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Full Length Review Article CELASTRUS PANICULATUS; MEDICINAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES: A REVIEW

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Abstract

Celastrus paniculatus Wild.mentioned in Ayurveda as 'Tree of life', a plant belonging to family Celastraceae was in use from time immemorial to treat brain related disorders and to enhance learning and memory. The Jyotishmati oil extracted from the seeds of C. paniculatus is known to have effect on Central Nervous System. C. paniculatus shows many activities along with main activity i.e memory enhancing effect. Its reported activities are antiviral, antibacterial, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, antispermatogenic, sedative, anti-fatigue and analgesic, hipolipidemic. It is arthralagenic, antirhumatic, aphrodisiac, emetic, laxative, nervine tonic. Plant is widely used for its medicinal properties, mainly to extract the seed oil, the seeds of plants are harvested indiscriminately from wild as well as cultivers. Hence species is highly vulnerable and it is highly endangered plant of Western and Eastern Ghats The article is review of medicinal and pharmacological properties of Celastrus paniculatus.
Full Length Review Article
CELASTRUS PANICULATUS; MEDICINAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES: A REVIEW
*1Kamalinee A. Deodhar and 2Nanda W. Shinde
1K.L.E Society’s College of Science and Commerce, Kalamboli, Sector 1, Navi Mumbai
2K.V. Pendharkar College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Dombivali, MIDC,
ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT
Celastrus paniculatus Wild.mentioned in Ayurveda as ‘Tree of life’, a plant belonging to family
Celastraceae was in use from time immemorial to treat brain related disorders and to enhance
learning and memory. The Jyotishmati oil extracted from the seeds of C. paniculatus is known to
have effect on Central Nervous System. C. paniculatus shows many activities along with main
activity i.e memory enhancing effect. Its reported activities are antiviral, antibacterial,
insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, antispermatogenic, sedative, anti-fatigue and analgesic,
hipolipidemic. It is arthralagenic, antirhumatic, aphrodisiac, emetic, laxative, nervine tonic. Plant
is widely used for its medicinal properties, mainly to extract the seed oil, the seeds of plants are
harvested indiscriminately from wild as well as cultivers. Hence species is highly vulnerable and
it is highly endangered plant of Western and Eastern Ghats The article is review of medicinal and
pharmacological properties of Celastrus paniculatus.
Copyright © 2015 Kamalinee A. Deodhar and Nanda W. Shinde. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
INTRODUCTION
Celastrus paniculatusWild.mentioned in Ayurveda as ‘Tree of
life’, a plant belonging to family Celastraceae was in use from
time immemorial to treat brain related disorders and to
enhance learning and memory. The Jyotishmati oil extracted
from the seeds of C. paniculatus is known to have effect on
Central Nervous System. It is native of Indian continent, but is
known to grow wildly in Australia, China, Taiwan, Cambodia,
Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Nepal, Thailand,
Vietnam as well as many of the pacific islands (Singh et al.,
1996). A large, deciduous, climbing unarmed shrub attending
a height of 10 m,with long slender elongating branches which
are reddish brown with stem up to 23 cm in diameter and
covered with elongate lenticles. Leaves are simple, alternate,
6-10 by 3-6 cm. ovate or obovate, shortly acuminate, crenate-
serrate in upper part, usually entire near base, crenulate,
coriaceous, glabrous, base rounded or acute, petioles 6-12 mm
long. Inflorescence is paniculate. Flowers yellowish or
greenish white, unisexual in terminal pyramidal panicles, 5-15
cm long, pedicels pubscent, bracts small and lanceolate. Calyx
pubscent outside; lobes semi-orbicular, ciliate; petals 3mm
long, oblong, rounded at apex. Male flowers: stamens inserted
on margin of disc, filament short; anthers oblong about 2 mm
*Corresponding author: Kamalinee A. Deodhar
K.L.E society’s College of Science and Commerce, Kalamboli, Sector
1, Navi Mumbai
long; rudimentary ovary small, subconical slightly 3-toothed at
apex. Female flowers: ovary globose, narrowed into a short
stout style, glabrous stigma large 3-lobed; stamens inserted on
the edge of disc which is larger than disc in male flowers,
anthers small without pollen, ovate, acute or subtriangular, less
than 1mm long. Capsule 9-12 mm in diameter, subglobose,
bright yellow, transversely wrinkled, 3- valved, the valves
spreading after dehiscing, remaining united at the base
exposing seeds. Seeds 1-6, often solitary, completely
enveloped in scarlet, fleshy aril. Through our literature
research it was observed that plant is widely used for its
medicinal properties, mainly to extract the seed oil, the seeds
of plants are harvested indiscriminately from wild as well as
cultivers. Hence species is highly vulnerable (Rajashekharan
et al., 2002) and it is highly endangered plant of Western and
Eastern Ghats (Pattanaik et al., 2009).
