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Phytochemical and therapeutic profile of Aloe vera

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  • Synthite Industries Pvt. Ltd.
  • Novartis India

Abstract and Figures

Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Family Liliaceae) is an evergreen perennial succulent plant widely used from antiquity. Aloe vera contains various carbohydrate polymers, notably glucomannans, along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. Phenolic compounds have been identified so far as chromone, anthraquinone or anthrone derivatives. Three distinct preparations of aloe plants are mostly used in medicinal practices that are quite different in their chemical composition and their therapeutic properties, aloe latex (aloe); aloe gel (Aloe vera); and, aloe whole leaf (aloe extract). Aloe latex is used for its laxative effect; aloe gel is used topically for skin ailments, such as wound healing, psoriasis, genital herpes and internally by oral administration in diabetic and hyperlipidaemic patients and to heal gastric ulcers; and, aloe extract is potentially useful for cancer and AIDS. Aloe vera possesses several pharmacological properties such as promoting and healing wound and burn, frost-bite healing, with addition to having antiinflammatory, antifungal, hypoglycemic and gastroprotective properties. This review explored the phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge as well as several promising aspects for research on aloe.
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Abstract
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Family Liliaceae) is an evergreen perennial succulent plant widely used from anquity. Aloe vera
contains various carbohydrate polymers, notably glucomannans, along with a range of other organic and inorganic
components. Phenolic compounds have been idened so far as chromone, anthraquinone or anthrone derivaves.
Three disnct preparaons of aloe plants are mostly used in medicinal pracces that are quite dierent in their chemical
composion and their therapeuc properes, aloe latex (aloe); aloe gel (Aloe vera); and, aloe whole leaf (aloe extract).
Aloe latex is used for its laxave eect; aloe gel is used topically for skin ailments, such as wound healing, psoriasis, genital
herpes and internally by oral administraon in diabec and hyperlipidaemic paents and to heal gastric ulcers; and, aloe
extract is potenally useful for cancer and AIDS. Aloe vera possesses several pharmacological properes such as promong
and healing wound and burn, frost-bite healing, with addion to having aninammatory, anfungal, hypoglycemic and
gastroprotecve properes. This review explored the phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge as well as several
promising aspects for research on aloe.
Keyword: Aloe vera, Aloe, Indian aloe, Kumari, Ghritakumari, Aloin
Phytochemical and Therapeutic Prole of Aloe vera
Pulok K. Mukherjee*, Neelesh K. Nema, Niladri Maity, Kakali Mukherjee, Ranjit K. Harwansh
School of Natural Product Studies, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology,
Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032, India
*Author for correspondence
Email: naturalproductm@gmail.com
JOURNAL OF NATURAL REMEDIES
1. Introduction
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. is not a cactus but is a cactus like
an indigenous medicinal, herb growing in tropical and
subtropical latitudes with very good economic potential.
ere are more than 600 known species of Aloe (Family
Liliaceae) [1], many of which have been used as botanical
medicines in many countries for thousands of years.
Some species of aloe have enlisted and shown in Table 1.
is perennial species has a number of synonyms:
Aloe barbadensis Miller; Aloe indica Royle; Aloe perfoliata
L. var. vera, and Aloe vulgaris Lam., with common names
including Curacao aloe (commercial source), Indian aloe,
ghikawar; ghritakumari; gwar-patha; kumari (Hind.),
Chinese aloe laloi, rst aid plant. e species name vera
means “true” or “genuine. e species was rst described
by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 as Aloe perfoliata var. vera,
and was described again in 1768 by Nicolaas Laurens
Burman as Aloe vera in Flora Indica [2]. Techniques
based on DNA sequence comparison and ISSR proling
suggests that it is relatively closely related to Aloe perryi, a
species that is endemic to Yemen; and some other species
like Aloe forbesii; Aloe inermis; Aloe scobinifolia; Aloe
sinkatana and Aloe striata. Most commonly used species
include: Aloe arborescens, Aloe aristata, Aloe nyeriensis,
Aloe variegata, Aloe wildii.
2. Background and History
Aloes have been used therapeutically, certainly
since Roman times and perhaps long before [3]. It
is mentioned both in the Bible and by the ancient
Egyptians. e topical and internal eects of aloes have
been known since ancient times. Nefertite (1353 B.C.)
and Cleopatra (69–30 B.C.) two Egyptian queens, used
aloes as a beauty aid. Aloes were used by Pliny the Elder,
Celsus, Galen and other famous physicians to treat
wounds and gastrointestinal disturbances. Aloe’s use
2Phytochemical and Therapeutic Profile of Aloe vera
Journal of Natural Remedies | ISSN: 2320-3358 www.jnronline.com | Vol 14 (1) | January 2014
Table 1: Different species of Aloe
1. Aloe aageodonta L.E.Newtor 2. Aloe abhaica Lavranos &
Collenette
3. Aloe abyssicola Lavranos & Bilaidi 4. Aloe aculeata Pole-Evans
5. Aloe acutissima H.Perrier 6. Aloe adigratana Reynolds 7. Aloe affinis A.Berger 8. Aloe africana Miller
9. Aloe ahmarensis Favell et al. 10. Aloe albida (Stapf ) Reynolds 11. Aloe albiflora Guill. 12. Aloe albovestida S.Carter &
Brandham
13. Aloe aldabrensis (Marais) L.E.Newton
& G.D.Powley
14. Aloe alfredii Rauh 15. Aloe alooides (Bolus) van Druten 16. Aloe ambigens Chiovenda
17. Aloe amicorum L.E.Newton 18. Aloe amudatensis Reynolds 19. Aloe andongensis Baker 20. Aloe andringitrensis H.Perrier
21. Aloe angelica Pole-Evans 22. Aloe angolensis Baker 23. Aloe anivoranoensis (Rauh &
GHebding) L.E.Newton
24. Aloe ankaranensis Rauh &
Mangelsdorff
25. Aloe ankoberensis M.G.Gilbert &
Sebsehe
26. Aloe antandroi (Decary) H.Perrier 27. Aloe antsingyensis (Léandri)
L.E.Newton
28. Aloe arborescens Miller
29. Aloe archeri Lavranos 30. Aloe arenicola Reynolds 31. Aloe argenticauda Merxmüller &
Giess
32. Aloe aristata Haworth
33. Aloe armatissima Lavranos &
Collenette
34. Aloe asperifolia A.Berger 35. Aloe babatiensis Christian &
I.Verdoorn
36. Aloe bakeri Scott-Elliot
37. Aloe ballii Reynolds 38. Aloe barberae Dyer 39. Aloe bargalensis Lavranos 40. Aloe balevenokensis (Rauh & Gerold)
L.E.Newton
41. Aloe bella G.D.Rowley 42. Aloe bellatula Reynolds 43. Aloe berevoana Lavranos 44. Aloe bernadettae Castillon
45. Aloe bertemariae Sebsebe & Diali 46. Aloe betsileensis H.Perrier 47. Aloe bicomitum L.C.Leach 48. Aloe boiteaui Guill.
49. Aloe boscawenii Christian 50. Aloe bosseri Castillon 51. Aloe bowiea Schultes & Schultes f. 52. Aloe brachystachys Baker
53. Aloe branddraaiensis Groenewald 54. Aloe brandhamii S.Carter 55. Aloe brevifolia Miller 56. Aloe breviscapa Reynolds
57. Aloe broomii Schönland 58. Aloe brunneodentata Lavranos &
Collenette
59. Aloe bruneostriata Lavranos &
S.Carter
60. Aloe buchananii Baker
61. Aloe buchlohii Rauh 62. Aloe buettneri A.Berger 63. Aloe buhrii Lavranos 64. Aloe bukobana Reynolds
65. Aloe bulbicaulis Christian 66. Aloe bulbifera H.Perrier 67. Aloe bullockii Reynolds 68. Aloe burgerforstensis Reynolds
69. Aloe bussei A.Berger 70. Aloe calcairophila Reynolds 71. Aloe calidophila Reynolds 72. Aloe cameronii Hemsley
73. Aloe camperi Schweinfurth 74. Aloe canarina S.Carter 75. Aloe cannellii L.C.Leach 76. Aloe capitata Baker
77. Aloe capmananmbatoensis Rauh &
Gerold
78. Aloe carnea S.Carter 79. Aloe castanea Schönland 80. Aloe castellorum J.R.I.Wood
81. Aloe catengiana Reynolds 82. Aloe caphalophora Lavranos &
Collenette
83. Aloe chabaudii Schönland 84. Aloe cheranganiensis S.Carter &
Brandham
Continued
3
Pulok K. et al.
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85. Aloe chloranta Lavranos 86. Aloe chortolirioides A.Berger 87. Aloe christianii Reynolds 88. Aloe chrysostachys Lavranos &
L.E.Newton
89. Aloe ciliaris Haworth 90. Aloe cirtina S.Carter & Brandham 91. Aloe classenii Reynolds 92. Aloe claviflora Burchell
93. Aloe collenetteae Lavranos 94. Aloe collina S.Carter 95. Aloe commixta A.Berger 96. Aloe comosa Marloth & A.Berger
97. Aloe compressa H.Perrier 98. Aloe comptonii Reynolds 99. Aloe confusa Engler 100. Aloe congdonii S.Carter
101. Aloe conifera H.Perrier 102. Aloe cooperi Baker 103. Aloe corallina I.Verdoorn 104. Aloe crassipes Baker
105. Aloe cremersii Lavranos 106. Aloe cremnophila Reynolds &
P.R.O. Bally
107. Aloe cryptoflora Reynolds 108. Aloe cryptopoda Baker
109. Aloe cyrtophylla Lavranos 110. Aloe daberonisana van Jaarsveld 111. Aloe dawei A.Berger 112. Aloe debrana Christian
113. Aloe decorsei H.Perrier 114. Aloe decurva Reynolds 115. Aloe delphinensis Rauh 116. Aloe deltoideodonta Baker var.
candidans H.Perrier
117. Aloe deltoideodonta Baker 118. Aloe descoingsii Reynolds 119. Aloe deserti A.Berger 120. Aloe dewetii Reynolds
121. Aloe dewinteri Giess 122. Aloe dhufarensis Lavranos 123. Aloe dichotoma Masson 124. Aloe dinteri A.Berger
125. Aloe diolii L.E.Newton 126. Aloe distans Haworth 127. Aloe divaricata A.Berger 128. Aloe doei Lavranos
129. Aloe dominella Reynolds 130. Aloe dorotheae A.Berger 131. Aloe duckeri Christian 132. Aloe dyeri Schönland
133. Aloe ecklonis Salm-Dyck 134. Aloe edentata Lavranos &
Collenette
135. Aloe elata S.Carter & L.E.Newton 136. Aloe elegans Todaro
137. Aloe elgonica Bullock 138. Aloe ellenbeckii A.Berger 139. Aloe eminens Reynolds &
P.R.O.Bally
140. Aloe enotata L.C.Leach
141. Aloe eremophila Lavranos 142. Aloe erensii Christian 143. Aloe ericetorum Bosser 144. Aloe erythrophylla Bosser
145. Aloe esculenta L.C.Leach 146. Aloe eumassawana S.Carter et
al.
