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Interdisciplinary Approaches to Astronomy: Cosmic Fiction, Drama, and Poetry

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One of the more effective tools for capturing the interest of non-scientists has been approaching astronomy through its influence on the humanities. In this article, I examine some examples of astronomical inspiration in the humanities, looking at plays, poetry and fiction which deals with astronomical ideas, people, or discoveries. The article has many references to resources for further exploration, including to annotated lists of science fiction with good astronomy, reviews and collections of astronomical plays, and collections of verse influenced by astronomy.
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Introduction
Astronomy has long been an inspiration for
creative people in other elds and exam-
ples of astronomical inuence seem to be
everywhere in modern popular culture
from astronomically named chocolate and
beer to song lyrics, television programmes,
plays, poetry and lms.
To show this, one of the best ice-breaker
activities for a class or workshop is to
divide your audience into small groups and
ask them to come up with as many astro-
no mi ca l product names and lm and mus ic
titles as they can. By the end of this exer-
cise, they will conclude for themselves that
astronomical words and ideas are woven
throughout modern culture. But I hope to
demonstrate through this article that the
inspiration of astronomy goes deeper than
mere names and titles.
In such a short introduction, there is not
enough space for more than a few spe-
cic suggestions and they will be restricted
to relatively modern ones, leaving the
astronomy of Shakespeare, Homer and
other classics to more qualied scholars1.
Resources that can be used to explore
the topic in more depth will be sign-
posted throughout. The examples are also
restricted to materials in English, for which
I apologise and welcome examples from
readers of astronomically-themed works in
other languages.
Classroom lectures and public astronomy
talks can be easily enhanced by drawing
from these other elds. It creates a feeling
of familiarity amongst students and audi-
ences and makes the sometimes abstract
scientic concepts more approachable by
highlighting the inuence they have had on
writers, composers, and other artists they
admire.
Plays about astronomers
In the twentieth century Bertolt Brecht wrote
a play about the later period of Galileo’s
life, which he revised twice2. At the time,
a popular play about the life of an astron-
omer was unusual, but in recent years we
have experienced a small ood of plays
and operas about the lives of astronomers
a number of which have been profes-
sionally produced and performed.
Lauren Gunderson, a playwright from
Atlanta, USA, now living in San Francisco,
has written a number of plays about sci-
ence, some more straightforward than
others. Her play Leap explores how inspi-
ration came to a young Isaac Newton,
while Background is about the physicist
Ralph Alph er, who helpe d George Gamow
develop some of the theoretical underpin-
nings of the Big Bang, and his emotional
reaction to Penzias and Wilson receiving
the Nobel Prize. Both plays are published
in her Deepen the Mystery (2005).
Gunderson’s more recent and so far
unpublished — play, Silent Sky, follows
the life and work of Henrietta Leavitt,
explorin g the role of women at the Harva rd
Observatory, and her struggle with her
hearing disability. The play has been per-
formed on both the East and West Coasts
of the USA3.
Other female astronomers have also been
portrayed in drama. Irish actress and play-
wright Siobhan Nicholas has a play about
Caroline Herschel, which has seen per-
formances in the UK4, while New Zealand
dramatist Stuart Hoar’s play Bright Star
concerns cosmologist Beatrice Tinsley, her
brief life, her work, and her struggles with
the barriers against women5.
A new play by William Kovacsik is cur-
rently premiering at the Fiske Planetarium.
The play, called Vera Rubin: Bringing the
Dark to Light, involves two actors who play
Rubin and Isaac Newton, and the plane-
tarium itself will play a central role in the
Interdisciplinary Approaches to Astronomy:
Cosmic Fiction, Drama and Poetry
Andrew Fraknoi
Chair of Astronomy
Foothill College, Los Altos, USA
fraknoiandrew@fhda.edu
Keywords
Interdisciplinary, science ction, science in
cinema, science in literature
I have spent four decades teaching introductory astronomy to university students whose primary subject of study is not
astronomy, as well as developing activities to help the public appreciate astronomical ideas and developments. One of the
more effective tools that I have found for capturing the interest of non-scientists has been approaching astronomy through
its inuence on the humanities. In this article I examine some examples of astronomical inspiration in the humanities,
looking at plays, poetry and ction. A second paper, devoted to music inspired by astronomy, will appear in a future issue
of the CAPjournal.
