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Mind Full of Ideas: A Meta-Analysis of the Mindfulness–Creativity Link


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Mindfulness improves people’s functioning in many areas, but its relationship with creativity is equivocal. To assess the link between mindfulness and creativity, this paper presents a multilevel meta-analysis of 89 correlations obtained from 20 samples published between 1977 and 2015 and demonstrates a statistically significant correlation of medium size (r = .22) between these two constructs. This effect was moderated by the type of mindfulness, being significantly lower in case of the awareness aspect, but not in open-monitoring aspect of mindfulness . We discuss theoretical and practical consequences of these findings.
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Mind full of ideas: A meta-analysis of the mindfulnesscreativity link
Izabela Lebuda
, Darya L. Zabelina
Department of Educational Sciences, The Maria Grzegorzewska University, 40 Szczesliwicka St., 02-353 Warsaw, Poland
Medical Social Science, Northwestern University, 633 N St Clair Street, Chicago, IL 60611, United States
abstractarticle info
Article history:
Received 29 March 2015
Received in revised form 22 September 2015
Accepted 23 September 2015
Available online xxxx
Mindfulness improves people's functioning in many areas, but its relationship with creativity is equivocal. To
assess the link between mindfulness and creativity, we present a multilevel meta-analysis of 89 correlations ob-
tained from 20samples in studies published between 1977 and 2015and demonstrate a statistically signicant,
but relatively weak correlation (r= .22) between these two constructs. This effect was moderated by thetype of
mindfulness, being signicantly lower in case of the awareness aspect of mindfulness, than in the case of the
open-monitoring aspect. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these ndings.
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mindfulness is a state of nonjudgmental, sustained, and alert aware-
ness resulting from living in the moment (Brown & Ryan, 2003), which
improves people's cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal functioning
(Carson & Langer, 2006; Sedlmeier et al., 2012) and positively affects
the efcacy of stress regulation. In previous studies authors have
found that mindfulness also improves the ability to concentrate
(Sedlmeier et al., 2012), decreases the fear of being judged,as well as re-
duces aversive self-conscious experience (Brown, Ryan, & Creswell,
2007), and helps to deal with thoughts and feelings (Shapiro, Carlson,
Astin, & Freedman, 2006). The enhancement of mindfulness through
practicing meditation (Lutz, Dunne, & Davidson, 2007)aswellashigh
level of self-reported mindfulness have previously been linked to pro-
cesses important to creativity (Ball, 1980; Colzato, Ozturk, & Hommel,
2012). Creativity, understood as the ability to produce ideas that are
both novel and appropriate (Amabile, 1996; Sternberg & Lubart,
1996), is typically measured by the divergent thinking tests, during
which participantsare asked to name as manyuses for a common object
(e.g., brick) as possible within a limited amount of time (Guilford,
1967). Responses are scored in terms of uency (number of ideas),
exibility (number of categories), originality (statistical novelty of
responses), and elaboration (level of details). Other measures of creativity
include self-report scales concerning creative behavior, personality, and
activities (Baas, De Dreu, & Nijstad, 2008; Simonton, 2012), or creative
achievement (Carson, Peterson, & Higgins, 2005). Less commonly, crea-
tivity researchers use tasks with a single correct answer, such as insight
problems for example, remote association tests (RAT; Mednick &
Mednick, 1967).
A number of abilities which are associated with trait mindfulness, or
facilitated by mindfulness training are also linked with creativity (De
Dreu, Nijstad, Baas, Wolsink, & Roskes, 2012). For instance, mindfulness
is associated with the increased ability to switch perspectives (Carson &
Langer, 2006; Feldman, Hayes, Kumar, Greeson, & Laurenceau, 2007),
while mindfulness training leads to the improvement of working mem-
ory (Chiesa, Calati, & Serretti, 2011), as well as increases the ability to re-
spond in a non-habitualfashion (Moore & Malinowski, 2009). Practicing
mindfulness also reduces the fear of judgment (Carson & Langer, 2006),
which is conducive to creativity (Baas et al., 2008; Nijstad, De Dreu,
Rietzschel, & Baas, 2010). Consequently, mindfulness may be both
directly and indirectly related to creative thinking (Davis, 2009; De
Dreu, Baas, & Nijstad, 2008), and to creative achievement (Langer,
A wide body of research has indeed shown that meditation training
enhances creative thinking and creative performance as well as im-
proves the ability to solve insight problems (Colzato et al., 2012; Ding,
Tang, Deng, Tang, & Posner, 2015; Ding, Tang, Tang, & Posner, 2014;
Ostan & Kassman, 2012; Ren et al., 2011) and facilitates creative elab-
oration (Zabelina, Robinson, Ostan, & Council, 2011). Experienced
meditators also outperform others in verbal uency and are better at
nding novel solutions to a given problem (Grenberg, Reiner, &
Meiran, 2012). Importantly, meditation has a positive effect on creativ-
ity regardless of the length of practice (Jedrczak, Beresford, & Clements,
1985), which means that even short meditation can effectively stimu-
late creative abilities (Ding et al., 2014).