Medicinaluses
Plant parts used- Root, stem, leaves, fruits, seeds.
Roots
The roots of C. paniculatus are used as poultice to cure head-
ache. Crushed roots are used in pneumonia. The roots are used
to cure excessive pain during menstruation and to induce
fertility (Ramanna, 2005; Chopra and Khanna, 2007). The root
ISSN: 2230-9926
International Journal of Development Research
Vol. 5, Issue, 09, pp. 5526-5531, September, 2015
International Journal of
DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH
Article History:
Received 30th June, 2015
Received in revised form
22nd July, 2015
Accepted 01st August, 2015
Published online 30th September, 2015
Key words:
Medicinal and Pharmacological
Properties, Celastrus Paniculatus,
Jyotishmati,
Available online at http://www.journalijdr.com
is prescribed for dysentery, diarrhoea and fever. The powdered
root bark of C. paniculatus is used in treatment of malaria
(Old Style Doctor Association, 1964). Decoction of root is
given internally as a brain tonic for depression swooning, as
laxative for cleaning digestive system (Warrier et al., 2001).
The root bark is abortificient, depurative and brain tonic
(Panda, 1994; Sheath, 2005). Powdered root is useful in
treatment of tumor (Parotta, 2001).In central India, root or root
bark paste is applied on forehead in children to cure boils. The
long root of C. paniculatus and Piper longam L. made into
paste, is given twice a day against leucorrhoea and
spermatorrhoea (Sahu, 2010). The root powder of C.
paniculatus is given to treat rheumatism (Nath and Khatri,
2010). The powdered root or root bark is taken with cow milk
once a day for a month to cure leucorrhoea (Shukla et al.,
2010).
Stem
Northeast folk medicine practitioners prescribe stems of C.
paniculatus as lactogogue. The stem is used for treating
diarrhoea, dysentery (Katchrinnee et al., 1989).
Leaves
The leaves of C. paniculatus are used as poultice to cure
headache. Leaf sap is good antidote for opium poisoning
(Panda, 1994). Dried leaves of C. paniculatus are
recommended for inducing menstruation. The leaves are
prescribed internally as purgative (Warrier et al., 2001). The
leaves are also used for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhoea
and fever (Katchrinnee et al., 1989). Poultice of the paste of C.
paniculatus leaves and roots is applied in headache. The
mixed powder of leaves, fruits and flowers, seeds is taken
regularly to cure mental disorders and increase mental power.
Boiled leaves are applied externally on swellings and fractures
(Chopra and Khanna, 2007).
Fruitand seeds
Codified literature of Himachal Pradesh confirms that fruit
juice is used as cardiotonic. Paste of the fruit mixed with
warmed mustard oil when applied externally is good for scalp.
Shade dried fruit is ground into fine powder and sieved. 2-3
teaspoons of powder is taken to destroy intestinal worms
(Tiwari et al., 2010). The seed decoction is prescribed as brain
tonic, is used in headache, depression swooning and as a
laxative. Sushruta prescribed oil of seeds internally in
neurological disorders, urinary infections, skin affections,
intestinal parasites and externally for wound healing (Warrier
et al., 2001).Jyotishmati oil is prescribed in neurasthenia,
hemiplegia, Bells palsy, lumbago and gout (Khare, 2002).Seed
oil possesses anti-oxidant properties. It prevents fatigue and
increases appetite (George et al., 2010).
Oil (3 drops) mixed with egg yolk is given to patient orally
with water for acidity/gas. Oil is applied on infected areas of
skin. Decoction of seed of C. paniculatus is used to treat
rheumatism (Nath and Khatri, 2010). The seed oil is extracted
and applied externally to keep body warmth in winter season.
It is also applied to relieve pain and for proper circulation of
blood in body. Seed oil is massaged on the part affected by
gout and rheumatism upto the complete cure (Singh et al.,
2010).The crushed seeds of C. paniculatus in ointments are
applied externally on the wound (Chitravadivu et al., 2009).