147. Aloe excelsa A.Berger 148. Aloe falcata Baker
149. Aloe ferox Miller 150. Aloe fibrosa Lavranos &
L.E.Newton
151. Aloe fievetii Reynolds 152. Aloe fimbrialis S.Carter
153. Aloe fleurentiniorum Lavranos &
L.E.Newton
154. Aloe fleuretteana Rauh & Gerold 155. Aloe flexilifolia Christian 156. Aloe forbesii Balfour f.
157. Aloe fosteri Pillans 158. Aloe fouriei D.S.Hardy & Glen 159. Aloe fragilis Lavranos & Röösli 160. Aloe framesii L.Bolus
161. Aloe francombei L.E.Newton 162. Aloe frisii Sebsebe & M.G.Gilbert 163. Aloe fulleri Lavranos 164. Aloe gariepensis Pillans
165. Aloe gerstneri Reynolds 166. Aloe gilbertii T.Reynolds ex
Sebsebe & Brandham
167. Aloe gillettii S.Carter 168. Aloe glabrescens (Reynolds &
P.R.O.Bally) S.Carter & Brandham
169. Aloe glauca Miller 170. Aloe globuligemma Pole-Evans 171. Aloe gossweileri Reynolds 172. Aloe gracilicaulis Reynolds &
R.P.O.Bally
173. Aloe gracilis Haworth 174. Aloe gradidentata Salm-Dyck 175. Aloe grata Reynolds 176. Aloe greatheadii Schönland
Table 1: Continued
Continued
4Phytochemical and Therapeutic Profile of Aloe vera
Journal of Natural Remedies | ISSN: 2320-3358 www.jnronline.com | Vol 14 (1) | January 2014
177. Aloe greenii Baker 178. Aloe grisea S.Carter & Brandham 179. Aloe guerrae Reynolds 180. Aloe guillaumetii Cremers
181. Aloe haemanthifolia A.Berger &
Marloth
182. Aloe hardyi Glen 183. Aloe harlana Reynolds 184. Aloe haworthioides Baker
185. Aloe hazeliana Reynolds 186. Aloe helenae Danguy 187. Aloe heliderana Lavranos 188. Aloe hemmingii Reynolds &
P.R.O.Bally
189. Aloe hendrickxii Reynolds 190. Aloe hereroensis Engler 191. Aloe heybensis Lavranos 192. Aloe hijazensis Lavranos &
Collenette
193. Aloe hildebrandtii Baker 194. Aloe hlangapies Groenewald 195. Aloe howmanii Reynolds 196. Aloe humbertii H.Perrier
197. Aloe humilis (L.) Miller 198. Aloe ibitiensis H.Perrier 199. Aloe imalotensis Reynolds 200. Aloe x imerinensis Bosser
201. Aloe immaculata Pillans 202. Aloe inamara L.C.Leach 203. Aloe inconspicua Plowes 204. Aloe inermis Forssk°al
205. Aloe integra Reynolds 206. Aloe inyangensis Christian 207. Aloe isAloensis H.Perrier 208. Aloe itremensis Reynolds
209. Aloe jacksonii Reynolds 210. Aloe jocunda Reynolds 211. Aloe juvenna Brandham &
S.Carter
212. Aloe x keayi Reynolds
213. Aloe kedongensis Reynolds 214. Aloe kafaensis M.G.Gilbert &
Sebsebe
215. Aloe keithii Reynolds 216. Aloe ketebrowniorum L.E.Newton
217. Aloe khamiensis Pillans 218. Aloe kilifiensis Christian 219. Aloe kniphofioides Baker 220. Aloe krapohliana Marloth
221. Aloe kraussii Baker 222. Aloe kulalensis L.E.Newton &
Beentje
223. Aloe labworana (Reynolds)
S.Carter
224. Aloe laeta A.Berger
225. Aloe lateritia Engler 226. Aloe lavranosii Reynolds 227. Aloe leachii Reynolds 228. Aloe leandrii Bosser
229. Aloe leedalii S.Carter 230. Aloe lensayuensis Lavranos &
L.E.Newton
231. Aloe lepida L.C.Leach 232. Aloe leptosiphon A.Berger
233. Aloe lattyae Reynolds 234. Aloe lindenii Lavranos 235. Aloe linearifolia A.Berger 236. Aloe lineata (Aiton) Haworth
237. Aloe littoralis Baker 238. Aloe lolwensis L.E.Newton 239. Aloe lomatophylloides Balfour f. 240. Aloe longistyla Baker
241. Aloe luapulana L.C.Leach 242. Aloe lucile-allorgeae Rauh 243. Aloe luntii Baker 244. Aloe lutestcens Groenewald
245. Aloe macleayi Reynolds 246. Aloe macra Hawoth 247. Aloe macrocarpa Todaro 248. Aloe macroclada Baker
249. Aloe macrosiphon Baker 250. Aloe maculata Allioni 251. Aloe marlothii A.Berger 252. Aloe massawana Reynolds
253. Aloe mawii Chrstian 254. Aloe mayottensis A.Baker 255. Aloe mcloughlinii Christian 256. Aloe medishiana Reynolds
257. Aloe megalacantha Baker 258. Aloe megalocarpa Lavranos 259. Aloe melanacantha A.Berger 260. Aloe melanacantha A.Berger var.
erinacea (D.S.Hardy) G.D.Rowley
261. Aloe menachensis (Schweinfurth)
Blatter
262. Aloe mendesii Reynolds 263. Aloe menyharthii Baker 264. Aloe metalica Engler & Gilg
265. Aloe meyeri van Jaarsveld 266. Aloe micracantha Haworth 267. Aloe microdonta Chiovenda 268. Aloe microstigma Salm-Dyck
Continued
Table 1: Continued
5
Pulok K. et al.
Journal of Natural Remedies | ISSN: 2320-3358 www.jnronline.com | Vol 14 (1) | January 2014
269. Aloe millotii Reynolds 270. Aloe milne-redheadii Christian 271. Aloe minima Baker 272. Aloe mitriformis Miller
273. Aloe modesta Reynolds 274. Aloe meloderana Lavranos &
Glen
275. Aloe monotropa I.Verdoorn 276. Aloe monticola Reynolds
277. Aloe morijensis S.Carter &
Brandham
278. Aloe mubendiensis Christian 279. Aloe mudenensis Reynolds 280. Aloe multicolor L.E.Newton
281. Aloe munchii Christian 282. Aloe murina L.E.Newton 283. Aloe musapana Reynolds 284. Aloe mutabilis Pillans
285. Aloe myriacantha (Haworth)
Schultes & Schultes f.
286. Aloe mzimbana Christian 287. Aloe namibensis Giess 288. Aloe namorokaensis (Rauh)
L.E.Newton
289. Aloe ngongensis Christian 290. Aloe niebuhriana Lavranos 291. Aloe nubigena Groenewald 292. Aloe nuttii Baker
293. Aloe nyeriensis Christian ex
I.Verdoorn
294. Aloe occidentalis (H.Perreier)
L.E.Newton
295. Aloe officinalis Forssk°al 296. Aloe oligophylla Baker
297. Aloe orientalis (H.Perrier)
L.E.Newton
298. Aloe ortholopha Christian &
Milne-Redhead
299. Aloe otallensis Baker 300. Aloe pachygaster Dinter
301. Aloe paedogona A.Berger 302. Aloe palmiformis Baker 303. Aloe paralleifolia H.Perrier 304. Aloe parvibracteata Schönland
305. Aloe parvicapsula Lavranos &
Collenette
306. Aloe parvicoma Lavranos &
Collenette
307. Aloe parvidens M.G.Gilbert &
Sesebe
308. Aloe parvula A.Berger
309. Aloe patersonii B.Mathew 310. Aloe pearsonii Schönland 311. Aloe peckii P.R.O.Bally &
I.Verdoorn
312. Aloe peglerae Schönland
313. Aloe pembana L.E.Newton 314. Aloe pendens Forssk°al 315. Aloe penduluflora Baker 316. Aloe percrassa Todaro
317. Aloe perrieri Reynolds 318. Aloe perryi Baker 319. Aloe perticola Pole-Evans 320. Aloe pertophila Pillans
321. Aloe peyrierasii Cremers 322. Aloe pictifolia D.S.Hardy 323. Aloe pillansii L.Guthrie 324. Aloe pirottae A.Berger
325. Aloe plicatilis (L.) Miller 326. Aloe plowesii Reynolds 327. Aloe pluridens Haworth 328. Aloe polyphylla Schönland ex
Pillans
329. Aloe porphyrostachys Lavranos &
Collenette
330. Aloe powysiorum L.E.Newton 331. Aloe pratensis Baker 332. Aloe pretoriensis Pole-Evans
333. Aloe prinslooi I.Verdoorn &
D.S.Hardy
334. Aloe procera L.C.Leach 335. Aloe propagulifera (Rauh &
Rasafindratsira) L.E.Newton
336. Aloe prostrata (H.Perrier)
L.E.Newton & G.D.Rowley
337. Aloe pruinosa Reynolds 338. Aloe pseudorubroviolacea
Lavranos & Collenette
339. Aloe pubescens Reynolds 340. Aloe pulcherrima M.G.Glbert &
Sebsebe
341. Aloe purpurea Lamarck 342. Aloe pustuligemma L.E.Newton 343. Aloe x qaharensis Lavranos &
Collenette
344. Aloe rabaiensis Rendle
345. Aloe ramosissima Pillans 346. Aloe rauhii Reynolds 347. Aloe reitzii Reynolds 348. Aloe retrospiciens Reynolds &
P.R.O.Bally
349. Aloe reynoldsii Letty 350. Aloe rhodesiana Rendle 351. Aloe richardsiae Reynolds 352. Aloe rigens Reynolds & P.R.O.Bally
Continued
Table 1: Continued
6Phytochemical and Therapeutic Profile of Aloe vera
Journal of Natural Remedies | ISSN: 2320-3358 www.jnronline.com | Vol 14 (1) | January 2014
353. Aloe rivae Baker 354. Aloe rivierei Lavranos &
L.E.Newton
355. Aloe rosea (H.Perrier) L.E.Newton
& G.D.Rowley
356. Aloe rubroviolacea Schweinfurth
357. Aloe ruffingiana Rauh & Petignat 358. Aloe rugosifolia M.G.Gilbert &
Sebsebe
359. Aloe rupestris Baker 360. Aloe rupicola Reynolds
361. Aloe ruspoliana Baker 362. Aloe sabeae Schweinfurth 363. Aloe saundersiae (Reynolds)
Reynolds
364. Aloe scabrifolia L.E.Newton &
Lavranos
365. Aloe schelpei Reynolds 366. Aloe schilliana L.E.Newton &
G.D.Rowley
367. Aloe schoelleri Schweinfurth 368. Aloe schomeri Rauh
369. Aloe schweinfurthii Baker 370. Aloe scobinifolia Reynolds &
P.R.O.Bally
371. Aloe scorpioides L.C.Leach 372. Aloe secundiflora Engler
373. Aloe seretii De Wildeman 374. Aloe serriyensis Lavranos 375. Aloe shadensis Lavranos &
Collenette
376. Aloe sheilae Lavranos
377. Aloe silicicola H.Perrier 378. Aloe simii Pole-Evans 379. Aloe sinana Reynolds 380. Aloe sinkatana Reynolds
381. Aloe sladeniana Pole-Evans 382. Aloe socialis (H.Perrier)
L.E.Newton & G.D.Rowley
383. Aloe somaliensis W.Watson 384. Aloe soutpansbergensis I.Verdoorn
385. Aloe speciosa Baker 386. Aloe spicata L.f. 387. Aloe splendens Lavranos 388. Aloe squarrosa Baker
389. Aloe steffaniana Rauh 390. Aloe steudneri Schweinfurth 391. Aloe striata Haworth 392. Aloe striata Haworth subsp.
kerasbergensis (Pillans) Glen & D.