However, although the ndings of several studies support the posi-
tive link between mindfulness and creativity, some inconsistencies
exist. For example, while meditation was clearly demonstrated to
improve verbal uency, exibility, and originality (Justo, 2009), longitu-
dinal examination of groups practicing transcendental meditation for
Personality and Individual Differences xxx (2015) xxxxxx
Corresponding author.
E-mail address: (I. Lebuda).
PAID-07063; No of Pages 5
0191-8869/© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Personality and Individual Differences
journal homepage:
Please cite this article as: Lebuda, I., et al., Mind full of ideas: A meta-analysis of the mindfulnesscreativity link, Personality and Individual
Differences (2015),
ve months did not show any signicant gains in verbal creativity, but
did reveal a signicant improvement in gural exibility and originality
(Travis, 1979). Such inconsistencies may be attributed to a number of
moderators, among them the type of meditation (Colzato, Szapora,
Lippelt, & Hommel, 2014), and the multidimensional character of mind-
fulness (Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006; Baas,
Nevicka, & Ten Velden, 2014). Mindfulness is a complex phenomenon,
composed of a set of different skills: the ability to pay attention to
various stimuli (observation), the ability to focus with full awareness
(acting with awareness), the ability to give a nonevaluative verbal de-
scription of the observed phenomena (description), and the ability to
avoid immediate evaluation (Baer et al., 2006). These skills may be dif-
ferentially related to creativity for example, while open-monitoring
meditation (so-called targeting observation) may tend to increase crea-
tive thinking, focused-attention meditation (aimed at acting with
awareness) may be either unrelated to creativity (Colzato et al., 2012),
or may even impede performance on creativity tasks (Baas et al.,
2014; Zedelius & Schooler, 2015). Additionally, phenomena contrary
to mindfulness, such as disinhibition and mind-wandering, predict cre-
ative thinking and creative achievement (Baird et al., 2012; Carson,
Peterson, & Higgins, 2003; Eysenck, 1995; Schooler, Reichle, &
Halpern, 2004; Zabelina, O'Leary, Pornpattananangkul, Nusslock, &
Beeman, 2015; Zedelius & Schooler, 2015). Thus it is possible that
the facets of mindfulness may moderate the mindfulnesscreativity
Despite inconsistencies, both the general pattern of empirical results
as well as theoretical arguments (Langer, 2014) provide a rationale to
hypothesize a positive association between mindfulness and creativity.
Although empirical studies do not always conrm this link
(e.g., Domino, 1977; O'Haire & Marcia, 1980), the higher statistical
power of meta-analysis enables a more robust estimation of this rela-
tionship. It also allows us to explore the role of potential moderators.
The scarcity of published studies makes it impossible to investigate
all of the theoretically relevant moderators. However, it is possible to
examine the role of study design (correlational versus experimental
studies showing the inuence of meditation on creativity), the
creativity aspects measured (insight problem solving versus divergent
thinking), as well as theaspects of mindfulness measured. Both existing
theories (Fink, Slamar-Halbedl, Unterrainer, & Weiss, 2012)andprevi-
ous research (Zedelius & Schooler, 2015) lead to the expectation
that the attention aspect of the mindfulness measured, for example,
by the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan,
2003)will be signicantly less strongly (or even negatively see
Baas et al., 2014) related to creativity than other aspects of mindfulness.
1. Method
1.1. The selection of studies
We performed a literature search in the Google Scholar, PsycInfo,
Ebsco, and Scopus databases as well as at and The rst stage involved a search for articles by means
of the following keywords: creativity and mindfulness, creativity and
meditation, creative problem solving and mindfulness, and creative
problem solving and meditation. In the second stage, we scanned the
databases for all the authors of the publications found. In the last
stage, the query involved an analysis of the references from each of
the papers. The rst author found and analyzed 33 articles. The third au-
thor conducted an independent review of all the identied articles. This
meta-analysis includes papers published in peer-reviewed journals and
based on quantitative research; we excluded theoretical or review
papers (e.g., Horan, 2009; Mooneyham & Schooler, 2013), and those
in which only one of the main variables (creativity or mindfulness)
was directly measured (e.g., Langer, Russell, & Eisenkraft, 2009). We
also excluded publications that concerned constructs closely related
to, but not identical with creativity, such as openness to experience or
cognitive exibility (e.g., Moore & Malinowski, 2009).
We included articles devoted to both trait and state mindfulness
(Bishop et al., 2004). In the case of experimental studies, we did not
exclude any of the types of meditation (e.g., focused attention or
open-monitoring). One study that lacked a control group or baseline
level of creativity was excluded from the analysis (Colzato et al.,
2014). This procedure resulted in 20 independent samples and 89
correlations obtained in a total sample of 1549 participants.
