. gamma -Tocopherol has recently been shown to possess strong chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. This indicates that argan oil should readily find a place of choice amid the most profitable oils for human health. Because of its reduced geographical origin, the chemical composition (major as well as minor components) of argan oil is also highly reproducible. Therefore argan oil consumption should confer health benefits in a reliable and efficient manner.
Article
Latex from Euphorbia lactea (Euphorbiaceae), a native Dominican medicinal plant, is claimed to be useful in the treatment of inflammation. Topical application of tirucallol, a tetracyclic triterpene isolated from Euphorbia lacteal latex, suppressed ear edema in the mouse model in a dose-dependent manner, as well as affecting the influx of polymorphonuclear cells in response to topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA) in the mouse ear. In addition, the effect of tirucallol, on some macrophage functions was analyzed in vitro. Non-toxic concentrations of tirucallol potently inhibited nitrite production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Western blot analysis showed that nitric oxide reduction was a consequence of the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthetase expression although tirucallol slightly affected to prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) generation. The results of the study revealed that tirucallol (0.3%), present in Euphorbia lactea latex, exerts a topical anti-inflammatory effect in vivo, via a mechanism of action related to the neutrophil migration. On the other hand, it can be deduced that the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of this triterpene is related to the control of the production of NO and its effect on the expression of iNOS.
Article
We investigated the potential metabolic benefits of fish oil (FO) or vegetable argan oil (AO) intake in a dietary model of obesity-linked insulin resistance. Rats were fed a standard chow diet (controls), a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet, or an HFHS diet in which 6% of the fat was replaced by either FO or AO feeding, respectively. The HFHS diet increased adipose tissue weight and insulin resistance as revealed by increased fasting glucose and exaggerated glycemic and insulin responses to a glucose tolerance test (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test). Fish oil feeding prevented fat accretion, reduced fasting glycemia, and normalized glycemic or insulin responses to intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test as compared with HFHS diet. Unlike FO consumption, AO intake failed to prevent obesity, yet restored fasting glycemia back to chow-fed control values. Insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and Erk in adipose tissues, skeletal muscles, and liver was greatly attenuated in HFHS rats as compared with chow-fed controls. High-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced insulin resistance was also confirmed in isolated hepatocytes. Fish oil intake prevented insulin resistance by improving or fully restoring insulin signaling responses in all tissues and isolated hepatocytes. Argan oil intake also improved insulin-dependent phosphorylations of Akt and Erk; and in adipose tissue, these responses were increased even beyond values observed in chow-fed controls. Taken together, these results strongly support the beneficial action of FO on diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, an effect likely explained by the ability of FO to prevent HFHS-induced adiposity. Our data also show for the first time that AO can improve some of the metabolic and insulin signaling abnormalities associated with HFHS feeding.
Article
Very high level oxidative damage to DNA occurs during normal metabolism. In each rat cell the steady-state level of this damage is estimated to be about 10(6) oxidative adducts, and about 10(5) new adducts are formed daily. This endogenous DNA damage appears to be a major contributor to aging and to the degenerative diseases associated with aging such as cancer. The oxidative damage rate in mammalian species with a high metabolic rate, short life span, and high age-specific cancer rate such as rats is much higher than the rate in humans, long-lived mammals with a lower metabolic rate and a lower age-specific cancer rate. It is argued that deficiency of micronutrients that protect against oxidative DNA damage is a major contributor to human cancer. Epidemiological studies, a large body of experimental evidence, and theoretical work on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis point to mitogenesis as a major contributor to cancer. Dividing cells compared to nondividing cells are at an enormously increased risk for mutations in part due to the conversion of DNA adducts to mutations. Mitogenesis also increases the probability of gene amplification and loss of 5-methylcytosine. Dietary interventions that lower mitogenesis, such as calorie restriction, decrease the incidence of cancer.