S. Hardy
393. Aloe striatula Haworth 394. Aloe suarezensis H.Perrier 395. Aloe subacutissima G.D.Rowley 396. Aloe succotrina Allioni
397. Aloe suffulta Reynolds 398. Aloe suprafoliata Pole-Evams 399. Aloe suzannae Decary 400. Aloe swynnertonii Rendle
401. Aloe tenuior Haworth 402. Aloe tewoldei M.G.Gilbert &
Sebsebe
403. Aloe thompsoniae Groenewald 404. Aloe thoncroftii Pole-Evans
405. Aloe thraskii Baker 406. Aloe tomentosa Deflers 407. Aloe tormentorii (Marais)
L.E.Newton & G.D.Rowley
408. Aloe tororoana Reynolds
409. Aloe torrei I.Verdoorn & Christian 410. Aloe trychyticola (H.Perrier)
Reynolds
411. Aloe trichosantha A.Berger 412. Aloe trigonantha L.C.Leach
413. Aloe tugenensis L.E.Newton &
Lavranos
414. Aloe turkanensis Christian 415. Aloe tweediae Christian 416. Aloe ukambensis Reynolds
417. Aloe umfoloziensis Reynolds 418. Aloe vacillans Forssk°al 419. Aloe vallaris L.C.Leach 420. Aloe vanbalenii Pillans
421. Aloe vandermerwei Reynolds 422. Aloe vaombe Decorse & Poisson 423. Aloe vaotsanda Decary 424. Aloe variegata L.
425. Aloe vera (L.) Burman f. 426. Aloe verecunda Pole-Evans 427. Aloe versicolor Guill. 428. Aloe vseyi Reynolds
429. Aloe viguieri H.Perrier 430. Aloe viridiflora Reynolds 431. Aloe vituensis Baker 432. Aloe vogtsii Reynolds
433. Aloe volkensii Engler 434. Aloe vossii Reynolds 435. Aloe vryheidensis Groenewald 436. Aloe whitcombei Lavranos
437. Aloe wildii (Reynolds) Reynolds 438. Aloe wilsonii Reynolds 439. Aloe wollastonii Rendle 440. Aloe woodii Lavranos & Collenette
441. Aloe wrefordii Reynolds 442. Aloe yavellana Reynolds 443. Aloe yemenica J.R.I.Wood 444. Aloe zebrina Baker
445. Aloe zombitsiensis Rauh & M.Teissier
Table 1: Continued
7
Pulok K. et al.
Journal of Natural Remedies | ISSN: 2320-3358 www.jnronline.com | Vol 14 (1) | January 2014
was rst discovered on a Sumerian clay tablet dating
from 2200 B.C. as plants of great healing power. Later, in
1862, a German Egyptologist, George Ebers, discovered
rst detailed description of aloes medicinal value in
the Ebers Papyrus written around 1552 B.C. in Egypt.
is document gives twelve formulas for mixing aloe
with other agents to treat both internal and external
human disorders including laxative and dermatologic
preparation. Aloe was considered by the ancient Greeks
to be an exclusive production of the island of Socotra,
in the Indian Ocean. Aloe was rst reported in Greek
literature as a laxative before the rst century. In the rst
century (41~68 AloeD.), Dioscorides wrote of its use
in treating wounds, chapping, hair loss, genital ulcers,
haemorrhoids, boils, mouth irritation and inammation
and and an illustration appeared in the Codex Aniciae
Julianae, produced in the year CE 512 [4, 5]. In the
seventh century, aloe was also used for eczema and
sinusitis. Aloe is popular in traditional Ayurvedic and
Chinese medicine also, from ancient era. Historical use
of various aloe species by humans is well documented
because it is cultivated over 3000 years. Documentation
of the clinical eectiveness is also available, although it is
relatively limited [6].
3. Phyto-geography and
Distribution
e exact origin of Aloe vera is uncertain, as the species
has been widely cultivated throughout the world (Fig. 1),
so it is dicult to discern where it originated.
It has been suggested that naturalized stands of the
species occur through North Africa in Algeria, Moro-
cco, and Tunisia, along with the Canary and Madeira
Islands. Habitats described that it was spread throughout
the mediterranean region by man including the area
surrounding the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, some
parts of the southwestern United States, Southern
Australia, and the eastern and southern parts of Africa.
Its closest relatives, however, occur in Arabia, and this is
its most probable area of origin. It can be found, on the
lower slopes of the coastal mountains. e species was
introduced to China, India, Pakistan and various parts of
southern Europe in the 17th century. In India the plant
is mainly found in Rajasthan and other dry belts. It also
grows in coasts of Mumbai, Gujarat and South India.
4. Botanical Description
It is an evergreen perennial succulent plant having eshy,
sword-shaped leaves growing up to 1 meter in height.
Leaves are green, tightly packed, thorny edges and are
radially arranged in two or three circles. Bright yellow
tubular owers appear in a spike. e oldest and largest
leaves are at the base, with leaves in the centre of the
rosette formation being younger and smaller. Mature
leaves can be 2–2.5 cm thick and 6–10 cm wide at the
base, gradually tapering to a point at the apex. e upper
leaf surface is at or slightly dish-shaped and the lower
surface rounded, with both surfaces being smooth to the
touch. However, the margins of the leaf are armed with
rm, spreading, triangular-shaped teeth 2–4 mm long.
e unbranched ower spike carries yellow, tubular
owers. e owers are produced in summer on a spike
up to 90 cm tall, each ower pendulous, with a yellow
tubular corolla 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long [7, 8] Aloe vera
leaves are formed by a thick epidermis (skin) covered
with cuticle surrounding the mesophyll, which can be
dierentiated into chlorenchyma cells and thinner walled
cells forming the parenchyma (llet). e parenchyma
cells contain a transparent mucilaginous jelly which is
referred to as gel [9].
5. Phytoconstituents
e chemistry of the aloe plant has been studied for
many years. Although for the analysis of the chemical
components in aloe, various methods such as uoro-
photometry, thin layer chromatography, size exclusion
chromatography, GC, GC/MS, HPLC, LC/MS, atomicab-
sorption spectrometry, counter current chromatography,
capillary electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic
Fig. 1. Aloe vera cultivation
8Phytochemical and Therapeutic Profile of Aloe vera
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chromatography etc. have been used; the HPLC method
has been widely applied to analyze the components
in aloe [10]. Chemical analysis reveals that Aloe vera
contains various carbohydrate polymers, notably
glucomannans, along with a range of other organic and
inorganic components [11]. When the leaves of most
species of Aloe are cut, more or less copious exudate
appears containing phenolic compounds which can be
distinguished chromatographically as over 100 major
zones stained characteristic colors with dierent dyes.
Some of the compounds in these zones have been
characterized and identied so far as chromone, anthra-
quinone or anthrone derivatives. e second product, aloe
gel, is the clear, jelly-like material from the sticky cells
found in the inner tissue of the leaf. It generally doesn’t
contain the anthraquinone glycosides found in the latex
but does contain the polysaccharides glucomannan and
acemannan. Other potentially active components that
have been identied include bradykininase, magnesium
lactate, and salicylic acid [12–14]. e phytoconstituents
of aloe are categorized and shown in Table 2.
6. Biological Activity and
Therapeutic Uses
Aloe vera has a long association with herbal medicine,
although it is not known when its medical applications
were rst discovered. ree distinct preparations of aloe
plants are mostly used in a medicinal capacity that are
quite dierent in their chemical composition and their
therapeutic properties, aloe latex (aloe); aloe gel (Aloe
vera); and, aloe whole leaf (aloe extract). Aloe latex is
used for its laxative eect; aloe gel is used topically for
skin ailments, such as wound healing, psoriasis, genital
herpes and internally by oral administration in diabetic
and hyperlipidaemic patients and to heal gastric ulcers;
and aloe extract is potentially useful for cancer and AIDS.
Aloe has the ability to penetrate the deepest body tissues.
It has antiseptic properties, which kill bacteria, viruses
and fungus. e gel of Aloe is potent and it is got from the
leaves. is Aloe gel has as many as 75 nutrients, which
promises good health. It stimulates the growth of new
health tissues. It has calming eect on the body’s nervous
system and cleanses, detoxies and normalizes the body’s
metabolism. It has been investigated that the gel extract
of Aloe vera presents various pharmacological properties
such as promoting and healing wound and burn, frost-
bite healing, with addition to having antiinammatory,
antifungal, hypoglycemic and gastroprotective properties
[15]. e specic pharmacological activity and uses are
summarized and depicted in Table 3.
6.1 Wound Healing
Classical use of Aloe gel is its wound healing potential and
one of the rst explanations of its ecacy is its high water
content which can keep the wound moist and increased
epithelial cell migration [3, 16]. Mannose 6-phosphate,
the principal sugar component of Aloe vera gel, may
Table 2: Phytoconstituents of Aloe vera
OH O
O
R6
R5
R
4
R2
R1
R3
Anthranols in Aloe
O
R2
R1
OHR4
R5
R6
R3
Anthraquinones in Aloe
Compound R1R2R3R4R5R6
Aloe-emodin OH H CH2OH H H H
Chrysophanol OH H CH3H H H
Aloesaponarin I CH3COOCH3OH H H H
Aloesaponarin II CH3H OH H H H
Laccaic acid D-methylester OH COOCH3OH H OH H
Deoxyerythro -laccin CH3H OH H OH H
Helminthosporin OH H CH3OH H H
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Compound R1R2R3R4R5R6
Aloin A (Barbaloin) CH2OH H H OH H C-glc
Aloin B (Isobarbaloin) CH2OH H H OH C-glc H
5-hydroxyaloin A CH2OH OH H OH C-glc H
7-hydroxyaloin A CH2OH H OH OH H H
7-hydroxyaloin B CH2OH H OH OH C-glc H
(+)-homonataloin CH3H OH OCH3H C-glc
(-)-homonataloin CH3H OH OCH3C-glc H
Microdontin A CH2OH H H OH H C-glc-2’-Coumaroyl
Microdontin B CH2OH H H OH C-glc-2’-Coumaroyl H
10-hydroxyaloin A CH2OH H H OH OH C-glc
10-hydroxyaloin B CH2OH H H OH C-glc OH
8-O-methyl-7-hydroxyaloin A CH2OH H OH OCH3H C-glc
8-O-methyl-7-hydroxyaloin B CH2OH H OH OCH3C-glc H
5-hydroxyaloin A 6’-O-acetate CH2OH OH H OH C-glc-6’-acetyl H
OH O
O
R6
R5
R4
R2
R1
R3
Anthranols in Aloe
O
R2
R
1
OHR4
R5
R6
R3
Anthranols in Aloe
OH
R2
R3
R6
R5
OR 1
R
Anthranols in Aloe
Compound R1R2R3R4R5R6
Aloesaponol I 6-O-β-Dglucoside CH3COOCH3O-glc H OH H
Aloesaponol III 6-O- β- D-glucoside OH H O-glc H OH H
Aloesaponol III 8-O- β- D-glucoside O-glc H CH3HHH
Aloesaponol III 4-O- β- D-glucoside OH H CH3O-glc H OH
Aloesaponol IV 4-O- β- D-glucosided-methylester OH H CH3O-glc H OCH3
Chromones in Aloe
O
R3O
OH
OH OH
O
R1OR2
O
O
OH
O
O
OH
OH
OH
OH
Neoaloesin A
OO
OCH 3
OR 2
R1O
R1= Β-D-glucosyl
R2= Β-D-glucosyl-2’’-p-coumaroyl
10 Phytochemical and Therapeutic Profile of Aloe vera
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Compound R1R2R3
Aloesin H CH2COCH3H
8-C-glucosyl-7-Omethyl-
(S)-aloesol
CH3
CH 2COCH 3
HOH
CH 2COCH 3
HOH
CH 2COCH 3
HO
H
H
Isoaloeresin D CH3
CH 2COCH 3
HOH
CH 2COCH 3
HOH
CH 2COCH 3
HO
H
p-(E)- coumaroyl
Aloeresin E CH3
CH 2COCH 3
HOH
CH 2COCH 3
HOH
CH 2COCH 3
HO
H
(E)-cinnamoyl
7-O-methylaloeresin A CH3CH2COCH3p-(E)- coumaroyl
7-O-methylaloesin CH3CH2COCH3H
Chromones in Aloe
O
R3O
OH
OH OH
O
R1OR2
O
O
OH
O
O
OH
OH
OH
OH
Neoaloesin A
OO
OCH 3
OR 2
R1O
R1= Β-D-glucosyl
R2= Β-
D-glucosyl-2’’-p-coumaroyl
O
OH
OH
OOH
OH
Kaempferol
O
OH
OH
O
OH
OH
OH
Quercetin
O
OOH
OH
Daidzin
OOH
OH OH
O
Genistein
be partly responsible for the wound healing properties
of the gel. In vivo studies have demonstrated that Aloe
vera gel promotes wound healing by direct stimulation
of macrophages and broblasts through the binding of
mannose 6-phosphate to the growth factor receptors on
the surface of the broblasts to increase both collagen
and proteoglycan synthesis, thereby promoting tissue
repair [4, 17, 18].