Seed powder of C. paniculatus, mixed with water is taken
orally to treat nervous disorders (Karruppusamy, 2007). C.
paniculatus oil is used in the treatment of joint pain (Kamble
et.al, 2010). Oil extracted from boiled seeds is applied on the
paralysed parts in morning; evening and 2 ml. oil is taken
orally. It is bitter, thermogenic, digestive, laxative, emetic,
expectorant, appetizer, aphrodisiac, cardiotonic, anti-
inflammatory, and diuretic, emmenagogue, diaphoretic,
febrifuge and tonic. It is used in vitiated conditions of Vata,
Kapha andused in abdominal disorders, leprosy, paralysis, skin
diseases, cephalagia, arthralgia, fever, nephropathy,
amenorrhoea, dysmennorrhoea. It stimulates intellect and
sharpens the memory. The seed oil is used in beriberi sores
(Panda, 1994; Sheath, 2005).
Proven activities
The oil obtained from the seeds of the plant C. paniculatus
produced sedation in the rats in a dose of 1 gm/kg when given
intramuscularly. On intraperitoneal administration, the same
dose of oil produced sedation but the effect was not so
marked. The oil showed anticonvulsant activity in rats. The oil
(as emulsion in between 80 and water) at a dose of 50-100
mg/kg produced a gradual fall in the blood pressure of cats. At
a dose of 200 mg/kg, the oil produced a fall in cardiac output
bradycardia and a marked increase in pulse pressure on
isolated heart lung preparation (Gaitonde, 1957). The anti-
convulsion activity of seed oil was examined against leptazole,
picrotoxin and strychnine-induced convulsions in rats. It
increased strychnine convulsions and reduced leptazole
toxicity. It produced calming effect in injected rats, potentiated
pentobarbitone sedation and exerted antispasmodic activity
with respect to acetylcholine but did not significantly affect
the amphetamine toxicity (Shroff et.al., 1959).
The aqueous extract of C. paniculatus seed showed potent
antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Proteus morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella
marcescens, Salmonella typhosa, Salmonella paratyphi A,
Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus
lutea, Staphylococcus aureus but was found inactive against
Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella paratyphi B. (Patel et al.,1962
and Pandya et al.,1990). An active fraction, designated as Mal
III/A was isolated from the CP seed oil. It produced a
tranquillizing effect on rats, mice, monkeys and cats in a dose
of 200 mg/kg. It potentiated the effect of hexobarbitone and
produced hypothermia in mice. The fraction also decreased
spontaneous motor activity, amphetamine-induced
hyperactivity, orientation hyperactivity and oxygen
consumption in mice (Sheth et al., 1963). A fraction of the
chloroform extract of the root bark of C. paniculatus showed
the highest antimalarial activity.
A quinonoid tritepene, pristimerin was identified as active
principle. However, pristimerin when tested in vitro against
various multidrug resistant isolates of P. falciparum was less
active than conventional antimalarial drugs tested
(Katchrinnee et al., 1989 and Chopra, 1956). Biochemical,
histochemical and histological studies of the effect of an oily
extractive from the seeds of C. paniculatus were done on the
5527 Kamalinee A. Deodhar and Nanda W. Shinde, Celastrus paniculatus; medicinal and pharmacological properties: a review
testis and liver of adult rats. The testis of treated animals
showed vacuolization, germ cell depletion and arrest of
spermatogenesis. The liver revealed focal necrosis in animals
receiving 0.2 ml i.p every day for 30 days, but in 45 days post
treatment those lesions were absent. Intermediate repair and
regenerative changes were apparent in 30 days post treatment.
These results indicated that Celastrus oil may have useful anti-
infertility effects and that the degenerative changes seen in the
liver are reversible with time (Bidwai et al., 1990).
Administration of 50% ethanolic seed extract at 500 mg/kg
from day 1 to 120 to hyperlipidaemic rabbits, prevented
accumulation of cholesterol and triglycerides in liver and aorta
and regressed atheromatous plaques of ascending thoracic and
abdominal aorta. The serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol
levels were reduced by 60.10 and 71.70%, respectively.
Increased faecal excretion of cholesterol was observed
suggesting that modulation of adsorption was affected (Mathur
et al., 1993).
Flowers of C. paniculatus and whole plant of Tecomella
undulata were extracted individually in absolute methanol.
