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Phytochemical evaluation and pharmacological activity of syzygium aromaticum: A comprehensive review

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Abstract

Medicinal plants are generating an ever-increasing amount of interest due to the effectiveness, low cost and minimal side-effects associated with drugs derived from them. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) (Family Myrtaceae) is one of the most important herbs in traditional medicine, having a wide spectrum of biological activity. Phytoconstituents of clove comprise of various classes and groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolics and hydrocarbon compounds. The major phytochemicals found in clove oil is mainly eugenol (70-85%) followed by eugenyl acetate (15%) and β-caryophyllene (512%). Their derivatives result in biological benefits such as antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic capacities. In addition to clove oil’s worldwide use as a food flavoring agent, it has also been employed for centuries as a topical analgesic in dentistry. This review presents an overview and details of the phytochemical and pharmacological investigations on the S. aromaticum.
PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SYZYGIUM
AROMATICUM: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW
Review Article
MONIKA MITTAL, NOMITA GUPTA, PALAK PARASHAR, VARSHA MEHRA, MANISHA KHATRI*
Shaheed Rajguru College of Applied Sciences for Women, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.
Email: manishakhatri2001@gmail.com
Received: 16 Jul 2014 Revised and Accepted: 15 Aug 2014
ABSTRACT
Medicinal plants are generating an ever-increasing amount of interest due to the effectiveness, low cost and minimal side-effects associated with
drugs derived from them. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) (Family Myrtaceae) is one of the most important herbs in traditional medicine, having a
wide spectrum of biological activity. Phytoconstituents of clove comprise of various classes and groups of chemical compounds such as
monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolics and hydrocarbon compounds. The major phytochemicals found in clove oil is mainly eugenol (70-85%)
followed by eugenyl acetate (15%) and β-caryophyllene (512%). Their derivatives result in biological benefits such as antibacterial, antifungal,
insecticidal, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic capacities. In addition to clove oil’s worldwide use as a food flavoring agent, it has also been employed for
centuries as a topical analgesic in dentistry. This review presents an overview and details of the phytochemical and pharmacological investigations
on the S. aromaticum.
Keywords: Clove, Syzygium aromaticum, Phytoconstituents, Pharmacological activity.
INTRODUCTION
Medicinal plants have been the mainstay of traditional herbal
medicine amongst rural dwellers worldwide since antiquity to date.
Natural products have been an integral part of the ancient
traditional medicine systems like Ayurveda, Chinese and Egyptian. It
is estimated that 40% of the world population depends directly on
plant based medicine for their health care. India has rich medicinal
plant flora of some 25,000 species, out of which 150 species are
commercially used for extracting medicines or drug formulation.
Over the last few years, researchers have aimed at identifying and
validating plants derived substances for the treatment of various
diseases. Interestingly, it is estimated that more than 25% of
modern medicines are directly or indirectly derived from plants. In
this context, it is worth mentioning that Indian plants are considered
as vast source of several pharmacologically active principles and
compounds, which are commonly used in home remedies against
multiple ailments. The focus of this review is to provide information
on the phytochemicals, ethno medicinal uses and pharmacological
activities of Syzygium aromaticum commonly known as clove.
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merril. & Perry, syn. Eugenia
aromaticum or E. caryophyllata) is one of the most ancient and
valuable spices of the Orient. It is a member of the family Myrtaceae.
The clove of commerce is its dried unopened flower buds. Whole
and ground cloves are used to enhance the flavor of meat and rice dishes
and used widely in curry powders and masalas. They are highly valued
in medicine as a carminative and stimulant and are said to be a natural
anthelmintic. It is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a
type of cigarette, known locally as kretek in Indonesia and in occasional
coffee bars in the West, mixed with marijuana to create marijuana spliffs.
In the last several years, it has been recognized as an effective anesthetic
for sedating fish for a number of invasive and noninvasive fisheries
management and research procedures [1,2]. Oil of clove is used
extensively for flavoring all kinds of food products, such as meats,
sausages, baked goods, confectionery, candies, table sauces, pickles, etc.
It is used in medicine for its antibacterial, antiseptic and antibiotic
properties. It has also been successfully used for asthma and various
allergic disorders by oral administration [3]. Sesquiterpenes, found in
clove were also investigated as potential anti-carcinogenic agents [4].
The oil has many industrial applications and is used extensively in
perfumes, soaps and as a clearing agent in histological work. In addition,
the cloves are anti-mutagenic, [5] anti-inflammatory, [3] antioxidant, [6]
antiviral, [7] anti-thrombotic [8] and anti-parasitic [9].
PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF CLOVE
Various studies have been carried out to find various constituents of
S. aromaticum [10-12]. Clove buds contain 1520% essential oil,
which is dominated by eugenol (7085%), eugenyl acetate (15%)
and β-caryophyllene (512%). Other essential oil ingredients of
clove oil are vanillin, crategolic acid, tannins, gallotannic acid, methyl
salicylate, flavonoids eugenin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, eugenitin and
triterpenoids like oleanolic acid. The constituents of the oil also include
methyl amyl ketone, methyl salicylate, α and β-humulene, benzaldehyde,
β-ylangene and chavicol. The minor constituents like methyl amyl
ketone, methyl salicylate etc., are responsible for the characteristic
pleasant odour of cloves. Gopalakrishnan et al. (1984) characterized six
sesquiterpenes, namely: α-cubebene (1.3%), α-copaene (0.4%), β-
humulene (9.1%), β- caryophyllene (64.5%), γ-cadinene (2.6%) and δ-
cadinene (2.6%) in the hydrocarbon fraction of the freshly distilled
Indian clove bud oil [13]. The pharmacological activities of different
phytoconstituents of S. aromaticum are presented in Table 1.
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF CLOVE
Antibacterial activity
Several studies have demonstrated potent antibacterial effects of
clove [47,48]. The inhibitory activity of clove is due to the presence
of several constituents, mainly eugenol, eugenyl acetate, β-
caryophyllene, 2-heptanone, [6] acetyl-eugenol, α-humulene, methyl
salicylate, iso-eugenol, methyl-eugenol, [9] phenyl propanoides,
dehydrodieugenol, trans-confireryl aldehyde, biflorin, kaempferol,
rhamnetin, myricetin, gallic acid, ellagic acid and oleanolic acid [49].
These compounds can denature proteins and react with cell
membrane phospholipids, changing their permeability. Burst and
Reinders 2003, found clove oil effective against non-toxigenic strains
of E. coli O157:H7 [50]. Similarly in another study clove oil was
found to be active against food borne gram positive bacteria (S.
aureus, B. cereus, E. faecalis, L. monocytogenes) and gram negative
bacteria ( E. coli, Y. enterocolitica, S. choleraesuis, P. aerugenosa) [47].
Demirpek et al, 2009 showed that aqueous and ethanolic extracts of
clove buds inhibit growth of methicillin resistant clinical isolates at
1000 and 500mg/ml concentration [51]. The isolates were multi
drug resistant, mostly against beta-lactams, aminoglycosides,
tetracyclines, floroquinolones and macrolide antibiotics. In another
study eugenol at 2μg/mL inhibited growth of 31 strains of
Helicobacter pylori, after 9 hours of incubation, which is being more
potent than amoxicillin and doesn’t develop resistance [52].
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN- 0975-1491 Vol 6, Issue 8, 2014
Innovare
Academic Sciences
Khatri et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 6, Issue 8, 67-72
68
Table 1: Pharmacological activities of different phytochemicals isolated from S. aromaticum
S.
No.
Name of
Phytoconstituent
Structure of Phytoconstituent
Biological Activity
Reference
1
Eugenol
Antimicrobial, Analgesic,
Antioxidant, Anticancer, Anthelmintic, Antiulcer,
Anti-inflammatory, Anti-depressant, Bone preserving,
antipyretic, Antithrombotic
[14]
2
β-caryophyllene
Antitumor, anti-apoptotic
[15]
Anesthetic
[16]
Anti-lishmanial
[17]
Anti-inflammatory
[18]
Antioxidant, antibiotic
[19]
3
Vanillin
Antimicrobial
[20]
Antioxidant
[21]
Antidepressant
[22]
4
Crategolic acid
(Maslinic acid)
Antitumor
[23]
5
Kaempferol
Antimicrobial, Antioxidant
[24]
Anti-inflammatory
[25]
Anticancer
[26]
6
Rhamnetin
Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant
[27]
Cardio protective
[28]
Antifungal
[29]
7
Eugenitin
Antifungal
[30]
8
Eugenin
No activity reported
9
Gallic acid
Antimicrobial, Antioxidant
[31]
Anti-inflammatory
[32]
10
Biflorin
OCH
3
O
OH
HO
O
HO
HO OH
OH
Antibacterial
[33]
Antioxidant, Anticancer
[34]
11
Myricetin
Antimicrobial
[35]
Antioxidant, Anticancer
[36]
Anti-inflammatory
[37]
12
Campesterol
Antibacterial
[38]
Antinociceptive
[39]
Anti-carcinogenic
[40]
Khatri et al.