Furthermore, a water-soluble long-chain mannose
polymer acemannan, isolated from Aloe leaves, has
showd to accelerate wound healing and reduce radiation
induced skin reactions through macrophage activation
and consequently may stimulate the release of brogenic
cytokines otherwise growth factors may directly bind to
acemannan, promoting their stability and prolonging
their stimulation of granulation tissue [19–21]. Aloe vera
contains saponin, Aloe genin which had been reported
for wound healing activity [22].
Aloe vera gel also prevents progressive dermal
ischaemia caused by burns, frostbite, electrical injury and
intra arterial drug abuse. It acts as an inhibitor of throm-
boxane A2, a mediator of progressive tissue damage [23].
11
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Table 3: Some Pharmacological and therapeutic potentials of aloe
Pharmacological
activity
Research Activity References
Wound healing Case of radiodermatitis healed with aloe gel [155]
Aloe gel mixed with mineral oil in the treatment of thermal burns and scalds [156]
Radiation-induced ulcers effectively treated with aloe [157]
Use of Aloe vera leaf in the treatment of third degree x-ray induced ulcers in rats [158]
Second degree thermal and radium burns treated with aloe [159]
The healing action of extracts of Aloe vera leaf on abrasions of human skin [160]
Aloe accelerated ulcer healing activity in rabbits and increased collagen deposition [161]
Aloe vera used in the treatment of thermal and irradiation burns in laboratory
animals and humans
[95]
Aloe high water content keeps the wound moist and increased epithelial cell
migration to promote wound healing
[3]
Accelerated healing in frostbite wounds with aloe [162]
Aloe gel having ability to reverse progressive necrosis in partially damaged tissue [163]
Antiprostaglandins and antithromboxanes effect of aloe against frostbite wounds [99]
Effects of aloe extracts on human normal and tumor cells in vitro [24]
Tissue survival effect of aloe against frostbite wounds [100]
Topical effect of Aloe with ribonucleic acid and vitamin C on adjuvant arthritis [164]
Antiarthritic activity of anthraquinones found in Aloe for podiatric medicine; Wound
healing and anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera.
[36, 165]
Mannose-6-phosphate stimulate fibroblast to increase collagen and proteoglycan
synthesis and increases wound tensile strength
[166]
Aloe treated animals reduced five times edema response as compared to untreated
diabetic group
[69]
Eicosandoids and terpenes actively decreased inflammation in wounds; Wound
healing. oral and topical activity of Aloe vera
[167]
Plant hormones gibberellin and auxin stimulate antibody production and wound
healing in a dose-response manner against gelatin induced inflammation
[70]
Gel inhibits Thromboxane A2 synthetase and prevent its production to maintain a
balance equilibrium between PGE2 and PGF2A
[168]
The stimulation of post-dermabrasion wound healing with stabilized Aloe vera gel-
polyethylene oxide dressing
[169]
Aloe gel stimulates macrophages and fibroblasts through the binding of mannose
6-phosphate, which increase collagen and proteoglycan production for healing wound
[4]
Beneficial effects of Aloe in wound healing [98]
Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera [17]
Wound healing effects of Aloe gel and other topical antibacterial agents on rat skin [170]
Wound healing potential of A. vera leaf gel studied in experimental rabbits [171]
Simultaneous application of Aloe vera gel and microcurrent treatment showed
synergistical effect on open wounds
[172]
Continued
12 Phytochemical and Therapeutic Profile of Aloe vera
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Pharmacological
activity
Research Activity References
Anti-inflammatory Aloe having anti-thromboxane properties, which dilate arteries and enhance local
blood flow to treat inflammation
[32]
Aloe extract showed bradykinase activity and Anti inflammatory properties [30]
Carboxypeptidase from aloe inactivate bradykinin to inhibits inflammation [173]
Emolin, barbaloin and emodin from aloe gel shows antithromboxane effect to
maintain cellular integrity
[174]
Mannose inhibits the human neutrophils oxidative burst and prevent tissue damage [175]
Anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera against a spectrum of irritants [176]
Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate [38]
Anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera gel due to arachidonic acid pathway via
cyclooxygenase inhibition
[26]
Anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe gel against croton oil induced mouse ear
inflammation
[27]
Cinnamic acid ester of aloesin extracted from A. barbadensis leaves shown to reduce
croton oil-induced inflammation
[28]
Mannose-6-phosphate shown to have anti-inflammatory activity like acetylated
mannan, a gel component
[29]
Lupeol, found in Aloe vera, contributed anti-inflammatory activity [17]
Anti-inflammatory and antipruritic effects of Aloe vera gel appears to exert through
bradykinase activity, thromboxane B2, prostaglandin F2 inhibition and magnesium
lactate respectively
[4, 31, 32]
Prostaglandin E2 production inhibited by glycoprotein component of the gel, Aloctin A [33]
Veracylglucan B and Veracylglucan C (Maloyl glucan compound) isolated from aloe gel
showed potent anti-inflammatory activities
[34]
Aloin and aloe-emodin suppressed the inflammatory responses by blocking iNOS and
COX-2 mRNA expression
[35]
Decolorized aloe gel (anthraquinone-free gel) is more potent as an anti-inflammatory
agent than the colorized (anthraquinone) form
[36]
Hydrocortisone inhibited the inflammatory process in an additive, dose-dependent
manner when given concurrently
[37, 38]
Immunomodulatory
action
Stimulation of nitric oxide production in chicken macrophages [21]
Acemannan directly stimulated immunity through potentiating of lymphocyte
response to alloantigen; activation of nitric oxide production by macrophages and
cytokines (IL-1, 6, IFN, TNF)
[21,39]
Enhancement of phagocytosis; and increment of circulating monocytes and
macrophages
[40]
A high molecular weight polysaccharide aloeride activate nuclear factor (NF-κB) in
human macrophages and also induces the expression of the mRNAs.
[41, 42]
Acemannan immunostimulant prevented ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced immune
suppression in mice
[44]
A mannose-rich polysaccharide fraction of aloe gel enhanced antibody production in
mice.
[45]
Continued
Table 3: Continued
13
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Pharmacological
activity
Research Activity References
Anti-cancer Acemannan amplified antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity and stimulated the
propagation of thymic cells, also effective in the treatment of fibrosarcoma in dogs, cat
and mice increased survival rate
[46–49]
Potent anti-genotoxic and antitumor promoting activities of polysaccharides from A.
barbadensis
[51]
Acemannan stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 and
interferon by macrophages and showed antitumor effect
[39]
Large doses of polysaccharides with squalene, vitamins A and E demonstrated
chemopreventive and curative properties against mouse skin tumors
[52]
Aloctins showed mitogenic activity for lymphocytes, binding of human
22-macroglobulin and also inhibits growth of methylcholanthrene-induced
fibrosarcoma
[42, 53]
Anthraquinone derivative Aloe-emodin is active against P-388 leukemia in mice [54]
Aloe-emodin showed favourable therapeutic index against neuroectodermal tumors [56]
Aloe-emodin had stimulatory effect on urokinase secretion and colorectal carcinoma
cell growth
[57]
Antimetastatic activity of aloe gel reported in experimental rats and mice by decreasing
TXA2 and TXB2 production
[58, 59]
Aloe gel demonstrated antiangiogenic activity in the synovial pouch model in mice [60]
Aloe extract had inhibitory effect against preneoplastic hepatocellularlesions in rats; A
deterioration of the pleural tumor in rats by aloe latex, had also been demonstrated
[61–63]
Simultaneous administration of aloe and melatonin enhances the remedial result
against lung, gastrointestinal, and breast cancer by increasing interleukin-2 activity
[64]
Aloe latex enhances the activity of 6-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide [47]
Several other mechanisms including polysaccharides
induced complement stimulation, hydration, insulating
properties of the gel have already been reported. In vitro
studies demonstrated that the growth of normal human
cells and attachment were promoted by exposure to
fresh Aloe vera gel, whereas a stabilized gel was show to
be cytotoxic to both normal and tumour cells and the
cytotoxic eects were thought to be due to the addition
of external substances to the gel during processing [24].
An increment in glycosaminoglycan components of
the extracellular matrix, hyaluronic acid and dermatan
sulphate levels had been observed over oral and topical
application of Aloe vera on dermal wounds [25].
6.2 Anti-inammatory Activity
e anti-inammatory activity of Aloe vera gel has been
revealed by a number of inammatory models like
kaolin, carrageenan, albumin, gelatin, mustard and
croton oil which were said to act either by promoting
prostaglandin synthesis or by increasing inltration of
leucocytes. Aloe vera gel has antiinammatory activity
and suggested its inhibitory action on the arachid-
onic acid pathway via cyclooxygenase [26]. Croton oil
induced mouse ear inammation was reduced by up to
67% through topically applied Aloe gel [27]. Similarly a
component, cinnamic acid ester of Aloesin extracted from
whole Aloe barbadensis leaves and probably originating
from the exudates rather than the gel shown to reduce
croton oil-induced inammation [28]. Mannose-6-
phosphate was shown to have anti-inammatory activity
like acetylated mannan, a gel component [18]. Acute
inammation induced by carrageenin was signicantly
reduced by fresh Aloe vera gel, although no eect was
observed on chronic inammation [29]. Specic plant
sterols Lupeol, found in Aloe vera, also contribute to the
anti-inammatory activity in a dose dependent manner
Anti-inammatory and antipruritic eects of Aloe vera
gel appears to exert through bradykinase activity [18,
Table 3: Continued
14 Phytochemical and Therapeutic Profile of Aloe vera
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30], thromboxane B2, prostaglandin F2 inhibition and
magnesium lactate respectively [31, 32]. Prostaglandin
E2 production also inhibited by glycoprotein component
of the gel, Aloctin A [33]. From in vitro study it was
conrmed that veracylglucan B and veracylglucan
C (Maloyl glucan compound) isolated from Aloe gel
have potent anti-inammatory activities [34]. Aloin
and Aloe emodin possibly suppress the inammatory
responses by blocking iNOS and COX-2 mRNA
expression [35]. Aloe gel containing anthraquinone
(colorized gel) and anthraquinone-free gel (decolorized
gel) found that the decolorized Aloe gel is more potent
as an anti-inammatory agent than the colorized form
[36]. e same authors also reported that PMN leukocyte
inltration and inammation are decreased by both
colourised and decolourised gel. erefore on skin
ailment management the role of anthraquinones is still
confused and further studies are required to clarify the
capacity of Aloe gel (acemannan) to interact with integrins,
heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins play a role in
inammation, permitting inammatory cells to leave the
bloodstream and enter damaged tissues [37]. Lastly, Aloe
gel and hydrocortisone seem to inhibit the inammatory
process in an additive, dose-dependent manner when
given concurrently [38].