Article
The chronic ingestion of 5 ml/kg/d of Argan oil by spontaneously hypertensive rats restores normal blood pressure and induces hypocholesterolaemia. In order to confirm these results Meriones shawi, a rodent of the Gerbillideae family, was tested as a second animal model. Meriones submitted to a hypercaloric diet and physical inactivity became fat, and exhibited hypertension, dyslipidaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. When treated for two months with the same dosage regimen, decreases in glycaemia, total plasmatic cholesterol, LDL, insulinaemia and systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 4.4 per cent, 14.4 per cent, 32.5 per cent, 26.8 per cent, 28.8 per cent and 30.5 per cent were simultaneously observed. Increases in LDH and of TG of 27.9 per cent and 16.2 per cent respectively were also observed. No effect on body weight occurred. The action of polyunsatured fatty acids of the Argan oil is predominant, but in addition, other constituents play an active part.
Article
Antioxidant micronutrients may have chemopreventive effects. The authors examined the associations between prediagnostic blood levels of micronutrients and prostate cancer risk in two nested case-control studies of 9,804 and 10,456 male residents of Washington County, Maryland, who donated blood in 1974 (CLUE I) and 1989 (CLUE II), respectively. Until 1996, 182 men for whom adequate serum remained for assays in the CLUE I cohort and 142 men in the CLUE II cohort developed prostate cancer. Each case was matched with two controls by age, gender, race, and date of blood donation. In both cohorts, cases and controls had similar concentrations of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, total carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, retinol, and ascorbic acid; serum alpha-tocopherol was weakly associated with prostate cancer risk. Higher retinyl palmitate concentrations were associated with a lower risk in CLUE I but not CLUE II. In CLUE I, cases had lower concentrations of gamma-tocopherol than did controls (p = 0.02), but no dose-response trend was observed. A strong inverse association between gamma-tocopherol and prostate cancer risk was observed in CLUE II. Findings do not replicate previous reports of a protective association between lycopene and prostate cancer, but they suggest potential chemopreventive effects of gamma-tocopherol on prostate cancer.
Article
Due to its high antioxidant and mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid content virgin argan oil (VAO) could play a beneficial role in cardiovascular prevention. We were therefore interested in determining whether the consumption of VAO could improve plasma paraoxonase (PON1) activities and antioxidant status in healthy men. Sixty young men were included in this interventional study. They were given a controlled diet for 2 weeks as baseline and then received 25 g/day of butter. The group was randomised to two diet group periods of 3 weeks each. The VAO group received 25 ml/day of oil and the extra virgin olive oil (EVO) group received the same quantity of EVO as control group. Plasma PON1 activities, antioxidant vitamins and LDL susceptibility to oxidation were measured. The analysis of the results shows that PON1 activities increase significantly in both groups and that lipoperoxides and conjugated dienes formation decreases significantly in VAO and EVO groups compared to baseline values (P=0.001 and P=0.014, respectively). Vitamin E concentration increases significantly only in VAO group (P=0.007). Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation shows a significant increase in lag phase and a significant decrease in maximum diene production in VAO (P=0.005) and EVO groups (P=0.041 and P=0.005, respectively). Our findings confirm the beneficial effect of EVO on plasma antioxidant status and show for the first time the same effect for VAO supplementation in man. Thus, VAO offers an additional natural food supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk.
Article
The global phenolic content of argan oil and press cake samples (alimentary and cosmetic) was evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and the phenolic composition of argan oil (alimentary and cosmetic) and press cake (alimentary) samples were analyzed by GC-MS after extraction with 80:20 (v/v) methanol:water and silylation. Identification of chromatographic peaks was made by mass selective detection. Nineteen simple phenols were detected, 16 in press cake, 6 in the alimentary oil, and 7 in the cosmetic oil, among which 15 compounds [3-hydroxypyridine (3-pyridinol), 6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine, catechol, resorcinol, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, vanillin, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, vanillyl alcohol, 3,4-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenethyl alcohol, methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, hydroxytyrosol, protocatechuic acid, epicatechin, and catechin] were identified for the first time in such materials.