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69
13
Stigmasterol
Antimicrobial
[38]
Antitumor
[41]
Acaricidal
[42]
Block cartilage degradation
[43]
14
Oleanolic acid
Anti-diabetic
[44]
Antimicrobial
[45]
Anticancer
[46]
15
Bicornin
No activity reported
Antifungal activity
Many studies have reported antifungal activity for clove oil and
eugenol against yeasts and filamentous fungi, such as several food-
borne fungal species [53] and human pathogenic fungi [54]. Clove oil
and eugenol have also been tested as antifungal agents in animal
models [55]. The phenolic components of clove, carvacrol and
eugenol, are known to possess fungicidal characteristics [56]
including activity against fungi isolated from onychomycosis. Rana
et al. determined antifungal activity of clove oil in different strains
and reported following scale of sensibility- Mucor sp.> Microsporum
gypseum> Fusarium monoliforme NCIM 1100> Trichophytum
rubrum> Aspergillus sp.> Fusarium oxysporum [57]. In
chromatographic analysis eugenol was found to be the main
compound responsible for the antifungal activity, due to lysis of the
spores and micelles. A similar mechanism of action of membrane
disruption and deformation of macromolecules produced by eugenol
was also reported by Devi et al [58]. The large spectrum of fungicidal
activity of clove oil and eugenol was reported on Candida,
Aspergillus and dermatophytes and the mechanism of action was
attributed to the lesions of the cytoplasmic membrane [53]. Burt
proposed that different modes of action can be involved in the
antifungal activity of essential oils. The activity may in part be due to
their hydrophobicity, which is responsible for their partition into the
lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, leading to an alteration of
permeability and a consequent leakage of cell contents [50].
Antioxidant/Free radical scavenging activity
Clove essential oil has the highest antioxidant capability and perhaps
one of the best known oil for food or supplement. For this reason, it
has been included in some longevity formulae. Clove and eugenol
possess strong antioxidant activity, which is comparable to the
activities of the synthetic antioxidants, BHA and pyrogallol [59].
Clove oil inhibited 97.3% lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion
at 15 µg/mL concentration. The essential oil demonstrated
scavenging activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl
(DPPH) radical at concentrations lower than the concentrations of
eugenol, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyl
anisole (BHA) [60]. Abojid et al observed enhanced liver functions,
kidney functions, and antioxidant status in clove treated rats and
showed that its protective role against H2O2
Anticarcinogenic activity
induced cell damages
might be due to the effect of active compounds found in essential oil
and plant extract [61]. A recent study by Calleja et al reported that β-
caryophyllene isolated from clove essential oil protects rat liver
from carbon tetrachloride induced fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic
stellate cell activation [19].
Clove essential oil has also been reported to show anticarcinogenic
[4] and antimutagenic potential because of its strong free radical
scavenging activity [63]. Several Preliminary studies suggested
chemo preventive role of clove oil, particularly in cases of lung, skin
and digestive cancers [64]. Ethyl acetate extract of clove inhibits
tumor growth and promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Oleanolic acid one of the components of ethyl acetate extract of clove
was found to be responsible for its antitumor activity. Its mechanism
was attributed to the promotion of Go/G1 cell cycle arrest and
induction of apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner [65]. Eugenol
acts as a potential molecule that can interfere with several cell-
signaling pathways, specifically the NF-κB. In an another study,
eugenol was found to suppress growth of malignant melanoma
WM1205Lu of both anchorage-dependent and anchorage
independent growth, decreased size of tumors and inhibited
melanoma invasion and metastasis by the inhibition of two
transition factors of the E2F family [66]. Hussain et al. studied the
effect of eugenol combined with gemcitabine on cervical carcinoma
and found that the combination of eugenol and gemcitabine can
inhibit cancer cell growth, even in low concentrations [67]. Studies
on related gene also found that eugenol can reduce the possibility of
apoptosis of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),
and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), reduce inflammation, and increase the
treatment efficacy of gemcitabine. Moreover, Eugenol showed better
curative effects in skin cancer and melanoma.
Analgesic activity
Eugenol is a routine analgesic agent widely used in dental clinics due
to its ability to alleviate tooth pain. Its anesthetic effects in dental
pain as well as analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in animal
models have been well documented [68]. The effects have been
attributed to its capability to suppress prostaglandins and other
inflammatory mediators such as leukotriene. It is also believed to
depress the sensory receptors involved in pain perception, [69]
inhibits the conduction of action potential in sciatic nerves [70] and
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors but potentiates ionotropic
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA
Anti-inflammatory activity
) receptors, which are both involved in
pain sensitivity [71].