1.2. Data analysis
We applied three-level meta-analysis (Cheung, 2014a; Cheung,
2014b) in the metaSEM package (Cheung, 2014a) for the Renvironment
(RDevelopment Core Team, 2013). Level 1 describes the participants in
studies, Level 2 describes effects within studies, and Level 3 describes
the studies themselves. Three-level meta-analysis allows us to give un-
biased estimates of standard errors, Level 2 (within-study) variance,
and Level 3 (between-study) variance. Three-level meta-analysis has
an advantage over traditional random-effect meta-analysis (which
should be considered a two-level model) because averaging the effects,
which is necessary in random-effects models, reduces the statistical
power of the analysis.
We converted all the obtained effects (i.e., mean differences
between experimental and control groups in experimental designs) to
Pearson's r, applying widely used formulas (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). All
correlations were corrected for unreliability: they were divided by the
square root of the reliabilities of the variables (Hunter & Schmidt,
1990). When reliability estimates were not provided, we used average re-
liabilities. For comparison purposes, Table 1 contains both reliability-
corrected and uncorrected correlations. All studies and correlations are
included in the online supplementary material.
2. Results
We processed data in three-steps. First, we estimated overall effect
sizes for the relationship between mindfulness and creativity. Second,
we tted three three-level models to assess the role of potential moder-
ators. Finally, we performed an analysis of publication bias to examine
whether selective reporting may have inuenced the results.
2.1. The overall relationship
The effect sizes obtained using three-level meta-analysis are
presented in Table 1.
The correlation between mindfulness and creativity was estimated
at r=.22(r= .18 without correction for attenuation). This correlation
is signicant but heterogeneous. We found more between-study than
within-study variability, which means moderators are more likely to
exist between than within studies. Despite this heterogeneity, our
main hypothesis nds support creativity does correlate with mindful-
ness signicantly, with a small-to-mediumeffect size (Cohen, 1992;
Lipsey & Wilson, 2001).
2.2. Moderator analysis
In the rst model testing the role of moderators, we included:
(1) study design, coded: 0 = correlational,1=experimental; (2) creativity
measurement, coded: 0 = self-reported,1=test; (3) the aspect of
creativity, coded: 0 = achievement,1=potential, and (4) gender (the
percentage of females). This model was not characterized by a signi-
cantly improved t compared to the baseline model, 2LL(df =6)=
5.93, Δ-2LL(Δdf =3) = 6.57, p= .09, and none of the moderators
were signicant, pN.05. Consequently, the effect was stable across
We are grateful to the anonymous reviewer for bringing this to our attention.
2I. Lebuda et al. / Personality and Individual Differences xxx (2015) xxxxxx
Please cite this article as: Lebuda, I., et al., Mind full of ideas: A meta-analysis of the mindfulnesscreativity link, Personality and Individual
Differences (2015),
correlational and experimental studies as well as studies with creativity
assessed via test or self-reported measures.
In the second step, we tested the role of the measure of mindfulness.
The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS), which was used
most often across the studies (35 times) served as a reference category,
while the MAAS, Integrative Mind-Body Training (IBMT), the Five Facet
Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), OM Meditation, Transcendental
Meditation, and othertypes of meditation were introduced as
dummy variables. This model was better tted than the baseline,
2LL(df =9)=1.125, Δ-2LL(Δdf = 6) = 13.63, p= .03, and, consis-
tently with our predictions, MAAS scores resulted in signicantly weak-
er relationships with creativity than KIMS scores (B=0.31,SE =0.14,
p= .03).
In the third step, we reduced all the analyzed effects to those focus-
ing on creative abilities (68 correlations from 18 studies, with the aver-
age effect size of r=.20,SE =0.07,p= .004) and examined whether
the type of creative abilities moderated the obtained effects. Insight
problem solving skills served as a reference category, while other as-
pects of creativity were introduced as dummies. The model was tted
signicantly better than the baseline model, 2LL(df =8)=0.29,
Δ-2LL(Δdf =5)=25.01,pb.001, with all predictors except composite
divergent thinking being statistically signicant (Table 2).
We applied our nal model to simultaneously test the role of crea-
tive thinking skills (0 = divergent thinking,1=insight), the type of
mindfulness (0 = other,1=MAAS), and the interaction of the two.
This model was tted better than the baseline, 2LL(df =6
Δ-2LL(Δdf = 3) = 9.46, p=.02(Table 3). MAAS remained the only
predictor of the mindfulnesscreativity relationship; neither insight
nor the Insight ×MAAS interaction was signicant.
2.3. Publication bias
We used two methods to assess the risk of publication bias. The rst
one was the analysis of the funnel plot (Duval & Tweedie, 2000). The
second one involved the application of p-curve analysis (Simonsohn,
Nelson & Simmons, 2014). The funnel plotwas symmetric (Fig. 1), with-
out a pattern showing that smaller studies yielded higher effect sizes.