Using hot water tail immersion test in mice and carrageenan
induced pedal edema in rats; both extracts were tested for their
oral analgesic and anti-inflammatory potentials. Results
showed that C. paniculatus had both analagesic and anti-
inflammatory activities (Ahmad et.al., 1994). Silmilar anti-
inflammatory activity study by carrageenan induced hind paw
edema method on the albino rats was done by Sudha et al.,
(2009) proving that C. paniculatus shows considerable anti-
inflammatory activity. As the effects of an indigenous drug, oil
extracted from the seeds of C. paniculatus on learning and
memory in a two compartment passive avoidance task was
studied in albino rats. The effects on the contents of
norepinephrine (NE), dopalamine (DA) and Serotonin (5-HT)
in the brain and on the level of their metabolites both in the
brain and urine were assessed.
Studies have shown that Celastrus oil has ability to increase
the intelligence of mentally retarded children. It is concluded
that Celastrus oil has beneficial effect on the learning and
memory process in mentally retarded children (Karanth,
1986). Significant improvement was observed in the retention
ability of the drug treated rats compound with the saline
administrated controls. The contents of NE, DA and 5-HT and
their metabolites in the brain were significantly decreased in
the drug treated group. The urinary metabolite level was also
significantly decreased except for total 3-methoxy-4-
hydroxyphenyl glycol. This indicates that, C. paniculatus oil
causes an overall decrease in tumor of all the three central
monoamines and implicates the involvement of these
processes (Nalini et al., 1995).
The study investigated the effect of the seed oil of C.
paniculatus on the 6 day performance of young adult rats in a
navigational memory task-the Morris water maze. Chronic
oral (gavage) daily treatment with C. paniculatus (50, 200 or
400 mg/kg) for 14 days completely reversed the scopolamine
(0.5mg/kg)-induced task performance deficit. C. paniculatus
did not alter the scopolamine-induced increase in locomotor
activity (Gattu et al., 1997). Controlled clinical trial reported
efficacy of C. paniculatus in cases of depressive illness
(Baranwal et al., 2001). One study reported the use of
malkanguni with other indigenous drugs in the treatment of
depression (Hakim, 1964). C. paniculatus is one of the Indian
medicinal plants having a remarkable reputation as a factor of
health care among the indigenous medicinal practitioner. The
free radical scavenging capacity of methanolic extracts was
investigated from C. paniculatusand the effect of DNA
cleavage induced by H2O2, UV/photolysis. The extract showed
a dose dependent free radical scavenging capacity and a
protective effect on DNA cleavage (Russo et al., 2001).
The aqueous, methanolic, chloroform and petroleum ether
extracts of seeds of C. paniculatus were investigated for their
effect on cognitive functions in rat. Only the aqueous seed
extracts (200 mg/kg body wt. for 14 days), showed an
improvement in learning and memory in both shuttle box and
step through paradigms. The further experiments were
conducted using the aqueous extract of 100, 200 and 300
mg/kg body wt. doses in different paradigms of cognition. All
three doses of aqueous extract increased the number of
avoidance in shuttle box and step through latency in step
through apparatus, but no significant difference was observed
between the doses tested. Among the 3 doses tested, only 200
and 300 mg/kg body wt. stimulated a significant increase in
level of glutathione and catalase, which indicate the C.
paniculatus seed has cognitive properties and antioxidant
effect might be involved (Kumar et al., 2002). Twenty-eight
south Indian medicinal plants were screened for their anti-
fungal activity against six species of fungi (Trichophyton
mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. soudanense, Candida albicans,
Torulopsis glabrata, and Candida krusei).
Three plant species extracts, C. paniculatus, Eriodendron
anfractuosum and Ficus glomerata showed inhibitory activity
against 6 species of fungi (Vonshak et al., 2003). The
petroleum ether extract of seeds was evaluated for antianxiety
activity using behavioral disinhibition model of anxiety in rats.