Clove oil clear respiratory passages, acting as an expectorant for
treating many upper-respiratory conditions including colds, eye
sties, bronchitis, sinus conditions, cough and asthma. One of the
studies showed that the essential oil possess significant anti-
inflammatory effect at doses of 0.05 ml/kg (90.15% inhibition) and
0.200 ml/kg (82.78% inhibition) [72]. Clove has been used in
traditional public medicine to relieve nasal obstruction and
musculoskeletal pain which implies its anti-inflammatory activity
and the activity is due to COX-2 inhibition [73]. The aromatic oil,
when inhaled, can help relieve certain respiratory conditions like
coughs, colds, asthma, bronchitis and sinusitis. Clove also contains a
variety of flavonoids including kaempferol, rhamnetin and β-
caryophyllene which also contributed to its anti-inflammatory and
antioxidant properties [16]. It has an anti-inflammatory effect
Khatri et al.
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70
matching to that of etodolac at 0.025 and 0.1 ml/kg and to that of
indomethacin at 0.05 and 0.2 ml/kg doses. Eugenol (200 and 400
mg/kg) was also found to reduce the volume of pleural exudates
without changing the total blood leukocyte count indicating its anti-
inflammatory potential [74].
Antithrombotic activity
Clove oil inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by
arachidonic acid (AA), platelet-activating factor (PAF) or collagen. It
was a more effective inhibitor for aggregation induced by AA and
PAF (IC50: 4 and 6 µM respectively) than collagen (IC50: 132 µM).
The in vivo experiments in rabbits showed that clove oil (50-100
mg/kg) afforded 100% protection against PAF (11 mg/kg, i.v.) and
70% protection against AA (2.0 mg/kg, i.v.) induced thrombosis and
shock due to pulmonary platelet thrombosis. It also inhibited
thromboxane-A2 and 12-HETE production by human platelets
incubated with [C[14]] AA [75]. Eugenol inhibits prostaglandin
biosynthesis, the formation of thromboxane B2, and arachidonic
acid-induced platelet aggregation in vitro [76]. Eugenol and acetyl
eugenol are found to be more potent than aspirin in inhibiting
platelet aggregation induced by arachidonate, adrenaline and
collagen. In arachidonate induced aggregation eugenol is at par with
indomethacin [77].
Anesthetic activity
Clove oil is used as a safe anesthetic for aquatic research. It has a
mild anesthetic effect in human since antiquity [78] and fish [79].
Eugenol, the active ingredient of clove oil, inhibits the synthesis of
prostaglandin H (PHS), which accounts for the analgesic effect of
clove oil [80]. Clove oil and eugenol were reported as an acceptable
anesthetic for rabbit fish (Saiganus lineatus), coral reef fish
(Pomacentrus amboinensis) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
mykiss) for use in aquaculture and aquatic research. It was also
found to be useful as a crab anesthetic [81]. Doses of 60100 ppm
eugenol produced rapid anesthesia with an acceptably short time for
recovery in Zebra fish. These findings suggest that eugenol could be
an effective anesthetic for use with aquatic species, and when
compared to MS-222, its benefits include a lower cost, lower
required dosage, improved safety, and potentially lower mortality
rates [82].
Other pharmacological activities
Eugenol was found to have myogenic antispasmodic effect on the
airway smooth muscle of rats. The mechanisms involved are
blockade of voltage and receptor-operated Ca2+ channels, IP 3-
induced Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum and reduction of
the sensitivity of contractile proteins to Ca2+
CONCLUSION
[83]. It exhibited
pronounced antipyretic activity when given intravenously and
intragastrically and may decrease fever through a central action that
is similar to that of allopathic antipyretic drugs such as
acetaminophen [84]. Eugenol and its analogues were tested in CD-1
(ICR) mice using an established antidepressant screening test
(forced swim test) and exhibited anti-depressant like effects against
monoamine oxidase [85]. In the ovariectomised (OVX) rat model of
osteoporosis, the hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds showed
favorable effects on bone-preserving efficacy. The induced
responses on serum alkaline phosphatase, serum tartrate resistant
acid phosphatase, and urinary calcium, phosphate and creatinine
were significantly restored after supplementation with the extract
[14]. Eugenol was also found to be highly repellent to the four beetle
species tested with overall repellency in the range of 80100%. It
also inhibited the development of eggs and immature stages inside
grain kernels [86].