The trim-and-ll method (Duval & Tweedie, 2000) suggests adding
four more studies, which would reduce the observed effect to r=.135
(95% CI: .03, .24). However, in the case of high heterogeneity, this
method is considered too restrictive (Peters, Sutton, Jones, Abrams, &
Rushton, 2007).
To examine the publication bias using a more recent technique, we
performed a p-curve analysis (Simonsohn, Nelson & Simmons, 2014; The p-curve analysis focuses only on
statistically signicant effects and serves to check whether just signi-
cant effects(i.e., slightly lower than p= .05, or between p= .04 and
p= .05) are not overrepresented in the analyzed studies. Such overrep-
resentation may stem from publication bias, but also from cherry-
picking,”“p-hacking,or other questionable research practices
(Simonsohn, Simmons & Nelson, 2014). The p-curve analysis did not
provide any evidence of the le-drawer effect a majority of studies
provided signicant results, and there was no overrepresentation of
just-signicantones (Fig. 2).
The continuous test for a right-skewed curve showing that
studies contain evidential value was statistically signicant
(z=5.31, pb.001), while testing for the left-skewed studies
(i.e., those that exhibit evidence of p-hacking) did not bring signicant
results (pN.999).
3. Discussion
Although famous creators are sometimes absentminded, creativity
seems to require mindfulness. Indeed, this meta-analysis showed that
creativity and mindfulness are signicantly related, with a small-to-
mediumeffect size (Cohen, 1992). Although this effect was not moder-
ated by the design of the studies, it tended to be stronger whencreativ-
ity measurement had the form of insight tasks rather than divergent
thinking tasks. When the aspects of creative thinking skills were
regressed on the general effect together with the mindfulness type,
the only statistically signicant relationship was the one with the
awareness aspect of the mindfulness (measured by the MAAS scale),
generating lower effect size. We found no serious evidence of publica-
tion bias or p-hacking, which allows us to conclude that this estimation
is both accurate and robust.
From the theoretical standpoint, the relationship we obtained ts
well into the postulated role of mindful mind in creative thinking and
behavior (Langer, 2014). However, the moderators that we were able
to include in our analyses also shed light on the theoretically important
questionsabout the nature of this relationship. First, we were unable to
nd any differences between correlational and experimental studies
in both types of studies the effect size of the association was the same.
We perceive this null nding as important, as it shows not only that cre-
ativity and mindfulness correlate with each other, but also, more impor-
tantly, that developing mindfulness during meditation increases
Table 1
Overall effect size obtained using three-level meta-analysis.
Model No. of studies No. of effects NEffect size (r) 95% CI p
Unreliability-corrected 20 89 1549 .220 .095, .344 b.001
Unreliability-uncorrected 20 89 1549 .183 .078, .289 b.001
Model summary
Level-2 s
= .029 (SE = .007), pb.001, I
= .30
Level-3 s
= .061 (SE = .026), p= .02, I
= .63
Q(df = 88) = 1027.37, pb.001, 2LL(df = 3) = 12.50
Table 2
Moderator analysis multilevel model est imating the effects of different aspects of
creative abilities (insight= reference category).
Predictor Estimate SE 95% CI p
Intercept 0.45 0.11 0.24, 0.66 b.001
Fluency 0.52 0.12 0.76, 0.29 b.001
Flexibility 0.34 0.13 0.59, 0.09 .007
Originality 0.47 0.12 0.70, 0.24 b.001
Elaboration 0.57 0.16 0.88, 0.26 .001
Composite divergent thinking 0.22 0.16 0.54, 0.09 .17
Within-study variance 0.02 0.006 0.005, 0.03 .005
Between-study variance 0.13 0.06 0.02, 0.25 .02
Table 3
Moderator analysis multilevel model estimating the effects of the type of creative
abilities and the type of mindfulness.
Predictor Estimate SE 95% CI p
Intercept 0.31 0.07 0.18, 0.44 b.001
Insight (other =0) 0.005 0.16 0.31, 0.32 .98
MAAS (other =0)0.73 0.23 1.17, 0.28 .002
Insight ×MAAS 0.47 0.29 0.11, 1.04 .11
Within-study variance 0.04 0.01 0.02, 0.06 b.001
Between-study variance 0.03 0.02 0.004, 0.07 .08
Note. Thismodel is based on 68 correlations from 18 studiesdealing with creativeabilities.
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Please cite this article as: Lebuda, I., et al., Mind full of ideas: A meta-analysis of the mindfulnesscreativity link, Personality and Individual
Differences (2015),
creativity as well. Therefore, there are good reasons to believe that there
is not only correlation, but also causation in the mindfulnesscreativity
link. Putting these ndings together i.e., showing a correlational as
well as causal link between mindfulness and creativity understood as
potential (comprising cognitive and self-concept aspects) may have
important consequences for the educational psychology of creativity
and for the practice of creative education. It was demonstrated
previously that the kind of creativity training that promotes not only
awareness and imagination but also mindfulness-related skills is
effective (Karwowski & Soszyński, 2008). It is very likely that such
mindfulness-based interventions, especially ones based on open-
monitoring meditation, may be benecial for creative abilities as well
as for creative self-concept.