7
CAPjournal, No. 18, September 2015
Figure 1. Photograph of Vera Rubin with And rew
Fra knoi in 1992. Cred it: Andrew Fraknoi
performance with audiovisual materials
being projected onto the dome6.
Many of the plays exploring the lives of
astronomers focus on their relationships
with one another. Reading the Mind of God
is a play about Tycho Brahe and Johann es
Kepler, by the American playwright Patrick
Gabridge, which focuses on their relation-
ship at the end of Brahe’s life7. Another
astronomical rivalry, that between Edmund
Ha lley and John Fla msteed in Eng land, has
been explored by British dramatist Kevin
Hood in The Astronomer’s Garden (1991).
More recent plays have used fictional
astronomers to highlight characters
who are unworldly, or represent a scien-
tic perspective. These include Kenneth
Lonergan’s The Starry Messenger, recently
performed on Broadway, which features
an astronomy instructor at the old Hayden
Planetarium in New York City, USA, on the
eve of its being torn down8. Jamie Pachino’s
Splitting Infinity explores interactions
between a ctional female astrophysicist,
her Christian Scientist postdoc, and a rabbi
who has known her since childhood. The
play received mixed reviews.
The life and work of a somewhat more
obscure astronomer, Guillaume Le Gentil,
an 18th century observer who was espe-
cially unlucky with the locations he chose
to measure the transits of Venus, is the
inspiration for the play, Transit of Venus,
by the Canadian playwright Maureen
Hunter (2007). The play later became an
opera with the same title, with music by
Victor Davies.
Astronomy at the opera
Operas about astronomers have also
become more common in recent years.
Paul Hindemith’s 1957 opera, Harmonie
der Welt, was inspired by some of Kepler’s
ideas on the similarities between mathe-
matical and musical harmonies, which
resonated with the composer’s own views
on harmony theory. It is a complex opera,
which contrasts Kepler’s search for laws
and harmony in the Universe with the dis-
harmony and chaos of human existence,
and especially the times and wars during
which Kepler lived9.
A more modern opera by Philip Glass
about Kepler, titled Kepler, premiered in
2009. Glass is one of the most success-
ful of modern classical composers, with
music that crosses over to lm scores and
is enjoyed by many who are not fans of
classical music. His Kepler is more a med-
itation on themes and ideas than a com-
plete story with a lot of action. Glass, like
Hindemith, points out the contrast between
Kepler’s challenging, complex life and his
dreams of order in the sky. An Austrian pro-
duction of this opera is available on DVD
from Orange Mountain Music. Glass has
written a series of operas about noted sci-
entists. The series began with the rather
infamous Einstein on the Beach, a medita-
tion on Einstein’s life and ideas, now avail-
able in several recorded versions and rst
performed in 1976. Next was Galileo Galilei,
which has recently been issued on CD by
Orange Mountain Music label, featuring a
performance at the Portland Opera10.
A few lms with astronomers
In cinema, astronomers have been por-
trayed in a range of roles, from hapless
romantic foils to villains or unwitting victims
whose discoveries lead to the end of the
world. I will leave the older science ction
lms to others to catalogue, but can men-
tion a few examples from other lm genres.
In Roxanne, a modern retelling of Cyrano de
Bergerac, Daryl Hannah plays an astrono-
mer who comes to a small town to look
for a comet. In Addicted to Love, Matthew
Broderick is an astronomer who follows
the woman he is in love with to the city. In
both lms, astronomy takes a back seat to
romantic comedy. Astronomy — and long
nights at the telescope — are more central
in the 1944 comedy The Heavenly Body,
in which Hedy Lamarr plays the neglected
wife of an astronomer who turns to an
astrologer for advice. A 2011 Bra zilian lm,
Corpos Celestes — rendered in English as
The Sky We Were Born Under — uses the
protagonist’s profession as an astronomer
not as a catalyst for romance, but to repre-
sent life and loneliness.
Two portrayals of astrophysicists in recent
cinema take a more straightforward
approach. In Contact Jody Foster plays a
radio astronomer engaged in a Search for
Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) project,
a character based, in part, on Jill Tarter,
at the SETI Institute. The lm is based on
a best-selling book by Carl Sagan (1985),
in which he tried to portray what a SETI
success might involve11. In The Theory
of Everything, which won actor Eddie
Redmayne an Oscar for his remarkable
portrayal of Stephen Hawking, it is the
personal challenges of Hawking’s illness,
rather than his scientic work, that takes
the fore.