It showed significant inhibition of punishment related and
reward related suppression of operant behavior in rats, at dose
level of 3.2 g/kg/day for 5 days (Jadhav et al., 2003). The seed
oil obtained from C. paniculatus has been used in Ayurvedic
medicine for the treatment of several complaints including
intestinal disorders. The muscle relaxing activity of C.
paniculatus has been studied in vitro on isolated preparations
of rat intestine. C. paniculatus seed extract (0.001/100
microgm/ml) produced a conc/related relaxation of the rat
ileum [IC (50) (95% C.I), 0.24, (0.13/0.45) mg/ml]. Among
the 4 fractions, (n-hexane, CCl4, CHCl3, n-BuOH) obtained
from the methanolic extracts of C. paniculatus, only the CCl4
fraction (0.01/10,000 mg/ml) induced a significant relaxation
of the intestinal muscle [IC (50) (95% C.I): 1.9 (1.38/2.87)
mg/ml] (Borelli et al., 2009). Pre-treatment of neuronal cells
with C.paniculatus seed oil significantly attenuated glutamate-
induced neuronal death. C. paniculatus seed significantly and
reversibly inhibited whole cell currents activated by N-methyl
D-aspartate.
The results suggest that CP-WSE protected neuronal cells
against glutamate induced toxicity by modulating glutamate
receptor function (Praful et al., 2004). The CCl4 fraction from
the methanolic extract of C. paniculatus (0.01-10,000 mg/ml)
induced a significant relaxation of the intestinal muscle [IC
(50) (95% CI): 1.9(1.38-2.87) mg/ml]. Three new
5528 International Journal of Development Research, Vol. 05, Issue, 09, pp. 5526-5531 September, 2015
sesquiterpene polyol esters isolated from the CCl4 fraction at
the concentration of 1microgm/ml produced a relaxant effect
of 30.6± 12.2%, 26.9± 4.7%, 7.27 ± 1.7 % respectively (Sang
et al., 2005). Seed oil of C. paniculatus has been reported to
improve memory and the methanolic extract (ME) of C.
paniculatus was shown to exhibit free/radical scavenging
properties and anti-oxidant effects in human non/immortalized
fibroblasts. C. paniculatus oil and 2 extracts, an ethanolic
(EE), methanolic (ME); ethanolic extract showed dose lesser
degree than observed for ME. Oxidative stress involves the
generation of free radicals and free radical scavenging is one
of the mechanisms of neuroprotection. Pretreatment of
neuronal cells with C. paniculatus Oil (CPO) dose,
dependently attenuated H2O2 induced neuronal death. CPO,
ME and EE protected neuronal cells against H2O2 induced
toxicity in part by virtue of their antioxidant properties and
their ability to induce antioxidant enzymes.
CPO, which exhibited the least antioxidant properties, was the
most effective in protecting neuronal cells against H2O2and
glutamate induced toxicities (Godkar et al., 2006). The anti-
arthritic effect of oral administration of petroleum ether,
alcoholic extracts of C. paniculatus seed on Freund’s adjuvant
arthritis has been studied in Wister albino rats, the body
weight loss that was found during the arthritis condition was
corrected on treatment with petroleum ether, alcoholic extracts
of C. paniculatus seed. The swelling of the paw during the
secondary lesions was also markedly reduced. Hematological
parameters like haemoglobin content, total WBC count, ESR
and RBC were also estimated. The results indicated that seed
of C. paniculatus is endowed with anti-arthritic activity (Patil
and Suryavanshi, 2007). The Celastrus oil, extracted from
seeds of C. paniculatus tested at 2 dose levels (1 and 1.5 g/kg)
in rats exhibited significant anxiolytic activity and did not
produce tolerance. The non-sedative nature and reversal of
anxiolytic property of 5-HT1A partial against buspirone in the
open field test point to the serotonergic mechanism underlying
the anxiolysis (Rajkumar et al., 2007).
A triterpene compound lupeol isolated from petroleum ether
extract of leaves of C. paniculatus was screened for wound
healing activity (8 mg/ml of 0.2% sodium alginate gel) by
excision, incision and dead space wound models on Swiss
albino rats (175-225 g). In lupeol treated groups wound
healing activity was more significant than the standard skin
ointment nitrofurazone. Epithelialization of the incision wound
was faster with a high rate of wound contraction as compared
with the control group. In dead space wound model the weight
of the granulation tissue of the lupeol treated animal was
increased indicating increase of collagenation and absence of
monocytes (Harish et al., 2008). C. paniculatus seed aqueous
extract was administrated orally in two different doses to rats
(350 and 1050 mg/kg) and to mice (500 and 1500 mg/kg).