The relationship between mindfulness and creativity was signi-
cantly lower when research concerned the awareness aspects of mind-
fulness. The awareness aspect of mindfulness can be contrasted with
disinhibition and mind-wandering, which have been previously report-
ed to be linked with creativity (Schooler et al., 2004). Previous studies
reported that the awareness of irrelevant environmental clues, as well
as shifting attention from one object to another can lead to insight and
play an important role in the creative process (Baird et al., 2012;
Carson et al., 2003). Similarly, the inability to effectively lter irrelevant
sensory information may lead to creativity in real world settings
(Zabelina et al., 2015). At least two previous studies (included in this
meta-analysis) showed that high awareness is negatively associated
with creativity (Baas et al., 2014; Zedelius & Schooler, 2015). Indeed,
the effect of the relationship between attention-based mindset and
creativity was signicantly weaker than in the case of other aspects of
mindfulness. It is likely that different aspects of mindfulness, such as
open-monitoring abilities and awareness, play a role at different stages
of the creative process. It is worth to explore this issue in future
3.1. Limitations and future research
It is necessary to consider a number of limitations while interpreting
the results of this meta-analysis. First, due to the small number of stud-
ies, it was impossible to analyze all potential moderators of this relation-
ship. Consequently, future research on the creativitymindfulness link
should differentiate between various aspects, levels, and forms of
creativity as related to mindfulness. It is especially important to
examine whether the observed relationship between mindfulness and
self-reported creativity stems to a greater extent from creative self-
concept variables (Karwowski & Lebuda, in press)orfrompastcreative
activity or achievement. Although this meta-analysis demonstrates the
link between mindfulness and creativity mainly at the little-c creativity
level (Kaufman & Beghetto, 2009), there are arguments to believe that
mindfulness may also play a role in the case of professional creators in
different domains (Langer et al., 2009). Similarly, it is important to
explain how mindfulness works in general and how its different types
work at different stages of the creative process, when problems are
dened and when solutions are generated, elaborated, and assessed.
This article was written thanks to the funding obtained in the
Mobility Plus program (1152/1/MOB/2014/0) from the Ministry of
Science and Higher Education, Poland.
Maciej Karwowski was supported by the Iuventus Plus program of
the Ministry of Science and Higher Education.
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5I. Lebuda et al. / Personality and Individual Differences xxx (2015) xxxxxx
Please cite this article as: Lebuda, I., et al., Mind full of ideas: A meta-analysis of the mindfulnesscreativity link, Personality and Individual
Differences (2015),
... As a mindful state is characterized by having a wide attentional breadth combined with a present-moment focus, it theoretically makes for an ideal cognitive state to elicit creativity (Dane, 2011). Indeed, previous studies have linked mindfulness to creativity (Lebuda et al., 2016), although inconsistent findings have been reported, resulting in a call for more studies on the value of mindful attention and awareness for creativity (Baas et al., 2014). While mindfulness-and its link to creativity-has often been examined at the person-level (i.e., as a trait-like variable), mindfulness is inherently concerned with varying levels of awareness and attention to ongoing events and experiences (Brown & Ryan, 2003). ...
... In Study 1, we test our hypotheses among working individuals using a quantitative diary study spanning five workdays. This approach advances earlier studies on the link between mindfulness and creativity, which were often cross-sectional in nature and/or employed student samples (for a meta-analysis, see Lebuda et al., 2016). Moreover, we use a general measure of daily creativity (i.e., a brainstorming task) that has often been used in previous studies to enable comparisons between our results and earlier findings. ...
... On days that the participants proactively managed their physical and mental energy for work, they were more mindful, and their work was assessed as more creative. Overall, these findings corroborate earlier research on the mindfulness-creativity link (Lebuda et al., 2016). However, some studies have shown inconsistent or inconclusive results regarding the benefits of mindfulness for creativity (e.g., Baas et al., 2014). ...
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Most research on employee creativity has been focused on relatively distal antecedents, e.g., personality or job characteristics, which has resulted in top‐down organizational approaches to promote employee creativity. However, such approaches overlook the self‐regulating potential of employees and may not explain intra‐individual fluctuations in creativity. In the present research, we build on proactive motivation theory to examine how employees may promote their own creativity on a daily basis through the use of proactive vitality management (PVM). To better understand the PVM – creativity link, we zoom in on this process by examining the role of mindfulness as an underlying mechanism. In two daily diary studies, employees from the US (N = 133 persons, n = 521 data points) and the creative industry in Germany (N = 62 persons, n = 232 data points) reported on their use of PVM and states of mindfulness for five consecutive workdays. Additionally, participants completed a daily creativity test (brainstorming task) in Study 1, while supervisors rated participants’ daily creative work performance in Study 2. In both studies, multilevel analyses showed that daily PVM was positively related to creative performance through daily mindfulness, supporting our hypotheses. These replicated findings suggest that individuals may bring themselves in a cognitive, creative state of mind on a daily basis, emphasizing the importance of proactive behavior in the creative process.