Science ction with good
astronomy
I recommend science ction stories which
build on good science in all of my classes
Interdisciplinary Approaches to Astronomy: Cosmic Fiction, Drama and Poetry
8CAPjournal, No. 18, September 2015
Figure 3 . Film poster for the 1944 comedy
The Heavenly Bod y.
Figure 2 . Cover of the Galileo Galilei opera by
Philip Glass.
and public talks. Over the years, I have put
together a website which organises the
stories that I have collected by scientic
topic12. One interesting observation from
pulling together this list is that the number
of stories written by authors who have
advanced degrees in astronomy or physics
continues to grow13.
Perhaps the best-known example from
the 1950s and 1960s is the late British
cosmologist Fred Hoyle.
It is rumoured that Hoyle wrote science
ction to get into print those of his ideas
that the scientic journals were not willing
to indulge. For example, his best known
novel, The Black Cloud, suggested the
possibilit y of organic molecules — and life
itself — in interstellar clouds years before
such molecules were discovered14. His
novel, October the First is Too Late (19 66)
may well be the rst ctional working out
of the implications of the many-worlds
interpretation of quantum mechanics.
These works present a strong case for the
value of ction as a platform for exploring
new scientic concepts.
Nowadays a good number of practicing
astronomers and physicists are writing
interesting science ction, among them
Alastair Reynolds in England; Gregory
Benford from the University of California,
USA; Yoji Kondo — pen-name Eric Kotani
and Geoff Landis, who both work at
NASA; Mike Brotherton at the University
of Wyoming, USA; and Michael Shara at
the American Museum of Natural History,
among others.
Several other distinguished astronomers
have written works of ction that can be
worth searching out for their informed
take on the science. These include plan-
etary scientist William Hartmann of the
Planetary Science Institute, USA, who
wrote Mars Underground (1977), describ-
ing the search for life on and under the
surface of the red planet; nuclear astro-
physicist Donald Clayton of Clemson
University, USA, whose novel The Joshua
Factory (1986) tells a tale of neutrinos; and
J. Craig Wheeler, the former President of
the American Astronomical Society, who
explored threat of quantum black holes in
The Krone Experiment (1986).
Among these authors, Benford has per-
haps the highest reputation for writing out-
standing ction . Ma ny of his novel s ma ke a
point of showing scientists at work in realis-
tic laboratory and academic settings, whilst
grappling with ctional scientic prob-
lems15. Benford’s early novel, Timescape
(1980), features astronomers like Fred
Hoyle, Margaret and Geoffrey Burbidge,
and Carl Sagan as characters. His novels
featuring organic and machine life locked
in a life-and-death struggle at the centre
of the Galaxy are now classics, and his
recent short stories have addressed cos-
mological and SETI issues from interesting
viewpoints anchored in current scientic
thinking16.
Reynolds established his reputation a
generation later than Benford, but is
winning many awards for his film noir
portrayals of our future in space. His novel
Revelation: Space (2000) is a marvellous
place to begin exploring his work and it is
worth nding an anthology that features his
short story, Beyond the Aquila Rift (2005)
— rarely has an author succeeded in
portraying the truly astronomical distances
of the objects we study so movingly17.
So me of the most en ga ging science cti on
stories are those in which the reader is
given a realistic picture of what it might
be like to stand on the surfaces of other
worlds and experience their alien envi-
ronments. Biologist Paul McAuley is one
master of such stories, for example in his
Quiet War (2002) series which explores
all of the Solar System’s planets during a
time of war over the genetic modication
of organisms. Engineer G. David Nordley
has also written some wonderful stories
about Solar System exploration, includ-
ing Crossing Chao Meng Fu (1998), set on
Mercury, and Into the Miranda Rift (1994).
For a gripping tale on what it would be
like to be stranded on the Moon, I recom-
mend A Walk in the Sun (1992) by Geoff
Landis. These are just some of the stories
that could seize the imagination of a young
reader and lead them toward science. You
ca n do your stu dents and audiences a li fe-
long favour by recommending some of the
stories that celebrate our modern under-
standing of the Universe18.
Poetry and the Universe
Doing justice to the wealth of astronomi-
cal inspiration expressed through poems
is not possible in such a short introduc-
tion, but there are some key examples of
informed astronomical poets whose work
can be used to illustrate outreach work.