This review discusses pharmacological activities of all the
phytoconstituents isolated from S. aromaticum till date. It has been
found that out of all the isolated phytochemicals, 20 constituents are
more active. The main constituents of clove essential oil are
phenylpropanoides such as carvacrol, thymol, eugenol and
cinnamaldehyde. Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol), the active
substance, makes up 9095% of the clove oil, and as a food additive
is classified by the FDA to be a substance that is generally regarded
as safe. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on
Food additives has established the acceptable daily human intake of
clove oil at 2.5 mg/kg body weight for humans. The major
pharmacological activities of clove are antimicrobial, anti-
inflammatory, anesthetic, analgesic, antioxidant and anticancer.
Some other activities are aphrodisiac, mosquito repellant,
insecticidal and antipyretic. All the major activities of clove are
explained and appreciable results have been reported regarding the
various activities discussed in the review. Furthermore considering
its versatile medicinal uses, there is an ample scope for future
research.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
All authors have none to declare.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors are thankful to University of Delhi for providing the funds
under Innovative Project (SRCA-204). First three authors are
undergraduate students and equally contributed in this review
article.
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... The leaves are large oblong to elliptic, simple obovate opposite. The flowers are small, crimson in color and are hermaphrodite (Cortés-Rojas et al., 2014;Kaur and Kaushal, 2019;Mittal et al., 2014). Since ancient times clove has been used to treat medical conditions like toothache, asthma, dyspepsia, acute or chronic gastritis, diarrhoea and various allergic disorders (Mittal et al., 2014;Pulikottil and Nath, 2015). ...
... The flowers are small, crimson in color and are hermaphrodite (Cortés-Rojas et al., 2014;Kaur and Kaushal, 2019;Mittal et al., 2014). Since ancient times clove has been used to treat medical conditions like toothache, asthma, dyspepsia, acute or chronic gastritis, diarrhoea and various allergic disorders (Mittal et al., 2014;Pulikottil and Nath, 2015). Numerous scientists have shown various biological and pharmacological effects in Syzygium aromaticum essential oils, especially antioxidant, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, antiviral, antifungal, antiinflammatory, anticancer, nematicidal, acaricidal, anesthetic, herbicidal, insecticidal properties (Mittal et al., 2014;Pulikottil and Nath, 2015). ...
... Numerous scientists have shown various biological and pharmacological effects in Syzygium aromaticum essential oils, especially antioxidant, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, antiviral, antifungal, antiinflammatory, anticancer, nematicidal, acaricidal, anesthetic, herbicidal, insecticidal properties (Mittal et al., 2014;Pulikottil and Nath, 2015). In essential oils, phenolic compound was the major components, essentially flavonoids, hidroxibenzoic acids, hidroxicinamic acids and hidroxiphenyl propens, but eugenol, β-caryophyllene, eugenol, benzyl alcohol, chavicol, acetyl salicylate and humulenes were also found in some countries (Cortés-Rojas et al., 2014;Kaur and Kaushal, 2019;Mittal et al., 2014). Sayed et al. (Sayed et al., 2009) evaluated the antihypertensive activity of Syzygium aromaticum on L-NAME-induced hypertension in rats. ...
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The incidence of hypertension is very high in human societies and its treatment is the most important priority in many countries. Knowledge of the plants that are used may provide insight on their properties, for further exploration. This study aimed to collect the knowledge on traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension in different regions of Morocco. We reviewed 145 research publications based on data from the six explored regions of Morocco published until August 2021 in various journals. This was achieved using literature databases: Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Science Direct and Researchgate. The findings of this study indicated that 23 plants have been reported to possess antihypertensive activities in in vivo / in vitro experiments, while 81 plants had not been studied for such an activity. Plants from the Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae families were used most often. Leaves were the plant parts used most often. Decoction was the main preparation method. Twenty three plants have been explored experimentally for their antihypertensive activity. This review provides baseline data for plant species used to treat hypertension in Morocco and provides new areas of research on the antihypertensive effect of these plants.
... Herbal medicines are widely used for the treatment of differ- ent types of diseases such as skin and throat infections and other diseases in developing countries [11]. Natural products have been an integral part of the archaic traditional medicine systems such as Ayurveda, Chinese, and Egyptian [12]. People have been using various parts of the plant such as the leaf, stems, roots, flowers, and seeds extracted for the benefit of humans and used as traditional medicine [6]. ...
... In India, Syzygium cumini is one of the best-known species and it is very often cultivated locally where it is known as jambolan [13]. Table I shows several Syzygium species and their medicinal uses [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]. ...