... Through attention training, people can control their physical and mental activities and get rid of negative emotions (Glicksohn and Ben-Soussan, 2020). Meditation training can also improve cognitive functions such as attention and memory (Lebuda et al., 2016b). As mindfulness meditation has evolved, and more people benefit from mindfulness meditation, there is a trend toward mindfulness-based "cognitive behavioral therapy. ...
... Experimental studies of mindfulness in business Settings have also shown that increasing mindfulness levels can improve employee creativity and avoid mental exhaustion (Lomas et al., 2019). Mindfulness helps trainers to free their attention from the internals of problems, view them in a more inclusive and accepting way, and promote their ability to shift perspectives (Lebuda et al., 2016b). Through this process, practitioners separate their thinking from patterns that hinder the creative process and are no longer bound by habitual responses, thus preventing individuals from falling into stereotyped thinking (Lippelt et al., 2014). ...
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Creativity is so important for social and technological development that people are eager to find an easy way to enhance it. Previous studies have shown that mindfulness has significant effects on positive affect (PA), working memory capacity, cognitive flexibility and many other aspects, which are the key to promoting creativity. However, there are few studies on the relationship between mindfulness and creativity. The mechanism between mindfulness and creativity is still uncertain. Meditation is an important method of mindfulness training, but for most people who do not have the basic training, it’s difficult to master how to get into a state of mindfulness. Animation has been shown by many studies to help improve cognition and is often used as a guiding tool. Using animation as the guiding carrier of meditation is more convenient and easier to accept. Therefore, this study adopted the intervention method of animation-guided meditation, aiming to explore: (1) the effect of animation-guided meditation on enhancing creativity; (2) the role of flow and emotion in the influence of mindfulness on creativity. We advertised recruitment through the internal network of a creative industrial park, and the final 95 eligible participants were divided into two groups: animation ( n = 48) and audio ( n = 47) guided meditation. The animation group was given an animated meditation intervention, and the audio group was given an audio meditation intervention, both interventions were performed 3 times a week and last for 8 weeks. Results: (1) Animation-guided meditation significantly increased participants’ mindfulness and creativity levels; Significantly reduced their cognitive load compared to audio-guided meditation. (2) Mindfulness has a significant direct effect on creativity, and significant indirect effects on creativity; Flow and PA act as the mediating variable. Conclusion: (1) Mindfulness, flow, and PA all helped to improve the subjects’ work creativity. In addition to the direct positive impact of mindfulness on creativity, mindfulness can also have an indirect positive impact on creativity through flow and PA. (2) Compared with audio, animation can significantly reduce cognitive load and help improve users’ cognitive ability, which is more suitable for the guidance materials of mindfulness meditation to enhance the effect of meditation.
... More recently, Lebuda et al. (2016) conducted a metaanalysis of the mindfulness-creativity empirically fed link, indicating that the link between creativity and mindfulness is at the little-c creativity level ("creativity of daily life, " see Kaufman and Beghetto, 2009) with a small-to-medium effect size (Figure 1). They noticed that the main link between creativity and mindfulness is about open monitoring meditation and divergent thinking by enhancing working memory, originality, cognitive flexibility and the ability to switch perspective, and by reducing fear of judgment and responding in a non-habitual fashion. ...
... Model of the link between mindfulness and creativity. Schematization fromLebuda et al. (2016). ...
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Researchers have recently turned their focus to a specific area: the links between altered states of consciousness and creativity. A spectrum of attentional states of consciousness exists, from hypnagogia and mind wandering to mindfulness and flow. These attentional states of consciousness are present during a variety of activities (e.g., sports, music, painting, writing, video games, theater, and meditation) as well as in situations characterized by boredom. They are also present in many professional fields and practices (e.g., education and teaching). Moreover, researchers and educators focus sometimes on only one state of consciousness (such as mind wandering) or only on attention, and do not question relationships with others (such as mindfulness or flow) or the links with intention, the different levels of consciousness involved and the changes in perception of time, self and space. Additionally, as we know that a state of consciousness rarely occurs alone or that it can have two forms (such as spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering), we propose a global approach allowing to grasp the stakes and perspectives of what we call attentional states of consciousness. Thus, to our knowledge, this is the first theoretical review highlighting the historical, empirical, theorical and conceptual relationships between creativity, attention, mind wandering, mindfulness and flow by offering concrete and empirical avenues and bases for reflection about educating for creativity and developing creative potential.
... Studies were required to report measures of creative ideation performance. For the purpose of this study, we focused on the (more common) divergent thinking tasks of creativity [55] and the relevant indicators of quantity and quality of ideas. Performance data on convergent creativity tasks, such as the remote association task [56], were not extracted (similar approach, see [23].) ...