A number of ast ro nomical poets wro te from
an informed perspective. The American
poet Robert Frost, for example, was an
amateur astronomer. Poet and essayist
Diane Ackerman received her Masters
and PhD at Cornell University, where she
took astronomy classes from Carl Sagan.
Her 1976 collection, The Planets: A Cosmic
Pastoral, shows the inuence of her study
of astronomy most directly, although you
can nd other astronomy poems in her col-
lection, A Jaguar of Sweet Laughter (1993).
Robinson Jeffers (1887–1962) was a 20th
century poet who celebrated nature and
the coast of his native California. The
poet’s brother was the Lick Observatory
astronomer Hamilton Jeffers; as a result,
the poet Jeffers was well informed about
developments in astronomy and included
them in his wor ks. One of hi s most po we rful
poems, Margrave (1932), contrasts the vast
impersonality of the expanding Universe
with the horror of a child kidnapping and
killing here on Earth19.
Astronomer Rebecca Elson was actively
writing poetry alongside technical papers
on globular clusters. Some of the poems
celebrate astronomy, while others mov-
ingly anticipate the inevitable cour se of he r
9
Interdisciplinary Approaches to Astronomy: Cosmic Fiction, Drama and Poetry
CAPjournal, No. 18, September 2015
Figure 4 . Fred Hoyle cuts a cake showing the Galaxy
with a black hole centre at a reception in his honour
at the Berkeley astronomy department, USA, in 1970.
Credit: Andrew Fraknoi
illness — she died of leukaemia at the age
of 39. The poems are collected in the post-
humous volume, A Responsibility to Awe
(2001), part of the Oxford Poets series.
I should note that several astronomers
share my interest in poetry that is inspired
by astronomy, including Canadian-born
co met hunte r Da vid Le v y, wh o ha s a de gree
in English, and the British discoverer of the
rst pulsars, Jocelyn Bell-Burnell. Both of
them have put together anthologies of
astronomical poetry, which cover a range
of poetic styles, from old-fashioned odes
to modern experiments with the power and
pattern of language.
Maurice Riordan and Jocelyn Bell-Burnell’s
collection, Dark Matter: Poems of Space
(2008), brings older poems together with
a number commissioned specically for
the book, while David Levy’s Starr y Night:
Astronomers and Poets Read the Sky
(2001) interweaves poems with the story
of the poets and the history of astronomy.
A number of others have put together
anthologies of poems related to science.
Al th ou gh many of these co ll ec tions are out
of print, a little research will unveil a number
of useful websites that list and even give
the text of astronomical poems20.
Literature with astronomy:
A sampling
There are two authors in the United
Kingdom who have been writing bio-
graphies of astronomers with a ctional
twist, which may attract the general pub-
lic to some of the interesting history of
our field. Astrophysicist and science
journalist Stuart Clark, a senior editor
for the European Space Agency, has
written a trilogy of such novels, which
includes The Sky’s Dark Labyrinth (2011),
on Kepler and Galileo; The Sensorium of
God (2012), on Halley and Newton; and
The Day Without Yesterday (2013), on
Einstein and Lemaitre. Award-winning Irish
novelist John Banville wrote Kepler: A Novel
(1981) and Dr Copernicus (1976), which
are directly biographical in nature, and
The Newton Letter (1982), which is more of
a meditation on the difculty of capturing
the life of someone as complex as Newton
in a narrative.
The novel Theatre of the Stars by N. M.
Kelby has as its protagonist a female
astronomer who has discovered an X-ray
binary system that contains a black hole
and, at the same time, is trying to unwrap
the complex life story of her mother, a
physicist and Holocaust survivor. Steve
Maran and Alyssa Goodman are among
the astronomers that the author thanks in
her acknowledgements.
Another novel in which the author thanks
astronomers for their contribution in
this case, Canadian astronomers James
Hesser and Dennis Crabtree — is Cold
Dark Matter by Alex Brett (2005). This one
is a mystery whose plot centres on astro-
nomical obs er vations of the effects of dark
matter on the rotation of the Andromeda
Galaxy. Another astronomical mystery
is laid out in Total Eclipse by Liz Rigbey
(1966) which takes place at a Californian
mountain-top observatory, with a lot of
atmospheric detail; it received mixed
reviews for its plot, however.
More recently, Pippa Goldschmidt, who
has both a PhD in astronomy and a
Masters in creative writing, has published
her first novel, The Falling Sky (2013).