Chemical hypoxia was induced by subcutaneous
administration of sodium nitrite (35 mg/kg) immediately after
acquisition training. In elevated plus maze and sodium nitrite
induced amnesia model, C. paniculatus extract has showed
statistically significant improvement in memory process when
compared to piracetam (Bhanumathy et al., 2010). The C.
paniculatus is one of the important ayurvedic medicinal plants
and its seed oil is important as memory enhancer and intellect
promoter. The antioxidant rich C. paniculatus seed oil was
found to be efficient against immobilization stress induced in
the groups of animals. It was more pronounced in the case of
animals receiving chronic immobilization stress, the reversal
of the conditions was recorded within 24 hours and the effects
were dose dependent, increase in the dosage increased the
activity (George et al., 2010).
The antifungal activity of methanolic crude extracts Acorus
calamus, Tinospora cordifolia and C. paniculatus were
investigated against Alternaria solani, Curvularia lunata,
Fusarium sp. Bipolaris sp. and Helminthosporium sp. At
different concentrations (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000
µg/ml) C. paniculatus showed better activity against A. solani
and Helminthosporium at 5000 µg/ml. At 5000 µg/ml all the
three crude extracts showed least activity against C. lunata and
Fusarium sp. HPLC of the crude extracts of medicinal plants
showed six different phenolic acids (Benzoic acid, Cinnamic
acid, Caffeic acid, Ferulic acid, Gallic acid and Tannic acid)
present in varying amount (Singh et al., 2010).
Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding the animals
with high fat diet. Oral administration of methanolic seed
extract (50%) of Celastrus paniculatus at the optimized dose
of 65 mg/kg body weight, substantially reduced the plasma
total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol in
comparison with induced hypercholesterolemic animal group
and the results were comparable with the standard
hypocholesterolemic drug and almost similar to the control
group. Atherogenic index and liver weight of treated animals
also showed significant decrease compared to the
hypercholesterolemic animals.
It substantially increased the HDL cholesterol level as
compared to control group. A significant increase in the
activities of lipoprotein lipase and plasma LCAT enhanced
hepatic bile acid synthesis and thereby, increased degradation
of cholesterol to neutral sterols. Furthermore, the activities of
HMG-CoA reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and
malate dehydrogenase were significantly reduced. Histological
studies showed less cholesterol deposits in the aorta of animals
fed with seed extract of C. paniculatus compared to the
induced hypercholesterolemic animals not given C.
paniculatus (Patil et al., 2010). The crude methanolic extract
of the seeds of C. paniculatus along with its organic soluble
fractions were tested for their possible antioxidant and anti-
alzheirmer (AD) activity by Badrul and Ekramul (2011). The
extracts showed prominent DPPH free radical scavenging
activity, inhibiting activity of authentic peroxynitrite (ONOO-)
and inhibition of total reactive oxygen species (ROS)
generation.
In DPPH radical scavenging assay, the EtOAc fraction showed
the highest activity with IC50 value of 25.92±1.02 μg/ml
whereas aqueous fractions had no activity at all within the
tested concentration. Scavenging of the authentic ONOO-
system, all extract/fractions showed good activity and among
them, EtOAc fraction had the highest activity with a IC50
value of 15.79± 0.18 μg/ml. EtOAc fraction also showed
significant (p < 0.001) inhibitory activity against the total ROS
generation which was almost similar with that of the positive
control Trolox (IC50 16.79± 0.19μg/ml). All extract/fractions
exhibited statistically significant (p<0.001) cholinesterases
(ChEs) inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging between
5529 Kamalinee A. Deodhar and Nanda W. Shinde, Celastrus paniculatus; medicinal and pharmacological properties: a review
134.7- 227.5 μg/ml for AChE and 209.6-562.1 μg/ml for
BChE.
Current status
The above information proves that C. paniculatus truly is
‘Elixier of life.’ Naturally in no. of the pharmaceutical
medicines it is used as major component. Hence it is in great
demand in pharmaceutical industry. The current market price
of seeds of C. paniculatus (2010-2011) across Mumbai is Rs.
2000/kg in wholesale market and at local ayurvedic shops the
price is around Rs.4000 to 5000/kg. Thus the seeds possess
great economic and pharmaceutical value. But indiscriminate
over exploitation from natural sources to meet the growing
demand by pharmaceutical industry coupled with low seed
viability, lack of vegetative propagation methods and
insufficient attempts for replenishment of wild stock of this
medicinally important species have contributed to its
threatened status. It is listed as ‘vulnerable and endangered’
medicinal plant (Warrier et al., 2001). So realizing the threat
of extinction and to meet the growing need, the special
attention is required towards conservation and propagation of
this plant by scientific efforts.