6.3 Immunomodulatory Action
Acemannan can directly stimulate immunity through
potentiation of lymphocyte response to alloantigen;
activation of nitric oxide production by macrophages
and cytokines (IL-1, 6, IFN, TNF) [39, 21]; enhancement
of phagocytosis; and increment of circulating mono-
cytes and macrophages [40]. A high molecular weight
polysaccharide Aloeride contains glucose, galactose,
mannose and arabinose and it can activate nuclear
factor (NF-κB) in human macrophages as like as
bacterial endotoxin, also induces the expression of the
mRNAs encoding IL (interleukin)-1 and TNF (tumor
necrosis factor)-α to levels equal to those observed
in cells maximally activated by bacterial endotoxin
[41]. Aloe gel also causes a local activation of comple-
ment at the level of C3 [42]. Commercially available
acemannan immunostimulant is a partially puried
carbohydrate preparation containing about 60% ace-
tylated mannan with other carbohydrates, especially
pectins and hemicelluloses prevent UltraViolet (UV)
irradiation-induced immune suppression as determined
by contact hypersensitivity response in mice [43]. MAP
also inhibits UV irradiation-induced TNF (Tumor
Necrosis Factor) release from human epidermoid
carcinoma cells. All these results indicate that MAP can
be used to reduce the risk of sunlight-related human
skin cancer. Aloe extracts materialize to manipulate
lymphocyte function under some circumstances, viz.,
prevent supp-ression of contact hypersensitivity and
Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in mice
by UltraViolet (UV) irradiation [44]. A mannose-rich
polysaccharide fraction of Aloe gel has been shown in
mice, to enhance antibody production [45].
6.4 Cancer
Acemannan is capable to amplify antibody dependent
cellular cytotoxicity and stimulate the propagation
of thymic cells, also eective in the treatment of
brosarcoma in dogs, cat and mice increased survival
rate [46–50). Lentinus edulis and others (Ganoderma
lucidum, Coriolus versicolor) have demonstrated
that polysaccharides from Aloe barbadensis have
potent anti-genotoxic and antitumor promoting
activities [51]. e antitumor eect of acemannan
may be due to stimulation of the production of
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), interleukin-1 and
interferon by macrophages; acemannan is also able
to abrogate viral infections in both animals and men
[39]. From the few reports available, it materializes
that to produce immunostimulation and antitumor
eects large doses of polysaccharides are necessary to
with other substances like squalene, vitamins A and E
have been demonstrated to have chemopreventive and
curative properties in the prevention and treatment of
mouse skin tumors and found to reduce the severity
of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in rats [52]. Aloe
extract also contains aloctins, substances which possess
many biological activities such as mitogenic activity
for lymphocytes, binding of human 22-macroglobulin,
complement activation via the alternative pathway and
also inhibits growth of methylcholanthrene-induced
brosarcoma and the results have been attributed to
the immunomodulatory eect of aloctin A, not to its
cytotoxicity [42, 53]. Anthraquinone derivative Aloe-
emodin is active against P-388 leukemia in mice [54]
and selective inhibitor of human neuroectodermal
15
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tumor cell growth in tissue cultures and in animal
models, the cytotoxicity mechanism consists of the
induction of apoptosis, while the selectivity against
neuroectodermal tumor cells is due to a specic energy-
dependent pathway [55]. Aloe-emodin is lethal against
neuroectodermal tumors with no substantiation of
acute or chronic toxicity and as a result it shows a
favourable therapeutic index. Aloe-emodin does not
have inhibitory activity on the proliferation of normal
broblasts or hemopoietic progenitor cells. However,
others have examined Aloe-emodin as a cytotoxic
agent on numerous tumor cell lines but no considerable
activity was found [56]. A stimulatory eect of
Aloe-emodin on urokinase secretion and colorectal
carcinoma cell growth has also been described [57].
Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), isolated from Aloe
vera was exhibited to have a potent antileukaemic
eect in human cells and anti-mutagenic activity in the
Salmonella mutation assay. e presence of all these
compounds might be sucient to clarify the prophylactic
and probable therapeutic eect of Aloe extract and
its antitumour activity against leucopenia caused by
exposure to cobalt 60, sarcoma-180 and Elhrich ascites
[58, 59]. Antimetastatic activity of Aloe gel has also been
reported in Experimental rats and mice [47] and inhibits
metastasis by decreasing TXA2 and TXB2 production
in vitro [14] and this could be one of the mechanisms of
antimetastatic activity of Aloe. Tumors endorse platelet
aggregation by stimulating the production of TXA2 and/
or inhibiting the production of PGI2. e importance
of platelet aggregation in metastasis is now more
widely accepted and several reports have been found
that by modifying the balance between Prostacyclin
(PGI2) (inhibits platelet aggregation) and rombo-
xane (TXA2) (enhances aggregation) migrating cells
from some cancers induce platelet aggregation.
Glycoproteins isolated from Aloe arborescens and Aloe
saponaria degrade bradykinin in vitro and inhibit the
formation of histamine in vitro. Antiangiogenic activity
of Aloe gel has also been demonstrated in vivo in the
synovial pouch model in mice [60]. Other studies like,
Aloe extract to have an inhibitory eect when used
against preneoplastic hepatocellularlesions in rats, a
deterioration of the pleural tumor in rats by Aloe latex,
ability to augment tumor specic immunity etc. had
also been demonstrated [61–63]. Clinical study had
shown that patients with advanced solid tumors such
as lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, breast cancer
or brain glioblastoma, simultaneous administration
of Aloe and melatonin enhances the remedial result
through increasing interleukin-2 activity [64]. It has
also been demonstrated that Aloe latex enhances the
activity of 6-uorouracil and cyclophosphamide [47].
Nevertheless, until well-designed clinical trials on Aloe
are conducted, it will not be probable to determine the
anticancer activity of the drug with certainty.
6.5 Diabetes
Even though preliminary clinical and experimental
hypoglycaemic action had been reported in humans
[65] earlier than animal (mouse) model of diabetes
but, the mechanism of action for this eect has yet to
be determined and it has been hypothesised that Aloe
may stimulate the release or synthesis of insulin from
the β-cell of Islets of Langerhans [66]. Another study
have demonstrated that a formula containing Aloe vera
and a small number of natural agents (Nigella sativa L.,
Boswella carterii Birdw., Commiphora myrrha Engl. and
Ferula assa-foetida L.) inhibits gluconeogenesis and
lowers blood sugar in an animal model [67]; but, it was
found to be ineective in lowering blood glucose levels
of alloxan-treated rats [68]. A ‘bitter principle’ separated
from crystalline (sic) Aloe produced signicant lowering
of fasting blood glucose levels when injected into
alloxantreated mice [66]. Subcutaneous injection of Aloe
vera gel preparation promoted diabetic wound healing,
reduced abnormal sensitivity and oedema induced by
mustard [69]. In a subsequent study, surprisingly, both
Aloe vera gel and gibberellic acid were reported to have
almost equal inammation-reducing properties in
chemically induced diabetic mice [70]. Clinical trials
suggest that oral administration of Aloe gel might be a
useful appendage for lowering blood glucose in patients
with diabetes [71]. ey have divided 72 women into
two groups received one tablespoon of Aloe gel or
placebo for 42 days. Blood glucose levels consequently
decreased from 250 mg to 141 mg in the experimental
group, while controls showed no signicant changes.
Except triglyceride levels, which fell signicantly in the
actively treated group, other variables like cholesterol,
weight and appetite were remain unaltered in both
groups. is study was neither randomized nor blinded
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to patient or investigators. Bunyapraphatsara et al., [72]
investigated the eects of Aloe gel in combination with
a standard oral antidiabetic glibenclamide 5 mg, twice
daily. In addition, for the period of the trial (42 days)
they were given either placebo or Aloe gel as above.
e results show similar decreases in blood glucose and
serum triglyceride levels in the actively treated group,
as described in the rst trial.
6.6 Viral Diseases
Anthraquinone derivatives were found to inhibit several
viruses in vitro, including herpes simplex of type 1 and
type 2, pseudo-rabies, varicella-zoster and inuenza
[73]. Acemannan had been reported in vitro to have
anti-HIV/AIDS activity through amplify the production
and function of cytotoxic T cells in a dose-dependent
manner [74]. Acemannan in combination with the
antiviral agent Azidothymidine (AZT) and acyclovir
protected the cells from rapid HIV-1 replication induced
premature cell death. Antiviral activity of acemannan is
due to inhibition of glycosylation of viral glycoproteins
[75]. Consequently, Aloe extract has been considered
as a probable therapy for AIDS, alone or in association
with other antiviral drug to reduce the dosage and
side-eects of antiviral treatment up to 90% [76].
Dianthrones and other anthraquinone derivatives like
rhein and emodin have antiviral activity against human
cytomegalovirus but, due to their low bioavailability
systemic antiviral eects are less. Two randomized
clinical trials, conducted by the same research group
[77, 78] indicate that topical application of Aloe vera
might be eective against the rst episodes of genital
herpes. In the rst study they divided 120 patients into
three parallel groups treated with placebo, Aloe gel or
Aloe cream three times daily for two weeks. In case of
placebo cream the numbers of cured patients were 7.5%,
Aloe gel 45% and Aloe cream 70%. In addition, Aloe
cream showed a shorter mean duration (4.8 days) of
healing than Aloe gel (7 days) and placebo (14 days).
Among 49 patients healed at the end of this trial period,
6 patient got relapse aer 21 months of follow-up. In the
second study, 60 patients were indiscriminately divided
into two groups treated with placebo ceam and Aloe gel
respectively had both signicantly shorter healing time
(4.9 days) and a higher number of cured patients (66.7%)
compared with the placebo group. ree patients among
22 healed patients showed recurrence aer 15 months.
6.7 Antibacterial Activity
Aloe gel (acemannan) had been reported to have
antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Stre-
ptococcus species, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter
cloacae, Citrobacter species, Serratia marcescens, Pseudo-
monas aeruginosa and other bacteria’s [79]. Aloe gel also
speed up the rate of healing, decreases the synthesis of
prostanoids and inhibits infection by Pseudomonas
aeruginosa.
6.8 Psoriasis
Anthrones have long been used as antipsoriatic
agents but, their mode of action is not known exactly,
although many biological molecules and receptors have
been identied as potential targets of anthrones. e
antipsoriatic activity of anthrones is probably due to;
inhibition of O2 utilization by cells, a reduction in size
of the intracellular spaces, decrease in ribosomes and
mitochondria, interaction with DNA, inhibition of
various enzyme associated with cell proliferation and
inammation, interfear with redox reaction resulting in
mitochondrial damage, destruction of membrane lipids
in the psoriatic epidermis etc. had all been noted [80–84].
A clinical trial performed randomly among 60 patients
with mild to moderate chronic psoriasis treated either an
Aloe gel or placebo cream was self-applied three times
per day for four weeks subsequently followed up to 12
months [85]. e cure rate in the Aloe gel group was 83%
and only 7% in the placebo group.
