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Abstract

It has been shown that truncated cone-shaped cavities with microwaves resonating within them move slightly towards their narrow ends (the em-drive). Standard physics has no explanation for this and an error has not yet been found. It is shown here that this eect can be predicted by assuming that the inertial mass of the photons in the cavity is caused by Unruh radiation, whose wavelengths must t exactly within the cavity, using a theory already applied successfully to astrophysical anomalies such as galaxy rotation where the Unruh waves have to t within the Hubble scale. In the emdrive this means that more Unruh waves are allowed at the wide end, leading to a greater inertial mass for the photons there, and to conserve momentum the cavity must move towards its narrow end, as observed. The model predicts thrusts of: 3.8, 149, 7.3, 0.23, 0.57, 0.11, 0.64 and 0.02 mN compared with the observed thrusts of: 16, 147, 9, 0.09, 0.05, 0.06, 0.03, and 0.02 mN and predicts that if the axial length is equal to the diameter of the small end of the cavity, the thrust should be reversed.
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λ
9.8m/s2
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∂t = 0 = mv
∂t +vm
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F=c∂m
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∂x
∂t =c2m
∂x
av2/L
F=c2mbigend msmallend
L
F=mc2
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ws= 0
ws
¯ws=0 + L+ 4ws
6
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wb=0 + L+ 4wb
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F=3mc2λ
2L1
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λ
λ=
8c2/a = 8c2/(2c/(L/c)) = 4L
F=6mc21
L+ 4ws
1
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E=mc2E=´P dt
F=6ˆP dt 1
L+ 4ws
1
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F=6P L
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F=6P QL
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wbig/wsmall F1dF3dFObs
mN mN mN
11 ×106
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... McCulloch [13,14] showed that assuming that the inertial mass of the photons is determined by quantised inertia and the width of the cavity, and assuming the conservation of momentum, a new force is predicted of size ...
... Since λ U ∼ 8c 2 /a, where a is the acceleration of the photons as their speed changes direction from c to -c as they bounce between the two ends of the cavity: a = dv/dt = 2c/(L/c) = 2c 2 /L (see [13,14]). So λ U = 4L, leaving ...
... In the emdrive, the average cavity size measured from the central axis at each end plate (averaged from all directions) is approximately (L + 4w)/6 (see [14]) where w is the cavity width. So substituting for S s and S b ...
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Truncated cone-shaped cavities with microwaves resonating within them (emdrives) move slightly towards their narrow ends, in contradiction to standard physics. This eect can be predicted by a model called quantised inertia (MiHsC) which assumes that the inertia of the microwaves is caused by Unruh radiation, more of which is allowed at the wide end. Therefore, photons going towards the wide end gain inertia, and to conserve momentum the cavity must move towards its narrow end, as observed. A previous analysis with quantised inertia predicted a controversial photon acceleration, which is shown here to be unnecessary. The previous analysis also mis-predicted the thrust in those emdrives with dielectrics. It is shown here that having a dielectric at one end of the cavity is equivalent to widening the cavity at that end, and when dielectrics are considered then quantised inertia predicts these results as well as the others. As a test, quantised inertia predicts that an emdrive's thrust can be enhanced by using a dielectric at the wide end.
... Fulling (1973), Davies (1975) and Unruh (1976) proposed that when an object accelerates it perceives Unruh radiation, a dynamical equivalent of Hawking radiation (Hawking, 1974), and Unruh radiation may now have been seen in experiments (Smolyaninov, 2008). McCulloch (2007McCulloch ( , 2013 has proposed a new model for inertia that assumes that when an object accelerates, say, to the right, an information horizon forms to its left and it perceives Unruh radiation which is also suppressed by the horizon on the left. Therefore there is a radiation imbalance, and net Unruh radiation pressure that pushes the object back against its initial acceleration, predicting standard inertia (McCulloch, 2013, Gine andMcCulloch, 2016). ...
... In this way quantised inertia explains galaxy rotation without the need for dark matter (McCulloch, 2012(McCulloch, , 2017 because it reduces the inertial mass of outlying stars and allows them to be bound even by the gravity from visible matter. It also explains the recently observed cosmic acceleration (McCulloch, 2010) and the experimental tests on the emdrive (McCulloch, 2015). Recently, McGaugh et al. (2016) analysed 153 galaxies taken from the SPARCs database across a large range of scales and showed that the actual acceleration of the stars within them, as determined from the stars' observed motion, was correlated only with the acceleration that would be expected given the visible matter in the galaxy. ...
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It is shown here that a model for inertial mass, called quantised inertia, or MiHsC (Modified inertia by a Hubble-scale Casimir effect) predicts the rotational acceleration of the 153 good quality galaxies in the SPARC dataset (2016 AJ 152 157), with a large range of scales and mass, from just their visible baryonic matter, the speed of light and the co-moving diameter of the observable universe. No dark matter is needed. The performance of quantised inertia is comparable to that of MoND, yet it needs no adjustable parameter. As a further critical test, quantised inertia uniquely predicts a specific increase in the galaxy rotation anomaly at higher redshifts. This test is now becoming possible and new data shows that galaxy rotational accelerations do increase with redshift in the predicted manner, at least up to Z=2.2.