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5531 Kamalinee A. Deodhar and Nanda W. Shinde, Celastrus paniculatus; medicinal and pharmacological properties: a review
... Distribution: It is found in Sri Lanka and Maldives and widely distributed in Asia, especially in China. It is native of Indian continent, but is known to grow wildly in Australia, China, Taiwan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam (Misra et al. 2012;Deodhar and Shinde 2015). ...
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Seed oil bearing plants are going to be extinct from the nature due to over utilization for extraction of oil and climatic changes. They are very useful and effective in reducing different types of pain and neurological problems. Keeping this in view, an attempt has been made to document the medicinal and pharmacological values of Celastrus paniculatus through field and literature survey. The results revealed that the population of C. paniculatus is declining fast in forest areas. It was also noticed that the seed oil is rarely seen and available in local markets. Seed oil is used to treat neurological disorders and hence used as a brain tonic. The study recommends to reintroduce and advance works in pharmacological activities along with value addition and most importantly to conserve the plant from getting extinct
... Oil of C. paniculatus (Jyotishmati oil) is prescribed in neurasthenia. Seed oil possesses anti-oxidant, depressant, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties (Deodhar & Shinde, 2015;Dwivedi & Maurya, 2018). Seed oil which promoted intellectual memory was proved beneficial for the treatment of mentally retarded children (Kirtikar & Basu, 1984). ...
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Celastrus paniculatus is a traditional herb belonging to the family Celastraceae and is widely used for a number of medicinal activities in the Indian Unani and Ayurvedic systems. In this study, the extensive literature search was carried out on phytochemistry, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities of C. paniculatus (Willd.) in various scientific databases as well as patents. Research on phytochemical investigation has shown the presence of monoterpenes (linalool, α‐terpinyl acetate, nerol acetate), sesqueterpene esters (such as malkanguniol, malkangunin, valerenal, globulol, viridiflorol, cubenol and agarofuran derivatives), diterpenoids (such as phytone, isophytol), triterpenoids (such as lupeol, pristimerin, paniculatadiol, zeylasteral, zeylasterone, β‐amyrin, squalene), alkaloids (celapanin, celapanigin, celapagin, paniculatine, celastrine, maymyrsine), fatty acids, steroids (β‐sitosterol, carpesterol benzoate), flavonoids (paniculatin), benzoic acid, and vitamin C in this plant. All the reported pharmacological activities of this plant could be due to the presence of these phytochemicals. This plant possesses strong antioxidant activity which includes total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, nitric oxide scavenging activity and free radical scavenging activity. This plant possesses multiple pharmacological activities including cognition‐enhancing, neuroprotective, antipsychotic, anti‐depressant, antibacterial, anti‐arthritic, anti‐malarial, analgesic, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐fertility, cardiovascular, locomotor, anxiolytic, wound healing activity, anti‐spasmodic, hypolipidemic, anti‐cancerous and iron‐chelating activity with different extracts of this plant as well as various phytoconstituents present in this plant. The objective of this review article is to discuss in detail the reported ethnopharmacological uses, phytochemistry and various pharmacological activities of C. paniculatus.
... Various reported activities are antiviral, antibacterial, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, antispermatogenic, sedative, anti-fatigue and analgesic, hipolipidemic. It is arthralagenic, antirhumatic, aphrodisiac, emetic, laxative, nervine tonic [3,4]. ...
... It is arthralgenic, antirhumatic, aphrodisiac, emetic, laxative nervine tonic. Plant is widely used for its medicinal properties 3 Action and uses 1. Bark-Abortifacient, Depurative and Brain Tonic. 2. Leaves-Emmenagogue, leave juice-used in dysentery, a good antidote for opium poisoning. ...