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Background Physical activity is a health-relevant lifestyle factor associated with various benefits on physical and mental health. Several meta-analyses indicated effects of acute and chronic physical activities on elementary cognitive functions such as executive control processes, memory, and attention. Meta-analytic evidence on the effects of physical activity on creative idea generation, which involves a conglomerate of these elementary cognitive functions, is largely missing. Objective A twofold approach was used to evaluate (1) if there is an association between habitual physical activity and creative ideation and (2) if physical activity interventions (acute and chronic) enhance creative ideation performance. Methods Multilevel meta-analytic methods were applied to (1) evaluate the cross-sectional association between creative ideation performance and measures of habitual physical activity and (2) the effect of physical activity on creative ideation performance. Indicators of creative ideation (fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration, or composite score), creativity domain (verbal, figural), population (adults, children), gender, study quality, and publication year served as moderator variables for both meta-analyses. Analyses of intervention studies additionally examined the moderator variables study design (between, within), time of measurement (during, after), and implementation of intervention (acute, chronic). Results The applied meta-analytic multilevel analysis indicated a medium effect for cross-sectional studies ( r = 0.22, SE = 0.06, p = 0.002, 95% CI [0.10–0.34]) based on 17 effects sizes from seven studies. The pooled effects of 28 intervention studies, providing 115 effect sizes, indicated a medium effect size of Hedges’ g = 0.47 (SE = 0.09, p < 0.001, 95% CI [0.30–0.65]). Furthermore, a stronger effect was observed for chronic interventions of several days or weeks in comparison with acute interventions of one single bout. Conclusion This study adds important new meta-analytic evidence on the beneficial role of physical activity beyond mental and physical health outcomes: Physical activity has a positive impact on creative ideation, which expands the literature on the role of physical activity in more elementary cognitive functions such as executive control, memory, and attention. Moderator analyses suggested that chronic interventions showed stronger effects than single bouts of physical activity. Rigorously conducted randomized controlled intervention studies and more cross-sectional studies are needed to broaden the evidence in this nascent field of research.
... Before discussing our proposal and predictions, we first review literature regarding the effect of mindfulness induction on incubation. To our knowledge, only three studies have investigated that, although numerous studies have revealed that engaging in various types of mindfulness inductions or meditation practices could enhance performance on both divergent and convergent thinking tasks [59][60][61][62][63]. ...
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Mind wandering has been argued to be beneficial for breaking through mental impasses, which leads to better creative performance upon a second attempt (i.e., the incubation effect). However, the evidence is inconsistent. Different from the propensity for mind wandering that has been the focus of past studies, in this study we further examined the role of diversity (i.e., non-repetitiveness of mind wandering respective to its content) and types of mind wandering along the dimensions of intentionality and awareness during incubation when engaging in a 0-back task (a mind wandering-prone condition) and a focused-breathing practice (a mindfulness-induced condition). We proposed that diversity rather than the propensity for mind wandering was crucial for post-incubation divergent creativity and that mindfulness induction would be a more effective way to elicit the incubation effect because it should result in fewer but more diverse mind-wandering incidents than engaging in a mind wandering-prone task. We conducted an experiment with a between-participant variable (incubation tasks: mind wandering-prone, mindfulness-induced, and no incubation). As predicted, the mindfulness-induced group (N = 30) outperformed the control group (N = 31) on flexibility for the unusual uses task measuring divergent thinking after incubation, but the mind wandering-prone group (N = 29) did not outperform the control group. In addition, the diversity of mind wandering and the tendency toward intentional mind wandering predicted the magnitude of incubation effects on flexibility and originality, respectively. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... These traits are considered a prerequisite of risk-taking and creativity (Henriksen, Richardson & Shack, 2020). In this way, the internal and external perceptions of a person are inflated, letting them attend to subtle details that may not be noticed otherwise, leading to searching and encoding the relevant information from within and outside the organization (Montag-Smit, Jr & C., 2017; Uddin, Priyankara & Mahmood, 2019) Lebuda, Zabelina and Karwowski (2016)., in their meta-review, had also proposed a positive relationship between mindfulness and creativity. Hence, being mindful, a person shifts from a survival perspective, which considers the problem a threat, towards a more challenge-oriented perception, which motivates them to search for unique solutions to the problem (Hensley, 2020). ...
Creative performance (CP) has become an indispensable need for survival and competitiveness in today's business world. In response to this exigent situation, the current research is focused on investigating the role of employee attitudes, namely mindfulness and happiness, in their CP. This research also highlights the mediating role of creative processes engagement (CPE) between mindfulness, happiness, and CP pathways. CP comprises individual creativity (IC) and innovative work behaviors (IWB). The target population of the current study was manufacturing and service firms in Pakistan, and structural equation modeling was used to test the theoretical model and proposed hypotheses. The results indicated that mindfulness and happiness positively and significantly influence employee CP. Furthermore, mindfulness and happiness indicated a significant positive impact on IWB and IC. CPE partially mediated the relationships between mindfulness and CP and happiness and CP. The results propose imperative directives for the leadership of manufacturing and service organizations by suggesting different ways to promote CP among employees through their attitudes.