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A systematic review on essential oils and biological activities of the genus Syzygium (Myrtaceae) Syzygium belongs to the myrtle family, Myrtaceae with about 1800 species and located in the tropical region of Asia. The species have economic, medicinal, and pharmacological properties as well as being a source for pharmacochemistry studies. The local populations often use this species for different medicinal purposes, like to treat diabetes, dysentery, stomach-ache, cold, and ulcer. The objective of this study was to review the essential oils of the genus Syzygium and their biological activities. The data were collected from the scientific electronic databases including SciFinder, Scopus, Elsevier, PubMed, and Google Scholar. A total of twenty-six Syzygium species have been reported for their essential oils and biological activities. Sesquiterpenes were identified as the major group components for Syzygium species with the presence of α,β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, germacrene D, viridiflorol, nerolidol, together with monoterpenes, α-pinene, β-pinene, o-cymene, β-ocimene, and limonene. The essential oils also presented remarkable bioactivities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, acetylcholinesterase, anti leishmanicidal, cytotoxicity, larvicidal, oviposition deterrent, toxicity, genotoxicity, antimicrobial, α-amylase, anti-inflammatory, and molluscicidal properties. Hence, these studies may contribute to the rational and economic exploration of Syzygium species since it has been identified as potent natural and alternative sources to the production of new herbal medicines.
... Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) are small round headed aromatic dried flower buds with high mineral contents (Pavithra, 2014). They are used to enhance flavour in various dishes and are highly valued in medicine as a carminative and a stimulant (Khatri et al., 2014). The phytochemical analysis of this spice revealed the presence of eugenol, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids (Shailesh, 2015;Akyildiz and Denli, 2016). ...
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The side effects and banning of synthetic antibiotics made researchers to turn towards phytobiotics which has been hypothesise to act as synthetic antibiotics, having no side effects and having positive returns. The present study was assigned to evaluate the effects of in-feed blend Afrostyrax lepidophyllus, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Dichrostachys glomerata and Syzygium aromaticum on production performances of Japanese quails. A total of 144 two weeks old Japanese quails were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 4 replicates of 6 birds each in a completely randomised design. The treatments consisted of incorporating in 1 kg of basal diet (T0), 1 g of antibiotic Doxycyclin (T0+), 4 g (2/2) blend Dichrostachys glomerata - Afrostyrax lepidophyllus (T1), 4 g (2/2) blend Dichrostachys glomerata - Tetrapleura tetraptera (T2), 4 g (2/2) blend Dichrostachys glomerata - Syzygium aromaticum (T3) and 4 g (1/1/1/1) blend of all four spices (T4). Throughout the study (35 days), feed intake, live body weight, weight gain significantly (p<0.05) decreased with in-feed blend spices while feed conversion ratio was comparable (p>0.05) in all treatments. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility were comparable (p>0.05) meanwhile crude protein (97.82%) and crude cellulose (87.79%) digestibility were highest (p<0.05) in animals fed on blend D. glomerata - S. aromaticum. Apart for quails fed on synthetic antibiotic treatment, intestine length was lowest (p<0.05) compared to all treatments, carcass characteristics and digestive organ’s mensurations were comparable amongst treatments. Meanwhile, feed intake costs 223.25 and 238.95 Fcfa were respectively lowest (p<0.05) with blend D. glomerata - T. tetraptera and D. glomerata - S. aromaticum. It was concluded that incorporating 4 g (2/2) blend Dichrostachys glomerata - Syzygium aromaticum in quail’s feed improve protein and cellulose digestibility and reduce feed intake cost. Key words: Antibiotic, Digestibility, Japanese quail, Production cost, Spice
... ISSN(e): 2306-6148 ISSN(p): 2306-9864 DOI: 10.18488/57.v11i1.3116 © 2022 Mittal, Gupta, Parashar, Mehra, & Khatri, 2014;Pino, Marbot, Agüero, & Fuentes, 2001). The exact identity of clove's active compounds has not yet been established, but the medicinal effect is believed to be mainly due to eugenol (Smiley & Miles, 2002). ...
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Eugenol is the key active constituent of clove. The aim of this study was to analyze the concentration of Eugenol in different parts of dried Clove (tail, mid body and flower) by IR Spectroscopy and graphical comparison of the concentration. In this experiment the different part of dried clove was used to perform the quantitative analysis. Two methods were followed for the IR Spectroscopy, Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) sampling method and KBr Pellet method. KBr Pellets were prepared at 1:99 (Clove part: KBr) and IR spectrum drawn between IR reason (650 to 4000). Total 5 samples were analysed [Sample 01- Clove flower, Sample 02- just below of flower, Sample 03- mid body, Sample 4 -mid Body 2nd and Sample 05 -tail part]. Two wavelengths were target 1513 cm-1 and 1431 cm-1. The quantitative analysis was performed for % transmittance and % absorbance. Plotted Spectra was compared with the Spectral Database for Organic Compounds (SDOC) and spectra-base at Wiley. Sample 03 mid body shows higher area comparatively remaining four samples at both peaks (1513 cm-1 as well as 1431 cm-1). Results shows that the concentration of Eugenol is higher at Ovules than tail and flower.
... Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb is a tree and Clove is obtained from the dried flower bud of this tree [4]. There have been many investigations and reports by many researchers that a good quality or bad clove contains eugenol (80-85%), volatile oil 12-15% and some other constituents such as acetyl eugenol, gallotenic, methyl furfural, gum, resin and some other components [5][6][7][8][9][10]. The exact identity of clove's active compounds has not yet been established, but the medicinal effect is believed to be mainly due to eugenol [11]. ...
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Eugenol is the key active constituent of clove. The aim of this study was to analyse the concentration of Eugenol in different parts of dried Clove (tail, mid body and flower) by IR Spectroscopy and graphical comparison of the concentration. In this experiment the different part of dried clove was used to perform the quantitative analysis. Two methods were followed for the IR Spectroscopy, Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) sampling method and KBr Pellet method. KBr Pellets were prepared at 1:99 (Clove part: KBr) and IR spectrum drawn between IR reason (650 to 4000). Total 5 samples were analysed [Sample 01-Clove flower, Sample 02-just below of flower, Sample 03-mid body, Sample 4-mid Body 2nd and Sample 05-tail part]. Two wavelengths were target 1513 cm-1 and 1431 cm-1. The quantitative analysis was performed for % transmittance and % absorbance. Plotted Spectra was compared with the Spectral Database for Organic Compounds (SDBS) and spectra-base at Wiley. Sample 03 mid body shows higher area comparatively remaining four samples at both peaks (1513 cm-1 as well as 1431 cm-1). Results shows that the concentration of Eugenol is higher at Ovules than tail and flower.
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A two-way experimental design, comprising a total of 180 growing commercial cross-bred 30-day-old rabbits were assigned to five groups (36 kits in each group equally distributed between the sexes, with twelve replicates of 3 rabbits) was adopted to investigate the effects of dietary treatment (cinnamon and cloves supplemented at 150 and 250 mg/kg diet each) and sex on rabbit growth performance, carcass characteristics, hematological and biochemical indices. The first group was given a basal diet with no supplements as the control, the second and third groups were given cinnamon at 150 and 250 mg/kg diet, respectively. In turn, the fourth and fifth groups were administered cloves at 150 and 250 mg/kg diet, respectively. Treatment with cinnamon and clove powder supplements significantly increased live body weight (LBW), live body weight gain (LBWG) and feed consumption (FC). Also, it significantly increased red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), plasma total protein, albumin and globulin levels. The treatment with both supplements led to a significant decrease in feed conversion ratio (FCR), as well as levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Rabbits fed 250 mg cinnamon/kg diet had the highest LBW, LBWG, FC, dressing percentage, meatiness and plasma total protein, but had lowest levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST and ALT compared to the other groups. It was concluded that cinnamon supplement at 250 mg /kg diet may be an effective method to improve growth, carcass characteristics and health in both sexes of growing rabbits thanks to its advantageous effect on blood picture and biochemical constituents and consequently may be the primary factor promoting abundant production.
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Toothache is one of the most common global health problems, and medicinal plants are widely used to relieve the associated pain and inflammation. Several studies have been conducted on the use of plants to treat toothache, but no study has comprehensively assessed the types of plants and the mechanisms of action of the phytochemical compounds involved in their analgesic effect. This review aims to bridge this gap. This is the first review to collect a large volume of data on the global use of medicinal plants used in the treatment of toothache. It presents the relevant information for dentists, researchers, and academics on using medicinal plants to treat toothache. We found that preclinical studies and state-of-the-art technology hold promise for furthering our knowledge of this important topic. In total, 21 species of medicinal plants used to treat toothache were found in America, 29 in Europe, 192 in Africa, 112 in Asia, and 10 in Oceania. The most common species were Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Acmella oleracea, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypiifolia, and Syzygium aromaticum. The most commonly found family of medicinal plants was Asteraceae, followed by Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae, and Myrtaceae. The most common phytochemicals found were flavonoids, terpenes, polyphenols, and alkaloids. The reported mechanisms of action involved in toothache analgesia were antioxidant effects, effects mediated by transient receptor potential channels, the γ-aminobutyric acid mechanism, and the cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase anti-inflammatory mechanism.