... According to Ayurveda, depending upon the dose regimen, C. paniculatus was used as a stimulant nerve tonic or sedative. It was also used in the treatment of rheumatism, gout, leprosy, leucoderma, paralysis, and asthma (Singh et al., 2010;Gattu et al., 1997;Deodhar and Shinde, 2015b). In traditional Thai medicine, C. paniculatus, known as Kra-Thong-Lai, was reputed for its medicinal value. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Plants of genus Celastrus (Celastraceae) have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Indian medicine to treat cognitive dysfunction, epilepsy, insomnia, rheumatism, gout, and dyspepsia for thousands of years. Aim of study We critically summarized the current evidence on the botanic characterization and distribution, ethnopharmacology, secondary metabolites, pharmacological activities, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and toxicology of Celastrus species to provide perspectives for developing more attractive pharmaceuticals of plant origin. Materials and methods The relevant information on Celastrus species was gathered from worldwide accepted scientific databases via electronic search (Web of Science, SciFinder, PubMed, Elsevier, SpringerLink, Wiley Online, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, and Google Scholar). Information was also obtained from the literature and books as well as PhD and MSc dissertations. Plant names were validated by “The Plant List” (www.theplantlist.org). Results Comprehensive analysis of the above mentioned databases and other sources confirmed that ethnomedical uses of plants of Celastrus genus had been recorded in China, India, and other countries in Southern Asia. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of β-dihydroagarofuranoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, tetraterpenes, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, lignans, and others. The crude extracts and isolated constituents have exhibited a wide range of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects, including antitumor, cytotoxic, insecticidal, antimicrobial, anti-rheumatoid arthritis (RA), anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing and antioxidative, and neuroprotective activities. Conclusion Plants of genus Celastrus have been confirmed to show a strong potential for therapeutic and health-maintaining effects, in light of their long traditional use and the phytochemical and pharmacological studies summarized here. Currently, pharmacological studies of this genus mainly focus on Celastrus paniculatus Willd. and Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. Therefore, more pharmacological investigations should be implemented to support traditional uses of other medicinal plants of the genus Celastrus. Moreover, studies on the toxicity, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetics, in addition to clinical trials, are indispensable for assessing the safety and efficacy of the secondary metabolites or extracts obtained from plants belonging to this genus.
... 12. Celastress panicultus: 10,[49][50][51][52][53] It is a climbing shrub grows throughout India used as traditional medicine in Unani and Ayurveda. This plant sharpens the memory and its seed posse's cholinergic activity. ...
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Medicinal plants are considered as a rich resource of ancient medicines and so many of them are used as a major ingredient of today's panacea that can be pharmacopoeic, non-pharmacopoeic, or synthetic drugs. They have been used to cure health disorders for the past thousand years. The ubiquitous use of folk remedies and health preparations is outlined in the Vedas and the Bible. Plant safety, quality, and efficacy assurance has now become a major issue in developing and developed countries. Cultural consequence and importance showing great demand for herbal and aromatic plants and following highlight point needed for the immense response in this field like encouraging the cultivation of medicinal plants having large market prospects. Research and evolution need to stand together for improving the manufacturing and efficiency of plants by establishing massive outcome through expanding collaboration between farmers and researchers.
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Bio-prospecting of plants based on traditional knowledge is an important area of research to develop novel process/products in terms of herbal/Ayurvedic drugs, nutraceuticals, functional foods, and other plant-based products including cosmetics. The ultimate objective of ethnopharmacological studies on plants used for food and medicine followed by its preclinical and clinical studies will lead to the development of scientifically validated process and products that can be patented and commercialized through technology transfer by ensuring the access and benefit sharing where the traditional knowledge providers/tribal knowledge holders, inventors from scientific communities, and biodiversity management committees at grassroots level in terms of conservation of bioresources would be equally benefited. In this context, the authors have made an attempt to focus on the traditional knowledge of selected threatened medicinal plants of Kerala, with an ultimate objective to develop diverse medicinal/nutraceutical products, and described few case studies on access and benefit sharing. New enterprises related to product development based on bioresources, if meticulously planned and executed, could help to generate more opportunities for employment and income in rural as well as urban sectors. To ensure the conservation of the threatened medicinal plants, new location-specific strategies should be evolved and implemented through people participatory programs at grassroots level which will help to ensure the health and economic security of the country.
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Celastrus paniculatus (CP), a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. The seed extract has been extensively investigated in several laboratories for their neuropharmacological effects and a number of reports are available confirming their nootropic action. In addition, researchers have evaluated the anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant and other pharmacological effects of CP preparations/extracts. Therefore, in view of the important activities performed by this plant, investigation must be continued in the recently observed actions described in this paper. Moreover, clinical studies have to be encouraged, also to evidence any side effects and possible interactions between this herbal medicine and synthetic drugs.
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An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinal plants by Paliyan tribes in Sirumalai hills of Eastern Ghats. About 90 medicinal plants are used in 17 various health problems; highest being for wound healing (12%). The majority of the remedies are prepared from freshly collected plant parts especially leaves from single species only. The treatment mode is usually oral, but some pastes using ingredients such as honey, common salt and milk are also applied.