Goldschmidt’s intriguing short stories are
collected under the title The Need for Better
Regulation of Outer Space (2015) many of
which have scientic themes, and some
of which include characters like Albert
Einstein and Robert Oppenheimer.
Conclusion
I hope these few examples have provided
an indication of the wealth of interaction
between astronomy and the humanities
that exists for your exploration, or for the
exploration of the students or audiences
who we, as science communicators, work
with. Whether you include them in your
PowerPoint slides, or provide a printed
resource guide to take home, they should
reinforce in the minds of your students or
audiences the idea that their appreciation
of astronomy is shared by many creative
people the world over.
Notes
1 There is a regular series of international con-
ferences entitled The Inspiration of Astronomical
Phenomena: http://www.insap.org/.
Their proceedings, recently published
through the Astronomical Society of the
Pacic Conference Series, are a treasure
trove of more scholarly articles and
resources in this eld.
2 Bertolt Brecht’s play Galileo can also be
found on lm directed by Joseph Losey, and
starring Topol as Galileo, available on King
Video.
3 A brief, humorous excerpt from Silent Sky
can be found on YouTube at: https://www.
youtube.com/watch?v=KiwG6r-9gcw and
Gunderson describes the astronomy and
history behind the play in this short video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b7XQG-
Mnxik w.
4 Video excerpts of Siobhan Nicholas's play
about Caroline Herschel are available at:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_nzf-
1wZNQhY and a brief review in New Scientist
can also be found online:
https://www.newscientist.com/article/
dn23863-new-play-shines-light-across-
time-on-women-astronomers/.
5 Stuart Hoar’s play Bright Star has now been
retitled The Smallest Universe in the World,
and the play’s website is at:
http://www.brightstar-theplay.com/.
Interdisciplinary Approaches to Astronomy: Cosmic Fiction, Drama and Poetry
10 CAPjournal, No. 18, September 2015
Figure 5 . Astronomer Rebecca Elson.
Credit: Wikimedia
6 More information about William Kovacsik’s
play premiering at the Fiske Planetarium:
http://betc.org/ske-planetarium-boulder-
ensemble-theatre-company-collaboration.
7 More information on Reading the Mind of
God by American playwright Patrick
Gabridge: http://www.gabridge.com/full-
length-plays/reading-the-mind-of-god/.
8 T h e New York Times review of Starr y
Messenger can be read at:
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/24/theater/
reviews/24starry.html?_r=0
9 The rst complete recording of Paul
Hindemith’s play is available from the Wergo
label catalogue for: http://ww w.wergo.de/
shop/en_UK/3/show,132906.html.
10 Some excerpts from Galileo Galilei showing
key scenes in the opera can be seen on
YouTube at: http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=lhL_C3QqaY8.
11 Jill Tarter discusses the novel, the lm and
her relationship to them in this brief video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1-akFL-
FLgAk.
12 For the author's topical guide to science
ction with good astronomy see:
http://www.astrosociety.org/sci.
13 A brief list of science ction authors with sci-
ence degrees can be found in Appendix 1 of
my article on teaching with science ction:
http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/AER2002009.
14 Jennifer Ouellette discussed The Black Cloud
in a 2014 web post at:
http://skullsinthestars.com/2014/08/03/fred-
hoyles-the-black-cloud/.
15 For a slightly eccentric introduction to
Benford, see: http://www.gregorybenford.
com/gregory-benford-intro/.
16 Some of his stories available on the web
include The Final Now: http://ww w.tor.com/
stories/2010/03/the-nal-now and SETI for
Prot: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/
v452/n7190/pdf/4521032a.pdf.
17 To nd any published science ction story
by title or author, check the Internet Speculative
Fiction Database at: http://www.isfdb.org.
18 For a list of ten favourite science ction
authors to recommend to students, and
what stories of theirs to start with, see my
essay at: https://www.researchgate.net/
publication/261364023_Ten_Science_
Fiction_Writers_for_Scientists_and_
Science_Enthusiasts.
19 The full text of Margrave can be found at:
http://www.poemhunter.com/best-poems/
robinson-jeffers/margrave/.