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Clove contains various biological compounds that make it a valuable food ingredient in terms of its nutritional value and its use as an internationally recognized herb. It is the primary source of phenolic molecules such as flavonoids, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxyphenyl propionate, and eugenol. High concentrations of fiber, magnesium, potassium, calcium, and manganese are present in cloves. However, the composition of the plants may vary depending on the agroclimatic conditions in different areas of the globe in which the cloves are raised and the way of using these dry cloves in preparation and storage. Scholars have conducted detailed investigations on clove derivatives, such as clove essential oil (CEO) extracted from buds, leaves, and stems. As a major phytochemical in the CEO, eugenol is effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Clove and its derivatives also act as fungicide agents by increasing the cell permeability and altering the cell shape of various fungi species such as Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, and dermatophyte species. Cloves are rich in phenolic compounds that make them one of the best antioxidant-rich plants. Clove-extracted oil has an excellent protective effect on the immunity and performance of fish and can substitute antibiotics to combat pathogens. The objectives of the following chapter are to give an overview of the use of clove and its derivatives in fish feeding. The chemistry and antimicrobial properties and their effect on fish immunity, performance, and other health aspects will be precious for physiologists, scientists, nutritionists, veterinarians, pharmacists, and fish breeders.
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Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merril. & Perry commonly known as clove is an important herb with vast health benefits to human beings. S. aromaticum belongs to the Myrtaceae family and is considered one of the earliest known species for use as a spice. Clove has great potential for agricultural, cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical applications. S. aromaticum extracts are commonly used to provide aroma, medicinal, nutritional, texture, and color functions in food products. They are light yellow to orange in color, have a pleasant aroma, and are considered a carbohydrate, dietary fiber, protein, and fat source. In addition, cloves are used to preserve food by inhibiting the growth of a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Penicillium digitatum, which cause foodborne illnesses and food poisoning. Furthermore, S. aromaticum extracts contain a diverse array of secondary metabolites, like flavonoids, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxyphenyl propenes, eugenol, eugenol acetate, and gallic acid, with a wide range of beneficial health-promoting activities. These metabolites have active biological properties and unique aromatic structures and are safe for use in food and medicinal applications. Clove metabolites are considered as new beneficial natural antimicrobial agents to potentially combat cytotoxin genes-producing drug-resistant Helicobacter pylori, gastrointestinal disorders, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antidiabetic, anesthetic, and possess insect-repellent properties. In addition, clove has been proven to have insulin-like biological activity and regulate energy metabolism. This chapter gives insights into the effects of clove extracts on health promotion and their potential applications.
Chapter
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) belongs to the family Myrtaceae producing high-quality oil extracted from leaves and buds of plants using conventionally distillation process or technically advanced microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted, and supercritical fluid extraction techniques. Oil content majorly comprised 15.0%–20.0% essential oils, mainly eugenol, caryophyllene, and eugenyl acetate, while 7.0%–10.0% fatty oil composition. Clove oil is considered an expensive and valuable product with colorless or pale-yellow appearance on a fresh stage while darkens during storage. Noteworthy, the cloves are often dried and stored before the oil extraction; therefore, the quality of extracted and stored oil depends on some factors, such as variety, maturity level, raw material origin, postharvest processing, sample preparation method, drying process type, oil composition, and storage conditions. Moreover, chemical processes like isomerization, evaporation, and oxidation could occur during storage, leading to the appearance or disappearance of some constituents. The present literature summarizes data and points from promising research areas focusing on the storage stability of oil extracted from clove, storage quality of food products supplemented with clove oil, and biological activities of clove bud essential oil.
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The efficacy of clove oil as an anesthetic agent was studied in Channa punctatus and Clarias gariepinus by exposing to different concentrations of clove oil. The concentration of 200 ppm was ideal in inducing anesthesia as well as recovery from anesthesia.
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Objective: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity for stigmosterol-3-glyceryl-2'-linoleiate, campesterol and daucosterol isolated compounds from aerial parts of Aerva lanata. Methods: Antinociceptive activity was evaluated for all the isolated compounds using acetic acid induced writhing method and tail immersion method in mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. Results: The results indicated stigmosterol-3-glyceryl-2'-linoleiate, campesterol and daucosterol (P<0.01) compounds from methanolic extract of A. lanta at a dose level of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o., showed a significant effect in acetic Acid-induced writhing method (peripheral analgesic activity), whereas in tail immersion method (central analgesic activity), at same dose levels, the isolates exhibited significant (P<0.01) analgesic activity at 180 min and moderate (P<0.05) analgesic activity at 120 min as compared to control. Conculsion: We concluded that, stigmosterol-3-glyceryl-2'-linoleiate, campesterol and daucosterol compounds possess potential analgesic effects which are most likely mediated by their anti-inflammatory activity rather than through opioid receptor system.
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