6.9 Hyperlipidaemia
Nassif et al., [86] worked with 60 hyperlipidaemia
patients who had not responded to dietary intervention,
received either 10 ml or 20 ml Aloe gel or placebo daily
for a period of 12 weeks. Blood lipid levels were measured
before and aer treatment for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Total
serum cholesterol was decreased by 15.4% and 15.5%,
triglycerides by 25.2% and 31.9%, LDL by 18.9% and
18.2%, respectively, in the two groups receiving dierent
doses of Aloe gel. In a small trial with monkey it was
found that orall administration of Aloe gel lowered total
17
Pulok K. et al.
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cholesterol by 61% and also increased proportion in the
high density lipoprotein (HDL) [87].
6.10 Miscellaneous
Afzal et al., [88] stated that eect of Aloe extract may
be due to the formation of some prostanoids throughout
dark storage at 4°C–30°C, for a period of three to ten days.
A study carried out with a formulation containing Aloe,
silicon dioxide and allantoin to treat aphthous stomatites
indicated that Aloe gel is less eective on aphthous
ulcers but, bioadhesive patch prepared with Aloe gel is
usefulness for the treatment of mouth ulcers has recently
been evaluated and the results of this research emphasize
the eciency and acquiescence of the patch for the
treatment of the aphtous stomatitis [89]. Antiparasitic
actions of aqueous extract of Aloe barbadensis against
in vitro culture of Trichonomas vaginalis, suggesting
its growth inhibitory activity over T. vaginalis and its
potential use in womens’ disturbances [90]. Studies
have also been showed that topical and oral use of Aloe
formulation able to heal the patients with chronic venous
leg ulcers [13]. It was found that growth rate of urinary
calcium crystals that contribute to the deposition
of kidney stones also reduced by Aloe [91]. Aloe is
considered as a ‘panacea’ in veterinary medicine as a
purge for cattle and in the treatment of dierent types of
inammation like ringworm, allergies, abscesses, fungal
infections, thermal burns in dogs [92–94]. However, in
the lack of better researchs we must be cautious against
simplications of these therapeutic treatments.
7. Clinical Studies
7.1 Anti-inammatory and Wound Healing
To prove the eectiveness of Aloe gel and its various
components to some sort of deliberate wounding or on
inammation a number of tests have been used. ese
require to be famed as of clinical trials where the injuries
already exist and are comparatively treated scientically
by means of presumed therapeutic agents. Ashley et al.,
[95] rst perform the most comprehensive and precise
clinical trials with Aloe gel against controlled thermal
and radiation burns on rats and rabbits compared with
clinical studies on human patients. Go and Levenstein,
[96] was determine the tensile strength of the healing
of a precise incision wound, post mortem. Clinical trial
with humans, 68% of the Aloe-treated patients recovered
fully and among them 7% required amputation,
whereas only 33% of patientsa getting other treatments
were fully healed [97]. A series of experiments of Aloe
gel on heat burns, electrical burns and frostbite in
guinea pigs, rabbits and in clinical studies with humans
had been performed to demonstrate a therapeutic
potential across the wide variety of so tissue injuries
and to recognize the possible multifarious activities
of Aloe constituents [98]. Reduction of thromboxane
levels was thought to be main function of Aloe gel in
healing frostbite and depending on this hypothesis
it had been used clinically to treat the more rigorous
blisters where there was structural damage [99, 100].
In an inadequately described trial, Aloe was found to
be less eective than silver suadiazine cream in the
treatment of experimental second degree burns, with an
idea that Aloe may indeed disturb the healing process
[101]. Schmidt et al., [102] observed the consequence
of Aloe gel on the healing of 21 women undergoes
complicated gynecological or obstetric surgical wounds.
is study, was incision type and randomized to either
standard treatment (debridement and irrigation), or
standard treatment plus Aloe gel. Experimental group
healed within 83 days on average versus 53 days with
standard treatment (P = 0.003). Because of the clearly
prolonged healing in the group treated with Aloe,
patient recruitment was terminated before the desired
sample size (n = 114) was reached. Another research,
topical Aloe gel preparation versus Vaseline gauze on
27 patients with partial thickness skin burns, healing
time was 12 days with Aloe gel treatment while 18 days
with Vaseline gauze Visuthikosol et al., [103]. ese
contradictory results cannot be measured convincing,
but must be considered. A small randomized placebo-
controlled trial gave hopeful preliminary evidence
over 44 individuals teated with oral Aloe vera gel (100
mL twice daily for 4 weeks) was advantageous in the
supervision of ulcerative colitis [104]. Puvabanditsin
et al., [105] carried out a double-blind, randomized,
placebo-controlled study to review the usefulness of
Aloe vera cream in prevention of burn and tan from
ultraviolet light.
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7.2 Constipation
Laxative action of aloin (1 grain [=0.0648 g] once)
evaluated with phenolphtalein (2 grain once) and
phenolphthalein (1 grain) + aloin (0.5 grain) and placebo
over 28 healthy adults to dierent treatment sequences;
stool frequency and transit time were compared for
all treatments [106]. Odes & Madar, [107] performed
a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study
and found that Aloe in combination with celandine and
psyllium was an eectual laxative in patients suering
from chronic constipation.
7.3 Antiviral
Two non-randomized trials had been performed with
oral acemannan in the treatment of HIV infection to
prove the ecacy of Aloe gel and that had been publi-
shed as conference abstracts [108, 109]. Montaner et al.,
[110] accomplished a randomized double-blind trial on
antiretroviral agent for HIV to evaluate the eectiveness
of acemannan as an adjuvant over 63 patients to receive
either 400 mg oral acemannan four times daily or
placebo. ere was no signicant divergence in CD4
counts, CD4/CD8 ratios, P24 antigen, β2-microglobulin
concentration, viral load between the two treatment
groups etc. A randomized study was carried out with 60
men genital herpes patients receive topical Aloe consisted
of three daily applications of a 0.5% cream for ve days
versus applications of a cream without active ingredients
[98]. Aer one week of treatment 2/3 patients treated
with Aloe were cured of wounds in the compared with
only 2/30 in the placebo group (P < 0.001).
7.4 Cancer
Sakai, [111] carried out a trial over 192 subjects (1 case
per 2 controls) in a multi-center Japanese case-control
study to determine the potential correlations between
lung cancer incidence, smoking, and consumption of 17
dierent types of plants.
7.5 Diabetes
Dried Aloe gel was studied in ve patients with type 2
diabetes orally for half a teaspoon of Aloe daily for 4–14
weeks, aer that fasting glucose level was measured
to have fallen from a mean of 273 to 151 (P < 0.05)
[65]. Two non-randomized clinical trials had been
conducted to conclude that Aloe gel might have similler
ecasy as a sulfonylurea antihyperglycemic oral agent,
glibenclamide to lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes
mellitus [71, 112]. Chalaprawat, [113] performed a
randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover
trial and found no hypoglycemic eect of Aloe juice
(15 mL twice daily) in 16 type 2 diabetics.
8. Adverse Effects, Toxicity,
Drug Interaction and Safety
Evaluation
Long term Aloe treatment about three to six months
or more than that in rats suggest that does not induce
tolerance in the sense of a reduced laxative eect.
Evnthough, genotoxicity have already been shown by
anthraquinone derivatives in Salmonella assay but, the
clinical relevance of this experimental result is still
not clear [83, 114–116]. Laxative use did not show any
signicant increase of colon cancer incidence [117–
120]. Risk of colon cancer was found to inter-related
between constipation and to use of anthraquinone
laxatives but, epidemiological studies are in dierence
[121, 122]. Just similar to other laxative drugs such
as senna, rhubarb, etc., which are digested by colon
microora, with Aloe latex abdominal discomfort,
abdominal pain, meteorism, atulence, cramps may be
usual [123] and other side-eects comprise hemorrhoid
congestion and coloration of the urine which becomes
orange if the pH is acidic, or reddish purple if the pH
is alkaline and this is due to the renal excretion of the
hydroxyanthracene derivatives [124]. Prolonged use
or overdosage may cause nephritis, vomiting, bloody
diarrhoea with mucus or watery diarrhoea leading
to electrolyte imbalance and hemorrhagic gastritis
[125]. e increased intestinal loss of K+ can lead to
hypokalemia, leading to further reduction of colonic
motility while Na+ loss can result in secondary
hyperaldosteronism ultimately may lead to fatigue,
muscular weakness, weight loss, mental disturba-
nces, steatorrhoea, electrocardiographic abnormalities
kidney dysfunction, surface epithelium may damage
and also may impaire the function of autonomic nervous
system [126, 127]. Hypokalemia, which results from
K+ loss, may produce agonistic action over digoxin,
and thiazide diuretics, corticosteroids and licorice may
aggravate hypokalemia [128]. ese changes, however,
19
Pulok K. et al.
Journal of Natural Remedies | ISSN: 2320-3358 www.jnronline.com | Vol 14 (1) | January 2014
have not been clearly demonstrated in animals and
humans. e morphological basis of pigmentation is
melanosis (melanin synthesis), within macrophages
of the large intestinal mucosa. An association between
the laxative administration and melanosis is now been
accepted but there is no indication that melanosis has
any pathophysiological consequences. Once the laxative
administration has stopped the intestinal mucosa
recovers its usual coloration 4–12 months [124]. Jacobs
and White [129] reported that when the colon cancer
risks for constipation and laxatives were adjusted for
each other, the association with laxatives disappeared,
whereas the association with constipation remained
strong. Furthermore, when Aloe was administered with
a carcinogen agent Azoxymethane (AOM), did not
create any signicant increase of ACF, and tumors. ese
results are basically in concurrence with earlier reports
on other anthraquinone drugs [130, 131]. Studies have
also been demonstrated that anthraquinone compounds
like emodin selectively blocks the signal transduction
modulated by oncogene through the inhibition of
protein kinase and this hypothesis suggests ample edge
of safety for Aloe and other anthraquinone drugs when
used internally [127]. Aloe gel has been reported to
cause contact and photo dermatitis or erythema with
papulous when applied topically, in spite of its wound-
healing and anti-inammatory properties [117, 118,
132–137). It was found that on exposure to ultraviolet
radiation Aloe emodin painting on the skin of mice
results in the progression of melatonin-containing skin
tumors [138]. Boon and Smith, [124] reported one case
of cathartic eect aer topical application of Aloe gel.
Ten controlled clinical trials had been performed with
803 subjects did not show any withdrawals or serious
adverse reactions, some patients experienced burning
aer topical application, contact dermatitis and mild
itching. All adverse eects were reversible and Aloe
vera was generally well tolerated [139]. Scientic
evidence for the cosmetic and therapeutic eectiveness
of Aloe vera is limited and when present is typically
contradictory. Despite this, the cosmetic and alternative
medicine industries regularly make claims regarding
the soothing, moisturizing and healing properties
of Aloe vera. It is common practice for cosmetic
companies to add sap or other derivatives from Aloe
vera to products such as makeup, tissues, moisturizers,
soaps, sunscreens, incense, razors and shampoos.
However, the species is used widely in the traditional
herbal medicine of China, Japan, Russia, South Africa,
the United States, Jamaica and India. Research studies
highlight the tremendous healing powers of Aloe when
used both internally and externally.
9. Gel Preparation Factors
InuencingoverProcessing
of Gel
It would appear that several contradictory clinical
results acquired for therapeutic ecacy of Aloe gel
result from the history of the sample aer removal from
the leaf, or even growing conditions of the plant. is
was reviewed and allegedly concluded in a report from
the United Aloe Technologists Association [140, 141].