20 Among the collections, you might start with:
Brown, Kurt, ed. Verse and Universe:
Poems about Science and Mathematics
(1998, Milk weed) and Heath-Stubbs, John &
Salman, Phillips, eds. Poems of Science
(1984, Viking). Good websites to begin with
include Mario Tessier’s Nox Oculis at:
http://pages.innit.net/noxoculi/poetry.html
and Astropoetica (a journal publishing new
astronomy poems, which has ended its run,
but has beautiful archives) at:
http://www.astropoetica.com/.
References
Ackerman, D. 1976, The Planets: A Cosmic
Pastorale, (New York: HarperCollins)
Ackerman, D. 1993, A Jaguar of Sweet Laughter,
(New York: Vintage)
Banville, J. 1976, Doctor Copernicus, (New York:
W. W. Norton)
Banville, J. 1981, Kepler: A Novel, (London:
Secker & Warburg)
Banville, J. 1982, The Newton Letter, (New York:
Warner Books)
Benford, G. 1980, Timescape, (New York:
Simon & Schuster)
Brett, A. 2005, Cold Dark Matter, (Toronto:
Dundurn)
Clark, S. 2011, The Sky’s Dark Labyrinth,
( Edinburgh: Birlinn)
Clark, S. 2012, The Sensorium of God,
( Edinburgh: Birlinn)
Clark, S. 2013, The Day Without Yesterday,
(Edinburgh: Birlinn)
Clayton, D. 1986, The Joshua Factory,
(Austin: Texas Monthly Press)
Elson, R. 20 01, A Responsibilit y to Awe,
( Manchester: Carcanet Press)
Goldschmidt, P. 2013, The Falling Sky,
( Glasgow: Freight Books)
Goldschmidt, P. 2015, The Need for Better
Regulation of Outer Space, (Glasgow:
Freight Books)
Gunderson, L. 2005, Deepen the Mystery: Science
and the South Onstage, ( Bloomington, IN:
iUniverse)
Hartmann, W. 1997, Mars Underground,
(New York: TOR Books)
Hood, K. 1991, The Astronomer’s Garden and
Beached, (London: Bloomsbury Methuen)
Hoyle, F. 1957, The Black Cloud, (London:
William Heinemann)
Hoyle, F. 1966, October the First is Too Late,
(London: William Heinemann)
Hunter, M. 2007, Transit of Venus, 2nd ed.
(Winnipeg: Scirocco Drama)
Jeffers, R. 1932, Margrave in Thurso’s Landing
and Other Poems, (New York: Liveright)
Landis, G. 1992, A Walk in the Sun in Dozois,
G., ed. The Year’s Best Science Fiction: Ninth
Annual Collection, (New York: St. Martin’s
Grifn)
Levy, D. 2001, Starry Night: Astronomers
and Poets Read the Sky, (Amherst, NY:
Prometheus)
McAuley, P. 2002, The Gardens of Saturn, in
Supermen: Tales of the Posthuman Future,
ed. Dozois, G., (New York: St. Martin’s Grifn)
Nordley, G. D. 1994, Into the Miranda Rift in
Dozois, G., ed. The Year’s Best Science
Fiction: Eleventh Annual Collection,
(New York: St. Martin’s Grifn)
Nordley, G. D. 1998, Crossing Chao Meng Fu
in Dozois, G., ed. The Year’s Best Science
Fiction: Fifteenth Annual Collection,
(New York: St. Martin’s Grifn)
Reynolds, A. 2000, Revelation: Space,
(London: Gollancz)
Reynolds, A. 2005, Beyond the Aquila Rift, rst
published in Crowther, P., ed. Constellations.
(New York: DAW Books)
Rigbey, L. 1996, Total Eclipse, (New York:
Pocket Books)
Riordan, M. & Bell-Burnell, J. ed., 2008,
Dark Mat ter: Poems of Space,
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Sagan, C. 1985, Contact, (New York: Simon &
Schuster)
Wheeler, J. C. 1986, The Krone Experiment,
(Brentwood, TN: Pressworks)
11
Interdisciplinary Approaches to Astronomy: Cosmic Fiction, Drama and Poetry
CAPjournal, No. 18, September 2015
Andrew Fraknoi is Chair of the Astronomy
Depar tment at Foothill College near
San Francisco, an d was for ma ny years the
Executive Director of the Astro nomical Society
of the Pacific. He co -founded the journal
Astronomy Education Review, and is the lead
author of the Voyages through the Universe
series of college tex tbooks. His rst science
fiction story is being publishe d in a Mars
anthology entitled Building Red later in 2015.
Biography
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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