... Open-monitoring seems to recruit effortless cognitive background processes that normally monitor the environment to also monitor the stream of internal experiences (Berkovich-Ohana & Glicksohn, 2014;Fox et al., 2016;Lutz et al., 2008). When internal and external phenomena are met on similar terms, in a decentered manner where perceptions of the different elements of oneself and of the environment are equally salient and (in)consequential, it supports embodied immersion in the moment and awareness of the fundamental nonduality of subject and object (Berkovich-Ohana & Glicksohn, 2014;Lebuda et al., 2016;Lutz et al., 2008Lutz et al., , 2015Raffone & Srinivasan, 2009). Ultimately, the practice will dissolve the illusory boundaries between the self and other living and non-living entities so a person can experience insight about their oneness with the surrounding world, not least with nature (also see Fabjański & Brymer, 2017;Fisher, 2014). ...
This commentary complements Macaulay et al.'s thoughtful and valuable perspective by attending to some additional matters of theoretical, ethical, and practical importance. First, I argue for how consideration of multiple levels of complementarity between processes in mindfulness and nature experience allow more powerful integrations than building on apparent synergies. Second, I outline how an understanding of mindfulness as a practice and training can illuminate relationships between states, traits and values of equal relevance for human health and sustainable transitions. Third, I discuss some caveats and considerations in planning for mindfulness, pointing to insights that researchers and professionals committed to sustainable cities can gain from “McMindfulness” debates and other controversies around meditation before outlining some tentative ideas for how urban environmental design could support mindful living and mindful action.
This research aims to examine whether social venture founder’s entrepreneurial passion can increase employee creativity via creative process engagement and the moderating role of employee mindfulness. A survey was conducted by asking employees of 109 social ventures in Vietnam to evaluate the founders’ entrepreneurial passion and the supervisors to evaluate employees’ creativity as well as employee creative process engagement. Drawing on the broaden-and-build theory, this study found that employee creativity increases when the employees perceive that the social venture founders have strong entrepreneurial passion as explain by higher creative process engagement. In addition, we revealed that the indirect influence of entrepreneurial passion on employee creativity remains significant regardless the employees’ mindfulness. Theoretical and practical contributions are further discussed.
Journals tend to publish only statistically significant evidence, creating a scientific record that markedly overstates the size of effects. We provide a new tool that corrects for this bias without requiring access to nonsignificant results. It capitalizes on the fact that the distribution of significant p values, p-curve, is a function of the true underlying effect. Researchers armed only with sample sizes and test results of the published findings can correct for publication bias. We validate the technique with simulations and by reanalyzing data from the Many-Labs Replication project. We demonstrate that p-curve can arrive at conclusions opposite that of existing tools by reanalyzing the meta-analysis of the “choice overload” literature.
Scientific interest in meditation has significantly grown in the past years; however, so far, science has neglected the idea that different types of meditations may drive specific cognitive-control states. It has been shown that focused-attention (FA) and open-monitoring (OM) meditation exert specific effect on creativity; OM meditation induces a control state that promotes divergent thinking, a style of thinking that allows many new ideas to be generated, while FA meditation tends to support convergent thinking, the process of generating one possible solution to a particular problem. In the present study, by using creativity tasks tapping into convergent (compound Remote Associates Task; cRAT) and divergent thinking (Alternate Uses Task; AUT), we investigated whether this effect was modulated by prior meditation experience, by comparing a group of practitioners (n = 20) and a group of novices (n = 20). The enhancing effect of OM meditation on divergent thinking was found to be robust irrespective of prior experience. However, while solving convergent-thinking problems, practitioners used an insight strategy, as opposed to an analytical approach, significantly more often than the novices.
This article reports a meta-analysis of the relationships between creative self-beliefs (CSBs)-a broad set of characteristics including creative self-efficacy, creative personal identity, and self-rated creativity-and the Big Five (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) as well as the Huge Two (plasticity and stability) personality traits. A review of the literature identified 25 independent studies and more than 80 correlations per personality factor; these were analyzed using a 3-level meta-analysis model. Openness was consistently the strongest predictor of CSBs (r = .467; 95% CI: .402, .531), followed by Extraversion (r = .264; 95% CI: .225, .304), Conscientiousness (r = .133; 95% CI: .061, .204), Neuroticism (r = -.124; 95% CI: -.184, -.064), and Agreeableness (r = .070; 95% CI: .006, .134). These effects were moderated by CSB type; more specifically, the relationships were stronger for domain-general than for domain-specific measures of CSBs. A meta-analytical structural equation model demonstrated that Plasticity was strongly positively correlated with CSBs (β = .71), whereas Stability was a negative predictor (β = -.23). We discuss whether the relationship between personality and CSBs is causal or correlational and consider the discriminant validity of CSBs as currently defined. (PsycINFO Database Record