High Temperatures for Short Times (HTST) method is
usefull throughout pasteurization is one of the stresses
obligatory on the gel and there are advantages in using
preferably with the incorporation of an antioxidant such
as ascorbic acid [142]. Mucopolysaccharide veracity
upon storage was found to be conserved by the addition
of other natural polysaccharides which act synergi-
stically [143–145]. Size exclusion chromatography is
usefull for number of commercial ‘Aloe’ products expo-
sed extensively diering levels of mucopolysaccharides
[146]. Organoleptic properties are important when
the gel is intended for internal use, for those cses these
processes are also important where and additives must
be carefully chosen [147]. It was also alleged that plants
grown hydroponically had higher carbohydrate content
[148]. ere are still other factors like leaf size, pH, ber
content, calcium and magnesium contents and certain
HPLC peaks operating since a cautious analysis of plants
from many geneses showed great variation [149]. Lastly
anthraquinone derivatives (‘aloin’) derived from the
mesophyll exudate is one of the problem. Protocols to
address all these troubles are now been stabilized and set
out in detail in two US Patents [150, 151].
10. Current Market Scenario and
Export Potential
e current global turnover of raw Aloe leaves amount
up to 70–80 million US dollars, which is expected
to grow at the rate of 35% in the next ve years. For
20 Phytochemical and Therapeutic Profile of Aloe vera
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processed derivatives and value added products, current
global trade is estimated at around 1 billion and 25
billions US dollars respectively. USA supplies the major
bulk of Aloe in world market having a share of 60–65%,
whereas Latin American countries supply 20–25% and
Australia, China and India combined together have a
market share of only 10%. American consumers are
most familiar with Aloe’s use in skin-care products and
there have been dramatic increases in Aloe vera sales in
the United States. As a beverage, Aloe drinks have long
been a staple drink in American health food stores and
with direct marketing companies. Korea is currently the
largest international market place for Aloe, with Japan
running a close second. Both of these countries have a
long and respected tradition of herbal medicine. Aloe
beverages are also very popular in Korea, Singapore
and Malaysia. In Australia, market for skin and hair
products containing Aloe is increasing. e use of Aloe
in cosmetic products is growing at a modest rate in the
Scandinavian countries, Switzerland, Italy, Spain and
in several African nations. Aloe produced in Zanzibar,
West Indies, Cape Colone, Bonaire, etc, is shipped to the
United States and Europe. In India, Aloe juice produced
at the farms in Vidharbha region is marketed to Mumbai
and Bangalore.
11. Discussion
Herbal medicines derived from plant are part of this
system since ancient human civilizations and very
prominent to the rural areas where the 65% of popu-
lation live. e ethnic and rural people of India have
preserved a large bulk of traditional knowledge of
medicinal uses of plants growing around them. As to
execute the requirement of medicinal plants, it becomes
essential to promote these plants species for cultivation.
According to a WHO estimate, globally about 80% of the
population relies on traditional medicine. Beside these,
thousands of other phyto molecules with therapeutic
potentials using by rural and tribal’s but has not been
standardized till date require more sophisticated
techniques for rapid investigations. erefore for past
two decades, renewed interest in health products through
herbal medicine globally has opened new avenue of
exploration and they impart debate. Aloe vera has been
used since ancient times for many healing and beauty
purposes. It has been the issue of growing technique,
scientically based investigations for wide range of
possible curative and healing eect apart from what is
already in practice around the world. Various research
studies are in pipeline to discover the potential of Aloe
vera such as boosting immunity, treatment against HIV
virus, managing diabetes along with treat certain types
of cancer. Public interest is Aloe has grown quickly, and
now there is a considerable amount of research into the
various components of Aloe to nd our more about their
properties and to characterize these components so that
more specic research can provide clues to the “magic”
that is attributed to Aloe vera.
In India the whole Aloe plant has been used as a
purgative, stomachic, antihelmintic and emmenagogue,
menstrual suppression and the root for colic pain [152].
Aloe has also been used for unrelated human illness like
to correct kidney ailments, enhance sexual excitement,
develop the mammary glands, relieve headaches,
suppress fever in children, as a laxative and skin injuries
[153]. Clinical trials are now in improvement to aord
convincing evidence not only in these diseases but also
in arthritis, gastric ulcer, cancer, AIDS and colitis.Aloe
gel can be useful abundantly for topical applications,
wide ranges of products are now available on the
market; however, simply pure Aloe gel is sucient to
treat several skin disorders. ese products are light
and heat sensitive; therefore aer removing the gel from
leaf mechanically it is being preserved with buer and
stabilized immediately, this process may uctuate from
producer to producer, making the superiority of Aloe
gel highly variable [125]. Aloe products are classied as
drugs at the same time as dietary supplements, also
a common ingredient in numerous hand, body and
sun lotions, shaving creams, shampoos and personal
care-products. is is why sometimes people forget
to consider Aloe a medicinal drug [154]. Aloe is also
processed into various avoured and unavoured
alcoholic drinks that are ingested with the belief that this
bitter liquid (amarum) will stimulate the appetite and/or
the digestion. Many multi-level marketing companies are
selling wide range of Aloe vera based health and beauty
products. Many of these products are being sold in India.
Keeping in view, the blooming stage of Indian herbal
industry and export potential, commercial cultivation of
Aloe vera can be very rewarding for Indian farmers.
21
Pulok K. et al.
Journal of Natural Remedies | ISSN: 2320-3358 www.jnronline.com | Vol 14 (1) | January 2014
12. Acknowledgement
We thankfully acknowledge the nancial support thr-
ough Research Associate-ship to Kakali Mukherjee from
the Indian Council of Medical Research, Government of
India, New Delhi, File No. 45/43/2010/BMS/TRM.
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... The glucose-6-mannose is related to its healing properties. The anthraquinones are free or glycosylated phenolic compounds found in the bitter yellow acibar of A. vera leaf (Hamman, 2008Domíguez-Fern andez et al., 2012Mukherjee et al., 2014;Majumder et al., 2019). ...
... Parts of plant Aloe vera Skin (Simal et al., 1999) Fillet ( Gel (Fresh) (Simal et al., 1999Scala et al., 2013Dammak et al., 2018) Gel (Lyophilized) (Simal et al., 1999Bozzi et al., 2007 Water anticancer agents (neoplastic disease) (Cavasana et al., 2020Majumder et al., 2019). In addition, it has been studied for hepato-protective, antiulcer, antiarthritic, and antirheumatic activities (Hamman, 2008IARC, 2016Majumder et al., 2019;Mukherjee et al., 2014;Radha and Laxmipriya, 2015;) . Furthermore, it helps in intestinal disorders (e.g. ...
... Furthermore, it helps in intestinal disorders (e.g. constipation) by attributing anti-dysenteric, anti-hemorrhoid, (Reynolds, 1985(Reynolds, , 2004Mukherjee et al., 2014;Majumder et al., 2019) Lacacic acid D methyl ester (Reynolds, 1985(Reynolds, , 2004Mukherjee et al., 2014;Majumder et al., 2019) Aloesaponarin I (Reynolds, 1985(Reynolds, , 2004Mukherjee et al., 2014;Majumder et al., 2019) Aloesaponarin-II (Reynolds, 1985(Reynolds, , 2004Mukherjee et al., 2014;Majumder et al., 2019) Aloe-emodin (Reynolds, 1985(Reynolds, , 2004Mukherjee et al., 2014;Baruah et al., 2016;Majumder et al., 2019) Chrysophanol (Reynolds, 1985(Reynolds, , 2004Mukherjee et al., 2014;Baruah et al., 2016;Majumder et al., 2019) Aloenin (Reynolds, 1985(Reynolds, , 2004Mukherjee et al., 2014;Quispe et al., 2018;Majumder et al., 2019) Helminthosporin (continued) (Reynolds, 1985, 2004Mukherjee et al., 2014Majumder et al., 2019) Aloetic acid (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Chrysophanic acid (Saeed et al.,2004) Emodin (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008;Baruah et al., 2016) Ethereal oil (Saeed et al.,2004) Ester of cinnemonic acid (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Isobarbaloin (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Anthranol (Hamman, 2008) Anthracine (Saeed et al.,2004) Resistannol (Saeed et al.,2004) Anthranon (Saeed et al.,2004) Barbaloin (Aloin A and Aloin B) (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008;Baruah et al., 2016;Quispe et (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Vitamin E (a-tocopherol) (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Choline (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Folic acid (Saeed et al., 2004;Hamman, 2008) Minerals Calcium (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Chromium (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Copper (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Iron (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Magnesium (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Manganese (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Potassium (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Sodium (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Zinc (Saeed et al.,2004;Hamman, 2008) Chlorine (Hamman, 2008) Phosphorous (Hamman, 2008) healing, and laxative properties (Majumder et al., 2019Cavasana et al., 2020). Also, phytosterols of Aloe gel are able to reduce visceral fat due the interaction with cholesterol, and also influence in the glucose metabolism, reducing blood glucose in model experimental in mice. ...
Article
Aloe vera is one of the oldest and most traditional medicinal plant in history, with its use dating back over a thousand years. Today, its biological activity is not limited to curative purposes. The expansion in the A. vera industry became evident during the 90′s, when the development of this crop began to emerge due to a global demand from consumers more concerned with a healthy lifestyle. Considering the agro-industrial and economic relevance that this plant has acquired, this work reviewed its chemical, biological, and nutritional characteristics, plant processing methods, innovations, and industrial applications. Aloe vera is a plant that contain more than 75 bioactive compounds, among them the most relevant are polysaccharides, phenolics, and phytosterols. Additionally, the main processing technologies for A. vera leaves are described, including those used to obtain pressed filleted gel, whole leaf gel and manual filleted gel. This article shows its applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries are presented and the world landscape of the million-dollar market generated around this product, which in 2018 was around $1.60 billion. The applications of A. vera in the food industry as a natural functional ingredient or as fortifier in the food products of animal and vegetable origin has been a trend explored in the last years. Finally, through an in-depth analysis of patents and research articles, the current scenario of science and innovation developed for this industry is described.
... The Aloe vera gel extract contains about 75 bioactive phytochemicals, including anthraquinones, naphthalenones, polysaccharides, proteins, enzymes, and organic acids. Aloe-emodin and chrysophanol (anthraquinone molecules) are two phytoconstituents that are mostly found in nature 14-16 , and anthraquinones [17][18][19] is the most bioactive phytochemicals present in the bitter yellow latex of Aloe vera, whereas the polysaccharide with water (99%) are mostly found in gel with glucose-mannose polysaccharides 20 . Aloe lectin (protein), chromone (aleosin, umbelliferon, and esculetin), cellulase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase are some of the other bioactive phytochemicals found in this plant 21,22 . ...
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This work focuses on the biogenic synthesis of CuFeO2 nanocomposites (B-CuFeO2 NCs) and B-CuFeO2/polyaniline (PANI) NCs synthesized by Aloe barbadensis miller gel extracts for demonstrating antibacterial activity and utility as an electrochemical sensor for the quantification of hydrazine for agricultural applications. Hydrazine retention in plants can build up throughout the food chain, posing a hazard to animal and possibly human health; it can also inhibit seed germination and causes leaf wilting in several agricultural plants. Consequently, it is essential to study hydrazine absorption and dispersion in plants. Thus, this study investigated the as-prepared nanocomposites for optical, structural, and morphological characteristics by utilizing UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX). After that, biologically synthesized NCs were deposited onto the glass substrate (indium-tin-oxide) to explore their electro-oxidation study of hydrazine utilizing differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Hence, from the study's findings, it was evident that B-CuFeO2/PANI NCs modified electrode has an extremely high sensitivity of 47.36 µAmM-1cm-2 for hydrazine and a lower detection limit of 0.0313 mM under optimized experimental conditions, and the as-prepared NCs also demonstrated efficient antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
... Initially, we selected all the small molecules (such as aloin, aloeemodin, campesterol, riboflavin, daidzin, rhein, kaempferol, etc.) found in Aloe vera [11][12][13]. Next, the 3D structures of selected natural compounds were constructed and minimized (addition of hydrogen and charge: Gasteiger) using canonical smile from the PubChem database (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) in UCSF Chimera. ...