... The authors of [4] explained the thrust of EmDrive due to creation of a virtual plasma toroid under quantum oscillations of the vacuum. McCulloсh [6] suggested the existence of a modified photon mass due to the Unruh effect, in another case [7], the appearance of thrust in the engine is explained by the destructive interference of microwaves, which is also related to the Unruh effect and a rethinking of the notions of a physical vacuum. The explanation proposed in this paper is also connected with the modification of the notions of a physical vacuum, proposing its crystalline structure [8]. ...
... Substituting P = 20W, Q = 7320 into expression (6), we obtain F = 500 μN, which is approximately five times higher than the maximum value registered in the experiments [3,4]. The difference can be explained by the fact that in this model the repulsion from the vacuum crystal lattice occurs everywhere, and not only from the lateral surfaces of the cone, as is assumed in alternative models [4][5][6][7][8]. Therefore, it is important to have information about the projections of all wave vectors of this mode on the longitudinal axis EmDrive. ...
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The paper suggests an explanation of the efficiency of the EmDrive device based on the hypothesis of a crystalline vacuum, previously successfully used to explain the cutoff of the cosmic-ray spectrum. The hypothesis of crystalline vacuum enables to transform part of momentum directly to vacuum crystalline lattice giving rise to reaction force which allow to ensure the fulfillment of the momentum conservation law during EmDrive functioning. Therefore crystalline vacuum plays the role of a supporting medium for all wave vectors of electromagnetic oscillations in a conical resonator, which causes the appearance of forces and momentums of rotation, the optimization of which can open up a tempting prospect for creating of unique aircraft.
... In recent years McCulloch [3][4][5] has linked a theory he has coined quantized inertia to the diameter of the inflatable universe. Suppose the diameter of the inflatable universe, ⇥, instead could be directly linked the circumference of the Hubble sphere. ...
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... McCulloch [8], [9], [10] has shown that a number of dynamical anomalies such as galaxy rotation and cosmic accel-eration can be explained by a theory called quantised inertia which assumes that inertial mass is due to Unruh radiation (a radiation seen only by accelerating objects) when this radiation is made non-uniform in space by horizons. These horizons can be caused by acceleration (relativistic horizons) or they can be metal structures or cavities [11]. ...
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... Firstly, it is worth highlighting how the dissertation in its entirety has been carried out by introducing several heavy approximations and intentionally ignoring a great deal of subjects, among which the detectability of the alleged exhaust and a more accurate description of the device stand out. In particular, as far as the principle of operation of the EM-Drive is concerned, we have evidently avoided discussing Shawyer's explanation [1] (who, among other things, explicitly resorts to Special Relativity) [13], as well as further interesting theories [14] [15], limiting ourselves to referring to the contents of the official EM-Drive page. However, as implicitly suggested by the title, the aim of this paper fundamentally lies in providing an alternative explanation, expounded as qualitatively and understandably as possible, to the alleged functioning of the device. ...
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It has been shown that cone-shaped cavities with microwaves resonating within them move slightly towards their narrow ends (the emdrive). There is no accepted explanation for this. Here it is shown that this effect can be predicted by assuming that the inertial mass of the photons in the cavity is caused by Unruh radiation whose wavelengths must fit exactly within the cavity, using a theory already applied with some success to astrophysical anomalies where the cavity is the Hubble volume. For the emdrive this means that more Unruh waves are “allowed” at the wide end, lea ding to a greater inertial mass for the photons there. The gain of inertia of the photons when they move from the narrow to the wide end, and the conservation of momentum, predicts that the cavity must then move towards the narrow end, as observed. This mode l predicts the available observations quite well, although the observational uncertainties are not well known.
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This paper proposes an explanation for the Pioneer anomaly: an unexplained Sunward acceleration of 8.74 +/- 1.33 x 10^-10 m s^-2 seen in the behaviour of the Pioneer probes. Two hypotheses are made: (1) Inertia is a reaction to Unruh radiation and (2) this reaction is weaker for low accelerations because some wavelengths in the Unruh spectrum do not fit within a limiting scale (twice the Hubble distance) and are disallowed: a process similar to the Casimir effect. When these ideas are used to model the Pioneer crafts' trajectories there is a slight reduction in their inertial mass, causing an anomalous Sunward acceleration of 6.9 +/- 3.5 x 10^-10 m s^-2 which agrees within error bars with the observed Pioneer anomaly beyond 10 AU from the Sun. This new scheme is appealingly simple and does not require adjustable parameters. However, it also predicts an anomaly within 10 AU of the Sun, which has not been observed. Various observational tests for the idea are proposed.
Relativity drive: the end of wings and wheels
  • J Mullins
Mullins, J., 2006. Relativity drive: the end of wings and wheels? New Scientist (2568), p30-34.