Article
Background Aloe vera extract and its bioactive compounds possess anti-proliferative properties against cancer cells. However, no detailed molecular mechanism of action studies has been reported. We have now employed a computational approach to scrutinize the molecular mechanism of lead bioactive compounds from Aloe vera that potentially inhibit DNA synthesis. Methods Initially, the anti-proliferative activity of Aloe vera extract was examined in human breast cancer cells (in vitro/in vivo). Later on, computational screening of bioactive compounds from Aloe vera targeting DNA was performed by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Results In-vitro and in-vivo studies confirm that Aloe vera extract effectively suppresses the growth of breast cancer cells without significant cytotoxicity towards non-cancerous normal immortal cells. Computational screening predicts that growth suppression may be due to the presence of DNA intercalating bioactive compounds (riboflavin, daidzin, aloin, etc.) contained in Aloe vera. MM/PBSA calculation showed that riboflavin has a higher binding affinity at the DNA binding sites compared to standard drug daunorubicin. Conclusions These observations support the hypothesis that riboflavin may be exploited as an anti-proliferative DNA intercalating agent to prevent cancer and is worthy of testing for the management of cancer by performing more extensive pre-clinical and if validated clinical trials.
... Aloe vera gel, has anti-inflammatory properties, healing effects, stimulation of mucus, and regulates gastric secretions, which can help prevent and treat gastric ulcers [22]. As a result of the presence of anthraquinones and chromone, aloe vera gel has strong anti-inflammatory properties [23]. Aloe vera also relieves joint pain because it has an anti-inflammatory effect. ...
Chapter
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The traditional and herbal medicines play significant role in the treatment of several diseases. These medicines are the outcome of extensive research on therapeutic and preventive activity of various plant species and their specific parts. Administration of various plant parts, vegetables, fruits and other herbal constituents have significant impact on reduction of clinical, carcinogenic and genotoxic effects of various environmental toxicants. Various parts of plant such as wood, bark, stem, leaf and pod are rich in antioxidants which are known for their free radical scavenging activity. Currently, the treatment options rely significantly using natural anti-oxidants which are extracted from plant products because these are largely available, cost effective and non-toxic as compared to the synthetic drugs. Some potent natural anti-oxidants include tocopherol, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, quercetin, carotene, cinnamic acid, peptides and phenolic compounds which are extensively available in various herbal extracts. The present chapter will focus upon availability of various antioxidants in vegetables and other medicinal plants and their potential activities against xenobiotics.
... However, A. irafensis which is endemic to Yemen and traditionally used for antibacterial and wound healing, has not yet been well investigated. In this study, the chemical screening of A. irafensis indicated that the latex, gel, and green skin extracts contained carbohydrates, steroids, phenols, tannins, and anthrones which are commonly found in several Aloe species [6,19]. ...
Article
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Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the phytochemical constituents and to assess the antibacterial, antioxidant, and wound-healing properties of the methanol extracts of Aloe irafensis. Methods: Methanol extracts of A. irafensis's latex, gel, and green skin were screened for their phytochemical constituents. All three extracts were investigated regarding their antibacterial potential using disc diffusion and microdilution assays, and their antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay. Histological analyses of wound healing areas were performed following the administration of the latex extract in male albino rats. Results: The methanol extracts of A. irafensis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, phenols, tannins, and anthrones. The latex extract showed greater inhibition zones against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24 and 17 mm, respectively) with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 1.25 and 2.50 mg/ml, respectively. The latex extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC 50 of 65.54 µg/ml), followed by green skin extract (IC 50 of 89.48 µg/ml). The latex extract significantly accelerated the rate of wound healing in rats (p<0.01), compared to the reference control fucidin ointment. Histological findings showed remarkably less scar width at wound closure site in the latex extract-treated wounds. Granulation tissue contained fewer inflammatory cells and more fibroblasts in wounds treated with the latex extract compared to those treated with the vehicle. Conclusion: A. irafensis latex extract is a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be exploited for antioxidant, antibacterial, and wound healing purposes.
... However, A. irafensis which is endemic to Yemen and traditionally used for antibacterial and wound healing, has not yet been well investigated. In this study, the chemical screening of A. irafensis indicated that the latex, gel, and green skin extracts contained carbohydrates, steroids, phenols, tannins, and anthrones which are commonly found in several Aloe species [6,19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the phytochemical constituents and to assess the antibacterial, antioxidant, and wound-healing properties of the methanol extracts of Aloe irafensis. Methods: Methanol extracts of A. irafensis's latex, gel, and green skin were screened for their phytochemical constituents. All three extracts were investigated regarding their antibacterial potential using disc diffusion and microdilution assays, and their antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay. Histological analyses of wound healing areas were performed following the administration of the latex extract in male albino rats. Results: The methanol extracts of A. irafensis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, phenols, tannins, and anthrones. The latex extract showed greater inhibition zones against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24 and 17 mm, respectively) with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 1.25 and 2.50 mg/ml, respectively. The latex extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC 50 of 65.54 µg/ml), followed by green skin extract (IC 50 of 89.48 µg/ml). The latex extract significantly accelerated the rate of wound healing in rats (p<0.01), compared to the reference control fucidin ointment. Histological findings showed remarkably less scar width at wound closure site in the latex extract-treated wounds. Granulation tissue contained fewer inflammatory cells and more fibroblasts in wounds treated with the latex extract compared to those treated with the vehicle. Conclusion: A. irafensis latex extract is a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be exploited for antioxidant, antibacterial, and wound healing purposes.
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Gurez is situated along the Kishanganga river in Kashmir valley. It is remotely located but the most beautiful valley. Owing to connectivity problems, this valley has largely remained unexplored and thereby its various features have generally gone unnoticed. This beautiful valley harbors a diversity of the medicinal plants. These medicinal plants are not only used in traditional health care system for the treatment of various diseases but also provide an edge for socio-economic upliftment for households. The socio-economic profile of the people of this remote area depicts that these people live in underprivileged conditions. The medicinal plants indigenous to Gurez, like Bunium persicum, Achillea Millefolium, and Carum carvi besides others, have high commercial value and can be utilized as a source of income. These phytochemically rich plant species can contribute to the development of various formulations of herbal therapies. However, overexploitation of these plant species has caused a decline in the frequency of these species in the past few years. Planned cultivation, proper exploitation, and the commercialization of these medicinal plants can serve as a primary source of income to the people of this downtrodden community of Gurez, particularly marginalized farmers and landless poor people. These plants have the potential to broaden livelihood opportunities of these people by framing proper policy that can give topmost priority to proper exploration of these plants.
Chapter
The medicinal plants have made a significant contribution to human health from the origin of life. Central India contains a wide variety of medicinal plants, these medicinal plants are used by tribal communities to treat their various ailments and their role in health care and the local economy was important. These medicinal plants are needed to complete their rituals, ceremonies, festivals, and religious work but most of them do not know the medicinal value of these types of plants that work in their daily lives. Our publications provide information on a number of medicinal plants used by the tribal communities of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to treat various ailments. Traditional medicine remains an integral part of the health system in the Central India region. Research shows that medicinal plants from Central India cure life-threatening diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, viral diseases, neurological dysfunction and renal disorders, so medicinal plants demand in the global market was increasing gradually. Phytochemicals present in medicinal plants make the plants valuable as vincristine and vinblastine obtained from vinca plant are costlier, 1gm value several thousand and have great importance in the preparation of drug molecules. Most of the dosage forms are prepared in Central India according to the traditional medical system such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha. Knowledge of economic medicinal plants should be provided to a new generation that preserves medicinal plants and provides employment opportunities, improving and enhancing the health of the indigenous and rural communities of Central India.
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Chlorophyllin is a semi-synthetic mixture of sodium copper complexes synthesized from chlorophyll. In the present investigation the copper-chlorophyllin (Cu-chlorophyllin) and soluble sodium copper chlorophyllin (Na-Cu-chlorophyllin) complexes were synthesized from leaves of Aloe vera. The synthesized compounds were estimated for the chlorophyll content. Na-Cu-chlorophyllin complexes showed high content of total chlorophyll (4.862 µg/mg). The synthesized compounds were characterized for its morphology by SEM, EDAX, FTIR and XRD. The complexes showed the presence of phytochemicals like phenols (21.62 µg/mL) and phytosterols (444.66 µg/mL) associated with it. The Na-Cu-chlorophyllin complexes showed antimicrobial activity with moderate results against S aureus, B cereus and maximum zone of inhibition against S typhi (23.6±0.33 mm).The complexes showed excellent free radical scavenging activity for DPPH with 61.84 % scavenging and IC50 value of 33.74 µg/mL. The complexes also exhibited moderate lethality of 30 % on brine shrimp after 72 h with an LC50 value 328.94 µg/mL. Since, Na-Cu-chlorophyllin complexes exhibited excellent bioactivity, it can be utilized extensively in various food, cosmetic, herbal medicine and pharma industries.
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This chapter introduces Mycobacterium ulcerans , the causative agents of buruli ulcer and the effects of phytochemicals in buruli ulcer treatment. It starts by giving an overview of the organism and the disease burden. It then explains the ethnopharmacological use of plants and overview of plants used as treatment for buruli ulcer in traditional medicine as well as potency, phytochemistry and toxicity of anti‐buruli ulcer plants. By the end of the chapter the natural products with potential for treatment of buruli ulcer, activity of some selected plants against Mycobacterium ulcerans and medicinal plants with antimycobacterial activities will be known. A discussion on compounds with potency on Mycobacterium ulcerans and future prospects of phytochemicals against Mycobacterium ulcerans were included.
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New Perspectives on Aloe will cover research studies of aloe by the CAP (Creation Aloe Pharmaceuticals) team, which studied various aspects of aloe over a period of more than 10 years. The team was organized into two groups: the isolation and analysis group, which purified many components in terms of low molecular weight compounds, carbohydrates, proteins present in aloe, and the assay group, which determined the efficacy of those components. This type of target-oriented, organized research provides a model of how to conduct multidisciplinary research. The contents include a brief introduction of aloe, isolation, purification, and structural analysis of components, and various physiological effects of those components for possible use as health foods or drugs. Various functions identified were wound healing, angiogenesis, anti-allergy, skin whitening, stimulation of cell proliferation such as liver or kidney, protection against nephrotoxicity, and immune modulation. Moreover, we suggest standardization and quality control procedures for manufacturing raw aloe, and how to develop related products for successful application of aloe. This is important in Korea because last year the Korean government listed aloe as a health food for which the government establishes regulatory laws. Therefore, many scientists in Korea who are interested in studying health foods would be interested in this kind of text. Other major fields related to this kind of research will be medicine, biology, pharmaceutics, natural products and analytics.
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Aloe vera Mill. (Family-Liliaceae) water extract showed the presence of saponin with high polarity and maximum percentage yield 21.8 %. Wound healing activities were noticed within 4-8 d of granulation of wound and maximum 82.29 % maturation of collagen was observed in albino rats.